Sample records for boundary explorer high

  1. Crossing Boundaries: Exploring Black Middle and Upper Class Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in High Poverty Urban Schools (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea D.


    The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…

  2. Exploring boundaries in pediatric oncology nursing. (United States)

    Hartlage, Heather N


    Professional patient boundaries are an issue that is relevant across all realms of nursing practice. By nature, nurses are caring individuals. Therapeutic relationships are integral to the care of patients. When caring for patients on a daily basis for extended periods of time, it can be difficult for nurses to know when their care goes beyond professional boundaries. Providing care to patients in a pediatric oncology situation substantially increases this ethical dilemma. Length of stay, degree of crisis, embedded relationships, and emotional turmoil, along with the nurturing connection between adult and child, are among the reasons that boundaries are often blurred within the context of this sensitive patient population. This article explores the differences between nursing care, boundary crossings, and boundary violations. Strategies to evaluate nursing actions for appropriateness, along with reflection and development of individual boundaries, are offered. The information presented is relevant not only to nursing care of pediatric patients who are facing chronic or life-threatening conditions but also to each nurse-client relationship established in nursing practice.

  3. Exploring bainite formation kinetics distinguishing grain-boundary and autocatalytic nucleation in high and low-Si steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravi, A.M.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia, M.J.


    Bainite formation in steels begins with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at austenite grain boundaries (γ/γ interfaces). This leads to creation of bainitic ferrite/austenite interfaces (α/γ interfaces). Bainite formation continues through autocatalysis with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at these

  4. An Exploration of Boundaries and Solidarity in Counseling Relationships (United States)

    Speight, Suzette L.


    This article explores the boundaries between clinicians and clients in light of the construct of solidarity. A universal conception of boundaries is critiqued and a culturally congruent view of boundaries is examined, rooted in the concept of solidarity. The article includes case illustrations of the connection between boundaries and solidarity…

  5. Crossing Boundaries: Exploring Black Middle and Upper Class Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in High Poverty Urban Schools (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea D.


    The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…

  6. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.


    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  7. Grain boundaries in high-Tc superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, H.; Mannhart, J.


    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic supercondu

  8. Religion in meaning making and boundary work: theoretical explorations. (United States)

    Dahinden, Janine; Zittoun, Tania


    Based on the articles brought together for this special issue, this article proposes a transversal analysis and theoretical elaboration of the question of the uses of religious elements for meaning making and boundary work. In order to do so, we will first propose a sociocultural psychological perspective to examine meaning making dynamics. Second, we will apply a boundary work perspective, as recently developed in the social sciences, on the organization of religious differences. The first considers religious elements as resources that can be used by people to orient themselves in time and the social space, to interpret and guide action, and to create new forms of life. The second approach proposes an analysis of uses of religious stuff in order to understand how boundaries between groups are created, transgressed or dissolved as well as to explore the link between religion and power. Our argument is that the articulation of these two approaches can itself offer a rich theoretical frame to apprehend religions in contemporary society.

  9. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Rockström


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific understanding, we propose quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

  10. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will


    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one...... or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific...... background weathering of P); global freshwater use (system change (

  11. Exploring the BTZ bulk with boundary conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Carneiro


    We point out a simple relation between the bulk field at an arbitrary radial position and the boundary OPE, by placing some old work by Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo and Parisi in the AdS/CFT context. This gives us, in principle, a prescription for extracting the classical bulk field from the boundary conformal block, and also clarifies why the latter is computed by a geodesic Witten diagram. We apply this prescription to the BTZ black hole - viewed as a pure state created by the insertion of a heavy operator in the boundary CFT_2 - and use it to relate a classical field in the bulk to a heavy-light Virasoro conformal block in the boundary. In particular, we obtain a relation between the radial bulk position and the conformal ratios in the boundary CFT. We use this to show that the singular points of the radial bulk equation occur when the dual boundary operators approach each other and that the associated bulk monodromies map to monodromies of the (appropriately transformed) conformal block, thus providing a CFT in...

  12. Exploring boundary-spanning practices among creativity managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne


    projects across organisational boundaries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors link to previous literature and present findings from a comparative case study of managerial practices for managing creativity projects. Data were collected through interviews, secondary materials, site visits...... and observation. Findings – Three meta-practices used by managers to manage boundary-spanning creative projects are presented: defining the creative space, making space for creativity and acting in the creative space. These practices are detailed in seven case studies of creative projects. Research limitations......-reflection. Originality/value – The authors contribute to research on boundary spanning practices by linking to creativity research, and bridge to research on management and governance in distributed and lessdefined organisations....

  13. Horses for courses: analytical tools to explore planetary boundaries (United States)

    van Vuuren, D. P.; Lucas, P. L.; Häyhä, T.; Cornell, S. E.; Stafford-Smith, M.


    There is a need for further integrated research on developing a set of sustainable development objectives, based on the proposed framework of planetary boundaries indicators. The relevant research questions are divided in this paper into four key categories, related to the underlying processes and selection of key indicators, understanding the impacts of different exposure levels and influence of connections between different types of impacts, a better understanding of different response strategies and the available options to implement changes. Clearly, different categories of scientific disciplines and associated models exist that can contribute to the necessary analysis, noting that the distinctions between them are fuzzy. In the paper, we both indicate how different models relate to the four categories of questions but also how further insights can be obtained by connecting the different disciplines (without necessarily fully integrating them). Research on integration can support planetary boundary quantification in a credible way, linking human drivers and social and biophysical impacts.

  14. Horses for courses: analytical tools to explore planetary boundaries (United States)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Lucas, Paul L.; Häyhä, Tiina; Cornell, Sarah E.; Stafford-Smith, Mark


    There is a need for more integrated research on sustainable development and global environmental change. In this paper, we focus on the planetary boundaries framework to provide a systematic categorization of key research questions in relation to avoiding severe global environmental degradation. The four categories of key questions are those that relate to (1) the underlying processes and selection of key indicators for planetary boundaries, (2) understanding the impacts of environmental pressure and connections between different types of impacts, (3) better understanding of different response strategies to avoid further degradation, and (4) the available instruments to implement such strategies. Clearly, different categories of scientific disciplines and associated model types exist that can accommodate answering these questions. We identify the strength and weaknesses of different research areas in relation to the question categories, focusing specifically on different types of models. We discuss that more interdisciplinary research is need to increase our understanding by better linking human drivers and social and biophysical impacts. This requires better collaboration between relevant disciplines (associated with the model types), either by exchanging information or by fully linking or integrating them. As fully integrated models can become too complex, the appropriate type of model (the racehorse) should be applied for answering the target research question (the race course).

  15. Atomistic aspects of crack propagation along high angle grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    The author presents atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration near a high angle {Sigma} = 5 [001](210) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in NiAl. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and embedded atom (EAM) potentials. The cracks are stabilized near a Griffith condition involving the cohesive energy of the grain boundary. The atomistic configurations of the tip region are different in the presence of the high angle grain boundary than in the bulk. Three different configurations of the grain boundary were studied corresponding to different local compositions. It was found that in ordered NiAl, cracks along symmetrical tilt boundaries show a more brittle behavior for Al rich boundaries than for Ni-rich boundaries. Lattice trapping effects in grain boundary fracture were found to be more significant than in the bulk.

  16. Exploring the boundaries of corporate social responsibility and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Brem, Alexander; Kauke, Matthias


    into the corporate strategy and its linkages to innovation. On the basis of a systematic literature review, a conceptual framework is developed. This framework categorises socio-political stakeholders and identifies other relevant stakeholders on the basis of a theoretical typology. Finally, dialogue strategies...... are examined regarding their fit within the corporate innovation process. In this regard, stakeholder collaboration is suggested as the appropriate strategy of engaging strategically significant stakeholders. The paper concludes with implications, limitations and further research suggestions.......Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and innovation are common keywords in management research and practice. Both of them are understood in different ways. To discover the boundaries of CSR and innovation, this paper sheds light on the traditional view of CSR, with a focus on its (CSR) integration...

  17. Coarsening kinetics of topologically highly correlated grain boundary networks (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Reed, Bryan W.; Kumar, Mukul


    We apply phase-field simulations in two dimensions to study the thermal coarsening of grain boundary (GB) networks with high fractions of twin and twin-variant boundaries, which for example are seen in grain-boundary-engineered FCC materials. Two types of grain boundary networks with similar starting special boundary fractions but different topological features were considered as initial conditions for the grain growth simulations. A lattice Monte Carlo method creates polycrystalline microstructures (Reed and Kumar (RK)), which exhibit hierarchical organization of random and special coincidence site lattice boundaries. The other type of microstructures (randomly distributed (RD)) contains random distributions of special boundaries subject only to crystallographic constraints. Under the assumption that random boundaries have larger energy and much higher mobility than special boundaries, simulations show that increasing the initial special boundary fraction in both microstructures slows down grain growth. However, the two starting microstructures exhibit very different behavior in the evolution of GB character and triple junction (TJ) distributions. The RD networks coarsened more slowly than the RK networks with comparable initial fractions of special boundaries. The observed trend in the evolution of the RK microstructures is explained by an extended von Neumann-Mullins analysis. This study demonstrates that the special boundary fraction is not a sufficient indicator of the coarsening behavior of twinned GB networks; the network topology must also be considered to correctly predict the grain growth kinetics.

  18. Quasiclassical Theory of Twin Boundaries in High-Tc Superconductors


    Belzig, Wolfgang; Bruder, Christoph; Sigrist, Manfred


    We investigate the electronic structure of twin boundaries in orthorhombically distorted high-T$_c$ materials using the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. At low temperatures we find a local instability to a time-reversal symmetry breaking state at the twin boundary. This state yields spontaneous currents along the twin boundary that are microscopically explained by the structure of the quasiparticle bound states. We calculate the local density of states and find a splitting in the z...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Huang; Chi-Wang Shu; Mengping Zhang


    High order fast sweeping methods have been developed recently in the literature to solve static Hamilton-Jacobi equations efficiently. Comparing with the first order fast sweeping methods, the high order fast sweeping methods are more accurate, but they often require additional numerical boundary treatment for several grid points near the boundary because of the wider numerical stencil. It is particularly important to treat the points near the inflow boundary accurately, as the information would flow into the computational domain and would affect global accuracy. In the literature, the numerical solution at these boundary points are either fixed with the exact solution, which is not always feasible, or computed with a first order discretization, which could reduce the global accuracy. In this paper, we discuss two strategies to handle the inflow boundary conditions. One is based on the numerical solutions of a first order fast sweeping method with several different mesh sizes near the boundary and a Richardson extrapolation, the other is based on a Lax-Wendroff type procedure to repeatedly utilizing the PDE to write the normal spatial derivatives to the inflow boundary in terms of the tangential derivatives, thereby obtaining high order solution values at the grid points near the inflow boundary. We explore these two approaches using the fast sweeping high order WENO scheme in [18] for solving the static Eikonal equation as a representative example. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the performance of these two approaches.

  20. Why Do We Miss Rare Targets? Exploring the Boundaries of the Low Prevalence Effect (United States)


    Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USAMichael J. Van Wert Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USABarbara Hidalgo- Sotelo Visual Attention Laboratory...Hidalgo- Sotelo , B., Horowitz, T. S., & Wolfe, J. M. (2008). Why do we miss rare targets? Exploring the boundaries of the low prevalence effect. Journal of

  1. High reliability organizing at the boundary of the CM domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Scholtenhuis, Léon L.; Dorée, André G.


    The construction management (CM) domain regularly develops and explores new theories and perspectives. These new insights can shift the existing paradigm radically, they can be assimilated smoothly, or they can stall as they are debated at CM’s domain boundary. During our current research, we experi

  2. Boundary Layer Ventilation Processes During a High Pressure Event (United States)

    Gray, S. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Belcher, S. E.


    It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer is weak during high pressure events. But is this always true? Here we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a high pressure event that occured on the 9 May 2005 using the UK Met Office Unifed Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include a sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing across the top of the boundary layer followed by large-scale ascent, and shallow convection. Vertical distributions of tracer are validated with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree impressively well. Budget calculations of tracers are performed in order to determine the relative importance of these ventilation processes. The sea breeze circulation was found to ventilate 26% of the boundary layer tracer by sunset of which 2% was above 2km. A combination of the sea breeze circulation and turbulent mixing ventilated 46% of the boundary layer tracer, of which 10% was above 2km. Finally, the sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing and shallow convection processes together ventilated 52% of the tracer into the free troposphere, of which 26% was above 2km. Hence this study shows that signicant ventilation of the boundary layer can occur during high pressure events; turbulent mixing and convection processes can double the amount of pollution ventilated from the boundary layer.

  3. Highly Efficient Boundary Element Analysis of Whispering Gallery Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Leyuan


    We demonstrate that the efficiency of the boundary element whispering gallery microcavity analysis can be improved by orders of magnitude with the inclusion of Fresnel approximation. Using this formulation, simulation of a microdisk with wave-number-radius product as large as $kR\\approx8,000$ was demonstrated in contrast to a previous record of $kR\\approx100$. In addition to its high accuracy on computing the modal field distribution and resonance wavelength, this method yields a relative error of $10%$ in calculating the quality factor as high as $10^{11}$ through a direct root searching method where the conventional boundary element method failed to achieve. Finally, quadrupole shaped cavities and double disks as large as $100 {\\mu}m$ in diameter were modeled by employing as few as $512$ boundary elements whilst the simulation of such large cavities using conventional boundary element method were not reported previously.

  4. Organizational Attributes and Learning beyond the Boundaries: Comparative Case Studies of Two High-Tech Firms (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Wu, Sizong; Li, Jun


    This study compares two high-tech firms in terms of their differences in organizational characteristics and learning activities beyond the boundaries. It finds that the larger company continuously develops new technology to achieve long-term survival through a balance between exploration and exploitation while the smaller enterprise grows quickly…

  5. Matched interface and boundary (MIB) for the implementation of boundary conditions in high-order central finite differences. (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W


    High-order central finite difference schemes encounter great difficulties in implementing complex boundary conditions. This paper introduces the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method as a novel boundary scheme to treat various general boundary conditions in arbitrarily high-order central finite difference schemes. To attain arbitrarily high order, the MIB method accurately extends the solution beyond the boundary by repeatedly enforcing only the original set of boundary conditions. The proposed approach is extensively validated via boundary value problems, initial-boundary value problems, eigenvalue problems, and high-order differential equations. Successful implementations are given to not only Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions, but also more general ones, such as multiple boundary conditions in high-order differential equations and time-dependent boundary conditions in evolution equations. Detailed stability analysis of the MIB method is carried out. The MIB method is shown to be able to deliver high-order accuracy, while maintaining the same or similar stability conditions of the standard high-order central difference approximations. The application of the proposed MIB method to the boundary treatment of other non-standard high-order methods is also considered.

  6. SBME : Exploring boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning


    Shahoumian, Armineh; Parchoma, Gale; Saunders, Murray; Hanson, Jacky; Dickinson, Mike; Pimblett, Mark


    In medical education learning extends beyond university settings into practice. Non-formal and informal learning support learners’ efforts to meet externally set and learner-identified objectives. In SBME research, boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning have not been widely explored. Whether SBME fits within or challenges these categories can make a contribution. Formal learning is described in relation to educational settings, planning, assessment, and accreditation. In...

  7. Separation of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon from Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux (United States)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Christian, E. R.; Crew, G. B.; Dayeh, M.; DeMajistre, R.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goodrich, K.; Gruntman, M.; Janzen, P.; Kucharek, H.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Prested, C.; Reisenfeld, D.; Reno, M.; Roelof, E.; Siegel, J.; Vanderspek, R.


    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes a remarkable feature, the IBEX ribbon, which has energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux over a narrow region ~20° wide, a factor of 2-3 higher than the more globally distributed ENA flux. Here, we separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the distributed flux by applying a transparency mask over the ribbon and regions of high emissions, and then solve for the distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Our analysis shows that the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the ribbon are distinct from the surrounding globally distributed flux. The ribbon energy spectrum shows a knee between ~1 and 4 keV, and the angular distribution is approximately independent of energy. In contrast, the distributed flux does not show a clear knee and more closely conforms to a power law over much of the sky. Consistent with previous analyses, the slope of the power law steepens from the nose to tail, suggesting a weaker termination shock toward the tail as compared to the nose. The knee in the energy spectrum of the ribbon suggests that its source plasma population is generated via a distinct physical process. Both the slope in the energy distribution of the distributed flux and the knee in the energy distribution of the ribbon are ordered by latitude. The heliotail may be identified in maps of globally distributed flux as a broad region of low flux centered ~44°W of the interstellar downwind direction, suggesting heliotail deflection by the interstellar magnetic field.

  8. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...

  9. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...

  10. Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide. (United States)

    van der Zande, Arend M; Huang, Pinshane Y; Chenet, Daniel A; Berkelbach, Timothy C; You, YuMeng; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Heinz, Tony F; Reichman, David R; Muller, David A; Hone, James C


    Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulphide, a new two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor, is paving the way for applications in atomically thin electronics. Little is known, however, about the microstructure of this material. Here we have refined chemical vapour deposition synthesis to grow highly crystalline islands of monolayer molybdenum disulphide up to 120 μm in size with optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to exfoliated samples. Using transmission electron microscopy, we correlate lattice orientation, edge morphology and crystallinity with island shape to demonstrate that triangular islands are single crystals. The crystals merge to form faceted tilt and mirror twin boundaries that are stitched together by lines of 8- and 4-membered rings. Density functional theory reveals localized mid-gap states arising from these 8-4 defects. We find that mirror twin boundaries cause strong photoluminescence quenching whereas tilt boundaries cause strong enhancement. Meanwhile, mirror twin boundaries slightly increase the measured in-plane electrical conductivity, whereas tilt boundaries slightly decrease the conductivity.

  11. Exploring the boundary-layer cloud-climate feedback through Single-Column Model in Radiative-Advective Equilibrium (United States)

    Dal Gesso, Sara; Neggers, Roel


    Boundary-layer clouds remain the major contributor to the inter-model spread in future climate predictions. Although light has been shed on the low-level cloud feedback, much remains to be understood about the physical mechanisms at the basis of the response of these clouds to climate warming. In the present study, EC-EARTH Single Column Model (SCM) is used to explore the boundary-layer cloud-climate feedback by imposing a Radiative-Advective Equilibrium, namely a balance between the radiative cooling and the advection of warm air. 30-year simulations are performed with the SCM forced by high-frequency cfSites outputs of the CMIP5 simulations of the host General Circulation Model (GCM) for both the AMIP and AMIP4K experiments. As this study exclusively focuses on marine low-level cloud regimes, the simulations are performed at the Barbados Cloud Observatory in the so-called "dry period", when the large-scale forcing are representative of subtropical marine trade-wind conditions. A first step is to assess how representative long-term SCM simulations are of their host GCM. Subsequently, the SCM is forced by different GCMs within the same framework. In this way, the contribution of the physical parameterization to the boundary-layer cloud feedback is isolated from the dynamics, and systematically evaluated. Finally, a procedure to integrate Large-Eddy Simulations and observations into this framework is discussed.

  12. Discussion on Type-I fuzzy boundary and Research on Boundary Definition of High Order Fuzzy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Tiejun


    Full Text Available The definition of fuzzy boundary is crucial in research of modeling and analysis of fuzzy geographical phenomena. The problem “boundary syndrome” has been a longstanding problem in this domain, and this problem has seriously affected the research and application of fuzzy geographical model. The existing fuzzy boundary models were discussed at first, and then some models based on type-I fuzzy sets were analyzed in detail. This paper pointed out the fuzzy boundary models should have three kinds of meaning: “frontier”, “transition” and “division”. Three types of boundary models of high order fuzzy region were proposed based on interval type-2 fuzzy set, and they embody three kinds of meaning of fuzzy boundary respectively. The models proposed by this paper have a positive effect to high order geographical phenomena modeling and analysis.

  13. Turbulence measurements in high Reynolds number boundary layers (United States)

    Vallikivi, Margit; Smits, Alexander


    Measurements are conducted in zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers for Reynolds numbers from Reθ = 9,000 to 225,000. The experiments were performed in the High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF) at Princeton University, which uses compressed air as the working fluid. Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probes (NSTAPs) are used to acquire data with very high spatial and temporal precision. These new data are used to study the scaling behavior of the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer and make comparisons with the scaling of other wall-bounded turbulent flows. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257 (program manager Henning Winter).

  14. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans (United States)


    Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans Robin D. Muench Earth & Space Research 1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210 Seattle...Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales. Journal of Geophysical Research , 87, 9601-9613. Galbraith, P.S., and D.E. Kelley, 1996: Identifying overturns in...and near Marguerite Bay during winter 2003: A SO GLOBEC study. Deep-Sea Research 2, 54. Padman, L., S.L. Howard, and R.D. Muench, 2006a: Internal

  15. Exploring telicity and transitivity in primordial thought language and body boundary imagery. (United States)

    Cariola, Laura A


    Linguistics research on 'unconscious knowledge' related to the right brain-hemisphere represents a shift from the prevalent scientific investigation of the linguistic processes of grammatical structures associated with the dominant 'verbal' left brain-hemisphere. This study explores the relationship among primordial thought language, body boundary awareness and syntactic features--i.e., telicity, perfectivity and transitivity-in autobiographical narratives of everyday and dream memories. The results showed that event descriptions with atelic predicates and intransitive structures were more frequent in dream recall than in narratives of everyday memories. Primordial thought language and body boundary awareness, however, decreased with atelic predicates and transitive structures, which might indicate both the tendency of events to describe result states, such as achievements and accomplishments, as a means to bring about an unconscious wish fulfilment and the emphasis on event arguments to be realised without the inclusion of an external object. In narratives of everyday memories, penetration imagery increased with imperfective verb forms and decreased with perfective verb forms, and emotion lexis increased with atelic predicates and transitive structures, but not in dream memories.

  16. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.


    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  17. Exploring professional collaboration at the boundary between content and language teaching from a CHAT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilee Moore


    Full Text Available Different ways in which the integration of content and language emerges within higher education language policies and classroom teaching and learning are well studied in the literature, as are methods and techniques that could be useful in classrooms to scaffold the accomplishment of dual learning objectives. However very little attention has been paid to exploring the complexities emerging during collaboration at the boundary between teaching professionals from different areas of expertise, and this is potentially even more so in higher education. Attending to this gap, this article presents the first results of a professional development experience being carried out at a Catalan university promoting English medium instruction, which aimed at increasing collaboration between language and subject lecturers at the boundary of content and language teaching across degree programs. The experience involved formalised pairing-up of content and language specialists working within the same degree program for focussed discussion on the planning and implementation of their respective subjects. The experience provides insight into teacher cognition – or what teachers think, know, and believe, and the relationship this potentially has with their classroom action – and into how interdisciplinary dialogue may be supported to prompt its transformation.

  18. Stability boundaries for wrinkling in highly stretched elastic sheets (United States)

    Li, Qingdu; Healey, Timothy J.


    We determine stability boundaries for the wrinkling of highly unidirectionally stretched, finely thin, rectangular elastic sheets. For a given fine thickness and length, a stability boundary here is a curve in the parameter plane, aspect ratio vs. the macroscopic strain; the values on one side of the boundary are associated with stable unwrinkled (flat) states, while stable wrinkled configurations correspond to all values on the other. In our recent work we demonstrated the importance of finite elasticity in the membrane part of such a model in order to capture the correct phenomena. Here we present and compare results for four distinct models: (i) the popular Föppl-von Kármán plate model (FvK), (ii) a correction of the latter, used in our earlier work, in which the approximate 2D Föppl strain tensor is replaced by the exact Green strain tensor, (iii) and (iv): effective 2D finite-elasticity membrane models based on 3D incompressible neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin materials, respectively. In particular, (iii) and (iv) are superior models for elastomers. The 2D nonlinear, hyperelastic models (ii)-(iv) all incorporate the same quadratic bending energy used in FvK. Our results illuminate serious shortcomings of the latter in this problem, while also pointing to inaccuracies of model (ii) - in spite of yielding the correct qualitative phenomena in our earlier work. In each of these, the shortcoming is a due to a deficiency of the membrane part of the model.

  19. Quantitative high resolution electron microscopy of grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.H., King, W.E., Cohen, D., Carter, C.B.


    The {Sigma}11 (113)/[1{bar 1}0] symmetric tilt grain boundary has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The method by which the images are prepared for analysis is described. The statistics of the image data have been found to follow a normal distribution. The electron-optical imaging parameters used to acquire the image have been determined by nonlinear least-square image simulation optimization within the perfect crystal region of the micrograph. A similar image simulation optimization procedure is used to determine the atom positions which provide the best match between the experimental image and the image simulation.

  20. High Energy Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Mesh Euler Solver (United States)

    Pandya, Shishir A.; Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.


    Inlets and exhaust nozzles are often omitted or fared over in aerodynamic simulations of aircraft due to the complexities involving in the modeling of engine details such as complex geometry and flow physics. However, the assumption is often improper as inlet or plume flows have a substantial effect on vehicle aerodynamics. A tool for specifying inlet and exhaust plume conditions through the use of high-energy boundary conditions in an established inviscid flow solver is presented. The effects of the plume on the flow fields near the inlet and plume are discussed.

  1. Simulation studies of high-latitude magnetospheric boundary dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU; Zuyin; SHI; Quanqi; XIAO; Chijie; FU; Suiyan; ZHANG; Hu


    Magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause is studied using 2.5-dimensional Hail-MHD simulation. Concentric flow vortices and magnetic islands appear when both Hall effect and sheared flow are considered. Plasma mixing across the magnetopause occurs in the presence of the flow vortices. Reconnected structure generated in the vicinity of the subsolar point changes its geometry with increasing flow shear while moving to high latitudes. In the presence of flow shear, with the Hail-MHD reconnection a higher reconnection rate than with the traditional MHD is obtained. The out-of-plane components of flow and magnetic field produced by the Hall current are redistributed under the action of the flow shear, which makes the plasma transport across the boundaries more complicated. The simulation results provide some help in understanding the dynamic processes at the high latitude magnetopause.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O., E-mail: [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)


    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  3. Exploring the boundary between pollination syndromes: bats and hummingbirds as pollinators of Burmeistera cyclostigmata and B. tenuiflora (Campanulaceae). (United States)

    Muchhala, Nathan


    In this study I documented the degree of specialization in the pollination systems of Burmeistera cyclostigmata and B. tenuiflora (Campanulaceae) to explore the potential role of floral isolation in the diversification of the genus. I asked which floral characteristics are important in specializing on either bat or hummingbird pollination, and whether overlap between these floral syndromes can exist. I examined nocturnal and diurnal pollen deposition, pollinator visitation rates, and single visit effectiveness and related them to intra- and interspecific variation in Burmeistera floral characteristics at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Bats and hummingbirds visited both Burmeistera species, and bats pollinated both species. Owing to differences in floral morphology, however, hummingbirds effectively pollinated only B. tenuiflora. The generalized pollination system of B. tenuiflora demonstrates that there can be overlap in the boundary between ornithophily and chiropterophily, and that nectar production and timing of anthesis do not serve as barriers between these syndromes. The high intraspecific variation in floral color from green to red or purple did not correlate with either nocturnal or diurnal pollen deposition. Degree of flower accessibility did affect pollination; nocturnal pollen deposition significantly decreased as flowers become more obstructed. In Burmeistera, floral morphology and accessibility appear to be the most important floral characteristics for specialization at the boundary between ornithophily and chiropterophily.

  4. Design of zirconia grain boundaries——An exploration of the design of oxide ceramic grain boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新; 袁润章


    The grain-boundary resistance of ZrO2 mainly consists of the contribution from the space-charge layers Rsc and that from the grain-boundary phase Rgbp The reduction of Rsc can be realized by the segregations of solutes with positive effective charge in the space-charge layers,while the reduction of Rgbp can be achieved by decreasing the amount of the grain-boundary phase,changing the morphology of the phase and forming grain-boundary phase with high conductivity.The best grain-boundary design effect can only be achieved by the joint design of the space-charge layers and the grain-boundary phase.

  5. Logarithmic boundary layers in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    Huisman, Sander G; Cierpka, Christian; Kahler, Christian J; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao


    We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to $\\text{Ta}=6.2 \\times 10^{12}$ using high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von K\\'arm\\'an log law $u^+ = \\frac 1\\kappa \\ln y^+ +B$. The von K\\'arm\\'an constant $\\kappa$ is found to depend on the driving strength $\\text{Ta}$ and for large $\\text{Ta}$ asymptotically approaches $\\kappa \\approx 0.40$. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around $y^+ \\approx 12$ and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log-dependence of $y^+$ as also found for channel and pipe flows [1,2].

  6. Energetic neutral atoms measured by the interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX): Evidence for multiple heliosheath populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M. [Space Research Centre, PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Funsten, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, NM 87545 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Zirnstein, E. J. [The Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)


    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide powerful diagnostics about the origin of the progenitor ion populations and the physical mechanisms responsible for their production. In this paper, we extend the work of Desai et al. and Fuselier et al. and combine and compare ENA spectra from the first 3 yr of observations by the IBEX-Hi and -Lo ENA imagers along the lines-of-sight (LOSs) from the inner heliosphere through to the locations of Voyager 1 and 2 with results from an updated physics-based model of the three-dimensional heliosphere and its constituent ion populations. Our results show that (1) IBEX ENA fluxes and spectra above ∼0.7 keV measured along the LOSs of the Voyagers are consistent with several models in which the parent pickup ion (PUI) populations originate in the inner heliosheath, and (2) a significant fraction of lower energy ENAs between ∼0.1-0.5 keV may originate from interstellar neutral gas charge-exchanging with a non-thermalized (hot) population of PUIs in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause. We discuss the implications of ENAs observed by IBEX originating from distinct parent populations as well as from two distinct locations in the heliospheric interface. These results indicate that ENA spectral measurements at various energies can be used to remotely probe distinct physical processes operating in vastly different regions of the distant heliosphere.

  7. The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels


    and coworkers. These estimates of local driving pressures have shown that they are similar for both the low and the high angle boundaries encountered in the samples. The pinning effects by particles at high angle boundaries are in general accord with the model due to Zener whilst those at low angle boundaries...

  8. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration (United States)

    England, C.


    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  9. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration (United States)

    England, C.


    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  10. Lumley decomposition of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Tutkun, Murat; George, William K.


    The decomposition proposed by Lumley in 1966 is applied to a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. The experimental database was created by a hot-wire rake of 143 probes in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. The Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness (Reθ) are 9800 and 19 100. Three-dimensional decomposition is performed, namely, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in the inhomogeneous and bounded wall-normal direction, Fourier decomposition in the homogeneous spanwise direction, and Fourier decomposition in time. The first POD modes in both cases carry nearly 50% of turbulence kinetic energy when the energy is integrated over Fourier dimensions. The eigenspectra always peak near zero frequency and most of the large scale, energy carrying features are found at the low end of the spectra. The spanwise Fourier mode which has the largest amount of energy is the first spanwise mode and its symmetrical pair. Pre-multiplied eigenspectra have only one distinct peak and it matches the secondary peak observed in the log-layer of pre-multiplied velocity spectra. Energy carrying modes obtained from the POD scale with outer scaling parameters. Full or partial reconstruction of turbulent velocity signal based only on energetic modes or non-energetic modes revealed the behaviour of urms in distinct regions across the boundary layer. When urms is based on energetic reconstruction, there exists (a) an exponential decay from near wall to log-layer, (b) a constant layer through the log-layer, and (c) another exponential decay in the outer region. The non-energetic reconstruction reveals that urms has (a) an exponential decay from the near-wall to the end of log-layer and (b) a constant layer in the outer region. Scaling of urms using the outer parameters is best when both energetic and non-energetic profiles are combined.

  11. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  12. Editorial: Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX): Direct Sampling of the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    McComas, D. J.


    This special supplement issue of the Astrophysical Journal comprises six coordinated papers that provide the first detailed analyses of the direct sampling of interstellar neutral atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Interstellar atoms are the detritus of older stars—their stellar winds, novae, and supernovae—spread across the galaxy, which fill the vast interstellar space between the stars. The very local interstellar medium around the Sun is filled with both ionized and neutral atoms with approximately equal numbers, and occasional ionization, charge exchange, and recombination makes them a single interacting material over large distances. IBEX (McComas et al. 2009a) is a NASA Small Explorer mission with the sole, focused science objective to discover the global interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium; this objective has primarily been achieved by taking the first global energetic neutral atom (ENA) images, which provide detailed ENA fluxes and energy spectra over all look directions in space. IBEX was launched 2008 October 19 and subsequently maneuvered into a high-altitude, highly elliptical (~15,000 × 300,000 km), roughly week-long orbit. The payload comprises two very high sensitivity, single-pixel ENA cameras: IBEX-Hi (Funsten et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~300 eV to 6 keV, and IBEX-Lo (Fuselier et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~10 eV to 2 keV. The initial IBEX ENA results were published together in a special issue of Science magazine (McComas et al. 2009b; Funsten et al. 2009b; Fuselier et al. 2009b; Schwadron et al. 2009). Since then there have been numerous additional studies of the IBEX ENA observations of the heliosphere, as well as ENAs from the Moon and Earth's magnetosphere (see recent review by McComas et al. 2011 and references therein). Prior to IBEX, the only interstellar neutral atoms to be directly sampled were He, observed by the Ulysses spacecraft a decade ago (Witte et al. 1996

  13. Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Seemann, U; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N


    Based on detailed spectral synthesis we carry out quantitative measurements of the strength and complexity of surface magnetic fields in the four well-known M-dwarfs GJ 388, GJ 729, GJ 285, and GJ 406 populating the mass regime around the boundary between partially and fully convective stars. Very high resolution R=100000, high signal-to-noise (up to 400) near-infrared Stokes I spectra were obtained with CRIRES at ESO's Very Large Telescope covering regions of the FeH Wing-Ford transitions at 1mum. The field distributions in all four stars are characterized by three distinct groups of field components, the data are neither consistent with a smooth distribution of different field strengths, nor with one average field strength covering the full star. We find evidence of a subtle difference in the field distribution of GJ 285 compared to the other three targets. GJ 285 also has the highest average field of 3.5kG and the strongest maximum field component of 7-7.5kG. The maximum local field strengths in our sample...

  14. A high-order immersed boundary method for high-fidelity turbulent combustion simulations (United States)

    Minamoto, Yuki; Aoki, Kozo; Osawa, Kosuke; Shi, Tuo; Prodan, Alexandru; Tanahashi, Mamoru


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) have played important roles in the research of turbulent combustion. With the recent advancement in high-performance computing, DNS of slightly complicated configurations such as V-, various jet and swirl flames have been performed, and such DNS will further our understanding on the physics of turbulent combustion. Since these configurations include walls that do not necessarily conform with the preferred mesh coordinates for combustion DNS, most of these simulations use presumed profiles for inflow/near-wall flows as boundary conditions. A high-order immersed boundary method suited for parallel computation is one way to improve these simulations. The present research implements such a boundary technique in a combustion DNS code, and simulations are performed to confirm its accuracy and performance. This work was partly supported by Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), "Innovative Combustion Technology" (Funding agency: JST).

  15. A high-order accurate embedded boundary method for first order hyperbolic equations (United States)

    Mattsson, Ken; Almquist, Martin


    A stable and high-order accurate embedded boundary method for first order hyperbolic equations is derived. Where the grid-boundaries and the physical boundaries do not coincide, high order interpolation is used. The boundary stencils are based on a summation-by-parts framework, and the boundary conditions are imposed by the SAT penalty method, which guarantees linear stability for one-dimensional problems. Second-, fourth-, and sixth-order finite difference schemes are considered. The resulting schemes are fully explicit. Accuracy and numerical stability of the proposed schemes are demonstrated for both linear and nonlinear hyperbolic systems in one and two spatial dimensions.

  16. The potential link between high angle grain boundary morphology and grain boundary deformation in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jennifer L.W., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Sosa, John M. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Shade, Paul A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Fraser, Hamish L. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Uchic, Michael D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Mills, Michael J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States)


    Focused ion beam (FIB) based serial sectioning was utilized to characterize the morphology of two high angle grain boundaries (HAGB) in a nickel based superalloy, one that experienced grain boundary sliding (GBS) and the other experienced strain accumulation, during elevated temperature constant stress loading conditions. A custom script was utilized to serial section and collect ion-induced secondary electron images from the FIB-SEM system. The MATLAB based MIPAR{sup TM} software was utilized to align, segment and reconstruct 3D volumes from the sectioned images. Analysis of the 3D data indicates that the HAGB that exhibited GBS had microscale curvature that was planar in nature, and local serrations on the order of ±150 nm. In contrast, the HAGB that exhibited strain accumulation was not planar and had local serrations an order of magnitude greater than the other grain boundary. It is hypothesized that the serrations and the local grain boundary network are key factors in determining which grain boundaries experience GBS during creep deformation.

  17. Exploring the boundary between a siphon and barometer in a hypobaric chamber. (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Gurung, Som


    Siphons have been used since ancient times, but exactly how they work is still a matter of debate. In order to elucidate the modus operandi of a siphon, a 1.5 m high siphon was set up in a hypobaric chamber to explore siphon behaviour in a low-pressure environment. When the pressure in the chamber was reduced to about 0.18 atmospheres, a curious waterfall-like feature appeared downstream from the apex of the siphon. A hypothesis is presented to explain the waterfall phenomenon. When the pressure was reduced further the siphon broke into two columns--in effect becoming two back-to-back barometers. This experiment demonstrates the role of atmospheric pressure in explaining the hydrostatic characteristics of a siphon and the role of molecular cohesion in explaining the hydrodynamic aspects.

  18. Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)


    We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).

  19. High level methods for scene exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Plemenos


    Full Text Available Virtual worlds exploration techniques are used in a wide variety of domains — from graph drawing to robot motion. This paper is dedicated to virtual world exploration techniques which have to help a human being to understand a 3D scene. An improved method of viewpoint quality estimation is presented in the paper, together with a new off-line method for automatic 3D scene exploration, based on a virtual camera. The automatic exploration method is working in two steps. In the first step, a set of “good” viewpoints is computed. The second step uses this set of points of view to compute a camera path around the scene. Finally, we define a notion of semantic distance between objects of the scene to improve the approach.

  20. Development and Breakdown of Goertler Vortices in High Speed Boundary Layers (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wu, Minwei; Greene, Ptrick T.


    The nonlinear development of G rtler instability over a concave surface gives rise to a highly distorted stationary flow in the boundary layer that has strong velocity gradients in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. This distorted flow is susceptible to strong, high frequency secondary instability that leads to the onset of transition. For high Mach number flows, the boundary layer is also subject to the second mode instability. The nonlinear development of G rtler vortices and the ensuing growth and breakdown of secondary instability, the G rtler vortex interactions with second mode instabilities as well as oblique second mode interactions are examined in the context of both internal and external hypersonic configurations using nonlinear parabolized stability equations, 2-D eigenvalue analysis and direct numerical simulation. For G rtler vortex development inside the Purdue Mach 6 Ludwieg tube wind tunnel, multiple families of unstable secondary eigenmodes are identified and their linear and nonlinear evolution is examined. The computation of secondary instability is continued past the onset of transition to elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying the laminar breakdown process. Nonlinear breakdown scenarios associated with transition over a Mach 6 compression cone configuration are also explored.

  1. Turbulent boundary layer measurements over high-porosity surfaces (United States)

    Efstathiou, Christoph; Luhar, Mitul


    Porous surfaces are ubiquitous across a variety of turbulent boundary layer flows of scientific and engineering interest. While turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls have been studied extensively, experimental measurements over porous walls have thus far focused on packed beds, which are limited in porosity (Φ = 0 . 3 - 0 . 5) by their geometry. The current project seeks to address this limitation. A two-component laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) is used to generate velocity measurements in turbulent boundary layer flows over commercially available reticulated foams and 3D-printed porous media at Reynolds number Reθ 3000 - 4000 . Smooth wall profiles for mean and turbulent quantities are compared to data over substrates with porosity Φ > 0 . 8 and average pore sizes in the range 0.4-2.5mm (corresponding to 8 - 50 viscous units). Previous analytical and simulation efforts indicate that the effects of porous substrates on boundary layer flows depend on a modified Reynolds number defined using the length scale √{ κ}, where κ is substrate permeability. A custom permeameter is currently being developed to estimate κ for the substrates tested in the boundary layer experiments.

  2. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the

  3. Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection (United States)

    Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Seemann, U.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.


    Context. Magnetic fields play a pivotal role in the formation and evolution of low-mass stars, but the dynamo mechanisms generating these fields are poorly understood. Measuring cool star magnetism is a complicated task because of the complexity of cool star spectra and the subtle signatures of magnetic fields. Aims: Based on detailed spectral synthesis, we carry out quantitative measurements of the strength and complexity of surface magnetic fields in the four well-known M dwarfs GJ 388, GJ 729, GJ 285, and GJ 406 that populate the mass regime around the boundary between partially and fully convective stars. Very high-resolution (R = 100 000), high signal-to-noise (up to 400), near-infrared Stokes I spectra were obtained with CRIRES at ESO's Very Large Telescope covering regions of the FeH Wing-Ford transitions at 1μm and Na i lines at 2.2μm. Methods: A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Landé g-factors for FeH lines. We determined the distribution of magnetic fields by magnetic spectral synthesis performed with the Synmast code. We tested two different magnetic geometries to probe the influence of field orientation effects. Results: Our analysis confirms that FeH lines are excellent indicators of surface magnetic fields in low-mass stars of type M, particularly in comparison to profiles of Na i lines that are heavily affected by water lines and that suffer problems with continuum normalization. The field distributions in all four stars are characterized by three distinct groups of field components, and the data are consistent neither with a smooth distribution of different field strengths nor with one average field strength covering the full star. We find evidence of a subtle difference in the field distribution of GJ 285 compared to the other three targets. GJ 285 also has the highest average field of 3.5 kG and the strongest maximum field component of 7-7.5 kG. The maximum local field strengths in our sample seem to be

  4. High resolution grain boundary analysis of neutron irradiated stainless steel using FEG-TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Mitsuhiro; Ishiyama, Yoshihide; Yokota, Norikatsu [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    High-resolution grain boundary analyses of irradiated SUS304 stainless steel using a field emission gun equipped transmission electron microscope were carried out in order to detect radiation-induced grain boundary segregation. The effect of probe size on the measured compositional profiles was studied. The depletion of chromium and enrichment of nickel, phosphorus and silicon were detected at a grain boundary. The measured compositional profiles were affected by the probe size which impeded their interpretation. (author)

  5. Boundary Layer Transition During the Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.


    Boundary layer transition was observed in the thermocouple data on the windside backshell of the Orion reentry capsule. Sensors along the windside centerline, as well as off-centerline, indicated transition late in the flight at approximately Mach 4 conditions. Transition progressed as expected, beginning at the sensors closest to the forward bay cover (FBC) and moving towards the heatshield. Sensors placed in off-centerline locations did not follow streamlines, so the progression of transition observed in these sensors is less intuitive. Future analysis will include comparisons to pre-flight predictions and expected transitional behavior will be investigated. Sensors located within the centerline and off-centerline launch abort system (LAS) attach well cavities on the FBC also showed indications of boundary layer transition. The transition within the centerline cavity was observed in the temperature traces prior to transition onset on the sensors upstream of the cavity. Transition behavior within the off centerline LAS attach well cavity will also be investigated. Heatshield thermocouples were placed within Avcoat plugs to attempt to capture transitional behavior as well as better understand the aerothermal environments. Thermocouples were placed in stacks of two or five vertically within the plugs, but the temperature data obtained at the sensors closest to the surface did not immediately indicate transitional behavior. Efforts to use the in depth thermocouple temperatures to reconstruct the surface heat flux are ongoing and any results showing the onset of boundary layer transition obtained from those reconstructions will also be included in this paper. Transition on additional features of interest, including compression pad ramps, will be included if it becomes available.

  6. Exploring of Chinese High-speed Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based ion experiences of high-speed railways in foreign countries,the speed-raise situation of the Chinese railways,the research & development and test of high-speed transportation carries,as well as the prospective of high-speed railway in China are introduced.

  7. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  8. A comparative study of near-wall turbulence in high and low Reynolds number boundary layers (United States)

    Metzger, M. M.; Klewicki, J. C.


    The present study explores the effects of Reynolds number, over three orders of magnitude, in the viscous wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. Complementary experiments were conducted both in the boundary layer wind tunnel at the University of Utah and in the atmospheric surface layer which flows over the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert in western Utah. The Reynolds numbers, based on momentum deficit thickness, of the two flows were Rθ=2×103 and Rθ≈5×106, respectively. High-resolution velocity measurements were obtained from a five-element vertical rake of hot-wires spanning the buffer region. In both the low and high Rθ flows, the length of the hot-wires measured less than 6 viscous units. To facilitate reliable comparisons, both the laboratory and field experiments employed the same instrumentation and procedures. Data indicate that, even in the immediate vicinity of the surface, strong influences from low-frequency motions at high Rθ produce noticeable Reynolds number differences in the streamwise velocity and velocity gradient statistics. In particular, the peak value in the root mean square streamwise velocity profile, when normalized by viscous scales, was found to exhibit a logarithmic dependence on Reynolds number. The mean streamwise velocity profile, on the other hand, appears to be essentially independent of Reynolds number. Spectra and spatial correlation data suggest that low-frequency motions at high Reynolds number engender intensified local convection velocities which affect the structure of both the velocity and velocity gradient fields. Implications for turbulent production mechanisms and coherent motions in the buffer layer are discussed.

  9. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX): Tracing the Interaction between the Heliosphere and Surrounding Interstellar Material with Energetic Neutral Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C


    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is exploring the frontiers of the heliosphere where energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) are formed from charge exchange between interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms and solar wind ions and pickup ions. The geography of this frontier is dominated by an unexpected nearly complete arc of ENA emission, now known as the IBEX 'Ribbon'. While there is no consensus agreement on the Ribbon formation mechanism, it seems certain this feature is seen for sightlines that are perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field as it drapes over the heliosphere. At the lowest energies, IBEX also measures the flow of interstellar H, He, and O atoms through the inner heliosphere. The asymmetric helium profile suggests that a secondary flow of helium is present, such as would be expected if some fraction of helium is lost through charge exchange in the heliosheath regions. The detailed spectra characterized by the ENAs provide time-tagged samples of the energy distributions of the under...

  10. MiniGhost : a miniapp for exploring boundary exchange strategies using stencil computations in scientific parallel computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Richard Frederick; Heroux, Michael Allen; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas


    A broad range of scientific computation involves the use of difference stencils. In a parallel computing environment, this computation is typically implemented by decomposing the spacial domain, inducing a 'halo exchange' of process-owned boundary data. This approach adheres to the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model. Because commonly available architectures provide strong inter-node bandwidth relative to latency costs, many codes 'bulk up' these messages by aggregating data into a message as a means of reducing the number of messages. A renewed focus on non-traditional architectures and architecture features provides new opportunities for exploring alternatives to this programming approach. In this report we describe miniGhost, a 'miniapp' designed for exploration of the capabilities of current as well as emerging and future architectures within the context of these sorts of applications. MiniGhost joins the suite of miniapps developed as part of the Mantevo project.

  11. Exploring the Turbulent Urban Boundary by Use of Lidars and Microwave Radiometers (United States)

    Arend, Mark; Valerio, Ivan; Neufeld, Stephen; Bishir, Raymond; Wu, Younghu; Moshary, Fred; Melecio-Vazquez, David; Gonzalez, Jorge


    A Doppler lidar has been developed using fiber optic based technologies and advanced signal processing techniques. Although this system has been operated in a scanning mode in the past, for this application, the system is operated in a vertically pointing mode and delivers a time series of vertical velocity profiles. By cooperating the Doppler lidar with other instruments, including a back scatter lidar, and a microwave radiometer, models of atmospheric stability can be tested, opening up an exciting path for researchers, applied scientists and engineers to discover unique phenomena related to fundamental atmospheric science processes. A consistent set of retrievals between each of these instruments emphasizes the utility for such a network of instruments to better characterize the turbulent atmospheric urban boundary layers which is expected to offer a useful capability for assessing and improving models that are in great need of such ground truth.

  12. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  13. Exploring the Global/Local Boundary in Education in Developing Countries: The Case of the Caribbean (United States)

    George, June; Lewis, Theodore


    This article focuses on education in developing countries in the context of globalization and with specific reference to the Caribbean. It examines the concept of globalization and related concepts and positions developing countries within this context. It explores the possibility of the creation of a third space where the local and the global can…

  14. Damage Susceptibility of Grain Boundaries in HT9 Steel Subjected to High-Temperature Creep (United States)

    Leng, Zhe; Field, David P.


    HT9 steel is an attractive ferritic/martensitic steel that is used in components of nuclear and fossil power plants because of its high strength and good swelling resistance. Specific phenomena (such as segregation, voiding, cracking, etc.) are prevalent along grain boundaries since these interfaces act as efficient sources for vacancies. The accumulation of vacancies in grain boundaries may result in intergranular fracture. In this study, HT9 steel was subjected to creep tests at elevated temperature (about 0.5 T m) and two different creep conditions (where creep lifetimes were about 100 and about 1000 hours, respectively). The grain boundaries in HT9 steel after creep tests were studied by the use of scanning electron microscopy in order to establish the relationship between the grain boundary structure and creep damage. Images and data obtained using electron backscatter diffraction reveal a high susceptibility of high-angle boundaries to creep cavitation, as expected. In addition, the Σ3 boundaries are also susceptible to damage under these conditions at a similar or even higher rate as compared with random high-angle boundaries.

  15. A high-order Immersed Boundary method for the simulation of polymeric flow (United States)

    Stein, David; Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert


    We present a robust, flexible, and high-order Immersed Boundary method for simulating fluid flow, including the Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and certain models of viscoelastic flow, e.g. the Stokes-Oldroyd-B equations. The solution to the PDE is coupled with an equation for a smooth extension of the unknown solution; high-order accuracy is a natural consequence of this additional global regularity. Low and zero Reynolds number problems are handled efficiently and accurately. We demonstrate pointwise convergence of the polymeric stress for flows in complex domains, in contrast to the standard Immersed Boundary method, which generates large errors in the polymeric stress near to the boundaries.

  16. High-response piezoelectricity modeled quantitatively near a phase boundary (United States)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.


    Interconversion of mechanical and electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect is fundamental to a wide range of technologies. The discovery in the 1990s of giant piezoelectric responses in certain materials has therefore opened new application spaces, but the origin of these properties remains a challenge to our understanding. A key role is played by the presence of a structural instability in these materials at compositions near the "morphotropic phase boundary" (MPB) where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical responses are maximal. Here we formulate a simple, unified theoretical description which accounts for extreme piezoelectric response, its observation at compositions near the MPB, accompanied by ultrahigh dielectric constant and mechanical compliances with rather large anisotropies. The resulting model, based upon a Landau free energy expression, is capable of treating the important domain engineered materials and is found to be predictive while maintaining simplicity. It therefore offers a general and powerful means of accounting for the full set of signature characteristics in these functional materials including volume conserving sum rules and strong substrate clamping effects.

  17. High-Order Accurate Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in the Presence of Boundary Singularities (United States)

    Britt, Darrell Steven, Jr.

    Problems of time-harmonic wave propagation arise in important fields of study such as geological surveying, radar detection/evasion, and aircraft design. These often involve highfrequency waves, which demand high-order methods to mitigate the dispersion error. We propose a high-order method for computing solutions to the variable-coefficient inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in two dimensions on domains bounded by piecewise smooth curves of arbitrary shape with a finite number of boundary singularities at known locations. We utilize compact finite difference (FD) schemes on regular structured grids to achieve highorder accuracy due to their efficiency and simplicity, as well as the capability to approximate variable-coefficient differential operators. In this work, a 4th-order compact FD scheme for the variable-coefficient Helmholtz equation on a Cartesian grid in 2D is derived and tested. The well known limitation of finite differences is that they lose accuracy when the boundary curve does not coincide with the discretization grid, which is a severe restriction on the geometry of the computational domain. Therefore, the algorithm presented in this work combines high-order FD schemes with the method of difference potentials (DP), which retains the efficiency of FD while allowing for boundary shapes that are not aligned with the grid without sacrificing the accuracy of the FD scheme. Additionally, the theory of DP allows for the universal treatment of the boundary conditions. One of the significant contributions of this work is the development of an implementation that accommodates general boundary conditions (BCs). In particular, Robin BCs with discontinuous coefficients are studied, for which we introduce a piecewise parameterization of the boundary curve. Problems with discontinuities in the boundary data itself are also studied. We observe that the design convergence rate suffers whenever the solution loses regularity due to the boundary conditions. This is

  18. On the boundary layer structure near a highly permeable porous interface

    CERN Document Server

    Dalwadi, Mohit P; Waters, Sarah L; Oliver, James M


    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to study the canonical problem of steady laminar flow through a narrow two-dimensional channel blocked by a tight-fitting finite-length highly permeable porous obstacle. We investigate the behaviour of the local flow close to the interface between the single-phase and porous regions (governed by the incompressible Navier--Stokes and Darcy flow equations, respectively). We solve for the local flow in the limits of low and high Reynolds number, facilitating an understanding of the nature of the transition from Poiseuille to plug to Poiseuille flow in each of these limits. Significant analytic progress is made in the high-Reynolds-number limit, as we are able to explore in detail the rich boundary layer structure that occurs. We derive general results for the interfacial stress and for the conditions that couple the flow in the regions away from the interface. We consider the three-dimensional generalization to unsteady laminar flow through and around a tight-f...

  19. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions. (United States)

    Volino, Ralph John


    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong (K = {nuover U_sp{infty} {2}}{dUinftyover dx} as high as 9times 10^{ -6}) acceleration. The high FSTI experiments are the main focus of the work. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. The high FSTI boundary layers undergo transition from a strongly disturbed non-turbulent state to a fully-turbulent state. Due to the stabilizing effect of strong acceleration, the transition zones are of extended length in spite of the high FSTI. Transitional values of skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers drop below flat-plate, low FSTI, turbulent flow correlations, but remain well above laminar flow values. Mean velocity and temperature profiles exhibit clear changes in shape as the flow passes through transition. Turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. Turbulent transport is strongly suppressed below values in unaccelerated turbulent boundary layers. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Octant analysis shows a fundamental difference between transitional and fully-turbulent boundary layers. Transitional boundary layers are characterized by incomplete mixing compared to fully-turbulent boundary layers. Similar octant analysis results are observed in both low and high FSTI cases. Spectral analysis suggests that the non-turbulent zone of the high FSTI flow is dominated by large scale

  20. High order local absorbing boundary conditions for acoustic waves in terms of farfield expansions (United States)

    Villamizar, Vianey; Acosta, Sebastian; Dastrup, Blake


    We devise a new high order local absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for radiating problems and scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves from obstacles of arbitrary shape. By introducing an artificial boundary S enclosing the scatterer, the original unbounded domain Ω is decomposed into a bounded computational domain Ω- and an exterior unbounded domain Ω+. Then, we define interface conditions at the artificial boundary S, from truncated versions of the well-known Wilcox and Karp farfield expansion representations of the exact solution in the exterior region Ω+. As a result, we obtain a new local absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for a bounded problem on Ω-, which effectively accounts for the outgoing behavior of the scattered field. Contrary to the low order absorbing conditions previously defined, the error at the artificial boundary induced by this novel ABC can be easily reduced to reach any accuracy within the limits of the computational resources. We accomplish this by simply adding as many terms as needed to the truncated farfield expansions of Wilcox or Karp. The convergence of these expansions guarantees that the order of approximation of the new ABC can be increased arbitrarily without having to enlarge the radius of the artificial boundary. We include numerical results in two and three dimensions which demonstrate the improved accuracy and simplicity of this new formulation when compared to other absorbing boundary conditions.

  1. Breaking down the Boundary between High School and University Chemistry (United States)

    Cunningham, Natashia; Knorr, Kris; Lock, Pippa E.; Vajoczki, Susan L.


    This study examined some of the factors that influence students' transition from Ontario high school chemistry to university introductory chemistry. The study was a mixed-methods, multi-phase research study carried out by an undergraduate honours thesis student who had experienced some of these transition issues. Students' transition into…

  2. Schizophrenia and personality: exploring the boundaries and connections between vulnerability and outcome. (United States)

    Berenbaum, H; Fujita, F


    This article discusses the issues and evidence concerning the relationship between schizophrenia and personality. We examine personality dimensions in individuals with schizophrenia, both before and after the onset of their psychoses, and in their relatives. Schizophrenia is associated with high levels of peculiarity and neuroticism and with low levels of extraversion. The relationships between schizophrenia and both psychopathy and creativity remain unclear. Personality dimensions vary in the manner in which they are associated with a variety of correlates of psychopathology, such as prognosis. We recommend that psychopathologists interested in schizophrenia devote more attention to the study of personality.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of grain boundary structure and properties at high temperatures (United States)

    Fensin, Saryu Jindal

    This thesis reports research involving the development and application of atomistic simulation methods to study the effects of high homologous temperatures on the structural, thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanical properties of grain boundaries in metals. Our interest in these properties is due to the role they play in governing the evolution of microstructure and deformation of metals during solidification processing. The interest in developing more predictive models for the formation of solidification defects highlights a need to better understand the thermodynamic driving forces underlying grain-boundary premelting and the mobility and shear strength of these interfaces at high temperatures. In this work we study two different elemental systems, namely Ni and Cu, and consider a variety of grain boundary structures characterized by different misorientation angles, twist/tilt character and zero-temperature energies. A method to calculate the disjoining potential from molecular dynamics (MD) is developed and applied to grain boundaries in Ni. The disjoining potential characterizes the variation in grain-boundary free energy as a function of the width of a premelted interfacial layer. The MD method for the calculation of this property is applied to grain boundaries that display continuous premelting transitions, as well as a boundary characterized by a disordered atomic structure displaying a finite interfacial width at the melting temperature. The disjoining potential represents an important input property to larger scale models of solidification and grain coalescence. We further develop analysis methods to characterize the change in the atomic structure of an asymmetric tilt grain boundary in elemental Cu as a function of temperature. This boundary is characterized by a potential-energy surface with multiple minima as a function of the relative translation of the grains parallel to the interface plane. The more complex structure of this boundary, relative to the

  4. Effects of solar wind speed on the secondary energetic neutral source of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer ribbon (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.


    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) ribbon is an intense energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission feature encircling the sky, spanning energies ≤0.5-6 keV. The ribbon may be produced by the "secondary ENA" mechanism, where ENAs emitted from a source plasma population inside the heliosphere propagate outside the heliopause, undergo two charge-exchange events, and become secondary ENAs that may be directed back toward Earth and detected by IBEX. In this scenario, the source plasma population is governed by the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the interstellar medium and is thus sensitive to the global SW properties. Moreover, this scenario predicts that the distance to the source of secondary ENAs depends on the ENA energy and SW speed, which in turn may affect the shape of the ribbon. In this paper, we use a computational model of the heliosphere with simplified SW boundary conditions to analyze the influence of ENA energy and SW speed, independent of time and latitude, on the global spatial and geometric properties of the ribbon. We find a strong dependence of the simulated ribbon energy spectrum and spatial symmetry on SW speed and ENA energy, and only a slight dependence on ribbon geometry. Our results suggest a significant number of primary ENAs from the inner heliosheath may contribute to the pickup ion source population outside the heliopause, depending on the ENA energy and SW speed. The lack of variation in the simulated ribbon center as a function of ENA energy and SW speed, in contrast to the observations, implies that the asymmetry of the SW plays an important role in determining the position of the ribbon. Comparisons to the IBEX data also signify the ribbon's dependence on the properties of the local interstellar medium, particularly the interstellar magnetic field.

  5. Boundary and sub-boundary hardening in high-Cr ferritic steels during long-term creep at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, F. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) (Japan)


    The sub-boundary hardening is shown to be the most important strengthening mechanism in creep of the 9% Cr steel base metal and welded joints. The addition of boron reduces the coarsening rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides along boundaries near prior austenite grain boundaries during creep, enhancing the sub-boundary hardening. This improves long-term creep strength. The enhancement of boundary and subboundary hardening by fine distribution of precipitates along boundaries is significantly reduced in fine-grained region of Ac{sub 3} HAZ simulated specimens of conventional steels P92 and P122. In NIMS 9% Cr boron steel welded joints, the grain size and distribution of carbonitrides are substantially the same between the HAZ and base metal, where fine carbonitrides are distributed along the lath and block boundaries as well as along prior austenite grain boundaries. This is essential for the suppression of Type IV fracture in NIMS 9% Cr boron steel welded joints. (orig.)

  6. Is Ultra-High Reynolds Number Necessary for Comprehensive Log Scaling in a Turbulent Boundary Layer?

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Shivsai Ajit


    Experiments in an extraordinary turbulent boundary layer called the sink flow, displaying a perfect streamwise invariance, show a wide extent of logarithmic scaling for moments of streamwise velocity up to order 12, even at moderate Reynolds numbers. This is in striking contrast to canonical constant-pressure turbulent boundary layers that show such comprehensive log scaling only at ultra-high Reynolds numbers. This suggests that for comprehensive log scaling, ultra-high-Reynolds-number is not a necessary condition; while specific details of the sink flow are special, the relevance to general turbulent boundary layers is that the sink flow underscores the importance of the streamwise invariance condition that needs to be met in a general flow for obtaining log scaling. Indeed, a simple theory shows that, for log scaling in the inertial sublayer, the invariance of dimensionless mean velocity and higher-order moments along a mean streamline is a necessary and sufficient condition. Ultra-high Reynolds number pri...

  7. Exploring the influence of boundary layer stability on wind farms and their interplay with the surrounding environment (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian Joseph

    There is growing awareness in the wind power industry that boundary-layer stability influences wind turbine performance in meaningful ways. Stability is inextricably tied to the diurnal ebb and flow of heat, momentum, and moisture that drives weather. Boundary-layer stability is closely linked to low-level wind speeds, wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence. It is these myriad consequences of stability which directly impact turbines, both modifying performance and contributing to structural fatigue. I describe the influence of near-surface stability on the aggregate power output of a utility-scale wind farm in central North America. During convective conditions, the wind farm produced more power than during neutral conditions, while in stable conditions the farm underperformed. These results are statistically significant, despite the uncertainty involved in using nacelle anemometer measurements of wind speed. Next, I use lidar measurements from Iowa to categorize low-level jets and their impact on rotor-layer winds. Observed jets are similar to those studied in the Great Plains, though regional sloping terrain forcing is absent in Iowa. Rotor-layer wind speeds intensify during jet periods, but detrimental wind shear and veer also increase when jets occur. Simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with various input data and boundary-layer physics favorably reproduce jet features. I then utilize the same model to examine the impact of switching from maize to soybeans on rotor-layer winds during the peak of the growing season. The crop change was represented in the simulation by surface roughness. The switch produces a statistically significant increase in both wind speed and power output. Finally, I evaluate the performance of the wind farm parameterization (WFP) in WRF using high-resolution large eddy simulations (LES) from the same model. The wind speed and turbulence impacts estimated by the WFP compare favorably to LES flow for both

  8. Exploring the potential of the RPA system SUMO for multipurpose boundary-layer missions during the BLLAST campaign (United States)

    Reuder, Joachim; Båserud, Line; Jonassen, Marius O.; Kral, Stephan T.; Müller, Martin


    In June and July 2011 the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) performed a total number of 299 scientific flights during the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) campaign in southern France. Three different types of missions were performed: vertical profiling of the mean meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and wind), horizontal surveys of the surface temperature and horizontal transects for the estimation of turbulence. The manuscript provides an introduction to the corresponding SUMO operations, including regulatory issues and the coordination of manned and unmanned airborne operations for boundary-layer research that have been pioneered during the BLLAST campaign. The main purpose of the SUMO flight strategy was atmospheric profiling at high temporal resolution. A total of 168 profile flights were performed during the campaign with typically more than 10 flights per Intensive Observational Period (IOP) day. The collected data allow for a detailed study of boundary-layer structure and dynamics and will be used for further analysis, e.g. the determination of profiles of sensible and latent heat fluxes. First, tests of a corresponding method have shown very promising results and have provided surface-flux values in close agreement with those from ground-based eddy-covariance measurements. In addition, 74 horizontal surveys of the IR emission of the surface were performed at altitudes of around 65 m. Each of those surveys covers a typical area of around 1 km2 and allows for an estimation of the surface-temperature variability, important information for the assessment of the heterogeneity of the surface forcing as a function of soil and vegetation properties. The comparison with other surface-temperature measurements shows that the raw data of the airborne and ground observations can differ considerably, but that even a very simple multiple regression method can reduce those

  9. Multiple High-Frequency Carbon Isotope Excursions Across the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary: Implications for Correlations and Environmental Change (United States)

    Smith, E. F.; Macdonald, F. A.; Schrag, D. P.; Laakso, T.


    The GSSP Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Newfoundland is defined by the first appearance datum (FAD) of Treptichnus pedum, which is considered to be roughly coincident with the FAD of small shelly fossils (SSFs) and a large negative carbon isotope excursion. An association between the FAD of T. pedum and a negative carbon isotope excursion has previously been documented in Northwest Canada (Narbonne et al., 1994) and Death Valley (Corsetti and Hagadorn, 2000), and since then has been used as an chronostratigraphic marker of the boundary, particularly in siliciclastic poor sections that do not preserve T. pedum. Here we present new high-resolution carbon isotope (δ13C ) chemostratigraphy from multiple sections in western Mongolia and the western United States that span the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. High-resolution sampling (0.2-1 m) reveals that instead of one large negative excursion, there are multiple, high-frequency negative excursions with an overall negative trend during the latest Ediacaran. These data help to more precisely calibrate changes in the carbon cycle across the boundary as well as to highlight the potential problem of identifying the boundary with just a few negative δ13C values. We then use a simple carbon isotope box model to explore relationships between phosphorous delivery to the ocean, oxygenation, alkalinity, and turnovers in carbonate secreting organisms. Corsetti, F.A., and Hagadorn, J.W., 2000, Precambrian-Cambrian transition: Death Valley, United States: Geology, v. 28, no. 4, p. 299-302. Narbonne, G.M., Kaufman, A.J., and Knoll, A.H., 1994, Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: Implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, no. 10, p. 1281-1292.

  10. Exploring the Meaning of Reading among Highly Motivated Children (United States)

    Carney, Kelli Ann


    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the reading perceptions and attitudes of children who exhibit high levels of motivation to read. In order to determine children who were highly motivated to read, the Motivation to Read Profile, from Gambrell, Palmer, Codling and Mazzoni (1996) was administered to 19 initial participants…

  11. High-yield acetonitrile | water triple phase boundary electrolysis at platinised Teflon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, John D.; MacDonald, Stuart M.; Fordred, Paul S.; Bull, Steven D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Gu, Yunfeng; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Bulman-Page, Philip C. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    A dynamic acetonitrile | aqueous electrolyte phase boundary in contact with platinised Teflon working electrodes is investigated. High concentrations of salt in the aqueous phase (2 M NaCl and 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4}) ensure immiscibility and the polar nature of acetonitrile aids the formation of a well-behaved triple phase boundary reaction zone. The one-electron oxidation of tert-butylferrocene in the organic phase without intentionally added electrolyte is studied. The limiting current for the flowing triple phase boundary process is shown to be essentially volume flow rate independent. The process is accompanied by the transfer of perchlorate from the aqueous into the organic phase and the flux of anions is shown to be approximately constant along the dynamic acetonitrile | aqueous electrolyte | platinum line interface. A high rate of conversion (close to 100%) is achieved at slow volume flow rates and at longer platinum electrodes.

  12. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.


    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-β tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-β tokamaks is just a special case.

  13. A finite element algorithm for high-lying eigenvalues with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions (United States)

    Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.


    We present a finite element algorithm that computes eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator for two-dimensional problems with homogeneous Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions, or combinations of either for different parts of the boundary. We use an inverse power plus Gauss-Seidel algorithm to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem. For Neumann boundary conditions the method is much more efficient than the equivalent finite difference algorithm. We checked the algorithm by comparing the cumulative level density of the spectrum obtained numerically with the theoretical prediction given by the Weyl formula. We found a systematic deviation due to the discretization, not to the algorithm itself.

  14. Evolution of energetic neutral atom spectra as measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer during its first seven years (United States)

    Dayeh, Maher A.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; McComas, David; Schwadron, Nathan; Desai, Mihir; Zirnstein, Eric J.


    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission continues to provide remote Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements produced by charge exchange between energetic protons and interstellar neutrals at the edge of our heliosphere. Using the first seven years of IBEX-Hi ENA measurements (January 2009 through December 2015), we examine the evolution of the spectral slopes in four different energy bands, namely, ˜0.7-1.1 keV, ˜1.1-1.7 keV, ˜1.7-2.7 keV, and ˜2.7-4.3 keV, across different regions of the sky. Results show that spectral slopes at each energy band are characterized with unique distribution properties (e.g., width, shape, and mode), which vary in time at different rates and in both directions (distribution modes increase or decrease). We attempt to explain these results in context of ENA source regions, solar wind temporal variations, and changes in the heliosheath thickness and its plasma properties. These results provide insights into ENA production mechanisms, properties of their plasma progenitors, and how they relate to changes in the solar wind.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Space Science and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)


    In 2009, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer discovered a bright “ribbon” of energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux in the energy range ≤0.4–6 keV, encircling a large portion of the sky. This observation was not previously predicted by any models or theories, and since its discovery, it has been the subject of numerous studies of its origin and properties. One of the most studied mechanisms for its creation is the “secondary ENA” process. Here, solar wind ions, neutralized by charge-exchange with interstellar atoms, propagate outside the heliopause; experience two charge-exchange events in the dense outer heliosheath; and then propagate back inside the heliosphere, preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the local interstellar magnetic field. This process has been extensively analyzed using state-of-the-art modeling and simulation techniques, but it has been difficult to visualize. In this Letter, we show the three-dimensional structure of the source of the ribbon, providing a physical picture of the spatial and energy scales over which the secondary ENA process occurs. These results help us understand how the ribbon is generated and further supports a secondary ENA process as the leading ribbon source mechanism.

  16. Scatter-free pickup ions beyond the heliopause as a model for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon

    CERN Document Server

    Chalov, S V; McComas, D; Izmodenov, V V; Malama, Yu G; Schwadron, N


    We present new kinetic-gasdynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The model incorporates several processes suggested by McComas et al. (2009) for the origin of the heliospheric ENA ribbon -- the most prominent feature seen in the all sky maps of heliospheric ENAs discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The ribbon is a region of enhanced fluxes of ENAs crossing almost the entire sky. Soon after the ribbon's discovery it was realized (McComas et al., 2009) that the enhancement of the fluxes could be in the directions where the radial component of the interstellar magnetic field around the heliopause is close to zero (Schwadron et al., 2009). Our model includes secondary charge exchange of the interstellar H atoms with the interstellar pickup protons outside the heliopause and is a further advancement of the kinetic-gasdynamic model by Malama et al. (2006) where pickup protons were treated as a separate kinetic component. Izmodenov et al. (2009) have shown...

  17. Benchmarking high order finite element approximations for one-dimensional boundary layer problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malagu, M.; Benvenuti, E.; Simone, A.


    In this article we investigate the application of high order approximation techniques to one-dimensional boundary layer problems. In particular, we use second order differential equations and coupled second order differential equations as case studies. The accuracy and convergence rate of numerical

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Stationary Potential Flows and Boundary Layers at High Speed (United States)

    Oswaititsch, K.; Wieghardt, K.


    The present report consists of two parts. The first part deals with the two-dimensional stationary flow in the presence of local supersonic zones. A numerical method of integration of the equation of gas dynamics is developed. Proceeding from solutions at great distance from the body the flow pattern is calculated step by step. Accordingly the related body form is obtained at the end of the calculation. The second part treats the relationship between the displacement thickness of laminar and turbulent boundary layers and the pressure distribution at high speeds. The stability of the boundary layer is investigated, resulting in basic differences in the behavior of subsonic and supersonic flows. Lastly, the decisive importance of the boundary layer for the pressure distribution, particularly for thin profiles, is demonstrated.

  19. Developing mass spectrometric techniques for boundary layer measurement in hypersonic high enthalpy test facilities (United States)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.


    Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.

  20. Prediction of interdiffusion microstructure for high temperature coatings and domain structures/piezoelectric property at ferroelectric morphotropic phase boundary (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoqin

    Phase field method is a powerful tool to simulate microstructure evolution and is widely used in nearly all fields of materials science. In this work, we apply the phase field approach coupled with thermodynamic models to simulate microstructural evolution and study the composition-microstructure-property relationship for high temperature coatings and ferroelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The study on high temperature coatings in this work focuses on the fundamentals of interdiffusion microstructure maps as well as a special interdiffusion microstructure containing the so called type n boundaries. An inderdiffusion microstructure map (IMM) is a two dimensional diagram showing how interdiffusion microstructure varies when one end alloy composition (the base material) is fixed while the other (the coating material) is varied across a region of the phase diagram for dual alloys. It can thus predict the relationship between interdiffusion microstructure and initial alloy compositions and have importance to coating design. The fundamentals for constructing IMMs for dual-alloy systems are established based on the current phase field simulations as well as previous works, which includes the topology of IMM as well as three mechanisms of microstructure type change on an IMM. These fundamentals should be followed when constructing IMMs for a real alloy system. With regards to type n boundaries, which are defined as interface boundaries at which n phases changing on crossing them, the characterestics of type n boundaries and the condition for the formation of type n boundaries are explored in the current work. For n≥3, type n boundaries are expected to be infrequent because the diffusion paths of them have to pass through a special feature which is defined as a feature that cannot be intersected by a random line. However, our simulations found that under the right conditions, such boundaries can occur and even if the initial alloy composition varies

  1. A Diagnostic Diagram to Understand the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer at High Wind Speeds (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony


    Long time series of offshore meteorological measurements in the lower marine atmospheric boundary layer show dynamical regimes and variability that are forced partly by interaction with the underlying sea surface and partly by the passage of cloud systems overhead. At low wind speeds, the dynamics and stability structure of the surface layer depend mainly on the air-sea temperature difference and the measured wind speed at a standard height. The physical processes are mostly understood and the quantified through Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory. At high wind speeds different dynamical regimes become dominant. Breaking waves contribute to the atmospheric loading of sea spray and water vapor and modify the character of air-sea interaction. Downdrafts and boundary layer rolls associated with clouds at the top of the boundary layer impact vertical heat and momentum fluxes. Data from offshore meteorological monitoring sites will typically show different behavior and the regime shifts depending on the local winds and synoptic conditions. However, the regular methods to interpret time series through spectral analysis give only a partial view of dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer. Also, the spectral methods have limited use for boundary layer and mesoscale modellers whose geophysical diagnostics are mostly anchored in directly measurable quantities: wind speed, temperature, precipitation, pressure, and radiation. Of these, wind speed and the air-sea temperature difference are the most important factors that characterize the dynamics of the lower atmospheric boundary layer and they provide a dynamical and thermodynamic constraint to frame observed processes, especially at high wind speeds. This was recognized in the early interpretation of the Froya database of gale force coastal winds from mid-Norway (Andersen, O.J. and J. Lovseth, Gale force maritime wind. The Froya data base. Part 1: Sites and instrumentation. Review of the data base, Journal of Wind

  2. Exploring THz band for high speed wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Hangkai; Jia, Shi;


    We overview recent trend in developing high speed wireless communication systems by exploring large bandwidth available in the THz band, and we also present our recent experimental achievements on 400 GHz wireless transmission with a data rate of up to 60 Gbit/s by using a uni-travelling carrier...

  3. Geometry and Characteristics of the Heliosheath Revealed in the First Five Years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer Observations (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Zank, G. P.


    We investigate and interpret the geometry and characteristics of the inner heliosheath (IHS) plasma and their impact on the heliotail structure as observed in energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps acquired during the first 5 yr of Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations. In particular, IBEX observations of the heliotail reveal distinct, localized emission features (lobes) that provide a rich set of information about the properties and evolution of the heliosheath plasma downstream of the termination shock (TS). We analyze the geometry of the heliotail lobes and find that the plane intersecting the port and starboard heliotail lobe centers is ˜6° from the solar equatorial plane, and the plane intersecting the north and south heliotail lobe centers is ˜90° from the solar equatorial plane, both indicating strong correlation with the fast-slow solar wind asymmetry, and thus reflecting the structure of the IHS flow around the Sun. We also analyze the key parameters and processes that form and shape the port and starboard lobes, which are distinctly different from the north and south lobes. By comparing IBEX ENA observations with results from a simplistic flow model of the heliosphere and a multicomponent description for pickup ions (PUIs) in the IHS, we find that the port and starboard lobe formation is driven by a thin IHS, large nose-tail asymmetry of the distance to the TS (and consequently, a large nose-tail asymmetry of the relative abundance of PUIs at the TS) and the energy-dependent removal of PUIs by charge exchange in the IHS.

  4. Zeppelin NT - Measurement Platform for the Exploration of Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics in the Planetary Boundary Layer (United States)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Oebel, Andreas; Rohrer, Franz; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Brauchle, Artur; Steinlein, Klaus; Gritzbach, Robert


    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the chemically most active and complex part of the atmosphere where freshly emitted reactive trace gases, tropospheric radicals, atmospheric oxidation products and aerosols exhibit a large variability and spatial gradients. In order to investigate the chemical degradation of trace gases and the formation of secondary pollutants in the PBL, a commercial Zeppelin NT was modified to be used as an airborne measurement platform for chemical and physical observations with high spatial resolution. The Zeppelin NT was developed by Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik (ZLT) and is operated by Deutsche Zeppelin Reederei (DZR) in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The modification was performed in cooperation between Forschungszentrum Jülich and ZLT. The airship has a length of 75 m, can lift about 1 ton of scientific payload and can be manoeuvered with high precision by propeller engines. The modified Zeppelin can carry measurement instruments mounted on a platform on top of the Zeppelin, or inside the gondola beneath the airship. Three different instrument packages were developed to investigate a. gas-phase oxidation processes involving free radicals (OH, HO2) b. formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) c. new particle formation (nucleation) The presentation will describe the modified airship and provide an overview of its technical performance. Examples of its application during the recent PEGASOS flight campaigns in Europe will be given.

  5. CLUSTER encounters with the high altitude cusp: boundary structure and magnetic field depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill


    Full Text Available Data from the four spacecraft Cluster mission during a high altitude cusp crossing on 13 February 2001 are presented. The spacecraft configuration has one leading spacecraft, with the three trailing spacecraft lying in a plane that corresponds roughly to the nominal magnetopause surface. The typical spacecraft separation is approximately 600km. The encounter occurs under conditions of strong and steady southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF. The cusp is identified as a seven-minute long depression in the magnetic field, associated with ion heating and a high abundance of He+. Cusp entry involves passage through a magnetopause boundary that has undergone very significant distortion from its nominal shape, is moving rapidly, and exhibits structure on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation or less. This boundary is associated with a rotation of the magnetic field, a normal field component, and a plasma flow into the cusp of approximately 35 km/s. However, it cannot be identified positively as a rotational discontinuity. Exit from the cusp into the lobe is through a boundary that is initially sharp, but then retreats tailward at a few km/s. As the leading spacecraft passes through this boundary, there is a plasma flow out of the cusp of approximately 30km/s, suggesting that this is not a tangential discontinuity. A few minutes after exit from the cusp, the three trailing the spacecraft see a single cusp-like signature in the magnetic field. There is an associated temperature increase at two of the three trailing spacecraft. Timing measurements indicate that this is due to cusp-like regions detaching from the rear of the cusp boundary, and moving tailward. The magnetic field in the cusp is highly disordered, with no obvious relation between the four spacecraft, indicative of structure on scales <<600km. However, the plasma moments show only a gradual change over many minutes. A similar cusp crossing on 20 February 2001 also

  6. Receptivity and Forced Response to Acoustic Disturbances in High-Speed Boundary Layers (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.


    Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.

  7. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.


    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  8. High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary CartesianGrids (United States)


    term goal of this research is to develop algorithms to simulate high Reynolds number turbulent flow in complicated geometries using embedded boundary...Spalding’s formula of matching the pro- files actually computed in the flow field by the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. In particular the profiles ...turbu- lent viscosity to be computed, see e.g. the profiles in the bottom row of Fig. 4. The streamwise velocity and especially the turbulent viscosity

  9. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  10. A note for the mechanism of high-frequency oscillation instability resulted from absorbing boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhi-nan; LIAO Zhen-peng


    In this paper the explanation of the mechanism of high-frequency oscillation instability resulted from absorbing boundary conditions is further improved. And we analytically prove the proposition that for one dimensional dis- crete model of elastic wave motion, the module of reflection factor will be greater than 1 in high frequency band when artificial wave velocity is greater than 1.5 times the ratio of discrete space step to discrete time step. Based on the proof, the frequency band in which instability occurs is discussed in detail, showing such high-frequency waves are meaningless for the numerical simulation of wave motion.

  11. Micro vortex generator control of axisymmetric high-speed laminar boundary layer separation (United States)

    Estruch-Samper, D.; Vanstone, L.; Hillier, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.


    Interest in the development of micro vortex generators (MVGs) to control high-speed flow separation has grown in the last decade. In contrast to conventional vortex generators, MVGs are fully submerged in the boundary layer and have the potential of inducing surface flow mixing with marginal drag penalty when suitably designed. Also, they do not result in undesired reduced mass flow such as with suction methods. The flow mechanisms at the location of MVGs are not yet fully understood, and optimal designs are difficult to establish given that both numerical predictions and experiments are particularly challenged for short element heights, yet optimal MVGs are generally expected to be at least shorter than half the local boundary layer thickness. The present work aims at investigating experimentally the fundamental flow physics concerning an individual MVG element (of `canonical' or simplified geometry) at a range of near-wall heights. A fully laminar base flow is considered so as to isolate the effect of incoming turbulence as well as the more complex physics that may occur when specific and/or multiple elements are used. Tests were performed in a gun tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 8.9 and Reynolds number of /m, and the basic test model consisted of a blunt-nosed cylinder which produced an axisymmetric laminar boundary layer with an edge Mach number of 3.4 and Reynolds number of /m at the MVG location. A laminar shock-wave/boundary layer interaction with separation was induced by a flare located further downstream on the model. Measurements consisted of time-resolved surface heat transfer obtained in the axial direction immediately downstream of the MVG and along the interaction, together with simultaneous high-speed schlieren imaging. The height () of the MVG element used in a `diamond' configuration (square planform with one vertex facing the flow) was adjusted between tests ranging from = 0.03 to 0.58, where the local undisturbed boundary layer thickness

  12. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and implications to K/T boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shukla; N Bhandari; Anirban Das; A D Shukla; J S Ray


    We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have irid-ium concentration as high as 178pg/g whereas the alkaline rocks and basalts associated with the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex have concentrations ranging between 8 and 80 pg/g. Some of these values are more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentration in the tholeiiticbasalts of Deccan, indicating the significance of alkaline magmatism in the iridium inventory at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Despite higher concentration, their contribution to the global inventory of iridium in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays remains small. The concentration of iridium in uorites from Amba Dongar was found to be < 30 pg/g indicating that iridium is not incorporated during their formation in hydrothermal activity.

  13. Experimental Measurements of a High Reynolds Num- ber Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer (United States)

    Atkinson, Callum; Amili, Omid; Stanislas, Michel; Cuvier, Christophe; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Srinath, Sricharan; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Kaehler, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Scharnowski, Sven; Schroeder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Agocs, Janos; Roese, Anni; Willert, Christian; Klinner, Joachim; Soria, Julio


    The study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers is complicated by the need to characterise both the local pressure gradient and it's upstream flow history. It is therefore necessary to measure a significant streamwise domain at a resolution sufficient to resolve the small scales features. To achieve this collaborative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in the large boundary layer wind-tunnel at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, including: planar measurements spanning a streamwise domain of 3.5m using 16 cameras covering 15 δ spanwise wall-normal stereo-PIV measurements, high-speed micro-PIV of the near wall region and wall shear stress; and streamwise wall-normal PIV in the viscous sub layer. Details of the measurements and preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Smooth- and rough-wall boundary layer structure from high spatial range particle image velocimetry (United States)

    Squire, D. T.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.; Schultz, M. P.; Klewicki, J. C.


    Two particle image velocimetry arrangements are used to make true spatial comparisons between smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers across a very wide range of streamwise scales. Together, the arrangements resolve scales ranging from motions on the order of the Kolmogorov microscale to those longer than twice the boundary layer thickness. The rough-wall experiments were obtained above a continuous sandpaper sheet, identical to that used by Squire et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 795, 210 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.196], and cover a range of friction and equivalent sand-grain roughness Reynolds numbers (12 000 ≲δ+≲ 18000, 62 ≲ks+≲104 ). The smooth-wall experiments comprise new and previously published data spanning 6500 ≲δ+≲17 000 . Flow statistics from all experiments show similar Reynolds number trends and behaviors to recent, well-resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements above the same rough surface. Comparisons, at matched δ+, between smooth- and rough-wall two-point correlation maps and two-point magnitude-squared coherence maps demonstrate that spatially the outer region of the boundary layer is the same between the two flows. This is apparently true even at wall-normal locations where the total (inner-normalized) energy differs between the smooth and rough wall. Generally, the present results provide strong support for Townsend's [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956), Vol. 1] wall-similarity hypothesis in high Reynolds number fully rough boundary layer flows.

  15. Exploration, visualization, and preprocessing of high-dimensional data. (United States)

    Wu, Zhijin; Wu, Zhiqiang


    The rapid advances in biotechnology have given rise to a variety of high-dimensional data. Many of these data, including DNA microarray data, mass spectrometry protein data, and high-throughput screening (HTS) assay data, are generated by complex experimental procedures that involve multiple steps such as sample extraction, purification and/or amplification, labeling, fragmentation, and detection. Therefore, the quantity of interest is not directly obtained and a number of preprocessing procedures are necessary to convert the raw data into the format with biological relevance. This also makes exploratory data analysis and visualization essential steps to detect possible defects, anomalies or distortion of the data, to test underlying assumptions and thus ensure data quality. The characteristics of the data structure revealed in exploratory analysis often motivate decisions in preprocessing procedures to produce data suitable for downstream analysis. In this chapter we review the common techniques in exploring and visualizing high-dimensional data and introduce the basic preprocessing procedures.

  16. Total temperature probes for high-temperature hypersonic boundary-layer measurements (United States)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Bauserman, Willard A., Jr.


    The design and test results of two types of total temperature probes that were used for hypersonic boundary-layer measurements are presented. The intent of each design was to minimize the total error and to maintain minimal size for measurements in boundary layers 1.0 in. thick and less. A single platinum-20-percent-rhodium shield was used in both designs to minimize radiation heat transfer losses during exposure to the high-temperature test stream. The shield of the smaller design was flattened at the flow entrance to an interior height of 0.02 in., compared with 0.03 in. for the larger design. The resulting vent-to-inlet area ratios were 60 and 50 percent. A stainless steel structural support sleeve that was used in the larger design was excluded from the smaller design, which resulted in an outer diameter of 0.059 in., to allow closer placement of the probes to each other and to the wall. These small design changes to improve resolution did not affect probe performance. Tests were conducted at boundary-layer-edge Mach numbers of 5.0 and 6.2. The nominal free-stream total temperatures were 2600 degrees and 3200 degrees R. The probes demonstrated extremely good reliability. The best performance in terms of recovery factor occurred when the wire-based Nusselt number was at least 0.04. Recommendations for future probe designs are included.

  17. Earth's core-mantle boundary - Results of experiments at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond


    Laboratory experiments document that liquid iron reacts chemically with silicates at high pressures (above 2.4 x 10 to the 10th Pa) and temperatures. In particular, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral of earth's lower mantle, is expected to react with liquid iron to produce metallic alloys (FeO and FeSi) and nonmetallic silicates (SiO2 stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite) at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, 14 x 10 to the 10th Pa. The experimental observations, in conjunction with seismological data, suggest that the lowermost 200 to 300 km of earth's mantle, the D-double-prime layer, may be an extremely heterogeneous region as a result of chemical reactions between the silicate mantle and the liquid iron alloy of earth's core. The combined thermal-chemical-electrical boundary layer resulting from such reactions offers a plausible explanation for the complex behavior of seismic waves near the core-mantle boundary and could influence earth's magnetic field observed at the surface.

  18. Focused Wave Properties Based on A High Order Spectral Method with A Non-Periodic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金宣; 柳淑学


    In this paper, a numerical model is developed based on the High Order Spectral (HOS) method with a non-periodic boundary. A wave maker boundary condition is introduced to simulate wave generation at the incident boundary in the HOS method. Based on the numerical model, the effects of wave parameters, such as the assumed focused amplitude, the central frequency, the frequency bandwidth, the wave amplitude distribution and the directional spreading on the surface elevation of the focused wave, the maximum generated wave crest, and the shifting of the focusing point, are numerically investigated. Especially, the effects of the wave directionality on the focused wave properties are emphasized. The numerical results show that the shifting of the focusing point and the maximum crest of the wave group are dependent on the amplitude of the focused wave, the central frequency, and the wave amplitude distribution type. The wave directionality has a definite effect on multidirectional focused waves. Generally, it can even out the difference between the simulated wave amplitude and the amplitude expected from theory and reduce the shifting of the focusing points, implying that the higher order interaction has an influence on wave focusing, especially for 2D wave. In 3D wave groups, a broader directional spreading weakens the higher nonlinear interactions.

  19. Universal High Order Subroutine with New Shock Detector for Shock Boundary Layer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveria, M; Liu, X; Liu, C


    The goal of this work is to develop a new universal high order subroutine for shock boundary layer interaction. First, an effective shock/discontinuity detector has been developed.The detector has two steps.The first step is to check the ratio of the truncation errors on the coarse and fine grids and the second step is to check the local ratio of the left and right slopes. The currently popular shock/discontinuity detectors can detect shock, but mistake high frequency waves and critical points as shock and then damp the physically important high frequency waves.Preliminary results show the new shock/discontinuity detector is very delicate and can detect all shocks including strong, weak and oblique shocks or discontinuity in function and the first, second, and third order derivatives without artificial constants, but never mistake high frequency waves and critical points, expansion waves as shock. This will overcome the bottle neck problem with numerical simulation for the shock-boundary layer interaction, sh...

  20. Quantization of generic chaotic 3D billiard with smooth boundary; 2, structure of high-lying eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T


    This is the first survey of highly excited eigenstates of a chaotic 3D billiard. We introduce a strongly chaotic 3D billiard with a smooth boundary and we manage to calculate accurate eigenstates with sequential number (of a 48-fold desymmetrized billiard) about 45,000. Besides the brute-force calculation of 3D wavefunctions we propose and illustrate another two representations of eigenstates of quantum 3D billiards: (i) normal derivative of a wavefunction over the boundary surface, and (ii) ray - angular momentum representation. The majority of eigenstates is found to be more or less uniformly extended over the entire energy surface, as expected, but there is also a fraction of strongly localized - scarred eigenstates which are localized either (i) on to classical periodic orbits or (ii) on to planes which carry (2+2)-dim classically invariant manifolds, although the classical dynamics is strongly chaotic and non-diffusive.

  1. Abrupt Changes at the Permian/Triassic Boundary: Tempo of Events from High-Resolution Cyclostratigraphy (United States)

    Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Adler, A. C.


    The Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary (251.4 +/- 3 Myr) is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recently, precise absolute dating has bracketed the marine extinctions and associated carbon-isotope anomaly within less than 1 Myr. We improve this resolution through high-resolution stratigraphy across the P/Tr boundary in the 331-m Gartnerkofel-1 core and nearby Reppwand outcrop section (Carnic Alps, Austria) utilizing FFT and wavelet timeseries analyses of cyclic components in down-hole core logs of density and natural gamma-ray intensity, and carbon-isotopic ratios of bulk samples. The wavelet analysis indicates continuity of deposition across the P/Tr boundary interval, and the timeseries analyses show evidence for persistent cycles in the ratio of approximately 40: 10: 4.7: 2.3 meters, correlated with Milankovitch-band orbital cycles of approximately 412: 100: 40: 20 kyr (eccentricity 1 and 2, obliquity, and precession), and giving a consistent average sedimentation rate of approximately 10 cm/1,000 yr. Milankovitch periods in delta C-13 and density in these shallow-water carbonates were most likely the result of climatically induced oscillations of sea level and climate, coupled with changes in ocean circulation and productivity, that affected sedimentation. Fluctuations in gamma radiation reflect varying input of clay minerals and the presence of shaly interbeds. Throughout the P/Tr boundary interval in the core, the 100,000-year eccentricity cycle seems to be dominant. Weaker obliquity and precession cycles are in line with the location of the Austrian section in the latest Permian, close to the Equator in the western bight of the Tethys, where obliquity and precessional effects on seasonal contrast might be subdued. Using the improved resolution provided by cycle analysis in the GK-1 core, we find that the dramatic change in the faunal record that marks the P/Tr boundary takes place over less than 6m, or less than 60,000 years. In

  2. An Immersed Boundary Method in WRF for High Resolution Urban Air Quality Modeling (United States)

    Wiersema, D. J.; Lundquist, K. A.; Martien, P. T.; Rivard, T.; Chow, F. K.


    Urban air quality modeling at the neighborhood scale has potential to become an important tool for long term exposure studies, regulation, and urban planning. Current generation models for urban flow or air quality are limited by laborious mesh creation, terrain slope restrictions due to coordinate transformations, lack of atmospheric physics, and/or omission of regional meteorological effects. To avoid these limitations we have extended the functionality of an existing model, IBM-WRF, a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) which uses an immersed boundary method (IBM) (Lundquist et al. 2010, 2012). The immersed boundary method used in our model allows for the evaluation of flow over complex urban geometries including vertical surfaces, sharp corners, and local topographic variations. Lateral boundaries in IBM-WRF can be prescribed using output from the standard WRF model, allowing for realistic meteorological input. IBM-WRF is being used to investigate transport and trapping of vehicle emissions around a proposed affordable housing development located adjacent to a major freeway which transports 250,000+ vehicles per day. Urban topography is created using high-resolution airborne LIDAR building data combined with ground elevation data. Emission locations and strengths are assigned using data provided by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Development is underway to allow for meteorological input to be created using the WRF model configured to use nested domains. This will allow for synoptic scale phenomena to affect the neighborhood scale IBM-WRF domain, which has a horizontal resolution on the order of one meter. Initial results from IBM-WRF are presented here and will ultimately be used to assist planning efforts to reduce local air pollution exposure and minimize related associated adverse health effects. Lundquist, K., F. Chow, and J. Lundquist, 2010: An immersed boundary method for the weather research and forecasting

  3. Creep deformation of grain boundary in a highly crystalline SiC fibre. (United States)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yano, Yasuhide; Takahashi, Heishichiro


    Silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composites reinforced by SiC fibres (SiC/SiC composites) are currently being considered as alternative materials in high Ni alloys for high-temperature applications, such as aerospace components, gas-turbine energy-conversion systems and nuclear fusion reactors, because of their high specific strength and fracture toughness at elevated temperatures compared with monolithic SiC ceramics. It is important to evaluate the creep properties of SiC fibres under tensile loading in order to determine their usefulness as structural components. However, it would be hard to evaluate creep properties by monoaxial tensile properties when we have little knowledge on the microstructure of crept specimens, especially at the grain boundary. Recently, a simple fibre bend stress relaxation (BSR) test was introduced by Morscher and DiCarlo to address this problem. Interpretation of the fracture mechanism at the grain boundary is also essential to allow improvement of the mechanical properties. In this paper, effects of stress applied by BSR test on microstructural evolution in advanced SiC fibres, such as Tyranno-SA including small amounts of Al, are described and discussed along with the results of microstructure analysis on an atomic scale by using advanced microscopy.

  4. Methods for calculating the transonic boundary layer separation for V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles (United States)

    Chou, D. C.; Lee, H. C.; Luidens, R. W.; Stockman, N. O.


    A semi-empirical scheme for the prediction of transonic pressure distribution on the surface of V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles has been developed. The investigation is intended to improve the boundary layer calculation and separation prediction by including the effects of shock wave-boundary layer interaction into the Lewis Inlet Viscous Computer Program. Wind-tunnel results and theoretical pressure calculation for critical cases are used in constructing the transonic pressure distribution. The program, which describes the development of the boundary layer and predicts the possible flow separation, can handle the cases of inlets at high incidence angles where local supersonic region may occur in the flow.

  5. Interactive Java Tools for Exploring High-dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Bradley


    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (WWW is a new mechanism for providing information. At this point, the majority of the information on the WWW is static, which means it is incapable of responding to user input. Text, images, and video are examples of static information that can easily be included in a WWW page. With the advent of the Java programming language, it is now possible to embed dynamic information in the form of interactive programs called applets. Therefore, it is not only possible to transfer raw data over the WWW, but we can also now provide interactive graphics for displaying and exploring data in the context of a WWW page. In this paper, we will describe the use of Java applets that have been developed for the interactive display of high dimensional data on the WWW.

  6. Migration of grain boundaries and triple junctions in high-purity aluminum during annealing after slight cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Wenhong [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wang, Weiguo, E-mail: [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China); Fang, Xiaoying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Qin, Congxiang [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Xing, Xiaoguang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)


    Grain orientations and grain boundary migrations near triple junctions in a high purity aluminum were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction. The results indicate that there are good correlations between the Schmid factors or Taylor factors and the misorientation values of point to original point in grains near the triple junctions in a slightly deformed sample. Grains with higher Schmid factors or lower Taylor factors typically correspond to higher misorientation values near the triple junctions. In a subsequent annealing at 400 °C, both grain boundaries and triple junctions migrate, but the former leave ghost lines. During such migration, a grain boundary grows from the grain with lower Schmid factor (higher Taylor factor) into the grain with higher Schmid factor (lower Taylor factor). Usually, the amount of migration of a grain boundary is considerably greater than that of a triple junction, and the grain boundary becomes more curved after migration. These observations indicate that the triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundary migration. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline aluminum with fine grains about 30 μm were used. • Off-line in situ EBSD was used to identify TJs before and after annealing. • Grains with higher SFs have higher misorientation values near TJs after deformation. • Grain boundaries grow from hard grains into soft grains during annealing. • Triple junctions have drag effects on grain boundaries migration.

  7. Exploring dipole blockade using high- n strontium Rydberg atoms (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Ye, Shuzhen; Dunning, F. Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim


    Studies of the production of strongly-polarized quasi-1D high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium `` nF'' Rydberg states in an atomic beam by three-photon excitation in a weak dc field suggest that (in the absence of blockade effects) densities of ~106 cm-3 might be achieved. At such densities the interparticle separation, ~ 100 μm , becomes comparable to that at which dipole blockade effects are expected to become important. Apparatus modifications are underway to allow the exploration of blockade at very high- n and the effects of the high energy level density. Blockade is also being examined through calculations of the energy spectrum for two interaction atoms. Access to the blockade regime promises creation of Rydberg atoms at well-defined separations whose interactions can be coherently controlled using electric field pulses thereby enabling study of the dynamics of strongly-coupled Rydberg systems. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  8. Efficient modelling of aerodynamic flows in the boundary layer for high performance computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, L


    Full Text Available full viscous solution. The boundary-layer solution is coupled to an existing inviscid solver. Coupling occurs by moving the wall to a streamline at the computed boundary layer thickness and treating it as a slip boundary, then solving the flow again...

  9. Exploring the Effects of Atmospheric Forcings on Evaporation: Experimental Integration of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Shallow Subsurface. (United States)

    Smits, Kathleen; Eagen, Victoria; Trautz, Andrew


    Evaporation is directly influenced by the interactions between the atmosphere, land surface and soil subsurface. This work aims to experimentally study evaporation under various surface boundary conditions to improve our current understanding and characterization of this multiphase phenomenon as well as to validate numerical heat and mass transfer theories that couple Navier-Stokes flow in the atmosphere and Darcian flow in the porous media. Experimental data were collected using a unique soil tank apparatus interfaced with a small climate controlled wind tunnel. The experimental apparatus was instrumented with a suite of state of the art sensor technologies for the continuous and autonomous collection of soil moisture, soil thermal properties, soil and air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. This experimental apparatus can be used to generate data under well controlled boundary conditions, allowing for better control and gathering of accurate data at scales of interest not feasible in the field. Induced airflow at several distinct wind speeds over the soil surface resulted in unique behavior of heat and mass transfer during the different evaporative stages.

  10. Understanding the Dynamics of High Tech Knowledge Creation across Organizational Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Ulhøi, John Parm

    . Existing literature, however, offers little in-depth insight into why and how such inter-organizational collaborations often encounter difficulties in crossing these boundaries and thus in accomplishing the expected joint knowledge creation and exchange. Departing from Carlile's (2004) integrated framework...... for managing knowledge across boundaries, in this paper we identify the knowledge boundaries present in a longitudinal R&D collaboration between six organizations. We analyzed how these boundaries were partially overcome, and present a fourth knowledge boundary, which causes major challenges in the inter-organizational...

  11. Assessment of an Euler-Interacting Boundary Layer Method Using High Reynolds Number Transonic Flight Data (United States)

    Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Maddalon, Dal V.


    Flight-measured high Reynolds number turbulent-flow pressure distributions on a transport wing in transonic flow are compared to unstructured-grid calculations to assess the predictive ability of a three-dimensional Euler code (USM3D) coupled to an interacting boundary layer module. The two experimental pressure distributions selected for comparative analysis with the calculations are complex and turbulent but typical of an advanced technology laminar flow wing. An advancing front method (VGRID) was used to generate several tetrahedral grids for each test case. Initial calculations left considerable room for improvement in accuracy. Studies were then made of experimental errors, transition location, viscous effects, nacelle flow modeling, number and placement of spanwise boundary layer stations, and grid resolution. The most significant improvements in the accuracy of the calculations were gained by improvement of the nacelle flow model and by refinement of the computational grid. Final calculations yield results in close agreement with the experiment. Indications are that further grid refinement would produce additional improvement but would require more computer memory than is available. The appendix data compare the experimental attachment line location with calculations for different grid sizes. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and calculated attachment line locations.

  12. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min


    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  13. The effects of an algal biofilm on the turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Flack, Karen; Steppe, Cecily; Reidenbach, Matthew


    Algal biofilms are an important fouling community on ship hulls, with severe economic consequences due to increased drag. As with other types of roughness on aquatic surfaces, biofilms increase skin friction and thus induce severe drag penalties. In fact, slime layers appear to induce greater drag than would be predicted by the roughness height alone. Our work indicates that this is likely due to two characteristics of algal biofilms: i) flexible streamers that protrude into the flow, and ii) the compliant nature of a biofilm layer. High resolution PIV was used to measure the turbulent boundary layer flow over diatomaceous biofilm grown under dynamic conditions. Local mean streamwise velocity profiles were used to estimate the local wall shear stresses and to determine the similarity between the inner and outer layers of the boundary layer and those of a smooth wall. Spatially explicit turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Reynolds shear stress (RSS), swirling strength and quadrant analyses over the biofilm were compared to those over a smooth wall and a rigid mesh roughness. We found that the combination of canopy flow due to streamers coupled with compliant wall-flow interactions result in large wall shear stresses and higher turbulence. Funding provided by the ONR NURP program and the NSF GRIP program.

  14. The influence of high grain boundary density on helium retention in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, G., E-mail: [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, Oviedo (Spain); Martin-Bragado, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/ Enric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Iglesias, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, Oviedo (Spain); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • Comparison between monocrystalline and nanostructured irradiated tungsten. • OKMC parameterization published and new DFT data. • Important role of grain boundary density on defect evolution. • Cluster pressurization much lower in nanostructured tungsten. • Promising expectations on nanocrystalline tungsten in view of results. - Abstract: In order to study the influence of a high grain boundary density on the amount, size and distribution of defects produced by pulsed helium (625 keV) irradiation in tungsten, we have carried out Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations in both monocrystalline and nanocrystalline tungsten. The parameterization of the OKMC code (MMonCa) includes binding energies obtained with our in-house Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In the interior of a grain in nanocrystalline tungsten the mixed He{sub n}V{sub m} clusters are larger and have a lower He/V ratio. Thus, they are less pressurized clusters. The total elastic strain energy remains almost constant with the increasing number of pulses, contrary to its increase in monocrystalline tungsten. A better response to helium irradiation is therefore expected in nanocrystalline tungsten, opening a new path to investigate these nanostructured materials for fusion purposes.

  15. Cs diffusion in SiC high-energy grain boundaries (United States)

    Ko, Hyunseok; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane


    Cesium (Cs) is a radioactive fission product whose release is of concern for Tristructural-Isotropic fuel particles. In this work, Cs diffusion through high energy grain boundaries (HEGBs) of cubic-SiC is studied using an ab-initio based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The HEGB environment was modeled as an amorphous SiC, and Cs defect energies were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). From defect energies, it was suggested that the fastest diffusion mechanism is the diffusion of Cs interstitial in an amorphous SiC. The diffusion of Cs interstitial was simulated using a kMC model, based on the site and transition state energies sampled from the DFT. The Cs HEGB diffusion exhibited an Arrhenius type diffusion in the range of 1200-1600 °C. The comparison between HEGB results and the other studies suggests not only that the GB diffusion dominates the bulk diffusion but also that the HEGB is one of the fastest grain boundary paths for the Cs diffusion. The diffusion coefficients in HEGB are clearly a few orders of magnitude lower than the reported diffusion coefficients from in- and out-of-pile samples, suggesting that other contributions are responsible, such as radiation enhanced diffusion.

  16. New Findings by High-Order DNS for Late Flow Transition in a Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Liu


    Full Text Available This paper serves as a summary of new discoveries by DNS for late stages of flow transition in a boundary layer. The widely spread concept “vortex breakdown” is found theoretically impossible and never happened in practice. The ring-like vortex is found the only form existing inside the flow field. The ring-like vortex formation is the result of the interaction between two pairs of counter-rotating primary and secondary streamwise vortices. Following the first Helmholtz vortex conservation law, the primary vortex tube rolls up and is stretched due to the velocity gradient. In order to maintain vorticity conservation, a bridge must be formed to link two Λ-vortex legs. The bridge finally develops as a new ring. This process keeps going on to form a multiple ring structure. The U-shaped vortices are not new but existing coherent vortex structure. Actually, the U-shaped vortex, which is a third level vortex, serves as a second neck to supply vorticity to the multiple rings. The small vortices can be found on the bottom of the boundary layer near the wall surface. It is believed that the small vortices, and thus turbulence, are generated by the interaction of positive spikes and other higher level vortices with the solid wall. The mechanism of formation of secondary vortex, second sweep, positive spike, high shear distribution, downdraft and updraft motion, and multiple ring-circle overlapping is also investigated.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao


    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  18. Investigation of Boundary-Value Problems for the Equation of High Order with Small Parameter at a Higher Derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Amirkhanov, I V; Sarker, N R; Sarhadov, I


    In this work the solutions of different boundary-value problems are retrieved analytically and numerically for the equation of high order with small parameter at a higher derivative. The analysis of these solutions is given. It is found that for some variants of symmetric boundary conditions the solutions of a boundary-value problem for the equations of the 4th, 6th, $\\ldots$ orders transfer into the solution of a Schrödinger equation at $\\varepsilon \\to 0$ ($\\varepsilon $ is small parameter). The retrieved solutions with different knots are orthogonal among themselves. The results of numerical calculations are given.

  19. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.


    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  20. The Science Buffet: Exploring students' images of high school science (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Justin Jacob

    Science curriculum reform documents, as well as research in science education, call for changes in how high school science is taught and learned. In spite of these calls for change, classroom practices are still dominated by traditional science instruction. In this thesis, I report the results of a study in which I disrupted the traditional discourses of teaching and learning high school science in order to explore students' images of science and the discursive practices that shape these images. By listening to students' accounts of their school science experiences, I sought to uncover some of the implicit images of science held by students and, in doing so, to bring a fresh perspective to teaching and learning and science education. Two classes of grade twelve students were asked to keep journals to tell the story of their experiences in the many activities and assignments of a physics course. Using the journal entries, eight students were identified and asked to participate in group interviews. The interviews expanded on the details of the students' experiences, providing deep insights into the student's images of science and how these images came to be. The students' comments and journal entries were used to create a narrative entitled, "The Science Buffet" which conveys a story of the data collected through this study. Through the metaphorical thread of a buffet table, this research text presents and interprets students' experiences in the physics course using such themes as Where's The Beef?, Who Wants Dessert?, and Can I Have A Doggie Bag Please? Findings of the study suggest that high school students often have clearly defined images of school science and what it means to learn. Unfortunately, however, these images of science and learning may not coincide with what we would expect (and desire) as teachers, thus providing some insight into resistance to change in school science classrooms.

  1. Using Drawings of the Brain Cell to Exhibit Expertise in Neuroscience: Exploring the Boundaries of Experimental Culture (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Williams, Darren; Stahl, Daniel; Wingate, Richard J.


    This paper explores the research perspective of neuroscience by documenting the brain cell (neuron) drawings of undergraduates, trainee scientists, and leading neuroscience researchers in a single research-intensive university. Qualitative analysis, drawing-sorting exercises, and hierarchical cluster analysis are used to answer two related…

  2. Using Drawings of the Brain Cell to Exhibit Expertise in Neuroscience: Exploring the Boundaries of Experimental Culture (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Williams, Darren; Stahl, Daniel; Wingate, Richard J.


    This paper explores the research perspective of neuroscience by documenting the brain cell (neuron) drawings of undergraduates, trainee scientists, and leading neuroscience researchers in a single research-intensive university. Qualitative analysis, drawing-sorting exercises, and hierarchical cluster analysis are used to answer two related…

  3. Boundary and Interface Conditions for High Order Finite Difference Methods Applied to the Euler and Navier-Strokes Equations (United States)

    Nordstrom, Jan; Carpenter, Mark H.


    Boundary and interface conditions for high order finite difference methods applied to the constant coefficient Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are derived. The boundary conditions lead to strict and strong stability. The interface conditions are stable and conservative even if the finite difference operators and mesh sizes vary from domain to domain. Numerical experiments show that the new conditions also lead to good results for the corresponding nonlinear problems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Alternating direction finite element (ADFE) scheme for d-dimensional nonlinear system of parabolic integro-differential equations is studied. By using a local approximation based on patches of finite elements to treat the capacity term qi(u), decomposition of the coefficient matrix is realized; by using alternating direction, the multi-dimensional problem is reduced to a family of single space variable problems, calculation work is simplified; by using finite element method, high accuracy for space variant is kept; by using inductive hypothesis reasoning, the difficulty coming from the nonlinearity of the coefficients and boundary conditions is treated; by introducing Ritz-Volterra projection, the difficulty coming from the memory term is solved. Finally, by using various techniques for priori estimate for differential equations, the unique resolvability and convergence properties for both FE and ADFE schemes are rigorously demonstrated, and optimal H1 and L2norm space estimates and O((△t)2) estimate for time variant are obtained.

  5. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...

  6. Detwining in Mg alloy with a high density of twin boundaries. (United States)

    Li, Yunping; Cui, Yujie; Bian, Huakang; Sun, Shihai; Tang, Ning; Chen, Yan; Liu, Bin; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko


    To investigate the role of preexisting twin boundaries in magnesium alloys during the deformation process, a large number of {10-12} tensile twins were introduced by a radial compression at room temperature before hot compressive tests with both low and high strain rates. Unlike the stable twins in Cu-based alloys with low stacking fault energies, {10-12} twins in Mg alloy are extremely unstable or easy to detwin through {10-12}-{10-12} re-twinning. As a result, non-lenticular residual twins and twin traces with misorientation of 5°-7° were present, as confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction. The extreme instability of the twins during compression indicates that both twin and detwinning require extremely low resolved shear stresses under our experimental conditions.

  7. Inductance measurements in multilevel high Tc step-edge grain boundary SQUIDS (United States)

    Forrester, M. G.; Davidson, A.; Talvacchio, J.; Gavaler, J. R.; Przybysz, J. X.


    Multilevel high Tc SQUIDs, suitable for digital circuit applications, have been fabricated and tested. The devices employ a YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) ground plane, an epitaxial SrTiO3 insulator, and a YBCO microstrip layer. Junctions are formed by the step-edge grain boundary process, with a ground plane contact for the ``low'' side of each junction, using only isotropic sputtering and milling techniques. Control current is directly injected in a microstrip segment of the SQUID loop, allowing us to measure the microstrip inductance, and thus to infer the magnetic penetration depth of the YBCO. The SQUIDs are operational above 77 K, at which temperature we infer a penetration depth of 350 nm. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth is found to be in reasonable agreement with the Gorter-Casimir form close to Tc.

  8. Double large field stereoscopic PIV in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Coudert, S.; Foucaut, J. M.; Kostas, J.; Stanislas, M.; Braud, P.; Fourment, C.; Delville, J.; Tutkun, M.; Mehdi, F.; Johansson, P.; George, W. K.


    An experiment on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number has been carried out in the Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille (LML, UMR CNRS 8107) wind tunnel. This experiment was performed jointly with LEA (UMR CNRS 6609) in Poitiers (France) and Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden), in the frame of the WALLTURB European project. The simultaneous recording of 143 hot wires in one transverse plane and of two perpendicular stereoscopic PIV fields was performed successfully. The first SPIV plane is 1 cm upstream of the hot wire rake and the second is both orthogonal to the first one and to the wall. The first PIV results show a blockage effect which based on both statistical results (i.e. mean, RMS and spatial correlation) and a potential model does not seem to affect the turbulence organization.

  9. Localized temporal variation of Earth's inner-core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets (United States)

    Xin, Danhua


    The accurate determination of the topography of an Earth's internal boundary is difficult because of the possible trade-off with the velocity of the media above it. Here we use waveform-doublet method to map the ICB topography. A waveform doublet is a pair of earthquakes occurring at essentially the same spatial position and received by the same station with high similarity in their waveforms (Poupinet et al. 1984), which make the exact detection of the ICB topography possible. In this study, we used this method to detect temporal change of the ICB using doublets from the Western Pacific (WP) area to increase global coverage of the ICB. Compared with previous study using doublets from South Sandwich Islands (SSI) (Song and Dai, 2008), the new samples showed negligible temporal change of the ICB.

  10. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real-field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...

  11. High-frequency instabilities of stationary crossflow vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Paredes, Pedro; Duan, Lian


    Hypersonic boundary layer flows over a circular cone at moderate incidence angle can support strong crossflow instability in between the windward and leeward rays on the plane of symmetry. Due to more efficient excitation of stationary crossflow vortices by surface roughness, such boundary layer flows may transition to turbulence via rapid amplification of the high-frequency secondary instabilities of finite-amplitude stationary crossflow vortices. The amplification characteristics of these secondary instabilities are investigated for crossflow vortices generated by an azimuthally periodic array of roughness elements over a 7° half-angle circular cone in a Mach 6 free stream. The analysis is based on both quasiparallel stability theory in the form of a partial-differential-equation-based eigenvalue analysis and plane marching parabolized stability equations that account for the effects of the nonparallel basic state on the growth of secondary disturbances. Depending on the local amplitude of the stationary crossflow mode, the most unstable high-frequency disturbances either originate from the second (i.e., Mack) mode instabilities of the unperturbed boundary layer or correspond to genuine secondary instabilities that reduce to stable disturbances at sufficiently small amplitudes of the stationary crossflow vortex. The predicted frequencies of the dominant secondary disturbances of either type are similar to those measured during wind tunnel experiments at Purdue University and the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Including transverse surface curvature within the quasiparallel predictions does not alter the topology of the unstable modes; however, the resulting changes in both mode shape and disturbance growth rate are rather significant and curvature can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the disturbance frequency and mode type. Nonparallel effects are shown to be strongly destabilizing for secondary instabilities originating from

  12. Exploring Earth's Magnetism and Northern lights in High School Classroom (United States)

    Prakash, M.; Peticolas, L.


    Present studies are being conducted as a part of the outreach project entitled Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) to share excitement of the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorm) mission launched during February, 2007. The goal of this mission is to investigate the causality of events that lead to the explosive release of energy (derived from the Sun) stored in the Earth's magnetic field. The visible manifestation of the energy release is Aurora Borealis observed in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth. Inherent to understanding the root-cause of formation of spectacular aurora is the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. To achieve this ambitious objective in a high school classroom, students conducted activities using the magnetic field of bar magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic induction, and Lenz's Law. Following the fundamental understanding of these concepts, students acquired the necessary vocabulary and explored the various components of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. They were also familiarized with the general format in which THEMIS spacecraft data is displayed. In this presentation, we will address student's misconceptions, their struggle to make connections before they can appreciate "Big Idea" in terms of its components. Discussion will highlight the relationship between student understanding of new ideas and how these ideas connect with their prior knowledge.

  13. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  14. Regularized characteristic boundary conditions for the Lattice-Boltzmann methods at high Reynolds number flows (United States)

    Wissocq, Gauthier; Gourdain, Nicolas; Malaspinas, Orestis; Eyssartier, Alexandre


    This paper reports the investigations done to adapt the Characteristic Boundary Conditions (CBC) to the Lattice-Boltzmann formalism for high Reynolds number applications. Three CBC formalisms are implemented and tested in an open source LBM code: the baseline local one-dimension inviscid (BL-LODI) approach, its extension including the effects of the transverse terms (CBC-2D) and a local streamline approach in which the problem is reformulated in the incident wave framework (LS-LODI). Then all implementations of the CBC methods are tested for a variety of test cases, ranging from canonical problems (such as 2D plane and spherical waves and 2D vortices) to a 2D NACA profile at high Reynolds number (Re =105), representative of aeronautic applications. The LS-LODI approach provides the best results for pure acoustics waves (plane and spherical waves). However, it is not well suited to the outflow of a convected vortex for which the CBC-2D associated with a relaxation on density and transverse waves provides the best results. As regards numerical stability, a regularized adaptation is necessary to simulate high Reynolds number flows. The so-called regularized FD (Finite Difference) adaptation, a modified regularized approach where the off-equilibrium part of the stress tensor is computed thanks to a finite difference scheme, is the only tested adaptation that can handle the high Reynolds computation.

  15. An overset curvilinear/immersed boundary framework for high resolution simulations of wind and hydrokinetic turbine flows (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Behara, Suresh; Natarajan, Ganesh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    We generalize the curvilinear/immersed boundary method to incorporate overset grids to enable the simulation of more complicated geometries and increase grid resolution locally near complex immersed boundary. The new method has been applied to carry out high resolution simulations of wind and hydrokinetic turbine rotors. An interior fine mesh contains the rotor blades and is embedded within a coarser background mesh. The rotor blades can be treated either as immersed boundaries or using curvilinear, boundary-conforming overset grids. The numerical methodology has been generalized to include both inertial and non-inertial frame formulations. The method is validated by applying it to simulate the flow for the NREL wind turbine rotor for various turbine operating points. Inviscid, unsteady RANS and LES simulations are carried out and compared with experimental data. Preliminary results will also be presented for the hydrokinetic turbine rotor installed at the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy project in New York City.

  16. Preparation of high-quality HTS rings for application in the magnetic bearing of cryotanks and pinning in grain boundaries (United States)

    Bringmann, B.; Walter, H.; Jooss, Ch.; Leenders, A.; Freyhardt, H. C.


    Seeded melt growth of YBCO high-temperature superconductors is one of the most promising preparation techniques to obtain high-quality HTS tiles for application, e.g. in magnetic bearings. Semi-finished HTSL products of complex shapes have to be developed by different seeding and multi-seeding techniques. To obtain large hollow cylinders designed for application in the magnetic bearing of a cryotank a modified multi-seeded melt growth (MSMG) process was employed. This cryotank will be mounted for testing in a vehicle of a major German car manufacturer. The MSMG process introduces grain boundaries into the HTS tiles. For transport current investigations of [0 0 1]-tilt grain boundaries in melt textured YBCO a series of MSMG bicrystals have been prepared. They exhibit a dependence of the critical current density on misorientation angle which is much weaker than the one observed in thin-film bicrystals. The bulk samples have dimensions larger than the magnetic penetration depth along the grain boundary. Thus, flux pinning has to be taken into account. Different contributions to the longitudinal pinning force have to be considered: vortices at grain boundaries can be pinned by magnetic interaction with Abrikosov vortices in the banks, by defects in the grain boundary itself or by defects which are located next to the grain boundary.

  17. Boundary issues (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen


    the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key boundary in the P cycle, they also suggest it's not a Rubicon moment. The inefficiencies in P use that motivate these boundary debates are also clear targets for improvement, and some world regions may be on a trajectory towards greater P use efficiency (Vitousek et al 2009). This is a critical step for society, because even absent concerns over freshwater eutrophication or marine anoxic events, accelerating rates of P mining and inefficiencies in agricultural P use would still pose very real threats. There is legitimate debate over when readily accessible P reserves may run out (Cordell et al 2009, Van Kauenbergh 2010), but nobody argues with their finite nature. Sooner or later, we will be forced to keep P out of our waterways, if only because we will have to keep it on our farms. Without such a shift, we may face severe P constraints to food security within just a few human generations. As current P reserves decline, rising economic values of low concentration P stores may catalyze their harvest, but without considerable policy interventions, that price hike would exacerbate already strong global inequities in the distribution and use of chemical fertilizers (Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005). The harvest of low concentration P reserves would also create substantial collateral damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, even without exhaustion of high-concentration P reserves, their location in only a few countries creates geopolitical risks from the demand for an increasingly valuable resource (Cordell et al 2009). Policies aimed at lowering P inputs to aquatic environments will not only reduce the eutrophication risks explored by Carpenter and Bennett, they will increase P retention in agricultural landscapes and slow the decline of finite P reserves. Shifts in human diets can also make a profound difference in the amount of P (and N) required to meet caloric needs. Society

  18. Ground Boundary Conditions for Thermal Convection Over Horizontal Surfaces at High Rayleigh Numbers (United States)

    Hanjalić, K.; Hrebtov, M.


    We present "wall functions" for treating the ground boundary conditions in the computation of thermal convection over horizontal surfaces at high Rayleigh numbers using coarse numerical grids. The functions are formulated for an algebraic-flux model closed by transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy, its dissipation rate and scalar variance, but could also be applied to other turbulence models. The three-equation algebraic-flux model, solved in a T-RANS mode ("Transient" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, based on triple decomposition), was shown earlier to reproduce well a number of generic buoyancy-driven flows over heated surfaces, albeit by integrating equations up to the wall. Here we show that by using a set of wall functions satisfactory results are found for the ensemble-averaged properties even on a very coarse computational grid. This is illustrated by the computations of the time evolution of a penetrative mixed layer and Rayleigh-Bénard (open-ended, 4:4:1 domain) convection, using 10 × 10 × 100 and 10 × 10 × 20 grids, compared also with finer grids (e.g. 60 × 60 × 100), as well as with one-dimensional treatment using 1 × 1 × 100 and 1 × 1 × 20 nodes. The approach is deemed functional for simulations of a convective boundary layer and mesoscale atmospheric flows, and pollutant transport over realistic complex hilly terrain with heat islands, urban and natural canopies, for diurnal cycles, or subjected to other time and space variations in ground conditions and stratification.

  19. The low/high BCS permeability class boundary: physicochemical comparison of metoprolol and labetalol. (United States)

    Zur, Moran; Gasparini, Marisa; Wolk, Omri; Amidon, Gordon L; Dahan, Arik


    Although recognized as overly conservative, metoprolol is currently the common low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound, while labetalol was suggested as a potential alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify the various characteristics that the optimal marker should exhibit, and to investigate the suitability of labetalol as the permeability class reference drug. Labetalol's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Labetalol was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. In the pH range throughout the small intestine (6.5-7.5), labetalol exhibited pH-dependent permeability, with higher permeability at higher pH values. While in vitro octanol-buffer partitioning (Log D) values of labetalol were significantly higher than those of metoprolol, the opposite was evident in the in vitro PAMPA permeability assay. The results of the in vivo perfusion studies in rats lay between the two contradictory in vitro studies; metoprolol was shown to have moderately higher rat intestinal permeability than labetalol. Theoretical distribution of the ionic species of the drugs was in corroboration with the experimental in vitro and the in vivo data. We propose three characteristics that the optimal permeability class reference drug should exhibit: (1) fraction dose absorbed in the range of 90%; (2) the optimal marker drug should be absorbed largely via passive transcellular permeability, with no/negligible carrier-mediated active intestinal transport (influx or efflux); and (3) the optimal marker drug should preferably be nonionizable. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that neither metoprolol nor labetalol can be regarded as optimal low/high-permeability class boundary standard. While metoprolol is too conservative due to its complete absorption

  20. Two-dimensional energy spectra in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Chandran, Dileep; Baidya, Rio; Monty, Jason; Marusic, Ivan


    The current study measures the two-dimensional (2D) spectra of streamwise velocity component (u) in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer for the first time. A 2D spectra shows the contribution of streamwise (λx) and spanwise (λy) length scales to the streamwise variance at a given wall height (z). 2D spectra could be a better tool to analyse spectral scaling laws as it is devoid of energy aliasing errors that could be present in one-dimensional spectra. A novel method is used to calculate the 2D spectra from the 2D correlation of u which is obtained by measuring velocity time series at various spanwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. At low Reynolds number, the shape of the 2D spectra at a constant energy level shows λy √{ zλx } behaviour at larger scales which is in agreement with the literature. However, at high Reynolds number, it is observed that the square-root relationship gradually transforms into a linear relationship (λy λx) which could be caused by the large packets of eddies whose length grows proportionately to the growth of its width. Additionally, we will show that this linear relationship observed at high Reynolds number is consistent with attached eddy predictions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Australian Research Council.

  1. Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging (United States)

    Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team


    Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual

  2. Organizing High Schools for Latina/o Youth Success: Boundary Crossing to Access and Build Community Wealth (United States)

    Achinstein, Betty; Curry, Marnie W.; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Athanases, Steven Z.


    This article presents a 2-year critical case study of an urban high school innovating to enhance the academic performance of low-income Latina/o students, highlighting high-leverage practices that promote boundary crossing between school and community. First, we highlight foundational elements of school logic, mission, and community ethos that…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  4. Effects of grain size and grain boundary on critical current density of high T(sub c) superconducting oxides (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Q. R.; Zhang, H.


    By means of adding impurity elements in high T sub c oxides, the effects were studied of grain size and grain boundary on the critical current density of the following systems: YBa2Cu3O(7-y) and Bi-Pr-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. In order to only change the microstructure instead of the superconductivity of the grains in the samples, the impurity elements were added into the systems in terms of the methods like this: (1) substituting Y with the lanthanide except Pr, Ce, and Tb in YBa2Cu3O(7-y) system to finning down grains in the samples, therefore, the effect can be investigated of the grain size on the critical current density of 1:2:3 compounds; (2) mixing the high T sub c oxides with the metal elements, such as Ag, according to the composition of (high T sub c oxide)1-xAgx to metallize the grain boundaries in the samples, studying the effect of the electric conductivity of the grain boundaries on the critical current density; (3) adding SiO2, PbO2, and SnO2 into the high T sub c oxide to form impurity phases in the grain boundaries, trying to find out the effects of the impurity phases or metalloid grain boundaries on the critical current density of the high T sub c superconductors. The experimental results indicate that in the case of of the presence of the metalloid grain boundaries finning down grains fails to enhance the j sub c, but restrains it strongly, the granular high T sub c superconductors with the small size grains coupled weakly is always the low j sub c system.

  5. Free-stream Turbulence Effects on the Boundary Layer of a High-lift Low-Pressure-Turbine Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simoni D.; Ubaldi M.; Zunino P.; Ampellio E.


    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions.Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number,under both steady and unsteady inflows.Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions.Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields.The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one).These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow,as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks.A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state,thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  6. Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade (United States)

    Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.


    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  7. Low-latency high-rate GPS data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.; Stark, K.


    Real-time processing of high rate GPS data can give precise (e.g., 5-10 mm for data recorded once per second) recordings of rapid volcanic and seismic deformation. GPS is also an inertial sensor that records ground displacement with very high dynamic range, which allows the use of high rate GPS as a strong-motion seismometer. Such processing applied to low-latency streams of high sample rate GPS provide an emerging tool for earthquake, volcano, and tsunami geodesy and early warning. UNAVCO, as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, is developing a system to provide such streams from some PBO and other UNAVCO-operated GPS stations, which we call UStream. UStream will be based on the Ntrip standard, a widely used protocol for streaming GNSS data over the Internet. Remote GPS stations will provide a stream of BINEX data at 1 sample/sec to an Ntrip server at UNAVCO's Boulder offices, while at the same time recording data locally in the event of communications failure. Once in Boulder, the data will be forked into three output streams: BINEX files stored at the UNAVCO archive and streams of data in BINEX and RTCM format. These data will flow to an Ntrip broadcaster that will distribute data to Ntrip clients, which can be anything from epoch-by-epoch processing systems to external data archiving systems. Data will flow through this system with no artificial latency and will be freely available to the community for use in scientific research.

  8. A stable high-order finite difference scheme for the compressible Navier Stokes equations: No-slip wall boundary conditions (United States)

    Svärd, Magnus; Nordström, Jan


    A stable wall boundary procedure is derived for the discretized compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The procedure leads to an energy estimate for the linearized equations. We discretize the equations using high-order accurate finite difference summation-by-parts (SBP) operators. The boundary conditions are imposed weakly with penalty terms. We prove linear stability for the scheme including the wall boundary conditions. The penalty imposition of the boundary conditions is tested for the flow around a circular cylinder at Ma=0.1 and Re=100. We demonstrate the robustness of the SBP-SAT technique by imposing incompatible initial data and show the behavior of the boundary condition implementation. Using the errors at the wall we show that higher convergence rates are obtained for the high-order schemes. We compute the vortex shedding from a circular cylinder and obtain good agreement with previously published (computational and experimental) results for lift, drag and the Strouhal number. We use our results to compare the computational time for a given for a accuracy and show the superior efficiency of the 5th-order scheme.

  9. Coring and High-Resolution Imaging of the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Deltadalen, Svalbard (United States)

    Planke, Sverre


    The Permian-Triassic extinction was likely triggered by the voluminous igneous activity of the Siberian Traps. There are, however, limited information available about the effects of the Siberian Traps volcanism in Permian to Triassic sedimentary successions outside Siberia. We drilled two boreholes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in Deltadalen, Svalbard, in August 2014, to better document the extinction event and environmental changes in the sedimentary succession in this region. Even though the PTB event is studied in several outcrops to varying degree if scrutiny on Svalbard, a scientific core is important for understanding the details of the PTB event, as outcrops may not permit studies at the appropriate levels of resolution, exposure or confidence. The Deltadalen site was chosen as an optimal drilling location after field work in the Isfjorden area in 2013 and early 2014. The almost 100 m deep holes were fully cored and penetrated the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (about 85 m recovered) and the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation (about 15 m). The main lithologies include Permian chert-rich green glauconitic sandstones and Triassic mudstones. A 10 m thick sedimentary reference outcrop section across the PTB was further logged and sampled in a nearby river valley. A comprehensive core analysis program is now underway. High-resolution XRF, MST and hyperspectral core scanning has been completed along the entire core surface, while high-resolution CT scanning has been carried out for whole core sections. The DD-1 core has subsequently been split, photographed, described, and sampled for geochemical, micropaleontological, petrological and magnetic analyses. Almost 10 bentonite layers have furthermore been sampled for volcanological and geochronological studies. Our goal is that the cores will become an important future reference section of the PTB in Svalbard and the high-Arctic, and help constrain the extent of the regional effects of explosive volcanism

  10. High-speed laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition induced by a discrete roughness element (United States)

    Iyer, Prahladh; Mahesh, Krishnan


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study laminar to turbulent transition induced by a discrete hemispherical roughness element in a high-speed laminar boundary layer. The simulations are performed under conditions matching the experiments of Danehy et al. (AIAA Paper 2009-394, 2009) for free-stream Mach numbers of 3.37, 5.26 and 8.23. It is observed that the Mach 8.23 flow remains laminar downstream of the roughness, while the lower Mach numbers undergo transition. The Mach 3.37 flow undergoes transition closer to the bump when compared with Mach 5.26, in agreement with experimental observations. Transition is accompanied by an increase in Cf and Ch (Stanton number). Even for the case that did not undergo transition (Mach 8.23), streamwise vortices induced by the roughness cause a significant rise in Cf until 20 D downstream. The mean van Driest transformed velocity and Reynolds stress for Mach 3.37 and 5.26 show good agreement with available data. A local Reynolds number based on the wall properties is seen to correlate with the onset of transition for the cases considered. Partially supported by NASA.

  11. Corner Separation Control by Boundary Layer Suction Applied to a Highly Loaded Axial Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangwei Liu


    Full Text Available Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. Two new BLS slot configurations are proposed and a total of five suction slot configurations were studied and compared. Averaged static pressure rise, exit loss coefficient, passage blockage and flow turning angle have been given and compared systematically over a range of operation incidence angles. Distributions of significant loss removal, blade loading, exit deviation and total pressure loss at 3 degree and 7 degree incidence have also been studied. Under the same suction mass flows of 0.7% of the inlet mass flows, the pitchwise suction slot on the endwall shows a better optimal performance over the whole operation incidence among single suction slots. By using of the new proposed compound slot configuration with one spanwise slot on the blade suction side and one pitchwise slot on the endwall, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss at 7 degree incidence can be 39.4%.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-xin; XU Wei-lin; TIAN Zhong; LI Nai-wen


    This article investigated an existing steady pattern of collapse and rebound (disintegration and aggregation) of cavitation bubbles near rigid boundary in acoustic field. A deformation process of cavitation bubble was accomplished in two acoustic cycles, namely, a spherical bubble collapsed towards the boundary to its minimum volume and then rebounded and grew into a toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) in one acoustic cycle, and the toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) collapsed towards the center offing to its minimum volume, and then rebounded into a spherical bubble in the next acoustic cycle. Inertia force plays a key role in the transition between these two states. The microjet produced during the collapse of spherical bubble and the shock wave produced during the collapse of toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) impacts the boundary alternately. A cavitation bubble operating in this pattern can thus be an effective corrosion mechanism of rigid boundary.

  13. High-resolution PIV measurements of a transitional shock wave-boundary layer interaction (United States)

    Giepman, R. H. M.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; van Oudheusden, B. W.


    This study investigates the effects of boundary layer transition on an oblique shock wave reflection. The Mach number was 1.7, the unit Reynolds number was 35 × 106 m-1, and the pressure ratio over the interaction was 1.35. Particle image velocimetry is used as the main flow diagnostics tool, supported by oil-flow and Schlieren visualizations. At these conditions, the thickness of the laminar boundary layer is only 0.2 mm, and seeding proved to be problematic as practically no seeding was recorded in the lower 40 % of the boundary layer. The top 60 % could, however, still be resolved with good accuracy and is found to be in good agreement with the compressible Blasius solution. Due to the effects of turbulent mixing, the near-wall seeding deficiency disappears when the boundary layer transitions to a turbulent state. This allowed the seeding distribution to be used as an indicator for the state of the boundary layer, permitting to obtain an approximate intermittency distribution for the boundary layer transition region. This knowledge was then used for positioning the oblique shock wave in the laminar, transitional (50 % intermittency) or turbulent region of the boundary layer. Separation is only recorded for the laminar and transitional interactions. For the laminar interaction, a large separation bubble is found, with a streamwise length of 96. The incoming boundary layer is lifted over the separation bubble and remains in a laminar state up to the impingement point of the shock wave. After the shock, transition starts and a turbulent profile is reached approximately 80-90 downstream of the shock. Under the same shock conditions, the transitional interaction displays a smaller separation bubble (43), and transition is found to be accelerated over the separation bubble.

  14. Promoting Vocational Exploration and Decision Making among High School and College Students (United States)

    Holland, John L.


    This review surveys vocational exploration and decision making among high school and college students. Findings indicate educational institutions need to evaluate their collective ability to help students in vocational exploration and decision making. (MFD)

  15. High-Resolution LiDAR Topography of the Plate-Boundary Faults in Northern California (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Phillips, D. A.; Furlong, K. P.; Brown, A.; Crosby, C. J.; Bevis, M.; Shrestha, R.; Sartori, M.; Brocher, T. M.; Brown, J.


    GeoEarthScope acquired more than 1500 square km of airborne LiDAR data in northern California, providing high-resolution topographic data of most of the major strike-slip faults in the region. The coverage includes the San Andreas Fault from its northern end near Shelter Cove to near Parkfield, as well as the Rodgers Creek, Maacama, Calaveras, Green Valley, Paicines, and San Gregorio Faults. The Hayward fault was added with funding provided by the US Geological Survey, the City of Berkeley, and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Data coverage is typically one kilometer in width, centered on the fault. In areas of particular fault complexity the swath width was increased to two kilometers, and in selected areas swath width is as wide as five kilometers. A five-km-wide swath was flown perpendicular to the plate boundary immediately south of Cape Mendocino to capture previously unidentified faults and to understand off-fault deformation associated with the transition zone between the transform margin and the Cascadia subduction zone. The data were collected in conjunction with an intensive GPS campaign designed to improve absolute data accuracy and provide quality control. Data processing to classify the LiDAR point data by return type allows users to filter out vegetation and produce high-resolution DEMs of the ground surface beneath forested regions, revealing geomorphic features along and adjacent to the faults. These data will allow more accurate mapping of fault traces in regions where the vegetation canopy has hampered this effort in the past. In addition, the data provide the opportunity to locate potential sites for detailed paleoseismic studies aimed at providing slip rates and event chronologies. The GeoEarthScope LiDAR data will be made available via an interactive data distribution and processing workflow currently under development.

  16. Studying boundary elements’ behaviour using masonry walls built with high-resistance bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Mejía


    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the behaviour of masonry walls built with and without boundary elements at both ends when sublected to monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The walls were designed to have the greatest resistance, following NSR-98 recommendations (normas Colombianas de diseno y construcción sismo resistente, except for shear reinforcement. XTRACT software was used for finding axial load cf bending moment and curvature cf bending moment curves. One monotonic test and two cyclic tests were performed for each type of wall. Experimental results from the walls’ lateral load cf displacement curves were used for determining their ability to dissipate energy on an inelastic range (“R” force-reduction factor for seismic loads and displacement and curvature malleability. It was found that walls built without boundary elements suffered shear failure with cracks in a stepped configuration along the bricks’ edge. The type of failure for walls built with boundary elements was shear failure in the central panel with cracks in a stepped configuration, in addition to compression failure at the edge of the boundary elements with vertical cracks on the lower part of the wall and at the contact between the wall and the boundary element. Comparison with two other studies carried out at the Universidad Nacional showed similar cyclic behaviour, regardless of the clay brick’s strength. The “R” values obtained for both types of walls were lower than the recommended values given by NSR-98. It was determined that walls having boundary element have greater displacement malleability than walls without boundary elements.

  17. High-resolution boundary conditions of an old ice target near Dome C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Young


    Full Text Available A high-resolution (1 km line spacing aerogeophysical survey was conducted over a region near the East Antarctic Ice Sheet's Dome C that may hold a 1.5 Myr climate record. We combined new ice thickness data derived from an airborne coherent radar sounder with unpublished data that was in part unavailable for earlier compilations, and we were able to remove older data with high positional uncertainties. We generated a revised high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM to investigate the potential for an old ice record in this region, and used laser altimetry to confirm a Cryosat-2 derived DEM for inferring the glaciological state of the candidate area. By measuring the specularity content of the bed, we were able to find an additional 50 subglacial lakes near the candidate site, and by Doppler focusing the radar data, we were able to map out the roughness of the bed at length scales of hundreds of meters. We find that the primary candidate region contains elevated rough topography interspersed with scattered subglacial lakes and some regions of smoother bed. Free subglacial water appears to be restricted from bed overlain by ice thicknesses of less than 3000 m. A site near the ice divide was selected for further investigation. The high resolution of this ice thickness data set also allows us to explore the nature of ice thickness uncertainties in the context of radar geometry and processing.

  18. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voronin


    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  19. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians (United States)

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde


    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  20. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.


    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  1. An efficient method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on irregular domains with no-slip boundary conditions, high order up to the boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Shirokoff, David


    Common efficient schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, such as projection or fractional step methods, have limited temporal accuracy as a result of matrix splitting errors, or introduce errors near the domain boundaries (which destroy uniform convergence to the solution). In this paper we recast the incompressible (constant density) Navier-Stokes equations (with the velocity prescribed at the boundary) as an equivalent system, for the primary variables velocity and pressure. We do this in the usual way away from the boundaries, by replacing the incompressibility condition on the velocity by a Poisson equation for the pressure. The key difference from the usual approaches occurs at the boundaries, where we use boundary conditions that unequivocally allow the pressure to be recovered from knowledge of the velocity at any fixed time. This avoids the common difficulty of an, apparently, over-determined Poisson problem. Since in this alternative formulation the pressure can be accurately and effi...

  2. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  3. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a...

  4. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally...

  5. Observable to explore high density behaviour of symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, Aman D


    We aim to see the sensitivity of collective transverse in-plane flow to symmetry energy at low as well as high densities and also to see the effect of different density dependencies of symmetry energy on the same.

  6. Micromachined High-Temperature Sensors for Planet Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop, simulate, fabricate and test high-temperature piezoelectric miniature sensors (up to 800oC), for...

  7. Three-dimensional vortex organization in a high-Reynolds-number supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, G.E.; Adrian, R.J.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.


    Tomographic particle image velocimetry was used to quantitatively visualize the three-dimensional coherent structures in a supersonic (Mach 2) turbulent boundary layer in the region between y/δ = 0.15 and 0.89. The Reynolds number based on momentum thickness Reθ = 34000. The instantaneous velocity f

  8. A procedure for semi-automated cadastral boundary feature extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie, Y.A.; Koeva, M. N.; Bennett, R. M.; Lemmen, C. H.J.


    Fit-for-purpose land administration aims to align cadastral policies, administration and technology selection with the prevailing societal needs and capacity within a country context. It seeks to support delivery of more rapid and low-cost cadastral boundary mapping – and ultimately more widespread

  9. High Enthalpy Effects on Two Boundary Layer Disturbances in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow (United States)


    178 C.1 Modified Millikan and White relaxation times...131 6.30 This plot shows the LST stability diagram for the case of cold carbon dioxide injection at a rate of 6 g/s. The sharp drop in amplified...boundary layer. Whitehead[77] used surface oil flow to visualize CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND 21 the flow features around isolated roughness elements in

  10. Exploration and Development of High Entropy Alloys for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Miracle


    Full Text Available We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C, medium (≤450 °C and high (≥1,100 °C use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives methods to build HEAs from these palettes. We show that intermetallic phases are consistent with HEA definitions, and the strategy developed here includes both single-phase, solid solution HEAs and HEAs with intentional addition of a 2nd phase for particulate hardening. A thermodynamic estimate of the effectiveness of configurational entropy to suppress or delay compound formation is given. A 3-stage approach is given to systematically screen and evaluate a vast number of HEAs by integrating high-throughput computations and experiments. CALPHAD methods are used to predict phase equilibria, and high-throughput experiments on materials libraries with controlled composition and microstructure gradients are suggested. Much of this evaluation can be done now, but key components (materials libraries with microstructure gradients and high-throughput tensile testing are currently missing. Suggestions for future HEA efforts are given.

  11. Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pitkänen


    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap and the auroral oval are examined in the evening sector during a substorm period on 25 November 2000 by using measurements of the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, the north-south chain of the MIRACLE magnetometer network, and the Polar UV Imager.

    The location of the polar cap boundary (PCB is estimated from electron temperature measurements by the mainland low-elevation EISCAT VHF radar and the 42 m antenna of the EISCAT Svalbard radar. A comparison to the poleward auroral emission (PAE boundary by the Polar UV Imager shows that in this event the PAE boundary is typically located 0.7° of magnetic latitude poleward of the PCB by EISCAT. The convection reversal boundary (CRB is determined from the 2-D plasma drift velocity extracted from the dual-beam VHF data. The CRB is located 0.5–1° equatorward of the PCB indicating the existence of viscous-driven antisunward convection on closed field lines.

    East-west equivalent electrojets are calculated from the MIRACLE magnetometer data by the 1-D upward continuation method. In the substorm growth phase, electrojets together with the polar cap boundary move gradually equatorwards. During the substorm expansion phase, the Harang discontinuity (HD region expands to the MLT sector of EISCAT. In the recovery phase the PCB follows the poleward edge of the westward electrojet.

    The local ionospheric reconnection electric field is calculated by using the measured plasma velocities in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. During the substorm growth phase, values between 0 and 10 mV/m are found. During the late expansion and recovery phase, the reconnection electric field has temporal variations with periods of 7–27 min and values from 0 to 40 mV/m. It is shown quantitatively, for the first time to our knowledge, that intensifications in the local reconnection electric field correlate with appearance of auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs

  12. Analysis of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer during structured electrodeposition of copper in high magnetic gradient fields. (United States)

    König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen


    To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.

  13. On class visualisation for high dimensional data: Exploring scientific datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Kaban, Ata; Raychaudhuri, S; Nolan, L; Kaban, Ata; Sun, Jianyong; Raychaudhury, Somak; Nolan, Louisa


    Parametric Embedding (PE) has recently been proposed as a general-purpose algorithm for class visualisation. It takes class posteriors produced by a mixture-based clustering algorithm and projects them in 2D for visualisation. However, although this fully modularised combination of objectives (clustering and projection) is attractive for its conceptual simplicity, in the case of high dimensional data, we show that a more optimal combination of these objectives can be achieved by integrating them both into a consistent probabilistic model. In this way, the projection step will fulfil a role of regularisation, guarding against the curse of dimensionality. As a result, the tradeoff between clustering and visualisation turns out to enhance the predictive abilities of the overall model. We present results on both synthetic data and two real-world high-dimensional data sets: observed spectra of early-type galaxies and gene expression arrays.

  14. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Knots: attractive places with high path tortuosity in mouse open field exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dvorkin


    Full Text Available When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this "home base" highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior.Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them-knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling.In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene.

  16. Exploring the high-pressure behavior of superhard tungsten tetraboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Miao; Mohammadi, Reza; Mao, Zhu; Armentrout, Matt M.; Kavner, Abby; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. (UCLA)


    In this work, we examine the high-pressure behavior of superhard material candidate WB{sub 4} using high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell up to 58.4 GPa. The zero-pressure bulk modulus, K{sub 0}, obtained from fitting the pressure-volume data using the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is 326 {+-} 3 GPa. A reversible, discontinuous change in slope in the c/a ratio is further observed at {approx}42 GPa, suggesting that lattice softening occurs in the c direction above this pressure. This softening is not observed in other superhard transition metal borides such as ReB{sub 2} compressed to similar pressures. Speculation on the possible relationship between this softening and the orientation of boron-boron bonds in the c direction in the WB{sub 4} structure is included. Finally, the shear and Young's modulus values are calculated using an isotropic model based on the measured bulk modulus and an estimated Poisson's ratio for WB{sub 4}.

  17. Exploring high-z galaxies with the E-ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Gullieuszik, M; Greggio, L; Uslenghi, M; Fantinel, D


    In this paper we present simulated observations of galaxies at z=2 and z=3 to probe the capabilities of next-generation telescopes (E-ELT and JWST) to measure the structural and photometrical properties of high redshift galaxies. We carry out an extensive set of simulations of high redshift galaxies adopting the specifications of the E-ELT first light instrument MICADO. The main parameters (sizes, Sersic index, magnitudes) of the galaxies are measured using GALFIT and the accuracy of the determinations is assessed by comparing the input values to the measurements from many runs with different statistical noise. We also address the effects on the measurements accuracy of possible spatial variation of the PSF in the field. We find that from 3h exposure E-ELT near-IR images of galaxies at z=2 and z=3 it will be possible to measure the size, the total magnitude and the galaxy morphology with an accuracy of 5% for objects as faint as H=25 and half light size of 0.2 arcsec. The effective radius of compact, early ty...

  18. A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan


    We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. High order methods for incompressible fluid flow: Application to moving boundary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoentegaard, Tormod


    Fluid flows with moving boundaries are encountered in a large number of real life situations, with two such types being fluid-structure interaction and free-surface flows. Fluid-structure phenomena are for instance apparent in many hydrodynamic applications; wave effects on offshore structures, sloshing and fluid induced vibrations, and aeroelasticity; flutter and dynamic response. Free-surface flows can be considered as a special case of a fluid-fluid interaction where one of the fluids are practically inviscid, such as air. This type of flows arise in many disciplines such as marine hydrodynamics, chemical engineering, material processing, and geophysics. The driving forces for free-surface flows may be of large scale such as gravity or inertial forces, or forces due to surface tension which operate on a much smaller scale. Free-surface flows with surface tension as a driving mechanism include the flow of bubbles and droplets, and the evolution of capillary waves. In this work we consider incompressible fluid flow, which are governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. There are several challenges when simulating moving boundary problems numerically, and these include - Spatial discretization - Temporal discretization - Imposition of boundary conditions - Solution strategy for the linear equations. These are some of the issues which will be addressed in this introduction. We will first formulate the problem in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework, and introduce the weak formulation of the problem. Next, we discuss the spatial and temporal discretization before we move to the imposition of surface tension boundary conditions. In the final section we discuss the solution of the resulting linear system of equations. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  20. High-Order Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for the Linearized Euler Equations (United States)


    Bernoulli, Chebyshev, Fibonacci , Hermite, Legendre, Laguerre, Spread, Touchard, Rook, Orthogonal, Secondary, Sheffer sequence , Sturm se- quence, and...Pante Stǎnicǎ here at NPS for his discovery concerning the polynomial sequence discussed on p. 108. I am of course deeply indebted to the Air Force for...equation and deriving Padé approximations thereto in a sequence of ever-more-accurate boundary conditions. Smith [101] took a simplistic, albeit

  1. Relationship between boundary misorientation angle and true strain during high temperature deformation of 7050 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-e; YANG Li; ZHEN Liang; SHAO Wen-zhu; ZHANG Bao-you


    Tensile tests of solid solution treated 7050 aluminum alloy were conducted to different strain degrees (0.1, 0.4, 0.6 and failure) at 460 ℃ with the strain rate of 1.0×10-4-1.0×10-1s-1. The boundary misorientation angle evolution during hot deformation of the 7050 aluminum alloy was studied by EBSD technique and the fracture surfaces were observed using SEM. A linear relationship between the increase in the average boundary misorientation angle and the true strain at different strain rates is assumed when aluminum alloy is deformed at 460 ℃. The increasing rate of average boundary misorientation angle is 15.1-, 15.7- and -0.75- corresponding to the strain rate of 1.0×10-4, 1.0×10-2 and 0.1 s-1, respectively. The main softening mechanism is continuous dynamic recrystallization when the strain rates are 1.0×10-4 and 1.0×10-2 s-1, and it is dynamic recovery when strain rate is 0.1 s-1.

  2. Advancing the boundaries of high-connectivity network simulation with distributed computing. (United States)

    Morrison, Abigail; Mehring, Carsten; Geisel, Theo; Aertsen, A D; Diesmann, Markus


    The availability of efficient and reliable simulation tools is one of the mission-critical technologies in the fast-moving field of computational neuroscience. Research indicates that higher brain functions emerge from large and complex cortical networks and their interactions. The large number of elements (neurons) combined with the high connectivity (synapses) of the biological network and the specific type of interactions impose severe constraints on the explorable system size that previously have been hard to overcome. Here we present a collection of new techniques combined to a coherent simulation tool removing the fundamental obstacle in the computational study of biological neural networks: the enormous number of synaptic contacts per neuron. Distributing an individual simulation over multiple computers enables the investigation of networks orders of magnitude larger than previously possible. The software scales excellently on a wide range of tested hardware, so it can be used in an interactive and iterative fashion for the development of ideas, and results can be produced quickly even for very large networks. In contrast to earlier approaches, a wide class of neuron models and synaptic dynamics can be represented.

  3. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,


    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  4. Exploration of extremophiles for high temperature biotechnological processes. (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Schäfers, Christian; Blank, Saskia; Schröder, Carola; Antranikian, Garabed


    Industrial processes often take place under harsh conditions that are hostile to microorganisms and their biocatalysts. Microorganisms surviving at temperatures above 60°C represent a chest of biotechnological treasures for high-temperature bioprocesses by producing a large portfolio of biocatalysts (thermozymes). Due to the unique requirements to cultivate thermophilic (60-80°C) and hyperthermophilic (80-110°C) Bacteria and Archaea, less than 5% are cultivable in the laboratory. Therefore, other approaches including sequence-based screenings and metagenomics have been successful in providing novel thermozymes. In particular, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (amylolytic enzymes, hemicellulases, cellulases, pectinases and chitinases), lipolytic enzymes and proteases from thermophiles have attracted interest due to their potential for versatile applications in pharmaceutical, chemical, food, textile, paper, leather and feed industries as well as in biorefineries.

  5. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.B.; Breyer, J.A.


    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwest by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that forms the reservoir in Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons are trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of a more extensive-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary-mouth bars prograded seaward depositing the bar-finger sands that are the reservoirs in Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present where small down-to-the-north faults associated with the Sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from the established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary-mouth bar coalesced to form a broad delt-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand near the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated deposition of the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields remaining to be discovered in the United States are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps may be a key to finding these subtle traps.

  6. Influence of high-intensity turbulence on laminar boundary layer development on a cylindrical leading edge: Enhancement to eddy diffusivity (United States)

    Pearson, Juli K.

    The growing demand for increased efficiency in turbine engine designs has sparked a growing interest for research of air flow around curved surfaces. The turbine's operating conditions result in material property constraints, especially in the first stage turbine vanes and blades. These turbine vane components experience extreme loading conditions of both high temperature and high turbulence intensities exiting the combustor. The surface of the turbine blades has cylindrical leading edges that promote stabilizing flow accelerations. These convex surfaces can cause a reduced eddy diffusivity across the boundary layer. This thesis reviews measurements of velocity and turbulence intensities taken just shy of the thirty degrees offset from the stagnation line of a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge under a wide range of turbulence and flow conditions flow conditions. Flow conditions and velocity measurements were gathered with respect to the distance to the surface. The length of the measurements extended from the surface to beyond the boundary layer's edge. The instrumentation used to collect data was a single wire driven by a constant temperature anemometer bridge. The hot wire is specially modified to measure data near the cylindrical leading edges curved surface. The traversing system allowed the acquisition of high-resolution boundary layer data. The traversing system was installed internally to the cylindrical leading edge to reduce probe blockage.

  7. Assessing data assimilation and model boundary error strategies for high resolution ocean model downscaling in the Northern North Sea (United States)

    Sandvig Mariegaard, Jesper; Huiban, Méven Robin; Tornfeldt Sørensen, Jacob; Andersson, Henrik


    Determining the optimal domain size and associated position of open boundaries in local high-resolution downscaling ocean models is often difficult. As an important input data set for downscaling ocean modelling, the European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides baroclinic initial and boundary conditions for local ocean models. Tidal dynamics is often neglected in CMEMS services at large scale but tides are generally crucial for coastal ocean dynamics. To address this need, tides can be superposed via Flather (1976) boundary conditions and the combined flow downscaled using unstructured mesh. The surge component is also only partially represented in selected CMEMS products and must be modelled inside the domain and modelled independently and superposed if the domain becomes too small to model the effect in the downscaling model. The tide and surge components can generally be improved by assimilating water level from tide gauge and altimetry data. An intrinsic part of the problem is to find the limitations of local scale data assimilation and the requirement for consistency between the larger scale ocean models and the local scale assimilation methodologies. This contribution investigates the impact of domain size and associated positions of open boundaries with and without data assimilation of water level. We have used the baroclinic ocean model, MIKE 3 FM, and its newly re-factored built-in data assimilation package. We consider boundary conditions of salinity, temperature, water level and depth varying currents from the Global CMEMS 1/4 degree resolution model from 2011, where in situ ADCP velocity data is available for validation. We apply data assimilation of in-situ tide gauge water levels and along track altimetry surface elevation data from selected satellites. The MIKE 3 FM data assimilation model which use the Ensemble Kalman filter have recently been parallelized with MPI allowing for much larger applications running on HPC

  8. Exploring a Stream of Highly-Eccentric Binaries with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Socrates, Aristotle


    With 16-month Kepler data, 14 long-period (40 d - 265 d) eclipsing binaries on highly eccentric orbits (minimum e between 0.5 and 0.85) are recognized from their closely separated primary and secondary eclipses (\\Delta t_I,II = 3 d - 10 d). These systems confirm the existence of a previously hinted binary population situated near a constant angular momentum track at P(1-e^2)^(3/2) ~ 15 d, close to the tidal circularization period P_circ. They may be presently migrating due to tidal dissipation and form a steady-state stream (~1% of stars) feeding the close-binary population (few percent of stars). If so, future Kepler data releases will reveal a growing number (dozens) of systems at longer periods, following dN/dlgP \\propto P^(1/3) with increasing eccentricities reaching e -> 0.98 for P -> 1000d. Radial-velocity follow up of long-period eclipsing binaries with no secondary eclipses could offer a significantly larger sample. Orders of magnitude more (hundreds) may reveal their presence from periodic "eccentric...

  9. Exploring NASA Satellite Data with High Resolution Visualization (United States)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Shen, S.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Vollmer, B.; Vicente, G. A.; Pham, L.


    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, ...etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. Such obstacles may be avoided by providing satellite data as ';Images' with accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, including pixel coverage area delineation and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. We will present a prototype service from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 data (non-aggregated and un-gridded) at high spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The portal interface will connect to the backend services with OGC standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources.

  10. Exploring Students Perception and ICT Use in Indonesian High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Suratno


    Full Text Available The recent spread of technological innovation along with the sophistication of the ICT gadgets have shapped and transformed the realm of learning and teaching including in that of English Language. Alongside, ICT has become more and more inextricable part of human businesses and put a higher level of demand for technological literacy in the part of English learners in order for them to be convident in the digital era membership and participation. This study surveyed 400 high school students as regards: (a their ICT gadgets perceived ownership; (b their day-to-day outside and in-school use and; (c their activities using ICT gadgets for English learning. Findings from the descriptive analyses of the mixed-method study, disclose the positive perception about the gadget ownership. Interestingly, the current study also discovers that there has been a mismatch between the positively perceived ownership of the ICT gadgets and the real day-to-day use as facilitative media for learning, in particular as a useful aids for English language learning. Focusing on the result discussion, issues with regard to discrepancies in the provision of infrastructures and the lack of the support system by school institutions emerge from the FGD analysis highlighting the importance for all decision makers, school institutions, and teachers to consciously start doing something about it. By highlighting the pivotal role of the technology, the researcher suggested a real action for responding to the call for a change in both policy makers and institutonal levels to start integrating the technology into the school curricula.

  11. Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary (United States)

    Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli


    Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks.

  12. An Immersed Boundary - Adaptive Mesh Refinement solver (IB-AMR) for high fidelity fully resolved wind turbine simulations (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    The geometrical details of wind turbines determine the structure of the turbulence in the near and far wake and should be taken in account when performing high fidelity calculations. Multi-resolution simulations coupled with an immersed boundary method constitutes a powerful framework for high-fidelity calculations past wind farms located over complex terrains. We develop a 3D Immersed-Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement flow solver (IB-AMR) which enables turbine-resolving LES of wind turbines. The idea of using a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout adopted in the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method (CURVIB) has been successfully incorporated on unstructured meshes and the fractional step method has been employed. The overall performance and robustness of the second order accurate, parallel, unstructured solver is evaluated by comparing the numerical simulations against conforming grid calculations and experimental measurements of laminar and turbulent flows over complex geometries. We also present turbine-resolving multi-scale LES considering all the details affecting the induced flow field; including the geometry of the tower, the nacelle and especially the rotor blades of a wind tunnel scale turbine. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32...

  14. An efficient method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on irregular domains with no-slip boundary conditions, high order up to the boundary (United States)

    Shirokoff, D.; Rosales, R. R.


    Common efficient schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, such as projection or fractional step methods, have limited temporal accuracy as a result of matrix splitting errors, or introduce errors near the domain boundaries (which destroy uniform convergence to the solution). In this paper we recast the incompressible (constant density) Navier-Stokes equations (with the velocity prescribed at the boundary) as an equivalent system, for the primary variables velocity and pressure. equation for the pressure. The key difference from the usual approaches occurs at the boundaries, where we use boundary conditions that unequivocally allow the pressure to be recovered from knowledge of the velocity at any fixed time. This avoids the common difficulty of an, apparently, over-determined Poisson problem. Since in this alternative formulation the pressure can be accurately and efficiently recovered from the velocity, the recast equations are ideal for numerical marching methods. The new system can be discretized using a variety of methods, including semi-implicit treatments of viscosity, and in principle to any desired order of accuracy. In this work we illustrate the approach with a 2-D second order finite difference scheme on a Cartesian grid, and devise an algorithm to solve the equations on domains with curved (non-conforming) boundaries, including a case with a non-trivial topology (a circular obstruction inside the domain). This algorithm achieves second order accuracy in the L∞ norm, for both the velocity and the pressure. The scheme has a natural extension to 3-D.

  15. High-order absorbing boundary conditions with corner/edge compatibility for GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin wave simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Modave, Axel; Chan, Jesse; Warburton, Tim


    Discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes exhibit attractive features for accurate large-scale wave-propagation simulations on modern parallel architectures. For many applications, these schemes must be coupled with non-reflective boundary treatments to limit the size of the computational domain without losing accuracy or computational efficiency, which remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a combination of high-order absorbing boundary conditions (HABCs) with a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for cuboidal computational domains. Compatibility conditions are derived for HABCs intersecting at the edges and the corners of a cuboidal domain. We propose a GPU implementation of the computational procedure, which results in a multidimensional solver with equations to be solved on 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D spatial regions. Numerical results demonstrate both the accuracy and the computational efficiency of our approach. We have considered academic benchmarks, as well as a realistic benchmark based on t...

  16. Dynamics of ordering in highly degenerate models with anisotropic grain-boundary potential: Effects of temperature and vortex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    Monte Carlo computer-simulation techniques are used to elucidate the equilibrium phase behavior as well as the late-stage ordering dynamics of some two-dimensional models with ground-state ordering of a high degeneracy, Q. The models are Q-state Potts models with anisotropic grain......, like the standard Potts models do, nor a wetting of the boundaries, as the standard clock models do. Thermal fluctuations nevertheless cause wetting to occur for not too small temperatures. Specifically, we have studied models with Q=12 and 48. The models are quenched from infinite to zero as well......, for quenches to finite temperatures in the Potts-ordered phase there is a distinct crossover to the classical Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn exponent value, n=1 / 2, for both values of Q. This supports the conjecture that the zero-temperature dynamics for models with soft domain boundaries belong to a special...

  17. Towards the fourth GEWEX atmospheric boundary layer model intercomparison study (GABLS4): exploration of very stable conditions over an Antarctic ice shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihma, T.; Kilpeläinen, T.; Rontu, L.; Anderson, P.S.; Orr, A.; Phillips, T.; Finkele, K.; Rodrigo, I.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Svensson, G.


    Numerical weather prediction and climate models continue to have large errors for stable boundary layers (SBL). To understand and to improve on this, so far three atmospheric boundary layer model inter-comparison studies have been organised within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

  18. Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers and Interstellar Boundary Explorer energetic neutral atom imaging of the 5 April 2010 substorm (United States)

    McComas, D. J.; Buzulukova, N.; Connors, M. G.; Dayeh, M. A.; Goldstein, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S.; Schwadron, N. A.; Valek, P.


    This study is the first to combine energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) and Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Here we examine the arrival of an interplanetary shock and the subsequent geomagnetically effective substorm on 5 April 2010, which was associated with the Galaxy 15 communications satellite anomaly. IBEX shows sharply enhanced ENA emissions immediately upon compression of the dayside magnetosphere at 08:26:17+/-9 s UT. The compression drove a markedly different spectral shape for the dayside emissions, with a strong enhancement at energies >1 keV, which persisted for hours after the shock arrival, consistent with the higher solar wind speed, density, and dynamic pressure (˜10 nPa) after the shock. TWINS ENA observations indicate a slower response of the ring current and precipitation of ring current ions as low-altitude emissions ˜15 min later, with the >50 keV ion precipitation leading the internal magnetospheric processes are occurring after compression of the magnetosphere and before the ring current ions end up in the loss cone and precipitate into the ionosphere. We also compare MHD simulation results with both the TWINS and IBEX ENA observations; while the overall fluxes and distributions of emissions were generally similar, there were significant quantitative differences. Such differences emphasize the complexity of the magnetospheric system and importance of the global perspective for macroscopic magnetospheric studies. Finally, Appendix A documents important details of the TWINS data processing, including improved binning procedures, smoothing of images to a given level of statistical accuracy, and differential background subtraction.

  19. Final report: Constructing comprehensive models of grain boundaries using high-throughput experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Schuh, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Marzouk, Youssef [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This is the final report on project DE-SC0008926. The goal of this project was to create capabilities for constructing, analyzing, and modeling experimental databases of the crystallographic characters and physical properties of thousands of individual grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline metals. This project focused on gallium permeation through aluminum (Al) GBs and hydrogen uptake into nickel (Ni) GBs as model problems. This report summarizes the work done within the duration of this project (including the original three-year award and the subsequent one-year renewal), i.e. from August 1, 2012 until April 30, 2016.

  20. High-Order Accurate Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in the Presence of Boundary Singularities (United States)


    each identical to (2.3) up to the notation. Consequently, we may continue to use formula (2.11) to obtain a fourth order accurate approximation of...2.5.1 Dirichlet boundary condition Example 1 For our first example, we use a test solution u, based on a trigonometric function of r, and coefficients a...the the governing equation is homogeneous, and even in the inhomogeneous case g is related but not identical to the source term of the PDE. As such, in

  1. Kinetic effect of high energy ions on the temperature profile in the boundary plasma region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezumi, N., E-mail: [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Hayashi, Y.; Todoroki, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)


    Importance of ion dynamics in the boundary region has been discussed with experimental results of ion temperature (T{sub i}) measurements in linear plasma devices and its analytical model. Radial profiles of T{sub i} have been measured by using an ion sensitive probe in the linear devices CTP-HC and NAGDIS-II. The experiments indicate that T{sub i} is growing radially. Analytical ion-mean-energy profiles based on the ion Larmor motion are qualitatively consistent with the experimental T{sub i} profiles. These results clarify that the higher energy ions exist in the outside region of plasma flux tube.

  2. Multi-mode fibre laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) with high spatial resolution for the investigation of boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, L.; Czarske, J. [Group Laser Metrology, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419, Hannover (Germany)


    A novel LDA system using laser diode arrays and multi-mode fibers in the transmitting optics is presented. The use of high numerical aperture multi-mode step-index fibres results in measurement volumes with, for example, 80 {mu}m length and minimal speckle effects. Because of the high spatial resolution and low relative fringe spacing variation of {delta}d/d{approx}5 x 10{sup -4} the multi-mode fibre LDA is predestined for investigating turbulent flows. Boundary layer measurements carried out show excellent agreement with theoretical velocity profiles. (orig.)

  3. The location and nature of the Telemzan High Ghadames basin boundary in southern Tunisia based on gravity and magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.


    Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to add constraints on the location and nature of the Telemzan-Ghadames boundary (TGB) and structure of the Ghadames basin in southern Tunisia. TGB is the boundary between the thick sedimentary cover of the intracratonic Ghadames basin to the south and the thin sedimentary cover of the Saharan platform to the north. The upward continuation of the Bouguer gravity anomalies showed that the TGB is a regional geophysical feature that may have controlled the amount of sediment being deposited both north and south of the boundary and the tectonic environment in the region since Paleozoic time. To emphasize the shorter wavelength gravity and magnetic anomalies, a series of gray scale images of the directional horizontal gradients were constructed that determined a series of previously unknown east-west-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies south of 31.6°N that correspond to lineaments seen on a Landsat 7 image and the location of the TGB. Also, an edge-enhancement analysis illustrated the same linear gravity anomalies and showed the subbasins and uplifts within the Ghadames basin had source depths of between 0.5 and 3.4 km. A north-south trending gravity model showed that the TGB is a relatively gradual feature (possibly basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting) controlling the subsidence of the main Ghadames basin and confirms the edge-enhancement analysis that subbasin S3 and uplift U1 are the main structural features within the Ghadames basin. The knowledge of basement architecture of the Ghadames basin is important for future petroleum exploration within this intracratonic basin.

  4. High-speed boundary layer transition induced by a discrete roughness element (United States)

    Iyer, Prahladh; Mahesh, Krishnan


    The effect of a hemispherical bump on a Mach 3.37 laminar boundary layer is studied using DNS for three conditions with k / δ = 2.54, 0.25 and 0.125, where k is the roughness height. The simulation parameters are based on the experiment by Danehy et. al. (AIAA-2009-394). The flow downstream of the roughness is transitional for all the three conditions accompanied by a rise in skin friction and heat transfer. Upon interaction with the roughness element, the boundary layer separates to form a series of spanwise vortices upstream and a shear layer. These vortices wrap around the roughness to yield a system of streamwise vortices downstream. Perturbation of the shear layer due to the vortices results in the formation of hairpin-shaped vortices further downstream of the roughness. While hairpin vortices were observed in both the center plane and off-symmetry planes on either side for the smallest δ case, they were observed only in the center plane for the other cases. This work was supported by NASA under the hypersonics NRA program under grant NNX08AB33A.

  5. The effect of high temperature induced variation of specific heat on the hypersonic turbulent boundary layer and its computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    For hypersonic vehicles,as the temperature in its boundary layer usually exceeds 600 K,for which the molecular vibrational degree of freedom is excited,the perfect gas model is no longer valid.In this paper,the effect of high temperature induced variation of specific heat on the hypersonic turbulent boundary layer of flat plates is investigated by direct numerical simulations with the perfect gas model,i.e.with constant specific heat,as well as with a variable specific heat gas model.The comparison of the results from the two gas models has found that the effect of the variation of specific heat on the velocity of the turbulent boundary layers is relatively small,while its effect on temperature,such as the mean temperature,the temperature fluctuations,is appreciable.It is also found that the mean specific heat is quite close to the specific heat calculated by using the mean temperature,indicating that it is possible to do turbulence modeling.The modeling is done under the variable specific heat gas model with the mean temperature as the variable.The feasibility of such consideration is verified by applying the SST model for variable specific heat turbulence computation.

  6. High resolution image of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary of the subducting Nazca plate beneath northern Chile (United States)

    Sodoudi, F.; Yuan, X.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.


    Results obtained from S and P receiver functions produced a clear image of the top and bottom of the subducting Nazca lithosphere beneath northern Chile. Using data from the teleseismic events recorded at 15 permanent IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile) stations, we were able to obtain new constraints on the shape and thickness of the descending Nazca lithosphere. We observed the subducted crust of the Nazca plate at depths ranging from 40 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera down to 110 km beneath the Western Cordillera. We found significant along-strike variations in the geometry of the Nazca plate beneath northern Chile. On closer inspection, it appears that the oceanic Nazca plate is divided into two distinct segments as it descends beneath the continental South American plate. The transition from the relatively steeper and deeper slab to the north of 21° S to the flatter southern segment is shown reasonably clearly by our data. This feature could well be associated with variations in the curvature of the plate margin and the geometry of the Chile trench, which is mainly curved to the north of 21° S. We have also mapped the continental Moho of the South American plate at depths ranging between 60-70 km to the east of the Longitudinal Valley. Beneath the Coastal Cordillera, this boundary becomes invisible, probably due to the serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge. The Lithosphere-Astheonsphere Boundary (LAB) of the subducted Nazca plate was clearly identified as a sharp boundary in the results obtained from the P and S receiver functions. The LAB lies at a depth of 80 km beneath the coastal area and dips from a depth of 100 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera to about 150 km underneath the Western Cordillera. High frequency PRF data enabled us to make confident estimates of the top and bottom of the Nazca lithosphere, which results in a lithospheric thickness of 57-60 km. In relation to the age of the Nazca plate, which is assumed to be ~ 50

  7. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik


    A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers......., showed a good agreement with the available laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements. Analysis of the flow was directly able to identify and confirm the existence of internal layers at positions related to the vicinity of the upstream and downstream discontinuities in the surface curvature and also...

  8. Passive Boundary Layer Separation Control on a NACA2415 Airfoil at High Reynolds Numbers (United States)

    Parikh, Agastya; Hultmark, Marcus


    The design and analysis of a passive flow control system for a NACA2415 airfoil is undertaken. There exists a vast body of knowledge on airfoil boundary layer control with the use of controlled mass flux, but there is little work investigating passive mass flux-based methods. A simple duct system that uses the upper surface pressure gradient to force blowing near the leading edge and suction near the trailing edge is proposed and evaluated. 2D RANS analyses at Rec 1 . 27 ×106 were used to generate potential configurations for experimental tests. Initial computational results suggest drag reductions of approximately 2 - 7 % as well as lift increases of 4 - 5 % at α = 10 .0° and α = 12 .5° . A carbon composite-aluminum structure model that implements the most effective configurations, according to the CFD predictions, has been designed and fabricated. Experiments are being performed to evaluate the CFD results and the feasibility the duct system.

  9. High-gain adaptive regulator for a string equation with uncertain harmonic disturbance under boundary output feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu GUO; Wei GUO


    This paper considers the boundary stabilization and parameter estimation of a one-dimensional wave equation in the case when one end is fixed and control and harmonic disturbance with uncertain amplitude are input at another end. A high-gain adaptive regulator is designed in terms of measured collocated end velocity. The existence and uniqueness of the classical solution of the closed-loop system is proven. It is shown that the state of the system approaches the standstill as time goes to infitv and meanwhile, the estimated parameter converges to the unknown parameter.

  10. High-resolution cyclostratigraphy of geochemical records from Permo-Triassic boundary section of Dongpan, southwestern Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG XingFang; FENG QingLai; Li ZhouBo; MENG YouYan


    Spectral analysis is applied to geochemical data from a deep-water Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) section across PTB in Dongpan, Guangxi for high-resolution cyclostratigraphic research. The characteristics of the Milankovitch Cycles have been well recorded in the strata of the Dongpan section.Spectrum on Ce/La records shows especially that the ratios among its three preponderant cycles in the section are 5:2:1, which well displays the phenomenon of the sedimentary cycles driven by orbital force. The Milankovitch theory is further confirmed by the Paleozoic records.

  11. Dislocations as a boundary between charge density wave and oxygen rich phases in a cuprate high temperature superconductor (United States)

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Campi, Gaetano; Bianconi, Antonio


    Multiple functional ionic and electronic orders are observed in high temperature superconducting cuprates. The charge density wave order is one of them and it is spatially localized in different regions of the material. It is also known that the oxygen interstitials introduced by chemical intercalation self-organize in different oxygen rich regions corresponding with hole rich regions in the CuO2 layers left empty by the charge density wave order domains. However, what happens in between these two orders is not known, and neither there is a method to control this spatial separation. Here we demonstrate by using scanning nano x-ray diffraction, that dislocations or grain boundaries in the material can act as boundary between charge density wave and oxygen rich phases in a optimally doped {{La}}2{{CuO}}4+y high temperature superconductor. Dislocations can be used therefore to control the anti-correlation of the charge density wave order with the oxygen interstitials in specific portion of the material.

  12. Ag diffusion in SiC high-energy grain boundaries: kinetic Monte Carlo study with first-principle calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Hyunseok; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane


    The diffusion of silver (Ag) impurities in high energy grain boundaries (HEGBs) of cubic (3C) silicon carbide (SiC) is studied using an ab initio based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. This study assesses the hypothesis that the HEGB diffusion is responsible for Ag release in Tristructural-Isotropic fuel particles, and provides a specific example to increase understanding of impurity diffusion in highly disordered grain boundaries. The HEGB environment was modeled by an amorphous SiC. The structure and stability of Ag defects were calculated using density functional theory code. The defect energetics suggested that the fastest diffusion takes place via an interstitial mechanism in a-SiC. The formation energy of Ag interstitials and the kinetic resolved activation energies between them were well approximated with Gaussian distributions that were then sampled in the kMC. The diffusion of Ag was simulated with the effective medium model using kMC. At 1200-1600C, Ag in a HEGB is predicted to exhibit an Arrhenius ...

  13. The daytime boundary layer in the Inn Valley - A model evaluation study with high-quality turbulence measurements (United States)

    Goger, Brigitta; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gohm, Alexander; Fuhrer, Oliver; Stiperski, Ivana


    Atmospheric processes associated with complex terrain include various phenomena on the meso- and microscale, which contribute significantly to the local weather in mountainous areas of the Earth. One of the most prominent and well-known boundary-layer phenomena in mountainous terrain is the daytime valley wind circulation, which is very pronounced on clear-sky days with weak synoptic forcing. We use several chosen "valley wind days" in the Inn Valley, Austria, as case studies for the evaluation of the performance of the NWP model COSMO on a horizontal resolution of 1.1 km with a focus on boundary-layer processes and turbulent exchange. The overall goal is to evaluate the model setup and to investigate whether the model's physics schemes (initially developed for horizontally homogeneous and flat surroundings) are suitable for truly complex terrain. We evaluate the model by using measurements from the so-called "i-Box" located in the Inn Valley. The i-Box consists of six core sites that are located at representative locations in the Inn Valley, and two remote sensing systems (wind Lidar and HATPRO passive T/RH profiler) in the city of Innsbruck. The long-term data set provides a data pool of high-resolution velocity variances, turbulence variables, radiation, soil moisture, and vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and wind in the lower troposphere, which allows a process-oriented analysis. A special focus is laid on the daytime valley boundary layer and its interaction with the developing up-valley wind. Vertical cross-sections show that the valley wind has an asymmetric structure, hence, the i-Box stations show a high spatial variability. While the station on the valley bottom and on the south-facing slope are clearly under the strong influence of the valley wind, the two stations on the north-facing slope are rather dominated by slope flows. We find that the valley wind has a strong (indirect) influence on the development of the local turbulence kinetic

  14. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada); Smith, Nicole [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada)


    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  15. High resolution seismic reflection, an exploration tool within an underground environment (example from Zimbabwe) (United States)

    Mutyorauta, J. J.

    Metallurgical grade chromite ore in Zimbabwe is mined from two underground mines, Peak Mine and Railway Block Mine, in Shurugwi. Peak Mine is at present just over 800 m deep. In the search for new chromite ore bodies, such a depth limits the application of the conventional geophysical exploration tools. Exploration diamond drilling is becoming more and more an expensive resort. Alternative and effective geophysical techniques are therefore being actively sought after. The high resolution seismic reflection technique, carried out right within Peak Mine, has the potential to become a useful exploration tool.

  16. Interactive Data Exploration for High-Performance Fluid Flow Computations through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Perovic, Nevena


    © 2014 IEEE. Huge data advent in high-performance computing (HPC) applications such as fluid flow simulations usually hinders the interactive processing and exploration of simulation results. Such an interactive data exploration not only allows scientiest to \\'play\\' with their data but also to visualise huge (distributed) data sets in both an efficient and easy way. Therefore, we propose an HPC data exploration service based on a sliding window concept, that enables researches to access remote data (available on a supercomputer or cluster) during simulation runtime without exceeding any bandwidth limitations between the HPC back-end and the user front-end.

  17. Convective high-speed flow and field-aligned high-speed flows explored by TC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG LingQian; LIU ZhenXing; MA ZhiWei; W.BAUMJOHANN; M.W.DUNLOP4; WANG GuangJun; WANG Xiao; H.REME; C.CARR


    From June 1, 2004 to October 31, 2006, a total 465 high-speed flow events are observed by the TC-1 satellite in the near-Earth region (-13 RE < X < -9 RE, |Y|<10 RE, |2|<5 RE). Based on the angle between the flow and the magnetic field, the high-speed flow events are further divided into two types, that is,field-aligned high-speed flow (FAHF) in the plasma sheet boundary and convective bursty bulk flow (BBF) in the center plasma sheet. Among the total 465 high-speed flow events, there are 371 FAHFs,and 94 BBFs. The CHF are mainly concentrated in the plasma sheet, the intersection angle between the flow and the magnetic field is larger, the magnetic field intensity is relatively weak. The FHF are mainly distributed near the boundary layer of the plasma sheet, the intersection angle between the flow and magnetic field is smaller, and the magnetic field intensity is relatively strong. The convective BBFs have an important effect on the substorm.

  18. Partners in Learning: Exploring Two Transformative University and High School Service-Learning Partnerships (United States)

    Bialka, Christa S.; Havlik, Stacey A.


    This study describes a service-learning partnership between a Mid-Atlantic university and two private, urban high schools by examining the perspectives of those engaged in the service experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the shared experiences of service-learning in schools from the perspectives of both university and high school…

  19. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten


    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  20. Boundary Conditions of the High-Investment Human Resource Systems-Small-Firm Labor Productivity Relationship (United States)

    Chadwick, Clint; Way, Sean A.; Kerr, Gerry; Thacker, James W.


    Although a few published, multiindustry, firm-level, empirical studies have linked systems of high-investment or high-performance human resource management practices to enhanced small-firm performance, this stream of strategic human resource management research is underdeveloped and equivocal. Accordingly, in this study, we use a sample of…

  1. Boundary Conditions of the High-Investment Human Resource Systems-Small-Firm Labor Productivity Relationship (United States)

    Chadwick, Clint; Way, Sean A.; Kerr, Gerry; Thacker, James W.


    Although a few published, multiindustry, firm-level, empirical studies have linked systems of high-investment or high-performance human resource management practices to enhanced small-firm performance, this stream of strategic human resource management research is underdeveloped and equivocal. Accordingly, in this study, we use a sample of…

  2. High Temperature Metamorphism In The Conductive Boundary Layer Of An Intrusion Of Rhyolite Magma In The Krafla Geothermal System, Iceland (United States)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Mortensen, A. K.


    A rhyolite magma body within the Krafla geothermal system- encountered at a depth of 2.1 km during drilling of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1 borehole - is producing high temperature metamorphism within adjacent country rocks. Cuttings recovered during drilling within a few meters of the intrusive contact are undergoing recrystallization into granoblastic, pyroxene hornfelses. In mafic rocks, clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-magnetite-ilmenite assemblages record temperatures in the range of 800-950°C. Silicic lithologies - mainly older felsitic intrusions -contain pockets of rhyolite melt, quenched to glass during drilling, amongst alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, clinopyroxene, and magnetite. Curiously, no lower grade metamorphic assemblages have been identified in the drill cuttings, and country rocks at distances beyond 30 m of the contact are essentially unaltered. These findings suggest that the intruding rhyolite magma body has created a thin conductive boundary layer above it, but that a contact metamorphic aureole has not as yet developed beyond this. The heat flow across the boundary layer is calculated to be a minimum of 23 W m-2. This flux is capable of supplying steam to a geothermal power plant that can produce approximately 40 MW of electrical generation from a single well that has a measured well-head temperature of up to 415°C.

  3. High diversity, low disparity and small body size in plesiosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    Full Text Available Invasion of the open ocean by tetrapods represents a major evolutionary transition that occurred independently in cetaceans, mosasauroids, chelonioids (sea turtles, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Plesiosaurian reptiles invaded pelagic ocean environments immediately following the Late Triassic extinctions. This diversification is recorded by three intensively-sampled European fossil faunas, spanning 20 million years (Ma. These provide an unparalleled opportunity to document changes in key macroevolutionary parameters associated with secondary adaptation to pelagic life in tetrapods. A comprehensive assessment focuses on the oldest fauna, from the Blue Lias Formation of Street, and nearby localities, in Somerset, UK (Earliest Jurassic: 200 Ma, identifying three new species representing two small-bodied rhomaleosaurids (Stratesaurus taylori gen et sp. nov.; Avalonnectes arturi gen. et sp. nov and the most basal plesiosauroid, Eoplesiosaurus antiquior gen. et sp. nov. The initial radiation of plesiosaurs was characterised by high, but short-lived, diversity of an archaic clade, Rhomaleosauridae. Representatives of this initial radiation were replaced by derived, neoplesiosaurian plesiosaurs at small-medium body sizes during a more gradual accumulation of morphological disparity. This gradualistic modality suggests that adaptive radiations within tetrapod subclades are not always characterised by the initially high levels of disparity observed in the Paleozoic origins of major metazoan body plans, or in the origin of tetrapods. High rhomaleosaurid diversity immediately following the Triassic-Jurassic boundary supports the gradual model of Late Triassic extinctions, mostly predating the boundary itself. Increase in both maximum and minimum body length early in plesiosaurian history suggests a driven evolutionary trend. However, Maximum-likelihood models suggest only passive expansion into higher body size categories.

  4. Investigation of High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics of a 12 Degree 21-Inch Conical Diffuser, Including the Effects of Change in Inlet-Boundary-Layer Thickness (United States)

    Copp, Martin R.; Klevatt, Paul L.


    Investigations were conducted of a 12 degree 21-inch conical diffuser of 2:l area ratio to determine the interrelation of boundary layer growth and performance characteristics. surveys were made of inlet and exit from, longitudinal static pressures were recorded, and velocity profiles were obtained through an inlet Reynolds number range, determined From mass flows and based on inlet diameter of 1.45 x 10(exp 6) to 7.45 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.11 to approximately choking. These investigations were made to two thicknesses of inlet boundary layer. The mean value, over the entire range of inlet velocities, of the displacement thickness of the thinner inlet boundary layer was approximately 0.035 inch and that of the thicker inlet boundary layer was approximately six times this value. The loss coefficient in the case of the thinner inlet boundary layer had a value between 2 to 3 percent of the inlet impact pressure over most of the air-flow range. The loss coefficient with the thicker inlet boundary layer was of the order of twice that of the thinner inlet boundary layer at low speeds and approximately three times at high speeds. In both cases the values were substantially less than those given in the literature for fully developed pipe flow. The static-pressure rise for the thinner inlet boundary layer was of the order of 95 percent of that theoretically possible over the entire speed range. For the thicker inlet boundary layer the static pressure rise, as a percentage of that theoretically possible, ranged from 82 percent at low speeds to 68 percent at high speeds.

  5. Pushing the boundaries of diagnostic CT systems for high spatial resolution imaging tasks (United States)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P.; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Garrett, John W.; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Ke


    In a previous work [Cruz-Bastida et al Med. Phys. 43, 2399 (2016)], the spatial resolution performance of a new High-Resolution (Hi-Res) multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scan mode and the associated High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels was systematically characterized. The purpose of the present work was to study the noise properties of the Hi-Res scan mode and the joint impact of spatial resolution and noise characteristics on high contrast and high spatial resolution imaging tasks. Using a physical phantom and a diagnostic MDCT system, equipped with both Hi-Res and conventional scan modes, noise power spectrum (NPS) measurements were performed at 8 off-centered positions (0 to 14 cm with an increment of 2 cm) for 8 non-HD kernels and 7 HD kernels. An in vivo rabbit experiment was then performed to demonstrate the potential clinical value of the Hi-Res scan mode. Without the HD kernels, the Hi-Res scan mode preserved the shape of the NPS and slightly increased noise magnitude across all object positions. The combined use of the Hi-Res scan mode and HD kernels led to a greater noise increase and pushed the NPS towards higher frequencies, particularly for those edge-preserving or edge-enhancing HD kernels. Results of the in vivo rabbit study demonstrate important trade-offs between spatial resolution and noise characteristics. Overall, for a given high contrast and high spatial resolution imaging task (bronchi imaging), the benefit of spatial resolution improvement introduced by the Hi-Res scan mode outweighs the potential noise amplification, leading to better overall imaging performance for both centered and off-centered positions.

  6. Crossing Boundaries: Multimedia Technology and Pedagogical Innovation in a High School Class. (United States)

    Parks, Susan; Huot, Diane; Hamers, Josiane; Lemmonier, France H. -


    Focuses on an innovative program in a Quebec high school that involves project-based teaching in networked classroom equipped with laptop computers. One English-as--a Second-Language language arts and two French content teachers' use of computer technology is discussed in relation to their conceptualizations of teaching and the way in which the…

  7. Turbulence Parameterizations for Convective Boundary Layers in High-Resolution Mesoscale Models (United States)


    mesoscale models can realistically simulate observed precipitation structures over complex terrain. Simulating gap flow through the Strait of Juan de...124, 2152-2175. ____, and ____, 2000a: High-resolution observations and numerical simulations of easterly gap flow through the Strait of Juan

  8. An experimental study on laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers with pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoray Valery


    Full Text Available We report here the results of a study on measurements and prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of the airfoil-like geometries with presence of the external pressure gradient changeover. The experiments are performed for a number of flow cases with different flow Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient distributions. The results were then compared to numerical calculations for same geometries and flow conditions. The experiments and computations are performed for the flow parameters which are typical for turbomachinery applications and the major idea of the current study is the validation of the turbulence model which can be used for such engineering applications.

  9. Josephson-junction single plaquette as a model for the high-Tc grain-boundary junctions (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Shin, Hyun Joon; Lee, Hu Jong


    We have calculated the widths of the integer and half-integer voltage steps in a square Josephson-junction single plaquette as a function of ac level for various filling factors f. The characteristic features of the step widths, corresponding to n=0, 1/2, and 1, show clear differences between small and large values of f, and are in reasonable agreement with the results observed experimentally in high-Tc single grain-boundary junctions. When the inhomogeneity in the critical current of the junctions parallel and perpendicular to the external current is introduced to the model the equations of motion for a single plaquette become equivalent to those of a dc superconducting quantum interference device in the limit of small loop inductance.

  10. Thermodynamic equilibrium studies of nanocrystallite SrTiO3 grain boundaries by high temperature photoelectron spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振祥; 谢侃


    Nanostructured strontium titanate (SrTiO3) thin films are studied by high temperature pho-toelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results indicate that ion migration and redistribution as well as transformation between lattice oxygen and gas phase oxygen take place near the grain boundaries during thermodynamic equilibrium process, which lead to obvious variation of the surface composition with temperature. The lattice oxygen ions migrate from bulk to grain surface with temperature rising up; meanwhile Ti ions also migrate to grain surface and combine with oxygen ions forming Ti-O complex. An opposite process takes place during temperature falling down, but the latter process is much slower than the former one. A primary model is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  11. Thermodynamic equilibrium studies of nanocrystallite SrTiO3 grain boundaries by high temperature photoelectron spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nanostructured strontium titanate (SrTiO3) thin films are studied by high temperature photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results indicate that ion migration and redistribution as well as transformation between lattice oxygen and gas phase oxygen take place near the grain boundaries during thermodynamic equilibrium process, which lead to obvious variation of the surface composition with temperature. The lattice oxygen ions migrate from bulk to grain surface with temperature rising up; meanwhile Ti ions also migrate to grain surface and combine with oxygen ions forming Ti-O complex. An opposite process takes place during temperature falling down, but the latter process is much slower than the former one. A primary model is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  12. Marine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODIS (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry


    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTER-specific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in [Zhao and Di Girolamo(2006)]. To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (τ) and cloud effective radius (reff) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000 m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, τaA and reff, aA retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R > 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between reff, aA and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 µm. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  13. Coalbed methane reservoir boundaries and sealing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; LIU Shaobo; SONG Yan


    It is important to investigate the coalbed methane reservoir boundaries for the classification, exploration, and development of the coalbed methane reservoir.Based on the investigation of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs in the world, the boundaries can be divided into four types: hydrodynamic boundary, air altered boundary,permeability boundary, and fault boundary. Hydrodynamic and air altered boundaries are ubiquitous boundaries for every coalbed methane reservoir. The four types of the fault sealing mechanism in the petroleum geological investigation (diagen- esis, clay smear, juxtaposition and cataclasis) are applied to the fault boundary of the coalbed methane reservoir. The sealing mechanism of the open fault boundary is the same with that of the hydrodynamic sealing boundary.The sealing mechanism of the permeability boundary is firstly classified into capillary pressure sealing and hydrocarbon concentration sealing. There are different controlling boundaries in coalbed methane reservoirs that are in different geological backgrounds. Therefore, the coalbed methane reservoir is diversiform.

  14. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated the...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results.......Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...

  15. End boundary effects on local buckling response of high strength linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Ali [IMV Projects Atlantic and Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Kenny, Shawn [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Taheri, Farid [Dalhousie University (Canada); Duan, Da-Ming; Zhou, Joe [TransCanada PipeLines (Canada)


    In the natural gas sector, when long distance transportation of large volumes is required, high strength pipelines are usually used, due to their economic benefits. These pipelines are often installed in harsh environments with high strain conditions and limit state functions need to be set up. The aim of this paper is to study the length to diameter ratio effect on the local buckling response. In order to predict the local buckling response, a model was developed with ABAQUS/Standard, a finite element software, and was adjusted with experimental data. Results showed that conventional methods might not be completely accurate when determining compressive strength limits for short pipeline segments while the model developed herein showed a good prediction. This study highlighted the limits of current methods and showed that end effects on the local buckling response must be addressed; the calibrated finite element model developed can mitigate it but needs further validation.

  16. Exploring New Challenges of High-Resolution SWOT Satellite Altimetry with a Regional Model of the Solomon Sea (United States)

    Brasseur, P.; Verron, J. A.; Djath, B.; Duran, M.; Gaultier, L.; Gourdeau, L.; Melet, A.; Molines, J. M.; Ubelmann, C.


    The upcoming high-resolution SWOT altimetry satellite will provide an unprecedented description of the ocean dynamic topography for studying sub- and meso-scale processes in the ocean. But there is still much uncertainty on the signal that will be observed. There are many scientific questions that are unresolved about the observability of altimetry at vhigh resolution and on the dynamical role of the ocean meso- and submesoscales. In addition, SWOT data will raise specific problems due to the size of the data flows. These issues will probably impact the data assimilation approaches for future scientific or operational oceanography applications. In this work, we propose to use a high-resolution numerical model of the Western Pacific Solomon Sea as a regional laboratory to explore such observability and dynamical issues, as well as new data assimilation challenges raised by SWOT. The Solomon Sea connects subtropical water masses to the equatorial ones through the low latitude western boundary currents and could potentially modulate the tropical Pacific climate. In the South Western Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits very intense eddy kinetic energy levels, while relatively little is known about the mesoscale and submesoscale activities in this region. The complex bathymetry of the region, complicated by the presence of narrow straits and numerous islands, raises specific challenges. So far, a Solomon sea model configuration has been set up at 1/36° resolution. Numerical simulations have been performed to explore the meso- and submesoscales dynamics. The numerical solutions which have been validated against available in situ data, show the development of small scale features, eddies, fronts and filaments. Spectral analysis reveals a behavior that is consistent with the SQG theory. There is a clear evidence of energy cascade from the small scales including the submesoscales, although those submesoscales are only partially resolved by the model. In parallel

  17. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions (United States)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai


    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  18. Dress Codes Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students' Reactions to a Public High School Uniform Policy (United States)

    DaCosta, Kneia


    This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…

  19. Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.


    With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

  20. Cross-Disciplinary Exploration and Application of Reflection as a High Impact Pedagogy (United States)

    Summers, Sarah E.; Chenette, Heather C. S.; Ingram, Ella L.; McCormack, Jay P.; Cunningham, Patrick J.


    Reflection is a high-impact practice in education. This paper explores the premise, approach, and outcomes of a learning community centered on scholarly engagement with the literature of reflection. Using the reflection model operationalized by a national consortium, we developed, implemented, and assessed reflection activities designed to create…

  1. Exploring Algebra Based Problem Solving Methods and Strategies of Spanish-Speaking High School Students (United States)

    Hernandez, Andrea C.


    This dissertation analyzes differences found in Spanish-speaking middle school and high school students in algebra-based problem solving. It identifies the accuracy differences between word problems presented in English, Spanish and numerically based problems. The study also explores accuracy differences between each subgroup of Spanish-speaking…

  2. Exploring the future of timber resources in the high forest zone of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.; Arts, B.J.M.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Kyereh, B.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    Ghana's forests, particularly the timber resources, face an uncertain future, because of high deforestation rate, a rapidly declining timber resource base, rapid population growth and increasing demand for timber. This paper explores the future development of timber resource in Ghana by constructing

  3. The Benefits of Exploring Opera for the Social and Emotional Development of High-Ability Students. (United States)

    Berman, Kristin B.


    This article discusses how the exploration of opera with high-ability students can contribute to positive social and emotional development, particularly the development of humane intelligence, by stimulating ethical and moral awareness, making connections with age-old truths of humanity, and providing a powerful genre for self-expression. Teaching…

  4. Predicting Change over Time in Career Planning and Career Exploration for High School Students (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Prideaux, Lee-Ann


    This study assessed 166 high school students in Grade 8 and again in Grade 10. Four models were tested: (a) whether the T1 predictor variables (career knowledge, indecision, decision-making selfefficacy, self-esteem, demographics) predicted the outcome variable (career planning/exploration) at T1; (b) whether the T1 predictor variables predicted…

  5. High frequency asymptotic solutions of the reduced wave equation on infinite regions with non-convex boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Clifford O.


    Full Text Available The asymptotic behavior as λ → ∞ of the function U ( x , λ that satisfies the reduced wave equation L λ [ U ] = ∇ ⋅ ( E ( x ∇ U + λ 2 N 2 ( x U = 0 on an infinite 3-dimensional region, a Dirichlet condition on ∂ V , and an outgoing radiation condition is investigated. A function U N ( x , λ is constructed that is a global approximate solution as λ → ∞ of the problem satisfied by U ( x , λ . An estimate for W N ( x , λ = U ( x , λ − U N ( x , λ on V is obtained, which implies that U N ( x , λ is a uniform asymptotic approximation of U ( x , λ as λ → ∞ , with an error that tends to zero as rapidly as λ − N ( N = 1 , 2 , 3 , ... . This is done by applying a priori estimates of the function W N ( x , λ in terms of its boundary values, and the L 2 norm of r L λ [ W N ( x , λ ] on V . It is assumed that E ( x , N ( x , ∂ V and the boundary data are smooth, that E ( x − I and N ( x − 1 tend to zero algebraically fast as r → ∞ , and finally that E ( x and N ( x are slowly varying; ∂ V may be finite or infinite. The solution U ( x , λ can be interpreted as a scalar potential of a high frequency acoustic or electromagnetic field radiating from the boundary of an impenetrable object of general shape. The energy of the field propagates through an inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium; the rays along which it propagates may form caustics. The approximate solution (potential derived in this paper is defined on and in a neighborhood of any such caustic, and can be used to connect local “geometrical optics” type approximate solutions that hold on caustic free subsets of V .The result of this paper generalizes previous work of Bloom and Kazarinoff [C. O. BLOOM and N. D. KAZARINOFF, Short Wave Radiation Problems in Inhomogeneous Media: Asymptotic Solutions, SPRINGER VERLAG, NEW YORK, NY, 1976].

  6. Momentum transfer at the high-latitude magnetopause and boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lund


    Full Text Available How and where momentum is transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere is one of the key problems of space physics. Much of this transfer occurs through direct reconnection on the dayside, particularly when the IMF is southward. However, momentum transfer also occurs at higher latitudes via Alfvén waves on old open field lines, even for southward IMF. This momentum is transferred to the ionosphere via field-aligned currents (FACs, and the flow channel associated with these FACs produces a Hall current which causes magnetic variations at high latitude (the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect. We show examples where such momentum transfer is observed with multiple spacecraft and ground-based instruments.

  7. DSMC simulations of leading edge flat-plate boundary layer flows at high Mach number (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.


    The flow over a 2D leading-edge flat plate is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uinf /√{kBTinf / m }) in the range Boltzmann constant. The variation of streamwise velocity, temperature, number-density, and mean free path along the wall normal direction away from the plate surface is studied. The qualitative nature of the streamwise velocity at high Mach number is similar to those in the incompressible limit (parabolic profile). However, there are important differences. The amplitudes of the streamwise velocity increase as the Mach number increases and turned into a more flatter profile near the wall. There is significant velocity and temperature slip at the surface of the plate, and the slip increases as the Mach number is increased. It is interesting to note that for the highest Mach numbers considered here, the streamwise velocity at the wall exceeds the sound speed, and the flow is supersonic throughout the flow domain.

  8. Higher and colder: The success and failure of boundaries in high altitude and Antarctic research stations. (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa


    This article offers a series of case studies of field stations and field laboratories based at high altitudes in the Alps, Himalayas and Antarctica, which have been used by Western scientists (largely physiologists and physicists) from circa 1820 to present. It rejects the common frame for work on such spaces that polarizes a set of generalizations about practices undertaken in 'the field' versus 'the laboratory'. Field sites are revealed as places that can be used to highlight common and crucial features of modern experimental science that are exposed by, but not uniquely the properties of, fieldwork. This includes heterogeneity of population and practice, diverse afterlives, the manner in which spaces of science construct individual and group expertise, and the extensive support and funding structures needed for modern scientific work.

  9. The current-voltage and noise properties of high temperature superconductor SNS and grain boundary junctions

    CERN Document Server

    McGordon, A


    transport that was dominated by the interlayer material, but supercurrent transport that could be due to pinhole shorts. In addition, both geometries, especially the sandwich junction, showed large amounts of normal state noise making these junctions unsuitable for device applications. The effect of shining laser light onto a junction was investigated. The effects on the I-V characteristic were unobservable with the experimental resolution available. The effect of the light on the critical current noise of the junction was to reduce the noise peak slightly when compared to the unilluminated case- the reduction was of the order of 10%, comparable with experimental resolution. The study of the noise from Josephson Junctions is an intense field of research. Despite this, no clear picture of the current transport in these devices has emerged. Without the detailed understanding of the mechanisms of current transport in High Temperature Superconductor junctions, the design of superconducting electronics will not mo...

  10. High-frequency field observations of aeolian saltation interactions with turbulent boundary layer winds

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Raleigh L; Chamecki, Marcelo


    The wind-blown transport of sand is driven by turbulent winds that fluctuate over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Increasingly sophisticated models and wind tunnel experiments have attempted to capture these dynamics of aeolian saltation, yet model predictions often diverge substantially from field observations. To help fill this knowledge gap, we collected comprehensive high-frequency field measurements to characterize the dynamics of aeolian saltation under natural conditions. Here, we provide detailed description of our field deployments, including information about sites, instruments, and data processing methods. We then demonstrate how our field measurements can help to improve understanding of the mechanics of aeolian processes. We also describe the limitations of our measurement techniques and the needs for future work.

  11. New Progress in High-Precision and High-Resolution Seismic Exploration Technique in Coal Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the past twenty years, the proportion of coal in primary-energy consumption in China is generally between 71.3% and 76.5%. The output of coal was 1.374 billion tons in 1996, and 1.21 tons in 1998, which ranked first in the world. Now coal is mined mainly with mechanization in China, which is planned to reach 80% in major State-owned coal mines in 2000 according to the planning of the government (Li et al., 1998; Tang Dejin, 1998).Compared with the USA and Australia, China has more complex coal geological structures. Based on high-resolution seismic technique in coal exploration, a new seismic technique with high-precision and high-resolution (2-D and 3-D) has been developed for the purpose of detecting small geological structures in coal mine construction and production to meet the needs of large-scale popularization of mechanized coal mining in China. The technique is low in cost and requires a relatively short period of exploration, with high precision and wide-range applications. In the middle of the 1980s, it began to be used in pre-mining coal exploration on a trial basis, and entered the peak of exploration in the 1990s, which has made significant progress in providing high-precision geological results for the construction and production of coal industry in China, and is still in the ascendant.This paper discusses some new progress and the exploration capability and application range of the technique.

  12. Collaboration in Healthcare Through Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna


    . In highly specialized, knowledge-intensive organizations such as healthcare organizations, organizational, professional, and disciplinary boundaries mark the formal structure and division of work. Collaboration and coordination across these boundaries are essential to minimizing gaps in patient care...

  13. Improved confinement in high-density H-modes via modification of the plasma boundary with lower hybrid wavesa) (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; Reinke, M. L.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.; Theiler, C.; Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Brunner, D.; Churchill, R. M.; Edlund, E.; Ennever, P.; Faust, I.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Irby, J.; Lin, Y.; Parker, R. R.; Rice, J. E.; Shiraiwa, S.; Walk, J. R.; Wukitch, S. J.; Xu, P.


    Injecting Lower Hybrid Range of Frequency (LHRF) waves into Alcator C-Mod's high-density H-mode plasmas has led to enhanced global energy confinement by increasing pedestal temperature and pressure gradients, decreasing the separatrix density, modifying the pedestal radial electric field and rotation, and decreasing edge turbulence. These experiments indicate that edge LHRF can be used as an actuator to increase energy confinement via modification of boundary quantities. H98-factor increases of up to ˜35% (e.g., H98 from 0.75 to 1.0) are seen when moderate amounts of LH power (PLH/Ptot ˜ 0.15) are applied to H-modes of densities n ¯ e ˜ 3 × 1020 m-3, corresponding to values ˜0.5 of the Greenwald density. However, the magnitude of the improvement is reduced if the confinement quality of the target H-mode plasma is already good (i.e., H98target ˜ 1). Ray-tracing modeling and accessibility calculations for the LH waves indicate that they do not penetrate to the core. The LHRF power appears to be deposited in plasma boundary region, with a large fraction of the injected power increment appearing promptly on the outer divertor target. There is no evidence that the LH waves are driving current in these plasmas. The LHRF-actuated improvements are well correlated with suppressed pedestal density fluctuations in the 100-300 kHz range. There is also a correlation between the improved confinement and a drop in separatrix density, a correlation that is consistent with previous H-mode results with no LHRF.

  14. Dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high and the marine boundary layer clouds in boreal summer (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Wenhong; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Huang, Lei; Liu, W. Timothy


    This study investigates dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds, and the local sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the North Atlantic in boreal summer for 1984-2009 using NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset, various cloud data, and the Hadley Centre sea surface temperature. On interannual timescales, the summer mean subtropical MBL clouds to the southeast of the NASH is actively coupled with the NASH and local SSTs: a stronger (weaker) NASH is often accompanied with an increase (a decrease) of MBL clouds and abnormally cooler (warmer) SSTs along the southeast flank of the NASH. To understand the physical processes between the NASH and the MBL clouds, the authors conduct a data diagnostic analysis and implement a numerical modeling investigation using an idealized anomalous atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Results suggest that significant northeasterly anomalies in the southeast flank of the NASH associated with an intensified NASH tend to induce stronger cold advection and coastal upwelling in the MBL cloud region, reducing the boundary surface temperature. Meanwhile, warm advection associated with the easterly anomalies from the African continent leads to warming over the MBL cloud region at 700 hPa. Such warming and the surface cooling increase the atmospheric static stability, favoring growth of the MBL clouds. The anomalous diabatic cooling associated with the growth of the MBL clouds dynamically excites an anomalous anticyclone to its north and contributes to strengthening of the NASH circulation in its southeast flank. The dynamical and thermodynamical couplings and their associated variations in the NASH, MBL clouds, and SSTs constitute an important aspect of the summer climate variability over the North Atlantic.

  15. High time resolution boundary layer description using combined remote sensing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gaffard


    Full Text Available Ground based remote sensing systems for future observation operations will allow continuous monitoring of the lower troposphere at temporal resolutions much better than every 30 min. Observations which may be considered spurious from an individual instrument can be validated or eliminated when considered in conjunction with measurements from other instruments observing at the same location. Thus, improved quality control of atmospheric profiles from microwave radiometers and wind profilers should be sought by considering the measurements from different systems together rather than individually. In future test bed deployments for future operational observing systems, this should be aided by observations from laser ceilometers and cloud radars. Observations of changes in atmospheric profiles at high temporal resolution in the lower troposphere are presented from a 12 channel microwave radiometer and 1290 MHz UHF wind profiler deployed in southern England during the CSIP field experiment in July/August 2005. The observations chosen were from days when thunderstorms occurred in southern England. Rapid changes near the surface in dry layers are considered, both when rain/hail may be falling from above and where the dry air is associated with cold pools behind organised thunderstorms. Also, short term variations in atmospheric profiles and vertical stability are presented on a day with occasional low cloud, when thunderstorms triggered 50 km down wind of the observing site Improved quality control of the individual remote sensing systems need to be implemented, examining the basic quality of the underlying observations as well as the final outputs, and so for instance eliminating ground clutter as far as possible from the basic Doppler spectra measurements of the wind profiler. In this study, this was performed manually. The potential of incorporating these types of instruments in future upper air observational networks leads to the challenge to

  16. The penetration of plasma clouds across magnetic boundaries the role of high frequency oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtig, T; Raadu, M A; Hurtig, Tomas; Brenning, Nils; Raadu, Michael A.


    Experiments are reported where a collisionfree plasma cloud penetrates a magnetic barrier by self-polarization. We here focus on the resulting anomalous magnetic field diffusion into the plasma cloud, two orders of magnitude faster than classical, which is one important aspect of the plasma cloud penetration mechanism. Without such fast magnetic diffusion, clouds with kinetic beta below unity would not be able to penetrate magnetic barriers at all. Tailor-made diagnostics has been used for measurements in the parameter range with the kinetic beta ? 0.5 to 10, and with normalized width w/r(gi) of the order of unity. Experimental data on hf fluctuations in density and in electric field has been combined to yield the effective anomalous transverse resistivity eta(EFF). It is concluded that they are both dominated by highly nonlinear oscillations in the lower hybrid range, driven by a strong diamagnetic current loop that is set up in the plasma in the penetration process. The anomalous magnetic diffusion rate, ca...

  17. High genetic diversity detected in olives beyond the boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. METHODS: The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. RESULTS: Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation.

  18. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.


    We infer the fine structure of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) at the top of the lithospheric mantle from high-resolution seismic observations of Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) on superlong-range profiles in Russia. Densely recorded seismograms permit recognition of previously unknown features of teleseismic propagation of the well known Pn and Sn phases, such as a band of incoherent, scattered, high-frequency seismic energy, developing consistently from station to station, apparent velocities of sub-Moho material, and high-frequency energy to distances of more than 3000 km with a coda band, incoherent at 10 km spacing and yet consistently observed to the end of the profiles. Estimates of the other key elements of the SMBL were obtained by finite difference calculations of wave propagation in elastic 2D models from a systematic grid search through parameter space. The SMBL consists of randomly distributed, mild velocity fluctuations of 2% or schlieren of high aspect ratios (???40) with long horizontal extent (???20 km) and therefore as thin as 0.5 km only; SMBL thickness is 60-100 km. It is suggested that the SMBL is of global significance as the physical base of the platewide observed high-frequency phases Pn and Sn. It is shown that wave propagation in the SMBL waveguide is insensitive to the background velocity distribution on which its schlieren are superimposed. This explains why the Pn and Sn phases traverse geological provinces of various age, heat flow, crustal thickness, and tectonic regimes. Their propagation appears to be independent of age. temperature, pressure, and stress. Dynamic stretching of mantle material during subduction or flow, possibly combined with chemical differentiation have to be considered as scale-forming processes in the upper mantle. However, it is difficult to distinguish with the present sets of Pn/Sn array data whether (and also where) the boundary layer is a frozen-in feature of paleo-processes or whether it is a response to

  19. The Tall Wind project - exploring the wind profile and boundary-layer height in the atmosphere's first kilometer over flat terrain. (United States)

    Gryning, S. E.; Batchvarova, E.; Pena, A.; Mikkelsen, T.; Brümmer, B.; Emeis, S.; Gulstad, L.; Lee, N.


    Predicting the wind at typical heights of present and future wind turbines is a considerable scientific challenge. Presently applied models are accurate within the surface layer. New measurements and instrument synergies are necessary as basis for developing new wind models and understanding the physical processes that form the wind profile in order to describe the wind profile above it. Analysis of the wind and turbulence profiles from a meteorological mast at heights up to 160 meters and wind lidars up to 300 meters at the National test station at Høvsøre, Denmark, shows deviations of the wind profile above 80 meters the from the profile used so far near the surface. It also reveals the importance of the boundary-layer height as a physical parameter for the description of the wind profile. In the Tall Wind project, mast and lidar measurements of wind and fluxes will be combined with monitoring of the boundary-layer height by use of an aerosol lidar. At the main project monitoring sites (Høvsøre in Denmark and Hamburg in Germany) long term monitoring programmes on tall masts (160 and 300 meters) already exists and will be intensified. As part of the project the wind profile will be measured up to 1000 meters by a wind lidar (windcube) and the boundary-layer height by an aerosol lidar. The new data sets can be used for theoretical developments and evaluation of meso-scale meteorological models. The project is an international collaboration between academia (Risoe-DTU, HU and KIT) and industry (Vestas and DONG), funded by the Danish Research Agency, the Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025). In the paper the set-up of the Tall Wind project will be described and some first results and experience will be presented.

  20. High-frequency combustion instability control through acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary for liquid rocket engine applications (United States)

    Bennewitz, John William

    This research investigation encompasses experimental tests demonstrating the control of a high-frequency combustion instability by acoustically modulating the propellant flow. A model rocket combustor burned gaseous oxygen and methane using a single-element, pentad-style injector. Flow conditions were established that spontaneously excited a 2430 Hz first longitudinal combustion oscillation at an amplitude up to p'/pc ≈ 6%. An acoustic speaker was placed at the base of the oxidizer supply to modulate the flow and alter the oscillatory behavior of the combustor. Two speaker modulation approaches were investigated: (1) Bands of white noise and (2) Pure sinusoidal tones. The first approach adjusted 500 Hz bands of white noise ranging from 0-500 Hz to 2000-2500 Hz, while the second implemented single-frequency signals with arbitrary phase swept from 500-2500 Hz. The results showed that above a modulation signal amplitude threshold, both approaches suppressed 95+% of the spontaneous combustion oscillation. By increasing the applied signal amplitude, a wider frequency range of instability suppression became present for these two acoustic modulation approaches. Complimentary to these experiments, a linear modal analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects of acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary on the longitudinal instability modes of a dump combustor. The modal analysis employed acoustically consistent matching conditions with a specific impedance boundary condition at the inlet to represent the acoustic modulation. From the modal analysis, a naturally unstable first longitudinal mode was predicted in the absence of acoustic modulation, consistent with the spontaneously excited 2430 Hz instability observed experimentally. Subsequently, a detailed investigation involving variation of the modulation signal from 0-2500 Hz and mean combustor temperature from 1248-1685 K demonstrated the unstable to stable transition of a 2300-2500 Hz first longitudinal mode. The

  1. Cell descent caused by boundary curvature of a high topographical structure for a device that changes cell density (United States)

    Okutani, Chihiro; Wagatsuma, Akira; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Hoshino, Takayuki


    Noninvasive techniques of controlling cell migration on substrates are widely useful for tissue engineering. However, the cell migration controls of previous studies were not enough for collecting cells locally. To solve this problem, in this work, we report the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell migration difference (descend or be repelled) by changing the curvature of the boundary of a topographical structure when the cells move from a flat surface to the boundary. 69% of the cells coming across a round boundary — the curvature radius of which was 50 µm — descended into the hole. In contrast, no cells descended into a groove with a linear boundary. Moreover, we demonstrated the cell spatial density change from the difference at the boundary. This finding will provide a new device that will enable us to manipulate spatial cell density noninvasively for tissue engineering.

  2. Exploration of highly accelerated magnetic resonance elastography using high-density array coils (United States)

    Bosshard, John C.; Yallapragada, Naresh; McDougall, Mary P.


    Background Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measures tissue mechanical properties by applying a shear wave and capturing its propagation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By using high density array coils, MRE images are acquired using single echo acquisition (SEA) and at high resolutions with significantly reduced scan times. Methods Sixty-four channel uniplanar and 32×32 channel biplanar receive arrays are used to acquire MRE wave image sets from agar samples containing regions of varying stiffness. A mechanical actuator triggered by a stepped delay time introduces vibrations into the sample while a motion sensitizing gradient encodes micrometer displacements into the phase. SEA imaging is used to acquire each temporal offset in a single echo, while multiple echoes from the same array are employed for highly accelerated imaging at high resolutions. Additionally, stiffness variations as a function of temperature are studied by using a localized heat source above the sample. A custom insertable gradient coil is employed for phase compensation of SEA imaging with the biplanar array to allow imaging of multiple slices. Results SEA MRE images show a mechanical shear wave propagating into and across agar samples. A set of 720 images was obtained in 720 echoes, plus a single reference scan for both harmonic and transient MRE. A set of 2,950 wave image frames was acquired from pairs of SEA images captured during heating, showing the change in mechanical wavelength with the change in agar properties. A set of 240 frames was acquired from two slices simultaneously using the biplanar array, with phase images processed into displacement maps. Combining the narrow sensitivity patterns and SNR advantage of the SEA array coil geometry allowed acquisition of a data set with a resolution of 156 µm × 125 µm × 1,000 µm in only 64 echoes, demonstrating high resolution and high acceleration factors. Conclusions MRE using high-density arrays offers the unique ability

  3. Highly-translucent, strong and aging-resistant 3Y-TZP ceramics for dental restoration by grain boundary segregation. (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Vanmeensel, Kim; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Inokoshi, Masanao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Vleugels, Jef


    Latest trends in dental restorative ceramics involve the development of full-contour 3Y-TZP ceramics which can avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. Among the challenges are the low translucency and the hydrothermal stability of 3Y-TZP ceramics. In this work, different trivalent oxides (Al2O3, Sc2O3, Nd2O3 and La2O3) were selected to dope 3Y-TZP ceramics. Results show that dopant segregation was a key factor to design hydrothermally stable and high-translucent 3Y-TZP ceramics and the cation dopant radius could be used as a controlling parameter. A large trivalent dopant, oversized as compared to Zr(4+), exhibiting strong segregation at the ZrO2 grain boundary was preferred. The introduction of 0.2 mol% La2O3 in conventional 0.1-0.25 wt.% Al2O3-doped 3Y-TZP resulted in an excellent combination of high translucency and superior hydrothermal stability, while retaining excellent mechanical properties.

  4. High precision time calibration of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction event in a deep marine context (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs


    To construct a revised and high resolution calibrated time scale for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) we use (1) high-precision U-Pb zircon age determinations of a unique succession of volcanic ash layers interbedded with deep water fossiliferous sediments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) combined with (2) accurate quantitative biochronology based on ammonoids, conodonts, radiolarians, and foraminifera and (3) tracers of marine bioproductivity (carbon isotopes) across the PTB. The unprecedented precision of the single grain chemical abrasion isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) dating technique at sub-per mil level (radio-isotopic calibration of the PTB at the Permian and Early Triassic. Here, we present new single grain U-Pb zircon data of volcanic ash layers from two deep marine sections (Dongpan and Penglaitan) revealing stratigraphic consistent dates over several volcanic ash layers bracketing the PTB. These analyses define weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 251.956±0.033 Ma (Dongpan) and 252.062±0.043 Ma (Penglaitan) for the last Permian ash bed. By calibration with detailed litho- and biostratigraphy new U-Pb ages of 251.953±0.038 Ma (Dongpan) and 251.907±0.033 Ma (Penglaitan) are established for the onset of the Triassic.

  5. Phylogenetics, species boundaries and timing of resource tracking in a highly specialized group of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). (United States)

    Kergoat, Gael J; Le Ru, Bruno P; Genson, Gwenaelle; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Delobel, Alex


    Though for a long time it was hypothesized that the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects was better explained by a synchronous pattern of co-diversification with plants, the results of recent studies have led to question this theory, suggesting that the diversification of insects occurred well after that of their hosts. In this study we address this issue by investigating the timing of diversification of a highly specialized group of seed beetles, which mostly feeds on legume plants from the tribe Indigofereae. To that purpose, a total of 130 specimens were sequenced for six genes and analyzed under a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. Based on the resulting trees we performed several analyses that allowed a better definition of the group boundaries and to investigate the status of several taxa through the use of molecular species delimitation analyses in combination with morphological evidences. In addition the evolution of host plant use was reconstructed and different molecular-dating approaches were carried out in order to assess the ages of several clades of interest. The resulting framework suggests a more ancient than previously thought origin for seed beetles, and a pattern of rapid host plant colonization. These findings call for further similar studies in other highly specialized groups of phytophagous insects.

  6. A High-Order Immersed Boundary Method for Acoustic Wave Scattering and Low-Mach Number Flow-Induced Sound in Complex Geometries. (United States)

    Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat


    A new sharp-interface immersed boundary method based approach for the computation of low-Mach number flow-induced sound around complex geometries is described. The underlying approach is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique where the incompressible flow is first computed using a second-order accurate immersed boundary solver. This is followed by the computation of sound using the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). The primary contribution of the current work is the development of a versatile, high-order accurate immersed boundary method for solving the LPCE in complex domains. This new method applies the boundary condition on the immersed boundary to a high-order by combining the ghost-cell approach with a weighted least-squares error method based on a high-order approximating polynomial. The method is validated for canonical acoustic wave scattering and flow-induced noise problems. Applications of this technique to relatively complex cases of practical interest are also presented.

  7. Simulations of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal with a High-Resolution Model: Sensitivity to Large-Scale Boundary Forcing (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Done, James; Dudhia, Jimy; Niyogi, Dev


    The predictability of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal was explored in terms of track and intensity using the Advanced Research Hurricane Weather Research Forecast (AHW) model. This constitutes the first application of the AHW over an area that lies outside the region of the North Atlantic for which this model was developed and tested. Several experiments were conducted to understand the possible contributing factors that affected Sidr s intensity and track simulation by varying the initial start time and domain size. Results show that Sidr s track was strongly controlled by the synoptic flow at the 500-hPa level, seen especially due to the strong mid-latitude westerly over north-central India. A 96-h forecast produced westerly winds over north-central India at the 500-hPa level that were notably weaker; this likely caused the modeled cyclone track to drift from the observed actual track. Reducing the model domain size reduced model error in the synoptic-scale winds at 500 hPa and produced an improved cyclone track. Specifically, the cyclone track appeared to be sensitive to the upstream synoptic flow, and was, therefore, sensitive to the location of the western boundary of the domain. However, cyclone intensity remained largely unaffected by this synoptic wind error at the 500-hPa level. Comparison of the high resolution, moving nested domain with a single coarser resolution domain showed little difference in tracks, but resulted in significantly different intensities. Experiments on the domain size with regard to the total precipitation simulated by the model showed that precipitation patterns and 10-m surface winds were also different. This was mainly due to the mid-latitude westerly flow across the west side of the model domain. The analysis also suggested that the total precipitation pattern and track was unchanged when the domain was extended toward the east, north, and south. Furthermore, this highlights our conclusion that Sidr was influenced from the west

  8. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S


    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement, grain boundary segregation, and stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750 in low- and high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W. J.; Lebo, M. R.; Kearns, J. J. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)


    The nature of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy X-750 was characterized in low- and high-temperature water by testing as-notched and precracked fracture mechanics specimens. Materials given the AH, BH, and HTH heat treatments were studied. While all heat treatments were susceptible to rapid low-temperature crack propagation (LTCP) below 150 C, conditions AH and BH were particularly susceptible. Low-temperature tests under various loading conditions (e.g., constant displacement, constant load, and increasing load) revealed that the maximum stress intensity factors (K{sub P{sub max}}) from conventional rising load tests provide conservative estimates of the critical loading conditions in highly susceptible heats, regardless of the load path history. For resistant heats, K{sub P{sub max}} provides a reasonable, but not necessarily conservative, estimate of the critical stress intensity factor for LTCP. Testing of as-notched specimens showed that LTCP will not initiate at a smooth surface or notch, but will readily occur if a cracklike defect is present. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that LTCP is associated with hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth does occur in high-temperature water (>250 C), but crack growth rates are orders of magnitude lower than LTCP rates. The SCC resistance of HTH heats is far superior to that of AH heats as crack initiation times are two to three orders of magnitude greater and growth rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower.

  10. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  11. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  12. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  13. New formulae for the high-order derivatives of some Jacobi polynomials: an application to some high-order boundary value problems. (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W M


    This paper is concerned with deriving some new formulae expressing explicitly the high-order derivatives of Jacobi polynomials whose parameters difference is one or two of any degree and of any order in terms of their corresponding Jacobi polynomials. The derivatives formulae for Chebyshev polynomials of third and fourth kinds of any degree and of any order in terms of their corresponding Chebyshev polynomials are deduced as special cases. Some new reduction formulae for summing some terminating hypergeometric functions of unit argument are also deduced. As an application, and with the aid of the new introduced derivatives formulae, an algorithm for solving special sixth-order boundary value problems are implemented with the aid of applying Galerkin method. A numerical example is presented hoping to ascertain the validity and the applicability of the proposed algorithms.

  14. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette


    This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  15. First-order melting transition observed from resistivity measurements in ultra-pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals with high twin boundary density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Eltsev, Y.; Andersson, M.


    R(T) measurements have been performed on optimally and overdoped heavily twinned high-purity YBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals, under a magnetic field B oriented parallel to the twin boundary planes (B parallel to c). The characteristic feature attributed to the flux line lattice melting transition...

  16. UAS and DTS: Using Drones and Fiber Optics to Measure High Resolution Temperature of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (United States)

    Predosa, R. A.; Darricau, B.; Higgins, C. W.


    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere that directly interacts with the planet's surface. The development of the ABL plays a vital role, as it affects the transport of atmospheric constituents such as air pollutants, water vapor, and greenhouse gases. Measurements of the processes in the ABL have been difficult due to the limitations in the spatial and temporal resolutions of the equipment as well as the height of the traditional flux tower. Recent advances in the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies have provided us with new tools to study the complex processes in ABL. We conducted a series of pioneering experiments in Eastern Oregon using a platform that combines UAV and DTS to collect data during morning and evening transitions in the ABL. The major components of this platform consists of a quad-copter, a DTS computer unit, and a set of customized fiber optic cables. A total of 75 flights were completed to investigate: (1) the capability of a duplexed fiber optic cable to reduce noise in the high spatial and temporal temperature measurements taken during the morning transition; (2) the possibility of using fiber optic cable as "wet bulb" thermometer to calculate relative humidity in the ABL at high spatial and temporal resolution. The preliminary results showed that using a fiber optic cable in a duplexed configuration with the UAV-DTS platform can effectively reduce noise level during the morning transition data collection. The customized "wet bulb" fiber optic cable is capable of providing information for the calculation of relative humidity in the ABL at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. From this study, the UAV-DTS platform demonstrated great potential in collecting temperature data in the ABL and with the development of atmospheric sensor technologies, it will have more applications in the future.

  17. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki


    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  18. Effect of Carbon on Grain Boundary Segregation of Phosphorus and Phosphorus-Induced Intergranular Fracture in High Purity Iron with Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The segregation of carbon at grain boundaries and its effect on phosphorus segregation and phosphorus-induced intergranular fracture in the alloy of high purity iron with phosphorus were investigated by scanning Auger electron spectroscopy, impact test and SEM observation of fractured surface. The experimental results showed that the carbon segregation at grain boundaries decreases the phosphorus segregation, and a change of fracture mode from intergranular fracture to transgranular one, hence a decrease of ductile-brittle transition temperature is observed. The mechanism of these effects was discussed.

  19. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf -> 16.5

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, P M


    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf -> 16.5, where the leading beta-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0=(8/321)(16.5-nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MSbar or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is `regular.' However, `irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the `optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a `master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a -> a*^2/a about the fixed point a*.

  20. Probability of Face Contact for a High-Speed Pressurised Liquid Film Bearing Including a Slip Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Y. Bailey


    Full Text Available An initial deterministic mathematical model for the dynamic motion of a simple pressurised liquid film bearing is derived and utilised to evaluate the possibility of bearing contact for thin film operation. For a very thin film bearing the flow incorporates a Navier slip boundary condition as parametrised by a slip length that in general is subject to significant variability and is difficult to determine with precision. This work considers the formulation of a modified Reynolds equation for the pressurised liquid flow in a highly rotating coned bearing. Coupling of the axial motion of the stator is induced by prescribed axial oscillations of the rotor through the liquid film. The bearing gap is obtained from solving a nonlinear second-order non-autonomous ordinary differential equation, via a mapping solver. Variability in the value of the slip length parameter is addressed by considering it as a random variable with prescribed mean and standard deviation. The method of derived distributions is used to exactly quantify the impact of variability in the slip length with a parametric study investigating the effect of both the deterministic and distribution parameters on the probability of contact. Additionally, as the axial rotor oscillations also have a random aspect due to possible varying excitations of the system, the probability of contact is investigated for both random amplitude of the periodic rotor oscillations and random slip length, resulting in a two parameter random input problem. The probability of contact is examined to obtain exact solutions and evaluate a range of bearing configurations.

  1. Boundary-Layer Development and Low-level Baroclinicity during High-Latitude Cold-Air Outbreaks: A Simple Model (United States)

    Chechin, Dmitry G.; Lüpkes, Christof


    A new quasi-analytical mixed-layer model is formulated describing the evolution of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during cold-air outbreaks (CAO) over polar oceans downstream of the marginal sea-ice zones. The new model is superior to previous ones since it predicts not only temperature and mixed-layer height but also the height-averaged horizontal wind components. Results of the mixed-layer model are compared with dropsonde and aircraft observations carried out during several CAOs over the Fram Strait and also with results of a 3D non-hydrostatic (NH3D) model. It is shown that the mixed-layer model reproduces well the observed ABL height, temperature, low-level baroclinicity and its influence on the ABL wind speed. The mixed-layer model underestimates the observed ABL temperature only by about 10 %, most likely due to the neglect of condensation and subsidence. The comparison of the mixed-layer and NH3D model results shows good agreement with respect to wind speed including the formation of wind-speed maxima close to the ice edge. It is concluded that baroclinicity within the ABL governs the structure of the wind field while the baroclinicity above the ABL is important in reproducing the wind speed. It is shown that the baroclinicity in the ABL is strongest close to the ice edge and slowly decays further downwind. Analytical solutions demonstrate that the e-folding distance of this decay is the same as for the decay of the difference between the surface temperature of open water and of the mixed-layer temperature. This distance characterizing cold-air mass transformation ranges from 450 to 850 km for high-latitude CAOs.

  2. Low-latency high-rate GPS data streams from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Borsa, A.; Jackson, M.; Stark, K.


    Real-time processing of high rate GPS data can give precise (e.g., 5-10 mm for data recorded once per second) recordings of rapid volcanic and seismic deformation. These time series now provide an emerging tool for seismic, volcanic, and tsunami geodesy and early warning applications. UNAVCO, as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, has developed the UStream system to provide streaming GPS data from some PBO and other UNAVCO-operated GPS stations. UStream is based on the Ntrip standard, a widely used protocol for streaming GNSS data over the Internet. Remote GPS stations provide a stream of BINEX data at 1 sample/sec to an Ntrip server at UNAVCO's Boulder offices, while simultaneously recording data locally in the event of communications failure. Once in Boulder, the data fork into three output streams: BINEX files stored at UNAVCO and streams of data in BINEX and RTCM 2.3 format. These streams flow to an Ntrip broadcaster that distributes data to Ntrip clients, which can be anything from low-latency processing systems to external data archiving systems. Current development efforts are geared toward providing data in RTCM 3.x format. This system is now operating in a public beta test mode, with data available from over 55 PBO and Nucleus GPS stations across the western United States. Data latencies from stations operating on mobile telephone communications are under 1.1 seconds at 95% confidence, and data completeness is typically more than 95% barring transient communications disruptions. Data from the system are available under the terms of the draft UNAVCO streaming data usage policy. For further information, please visit or send e-mail to

  3. Assessment of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary treatment with highly accurate gust-airfoil interaction results (United States)

    Crivellini, A.


    This paper deals with the numerical performance of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary condition. This technique is well known and widely adopted, but only recently have the reasons for a sponge failure been recognised, in analysis by Mani. For multidimensional problems, the ineffectiveness of the method is due to the self-reflections of the sponge occurring when it interacts with an oblique acoustic wave. Based on his theoretical investigations, Mani gives some useful guidelines for implementing effective sponge layers. However, in our opinion, some practical indications are still missing from the current literature. Here, an extensive numerical study of the performance of this technique is presented. Moreover, we analyse a reduced sponge implementation characterised by undamped partial differential equations for the velocity components. The main aim of this paper relies on the determination of the minimal width of the layer, as well as of the corresponding strength, required to obtain a reflection error of no more than a few per cent of that observed when solving the same problem on the same grid, but without employing the sponge layer term. For this purpose, a test case of computational aeroacoustics, the single airfoil gust response problem, has been addressed in several configurations. As a direct consequence of our investigation, we present a well documented and highly validated reference solution for the far-field acoustic intensity, a result that is not well established in the literature. Lastly, the proof of the accuracy of an algorithm for coupling sub-domains solved by the linear and non-liner Euler governing equations is given. This result is here exploited to adopt a linear-based sponge layer even in a non-linear computation.

  4. Boundary-Layer Development and Low-level Baroclinicity during High-Latitude Cold-Air Outbreaks: A Simple Model (United States)

    Chechin, Dmitry G.; Lüpkes, Christof


    A new quasi-analytical mixed-layer model is formulated describing the evolution of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during cold-air outbreaks (CAO) over polar oceans downstream of the marginal sea-ice zones. The new model is superior to previous ones since it predicts not only temperature and mixed-layer height but also the height-averaged horizontal wind components. Results of the mixed-layer model are compared with dropsonde and aircraft observations carried out during several CAOs over the Fram Strait and also with results of a 3D non-hydrostatic (NH3D) model. It is shown that the mixed-layer model reproduces well the observed ABL height, temperature, low-level baroclinicity and its influence on the ABL wind speed. The mixed-layer model underestimates the observed ABL temperature only by about 10 %, most likely due to the neglect of condensation and subsidence. The comparison of the mixed-layer and NH3D model results shows good agreement with respect to wind speed including the formation of wind-speed maxima close to the ice edge. It is concluded that baroclinicity within the ABL governs the structure of the wind field while the baroclinicity above the ABL is important in reproducing the wind speed. It is shown that the baroclinicity in the ABL is strongest close to the ice edge and slowly decays further downwind. Analytical solutions demonstrate that the e -folding distance of this decay is the same as for the decay of the difference between the surface temperature of open water and of the mixed-layer temperature. This distance characterizing cold-air mass transformation ranges from 450 to 850 km for high-latitude CAOs.

  5. Study by atomistic theory and high-resolution electron microscopies of Cu atoms at an Al grain boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plitzko, Jurgen M.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; King, Wayne E.; Foiles, Stephen M.; Kisielowski, Christian; Duscher, Gerd


    New insight into the atomic segregation of copper to an aluminum grain boundary has been obtained using atomic resolution electron microscopy techniques coupled with ab-initio electronic structure calculations. We find the copper segregation to be site specific, changing the structure of the boundary by unexpectedly occupying interstitial sites. The calculated energy for segregation was found to be sufficient for essentially all of the interstitial sites to be filled. Minor elemental constituents in materials can have profound effects on their engineering performance, often through segregation to grain boundaries in the host material. One important example is the great resistance to electromigration damage in microelectronics imparted by small additions of copper to aluminum interconnects.

  6. HAVOC: High Altitude Venus Operational Concept - An Exploration Strategy for Venus (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Jones, Chris


    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A lighter-than-air vehicle can carry either a host of instruments and probes, or a habitat and ascent vehicle for a crew of two astronauts to explore Venus for up to a month. The mission requires less time to complete than a crewed Mars mission, and the environment at 50 km is relatively benign, with similar pressure, density, gravity, and radiation protection to the surface of Earth. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30 day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. With advances in technology and further refinement of the concept, missions to the Venusian atmosphere can expand humanity's future in space.

  7. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. II - Wall shear stress (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.


    Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.

  8. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth


    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  9. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth


    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  10. Quantifying Ozone Production throughout the Boundary Layer from High Frequency Tethered Profile Measurements during a High Ozone Episode in the Uinta Basin, Utah (United States)

    Sterling, C. W.; Johnson, B.; Schnell, R. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cullis, P.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.; Windell, J.; McClure-Begley, A.; Helmig, D.; Petron, G.


    During the Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) in Jan - Feb 2013, 735 tethered ozonesonde profiles were obtained at 3 sites including during high wintertime photochemical ozone production events that regularly exceeded 125 ppb. High resolution profiles of ozone and temperature with altitude, measured during daylight hours, showed the development of approximately week long high ozone episodes building from background levels of ~40 ppb to >150 ppb. The topography of the basin combined with a strong temperature inversion trapped oil and gas production effluents in the basin and the snow covered surface amplified the sun's radiation driving the photochemical ozone production at rates up to 13 ppb/hour in a cold layer capped at 1600-1700 meters above sea level. Beginning in mid-morning, ozone mixing ratios throughout the cold layer increased until late afternoon. Ozone mixing ratios were generally constant with height indicating that ozone production was nearly uniform throughout the depth of the cold pool. Although there was strong diurnal variation, ozone mixing ratios increased during the day more than decreased during the night, resulting in elevated levels the next morning; an indication that nighttime loss processes did not compensate for daytime production. Even though the 3 tethersonde sites were at elevations differing by as much as 140 m, the top of the high ozone layer was nearly uniform in altitude at the 3 locations. Mobile van surface ozone measurements across the basin confirmed this capped structure of the ozone layer; the vehicle drove out of high ozone mixing ratios at an elevation of ~1900 meters above sea level, above which free tropospheric ozone mixing ratios of ~50 ppb were measured. Exhaust plumes from a coal-fired power plant in the eastern portion of the basin were intercepted by the tethersondes. The structure of the profiles clearly showed that effluents in the plumes were not mixed downward and thus did not contribute precursor nitrogen

  11. Exploration of Spin-down Rate of Neutron Star in High Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Hai-Lang; Li, Xiang-Dong


    We use the evolutionary population synthesis method to investigate the statistical properties of the wind-fed neutron star (NS) compact ($P_{\\rm orb}<10$ days) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in our Galaxy, based on different spin-down models. We find that the spin-down rate in the supersonic propeller phase given \\textbf{by assuming that the surrounding material is treated as forming a quasi-static atmosphere} or \\textbf{by assuming that the characteristic velocity of matter and the typical Alfv$\\acute{e}$n velocity of material in the magnetospheric boundary layer are comparable to the sound speed in the external medium} is too low to produce the observed number of compact HMXBs. We also find that the models suggested \\textbf{by assuming that the infalling material is ejected with the corotation velocity at the magnetospheric radius when the magnetospheric radius is larger than the corotation radius} and \\textbf{by simple integration of the magnetic torque over the magnetosphere} with a larger spin-down ...

  12. Symmetry of High-Piezoelectric Pb Based Complex Perovskites at the Morphotropic Phase Boundary : II. Theoretical Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, Yasusada; Uesu, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Masaaki; Fujishiro, Kouji; Cox, Dave E.; Noheda, Beatriz; Shirane, Gen


    The structural characteristics of the perovskite-based ferroelectric Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region (x ≈ 0.09) have been analyzed. The analysis is based on the symmetry adapted free energy functions under the assumption that the total polarization and the unit

  13. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth


    This article builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the integration ...

  14. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke


    To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work to ...

  15. The Subspace Voyager: Exploring High-Dimensional Data along a Continuum of Salient 3D Subspace. (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Mueller, Klaus


    Analyzing high-dimensional data and finding hidden patterns is a difficult problem and has attracted numerous research efforts. Automated methods can be useful to some extent but bringing the data analyst into the loop via interactive visual tools can help the discovery process tremendously. An inherent problem in this effort is that humans lack the mental capacity to truly understand spaces exceeding three spatial dimensions. To keep within this limitation, we describe a framework that decomposes a high-dimensional data space into a continuum of generalized 3D subspaces. Analysts can then explore these 3D subspaces individually via the familiar trackball interface while using additional facilities to smoothly transition to adjacent subspaces for expanded space comprehension. Since the number of such subspaces suffers from combinatorial explosion, we provide a set of data-driven subspace selection and navigation tools which can guide users to interesting subspaces and views. A subspace trail map allows users to manage the explored subspaces, keep their bearings, and return to interesting subspaces and views. Both trackball and trail map are each embedded into a word cloud of attribute labels which aid in navigation. We demonstrate our system via several use cases in a diverse set of application areas - cluster analysis and refinement, information discovery, and supervised training of classifiers. We also report on a user study that evaluates the usability of the various interactions our system provides.

  16. PathwayExplorer: web service for visualizing high-throughput expression data on biological pathways. (United States)

    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Scheideler, Marcel; Hackl, Hubert; Hartler, Jürgen; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Trajanoski, Zlatko


    While generation of high-throughput expression data is becoming routine, the fast, easy, and systematic presentation and analysis of these data in a biological context is still an obstacle. To address this need, we have developed PathwayExplorer, which maps expression profiles of genes or proteins simultaneously onto major, currently available regulatory, metabolic and cellular pathways from KEGG, BioCarta and GenMAPP. PathwayExplorer is a platform-independent web server application with an optional standalone Java application using a SOAP (simple object access protocol) interface. Mapped pathways are ranked for the easy selection of the pathway of interest, displaying all available genes of this pathway with their expression profiles in a selectable and intuitive color code. Pathway maps produced can be downloaded as PNG, JPG or as high-resolution vector graphics SVG. The web service is freely available at; the standalone client can be downloaded at

  17. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.


    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  18. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum. (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F


    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions.

  19. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex


    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while

  20. High-throughput screening for integrative biomaterials design: exploring advances and new trends. (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana B; Mano, João F


    With the increasing need for biomaterials and tissue engineering alternatives, more accurate, rapid, and cost-saving methods and models to study biomaterial-cell interactions must be developed. We review the evolution of microarray platforms used for such studies in order to meet the criteria of complex tissue engineering biological environments. Particular aspects regarding biomaterials processing, data acquisition, and treatment are addressed. Apart from in vitro array-based strategies, we also address emerging in vivo high-throughput approaches and their associated trends, such as the role of inflammation in regeneration. The up-scaling of high-throughput methods using single cell encapsulation systems is also explored. Possible limitations related to the use of such methods, such as spot-to-spot crosstalk, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring star formation in high-z galaxies using atomic and molecular emission lines (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten


    The conditions under which stars are formed and the reasons for triggering and quenching of starburst events in high-z galaxies, are still not well understood. Studying the interstellar medium (ISM) and the morphology of high-z galaxies are therefore key points in order to understand galaxy evolution. The cosmic star formation rate density peaks between 1thesis presents three studies of the ISM in high-z galaxies and their morphologies by: Exploring the physical conditions of the ISM in a sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) using the relative observed line strength of ionised carbon ([CII]) and carbon monoxide (CO). We find that the line ratios can best be described by a medium of [CII] and CO emitting gas with a higher [CII] than CO excitation temperature, high CO optical depth tau(CO)>>1, and low to moderate [CII] optical depth tau(CII)2, pave the road for future investigations of the star-forming ISM in high-z galaxies, by illustrating the importance of multi-wavelength, fine structure- and molecular line studies.

  2. The rotation of the plasmapause-like boundary at high latitudes in Saturn's magnetosphere and its relation to the eccentric rotation of the northern and southern auroral ovals (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Groene, J. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Morooka, M.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Nichols, J. D.


    Here we present a study of the rotation of the plasmapause-like density boundary discovered by the Cassini spacecraft at high latitudes in the Saturnian magnetosphere, and compare the results with previously published studies of high-latitude magnetic field perturbations and the eccentric rotation of the auroral ovals. Near the planet the density boundary is located at dipole L values ranging from about 8 to 15, and separates a region of very low densities at high latitudes from a region of higher densities at lower latitudes. We show that the density boundary rotates at different rates in the northern and southern hemispheres, and that the periods are the same as the modulation periods of Saturn kilometric radiation in those hemispheres. We also show that the phase of rotation in a given hemisphere is closely correlated with the phase of the high-latitude magnetic field perturbations observed by Cassini in that hemisphere, and also with the phase of the eccentric rotation of the auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  3. Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes (United States)

    Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent; Ginzburg, Irina


    is thoroughly evaluated in three benchmark tests, which are run throughout three distinctive permeability regimes. The first configuration is a horizontal porous channel, studied with a symbolic approach, where we construct the exact solutions of FEM and BF/IBF with different boundary schemes. The second problem refers to an inclined porous channel flow, which brings in as new challenge the formation of spurious boundary layers in LBM; that is, numerical artefacts that arise due to a deficient accommodation of the bulk solution by the low-accurate boundary scheme. The third problem considers a porous flow past a periodic square array of solid cylinders, which intensifies the previous two tests with the simulation of a more complex flow pattern. The ensemble of numerical tests provides guidelines on the effect of grid resolution and the TRT free collision parameter over the accuracy and the quality of the velocity field, spanning from Stokes to Darcy permeability regimes. It is shown that, with the use of the high-order accurate boundary schemes, the simple, uniform-mesh-based TRT-LBM formulation can even surpass the accuracy of FEM employing hardworking body-fitted meshes.

  4. Exploring the Phase Diagram SiO2-CO2 at High Pressures and Temperatures (United States)

    Kavner, A.


    CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References[1] S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015) [2] A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013) [3] R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014) [4] M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)

  5. Exploration of the relationship between biogas production and microbial community under high salinity conditions. (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Hou, Xiaocong; Su, Haijia


    High salinity frequently causes inhibition and even failure in anaerobic digestion. To explore the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations on biogas production, and reveal the microbial community variations in response to high salinity stress, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed. The results showed that a NaCl concentration of 20 g/L (H group) exhibited a similar level of VFAs and specific CO2 production rate with that in the blank group, thus indicating that the bacterial activity in acidogenesis might not be inhibited. However, the methanogenic activity in the H group was significantly affected compared with that in the blank group, causing a 42.2% decrease in CH4 production, a 37.12% reduction in the specific CH4 generation rate and a lower pH value. Illumina sequencing revealed that microbial communities between the blank and H groups were significantly different. Bacteroides, Clostridium and BA021 uncultured were the dominant species in the blank group while some halotolerant genera, such as Thermovirga, Soehngenia and Actinomyces, dominated and complemented the hydrolytic and acidogenetic abilities in the H group. Additionally, the most abundant archaeal species included Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, Methanospirillum and Methanoculleus in both groups, but hydrogenotrophic methanogens showed a lower resistance to high salinity than aceticlastic methanogens.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.


    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website.

  8. Mauna Kea Spectrographic Explorer (MSE): a conceptual design for multi-object high resolution spectrograph (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen


    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope into a 10m class dedicated multi-object spectroscopic facility, with an ability to simultaneously measure thousands of objects with a spectral resolution range spanning 2,000 to 40,000. MSE will develop two spectrographic facilities to meet the science requirements. These are respectively, the Low/Medium Resolution spectrographs (LMRS) and High Resolution spectrographs (HRS). Multi-object high resolution spectrographs with total of 1,156 fibers is a big challenge, one that has never been attempted for a 10m class telescope. To date, most spectral survey facilities work in single order low/medium resolution mode, and only a few Wide Field Spectrographs (WFS) provide a cross-dispersion high resolution mode with a limited number of orders. Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT) propose a conceptual design with the use of novel image slicer arrays and single order immersed Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating for the MSE multi-object high resolution spectrographs. The conceptual scheme contains six identical fiber-link spectrographs, each of which simultaneously covers three restricted bands (λ/30, λ/30, λ/15) in the optical regime, with spectral resolution of 40,000 in Blue/Visible bands (400nm / 490nm) and 20,000 in Red band (650nm). The details of the design is presented in this paper.

  9. Turbulence Fine Structure, Intermittency, and Large-Scale Interactions in the Stable Boundary Layer and Residual Layer: Correlative High-Resolution Measurements and Direct Numerical Simulations (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The research employed stable boundary layer measurements using the DataHawk UAV and high-resolution direct numerical...simulations ( DNS ) to examine the interactions and instabilities occurring in multi-scale flows that drive intermittent turbulence events in the stable...atmosphere. Both measurements and the DNS revealed the occurrence and persistence of sheet-and-layer structures in the temperature and velocity fields that

  10. Measurements of Multi-Layer Insulation at High Boundary Temperature, using a Simple Non-Calorimetric Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzone, L; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Vandoni, Giovanna


    In spite of abundant literature, the thermal performance of Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) still deserves dedicated investigation for specific applications, as the achievable insulation strongly depends on installation details. Furthermore, less accurate information is available for warm than for cold boundaries, since errors due to edge effects in small test benches increase strongly with warm boundary temperature. We establish here the thermal performance of MLI between 300 K and 77 K or 4 K, without bringing calorimetric methods into play, through the accurate measurement of a temperature profile. A cylinder in thin copper, wrapped with MLI, is cooled at one extremity while suspended under vacuum inside a sheath at room temperature. For known thermal conductivity and thickness of the tube, the heat flux can be inferred from the temperature profile. In-situ measurement of the thermal conductivity is obtained by applying a know heat flow at the warm extremity of the cylinder. Results, cross-checked with a cali...

  11. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf→1612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Stevenson


    Full Text Available Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf→1612, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks–Zaks (BZ expansion in a0≡8321(1612−nf is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS whose nf dependence is ‘regular’. However, ‘irregular’ RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the ‘optimal’ RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a ‘master equation’ expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a→a⁎2/a about the fixed point a⁎.

  12. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf → 161/2 (United States)

    Stevenson, P. M.


    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf → 161/2, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0 ≡8/321 (161/2 -nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS ‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is 'regular'. However, 'irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the 'optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a 'master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a →a*2 / a about the fixed point a*.

  13. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming


    In recent decades, workfare-style policies have become part of the institutional architecture of welfare and labor market arrangements around the world. In this article, we offer a comparative, historical view of workfare´s advance. Our analysis recognizes the complexity and diversity of what we...... call the “policies of workfare” and highlights the different paths through which these policies have developed in the U.S. and parts of Europe. We argue that it is necessary to look beyond familiar policy labels and language in order to consider workfare-style policies as part of a broader political...... project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  14. Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Barriers, Vocational Identity, and the Career Exploration Behavior of Latino/a High School Students (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.


    This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…

  15. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds (United States)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.


    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  16. Hypersexuality and high sexual desire: exploring the structure of problematic sexuality. (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Vieira, Armando L; Jurin, Tanja


    The concept of hypersexuality has been accompanied by fierce debates and conflicting conclusions about its nature. One of the central questions under the discussion is a potential overlap between hypersexuality and high sexual desire. With the relevant research in its early phase, the structure of hypersexuality remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to systematically explore the overlap between problematic sexuality and high sexual desire. A community online survey was carried out in Croatia in 2014. The data were first cluster analyzed (by gender) based on sexual desire, sexual activity, perceived lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral consequences. Participants in the meaningful clusters were then compared for psychosocial characteristics. To complement cluster analysis (CA), multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the same four constructs was carried out. Indicators representing the proposed structure of hypersexuality were included: sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral outcomes. Psychosocial characteristics such as religiosity, attitudes toward pornography, and general psychopathology were also evaluated. CA pointed to the existence of two meaningful clusters, one representing problematic sexuality, that is, lack of control over one's sexuality and negative outcomes (control/consequences cluster), and the other reflecting high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity (desire/activity cluster). Compared with the desire/activity cluster, individuals from the control/consequences cluster reported more psychopathology and were characterized by more traditional attitudes. Complementing the CA findings, CFA pointed to two distinct latent dimensions-problematic sexuality and high sexual desire/activity. Our study supports the distinctiveness of hypersexuality and high sexual desire/activity, suggesting that problematic sexuality might be more

  17. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago


    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  18. Exploring Genetic Diversity in Plants Using High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques. (United States)

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi


    Food security has emerged as an urgent concern because of the rising world population. To meet the food demands of the near future, it is required to improve the productivity of various crops, not just of staple food crops. The genetic diversity among plant populations in a given species allows the plants to adapt to various environmental conditions. Such diversity could therefore yield valuable traits that could overcome the food-security challenges. To explore genetic diversity comprehensively and to rapidly identify useful genes and/or allele, advanced high-throughput sequencing techniques, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, have been developed. These provide practical solutions to the challenges in crop genomics. Here, we review various sources of genetic diversity in plants, newly developed genetic diversity-mining tools synergized with NGS techniques, and related genetic approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis and genome-wide association study.

  19. Exploring the Self-efficacy Beliefs among the High Achievers in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyana Jalaluddin


    Full Text Available Learners form their self-efficacy beliefs by interpreting information primarily from four sources namely performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. It is important to recognize the four cognitive nature of self-efficacy because the cognitive appraisal of information from the four sources will influence self-efficacy and it cannot be evaluated based on one source per se (Lane, Jones & Stevens 2002. This article explores the four sources of self-efficacy among the high achievers in writing course. In analysing the finding, Z-scores were derived from each self-efficacy component score based on the aggregate mean and the standard deviation of the class. Findings show high frequency of negative z-value reported for Specific Progress (SPR and Social Feedback (SF. Meanwhile, high frequency of positive z-value is found in the General Progress (GPR and Physiological States (PS components. Based on the finding, pedagogical implications, limitations and directions for further research are presented.

  20. A Low-Power High-Speed Smart Sensor Design for Space Exploration Missions (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi


    A low-power high-speed smart sensor system based on a large format active pixel sensor (APS) integrated with a programmable neural processor for space exploration missions is presented. The concept of building an advanced smart sensing system is demonstrated by a system-level microchip design that is composed with an APS sensor, a programmable neural processor, and an embedded microprocessor in a SOI CMOS technology. This ultra-fast smart sensor system-on-a-chip design mimics what is inherent in biological vision systems. Moreover, it is programmable and capable of performing ultra-fast machine vision processing in all levels such as image acquisition, image fusion, image analysis, scene interpretation, and control functions. The system provides about one tera-operation-per-second computing power which is a two order-of-magnitude increase over that of state-of-the-art microcomputers. Its high performance is due to massively parallel computing structures, high data throughput rates, fast learning capabilities, and advanced VLSI system-on-a-chip implementation.

  1. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.


    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  2. DS-777 Spatial Location of the Active and Inactive areas of the Model Boundary for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set defines the boundary of the northern High Plains aquifer. It is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project...

  3. High pressure study of B{sub 12}As{sub 2}: Electrical transport behavior and the role of grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qinglin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Liu, Cailong; Gao, Chunxiao, E-mail:, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, Boheng [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Gao, Yang; Fitzpatrick, Matthew; Li, Yuqiang; Liu, Bao; Ma, Yanzhang, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)


    Using a diamond anvil cell, the evolutions of alternate-current impedance spectra and direct- current resistivity in B{sub 12}As{sub 2} have been investigated up to 51.9 GPa. The results provide evidence for the existence of grain and grain boundary effects that are separated in the frequency region. The grain boundary resistance shows a relatively smaller contribution to the total resistance above 16.8 GPa. By using the double-Schottky barrier model, the space charge potential was obtained. A pressure-induced inversion of charge defect concentration in the space charge layer was found at 20.7 GPa. The high-temperature resistivity measurements indicate that the transport activation energy is determined by defect energy levels in the band gap.

  4. A qualitative study exploring high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, health information and claims. (United States)

    Cusack, Leila; Desha, Laura N; Del Mar, Chris B; Hoffmann, Tammy C


    Exposure to health claims, particularly in the media and social media, is pervasive, and the information conveyed is often inaccurate, incomplete or misleading. Some young people of high school ages are already making decisions about using readily available health interventions (such as sports drinks and beauty products).Although previous research has assessed adults' understanding of health claims, no research has examined this issue in young adults who are attending high school. To explore high school students' understanding of, and attitudes towards, concepts relevant to assessing health information and claims. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 27 Australian high school students. Responses were recorded, transcribed and a thematic analysis performed. Three themes emerged as follows: (i) Variability in sources of health information and claims, and general understanding of their creation and accuracy of content, (ii) The use of substitute indicators to assess health information and claims and make judgements about their trustworthiness, (iii) Uncertainty about, and literal interpretation of, the language of health claims. Despite general scepticism of health claims and admitted uncertainty of research terminology, many students were generally convinced. Students had poor understanding about how health claims are generated and tended to rely on substitute indicators, such as endorsements, when evaluating the believability of claims. School students' lack of awareness of basic health research processes and methods of assessing the accuracy of health information and claims makes them vulnerable to distorted and misleading health information. This restricts their ability to make informed health decisions - a skill that increases in importance as they become adults. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan


    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  6. Exploring High Energy Interactions with CMS at the LHC”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulak, Lawrence R. [; Boston Univ., MA (United States)


    This High Energy Physics research project achieved its goal of exploring high-energy interactions with 7, 8 and 13 TeV data accumulated by CMS at the Energy Frontier. For the original hadron calorimeter (HCAL) and for its upgrade during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), the PI helped propose and implement the upgrading the phototubes, new electronics, and fast timing of the hadronic forward (HF) and hadronic outer (HO) calorimeters of CMS, projects which he had forcefully advocated since the inception of CMS. The PI and his colleagues Prof. J. Rohlf and chief electronics engineer E. Hazen, his post-docs A. Heister and S. Girgis, and his graduate students (P. Lawson and D. Arcaro) contributed software tools used in perfecting of μTCA and Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC13) electronics, the PC board that provides clock, timing and DAQ service for HCAL (and now many other subdetectors and central systems in the upgraded CMS detector). This Task reaped the benefits of these hardware contributions 1) to hermiticity for missing energy searches, and 2) to forward tagging jets for Vector Boson Fusion processes by analyzing and publishing early data, including that for the Higgs discovery and for exotic and supersymmetric searches.

  7. Exploring dissipative processes at high angular momentum in 58Ni+60Ni reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams E.


    Full Text Available Current coupled channels (CC models treat fusion as a coherent quantum-mechanical process, in which coupling between the collective states of the colliding nuclei influences the probability of fusion in near-barrier reactions. While CC models have been used to successfully describe many experimental fusion barrier distribution (BD measurements, the CC approach has failed in the notable case of 16O+208Pb. The reason for this is poorly understood; however, it has been postulated that dissipative processes may play a role. Traditional BD experiments can only probe the physics of fusion for collisions at the top of the Coulomb barrier (L = 0ħ. In this work, we will present results using a novel method of probing dissipative processes inside the Coulomb barrier. The method exploits the predicted sharp onset of fission at L ~ 60ħ for reactions forming compound nuclei with A < 160. Using the ANU’s 14UD tandem accelerator and CUBE spectrometer, reaction outcomes have been measured for the 58Ni+60Ni reaction at a range of energies, in order to explore dissipative processes at high angular momentum. In this reaction, deep inelastic processes have been found to set in before the onset fission at high angular momentum following fusion. The results will be discussed in relation to the need for a dynamical model of fusion.

  8. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  9. Science at the interface : grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid M.; Clark, Blythe B.; Olmsted, David L.; Medlin, Douglas L.


    Interfaces are a critical determinant of the full range of materials properties, especially at the nanoscale. Computational and experimental methods developed a comprehensive understanding of nanograin evolution based on a fundamental understanding of internal interfaces in nanocrystalline nickel. It has recently been shown that nanocrystals with a bi-modal grain-size distribution possess a unique combination of high-strength, ductility and wear-resistance. We performed a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the structure and motion of internal interfaces in nanograined metal and the resulting grain evolution. The properties of grain boundaries are computed for an unprecedented range of boundaries. The presence of roughening transitions in grain boundaries is explored and related to dramatic changes in boundary mobility. Experimental observations show that abnormal grain growth in nanograined materials is unlike conventional scale material in both the level of defects and the formation of unfavored phases. Molecular dynamics simulations address the origins of some of these phenomena.

  10. Ecosystems response and restitution time across the K/Pg boundary transition at high-latitudes, Southern Hemisphere, New Zealand - a palynological approach (United States)

    Willumsen, Pi; Vajda, Vivi


    Several major groups of biota/fauna disappeared globally across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (K/Pg boundary) and several other important groups suffered considerable, but not complete, species-level extinction. For marine phytoplankton - a major driver of ocean productivity - darkness and suppression of photosynthesis, in the aftermath of the asteroid impact, was likely a major killing mechanism. Thus, in the marine realm there is a separation in extinction rate between strongly affected groups with calcareous shells and groups that had organic cysts or siliceous tests. Detailed regional records of the long-term post-K/Pg boundary therefore still need to be undertaken to enhance the understanding of how each of the major microfossil groups recovered to elucidate recovery in different ecosystem types following this unique event. Throughout the New Zealand region, widespread deposition of siliceous sediments occurred during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene indicating the existence of a south Pacific upwelling regime (Hollis 1993, 1995; Strong et al. 1995). Silica concentration in the oceans increased after the K/Pg event and remained high for 1-2 millions years during the early Paleogene, reflecting high bio-siliceous productivity in the aftermath of the K/Pg boundary event (Hollis et al. 1995, 2003). The geological archives of New Zealand includes outcrops from several basins which provide a unique possibility for examining ecosystem response and restitution time from latest Cretaceous to early Paleogene in a suite of depositional environments spanning from terrestrial to bathyal (Willumsen 2000, Vajda et al. 2001, Vajda and Raine 2003). High-resolution palynological comparative studies of organic-walled microfossils such as dinoflagellate assemblages (dinocysts), spores and pollen are currently carried out on New Zealand sediments. The recovery period in the marine realm is much extended compared with the much shorter recovery time reflected by the

  11. Information dynamics of boundary perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter

    uncertain than low-entropy contexts. Because phrase boundaries tend to afford high-entropy continuations, thus generating uncertain expectations in the listener, one possibility is that boundary perception is directly related to entropy. In other words, it may be hypothesized that entropy underlies...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....

  12. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-Ray Balloon-Borne Telescope (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Apple, Jeff; StevensonChavis, Katherine; Dietz, Kurt; Holt, Marlon; Koehler, Heather; Lis, Tomasz; O'Connor, Brian; RodriquezOtero, Miguel; Pryor, Jonathan; Ramsey, Brian; Rinehart-Dawson, Maegan; Smith, Leigh; Sobey, Alexander; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Rodriquez, Marcello; Shih, Albert; Gregory, Don; Jasper, John; Bohon, Steven


    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist

  13. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope (United States)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  14. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker


    , which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient...... and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability...

  15. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker;


    concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control...

  16. High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.


    This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were

  17. Seeking the boundary of boundary extension. (United States)

    McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M


    Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its boundaries. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image boundary also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes.

  18. Effect of one-step recrystallization on the grain boundary evolution of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy and its subsystems. (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Ru; Yeh, An-Chou; Yeh, Jien-Wei


    In this study, the grain boundary evolution of equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi, CoCrFeNi, and FeCoNi alloys after one-step recrystallization were investigated. The special boundary fraction and twin density of these alloys were evaluated by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Among the three alloys tested, FeCoNi exhibited the highest special boundary fraction and twin density after one-step recrystallization. The special boundary increment after one-step recrystallization was mainly affected by grain boundary velocity, while twin density was mainly affected by average grain boundary energy and twin boundary energy.

  19. YSZ thin films with minimized grain boundary resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Edmund M.; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Janek, Juergen; Yang, Hao; Browning, Nigel D.; Takamura, Yayoi; Kim, Sangtae


    In recent years, interface engineering of solid electrolytes has been explored to increase their ionic conductivity and improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells and other electrochemical power sources. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity of epitaxially grown thin films of some electrolytes is dramatically enhanced, which is often attributed to effects (e. g. strain-induced mobility changes) at the heterophase boundary with the substrate. Still largely unexplored is the possibility of manipulation of grain boundary resistivity in polycrystalline solid electrolyte films, clearly a limiting factor in their ionic conductivity. Here we report that the ionic conductivity of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with nano-­ columnar grains grown on a MgO substrate nearly reaches that of the corresponding single crystal when the thickness of the films becomes less than roughly 8 nm (smaller by a factor of three at 500°C). Using impedance spectroscopy, the grain boundary resistivity was probed as a function of film thickness. The resistivity of the grain boundaries near the film- substrate interface and film surface (within 4 nm of each) was almost entirely eliminated. This minimization of grain boundary resistivity is attributed to Mg2+ diffusion from the MgO substrate into the YSZ grain boundaries, which is supported by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements. We suggest grain boundary “design” as an attractive method to obtain highly conductive solid electrolyte thin films.

  20. Characterization of High Proper Motion Objects from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L


    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from 2MASS and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late type, nearby, or metal poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and five subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ~12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08-623558....

  1. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sheppard, Scott S., E-mail: [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)


    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  2. Exploring the jet launching region in active galactic nuclei using high-resolution VLBI (United States)

    Rani, Bindu


    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from AGN is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of SMBHs and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, I took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the GMVA (Global Millimeter VLBI Array). With an angular resolution of 50 micro-arcseconds at 86 GHz, one could reach scales down to 900 Rs (for a 109 solar mass black hole). On sub-mas scales the core and central jet of BL Lac is polarized with the EVPA being aligned well with jet in the North-South jet direction. This suggests a well ordered magnetic field, with its main component being perpendicular to the jet axis. Such a field configuration is consistent with a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this talk, I will show the results of our study on BL Lac.

  3. Exploration of Anomalous Gravity Effects by rf-Pumped Magnetized High-T(c) Superconducting Oxides (United States)

    Robertson, Tony; Litchford, Ron; Peters, Randall; Thompson, Byran; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)


    A number of anomalous gravitational effects have been reported in the scientific literature during recent years, but there has been no independent confirmation with regard to any of these claims. Therefore, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in response to the propulsion challenges specified by NASA's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) program, proposed to explore the possibility of observing anomalous gravitation behavior through the manipulation of Josephson junction effects in magnetized high-Tc superconducting oxides. The technical goal was to critically test this revolutionary physical claim and provide a rigorous, independent, empirical confirmation (or refutation) of anomalous effects related to the manipulation of gravity by radio frequency (rf)-pumped magnetized type-2 superconductors. Because the current empirical evidence for gravity modification is anecdotal, our objective was to design, construct, and meticulously implement a discriminating experiment, which would put these observations on a more firm footing within the scientific community. Our approach is unique in that we advocate the construction of an extremely sensitive torsion balance with which to measure gravity modification effects by rf-pumped type-2 superconductor test masses. This paper reviews the anecdotal evidence for anomalous gravity effects, describes the design and development of a simplified torsion balance experiment for empirically investigating these claims, and presents the results of preliminary experiments.

  4. Exploring Graphics Processing Unit (GPU Resource Sharing Efficiency for High Performance Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li


    Full Text Available The increasing incorporation of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs as accelerators has been one of the forefront High Performance Computing (HPC trends and provides unprecedented performance; however, the prevalent adoption of the Single-Program Multiple-Data (SPMD programming model brings with it challenges of resource underutilization. In other words, under SPMD, every CPU needs GPU capability available to it. However, since CPUs generally outnumber GPUs, the asymmetric resource distribution gives rise to overall computing resource underutilization. In this paper, we propose to efficiently share the GPU under SPMD and formally define a series of GPU sharing scenarios. We provide performance-modeling analysis for each sharing scenario with accurate experimentation validation. With the modeling basis, we further conduct experimental studies to explore potential GPU sharing efficiency improvements from multiple perspectives. Both further theoretical and experimental GPU sharing performance analysis and results are presented. Our results not only demonstrate the significant performance gain for SPMD programs with the proposed efficient GPU sharing, but also the further improved sharing efficiency with the optimization techniques based on our accurate modeling.

  5. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev


    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  6. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev


    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  7. Exploring Self-Regulation in Language Learning: A Study of Japanese High School EFL Students (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsuko; Nakata, Yoshiyuki


    Self-regulated learning explores learners' complex intrinsic factors, including their learning strategies and motivation to learn. It offers learners the opportunity to become autonomous--a situation that is essential for ensuring that Japanese students acquire English proficiency. This study aims to explore the factors involved in self-regulated…

  8. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures (United States)

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  9. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert


    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  10. Nature of the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary within normal oceanic mantle from high-resolution receiver functions (United States)

    Olugboji, Tolulope Morayo; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro; Shinohara, Masanao


    Receiver function observations in the oceanic upper mantle can test causal mechanisms for the depth, sharpness, and age dependence of the seismic wave speed decrease thought to mark the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We use a combination of frequency-dependent harmonic decomposition of receiver functions and synthetic forward modeling to provide new seismological constraints on this "seismic LAB" from 17 ocean-bottom stations and 2 borehole stations in the Philippine Sea and northwest Pacific Ocean. Underneath young oceanic crust, the seismic LAB depth follows the ˜1300 K isotherm but a lower isotherm (˜1000 K) is suggested in the Daito ridge, the Izu-Bonin-Mariana trench, and the northern Shikoku basin. Underneath old oceanic crust, the seismic LAB lies at a constant depth ˜70 km. The age dependence of the seismic LAB depth is consistent with either a transition to partial-melt conditions or a subsolidus rheological change as the causative factor. The age dependence of interface sharpness provides critical information to distinguish these two models. Underneath young oceanic crust, the velocity gradient is gradational, while for old oceanic crust, a sharper velocity gradient is suggested by the receiver functions. This behavior is consistent with the prediction of the subsolidus model invoking anelastic relaxation mediated by temperature and water content, but is not readily explained by a partial-melt model. The Ps conversions display negligible two-lobed or four-lobed back azimuth dependence in harmonic stacks, suggesting that a sharp change in azimuthal anisotropy with depth is not responsible for them. We conclude that these ocean-bottom observations indicate a subsolidus elastically accommodated grain-boundary sliding (EAGBS) model for the seismic LAB. Because EAGBS does not facilitate long-term ductile deformation, the seismic LAB may not coincide with the conventional transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere corresponding to a change in

  11. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies : a case study on quinoa protein and high pressure –high temperature processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine


    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore, th

  12. Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effenhauser Rainer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive immune assessment on field team members participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of mission-associated stressors on the human immune system. To perform the study, the development of techniques for processing immune samples in remote field locations was required. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, whole-blood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles, plasma cortisol and EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were 30 days prior to mission start, mid-mission and 60 days after mission completion. Results The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed on Devon Island, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in astronauts

  13. Exploring the Effects of Active Learning on High School Students' Outcomes and Teachers' Perceptions of Biotechnology and Genetics Instruction (United States)

    Mueller, Ashley L.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Orvis, Kathryn S.


    Active learning can engage high school students to learn science, yet there is limited understanding if active learning can help students learn challenging science concepts such as genetics and biotechnology. This quasi-experimental study explored the effects of active learning compared to passive learning regarding high school students'…

  14. The Relationship between the Environmental Awareness, Environmental Attitude, Curiosity and Exploration in Highly Gifted Students: Structural Equation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Saricam


    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration in highly gifted students with structural equation modelling. The secondary aim was to compare highly gifted and non-gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration levels. Participants were 311 (154 highly gifted, 157 non-gifted secondary school students in Turkey who volunteered to take part in this study. All of the participants were either 13 or 14 years old, with a mean age of 13.77 years. For gathering data, Environmental Awareness Scale, Environmental Attitude Scale, Curiosity and Exploration-II were used. While analyzing the data, Pearson correlation analysis, independent samples t test, and structural equation model were used. According to the findings, highly gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration scores were higher than non-gifted students’. Indices of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM indicated that the increase in the curiosity and exploration scores of the highly gifted children increased the environmental awareness; in this case, the environmental attitudes were affected positively.

  15. Forest Boundary Extraction Method Applied to High Resolution Remote Sensing Images%高分辨率遥感影像林地边界提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华龙; 吴冰; 秦志远; 赖广陵


    由于高分辨率遥感影像上的信息高度细节化,加之噪声的影响,会导致基于像元级纹理特征的林地边界提取方法的效果不理想。为此,提出一种基于种子纹理基元合并的半自动林地边界提取方法。首先利用基于图模型的影像分割算法获取初始基元;然后定义了一种针对非规则基元统计基元级灰度共生矩阵( GLCM)纹理特征的方法;最后在人工给定种子基元的基础上合并具有相似纹理的基元,并对基元合并的结果进行边界提取,得到高分影像上的林地边界。利用多源高分影像对所提方法进行验证及对比分析。实验结果表明,该方法对高分影像上大片典型林地的边界可取得较高的提取精度和计算效率。%Due to the highly detailed information and noise in high resolution remote sensing images, the results of traditional forest boundary extraction algorithms based on pixel-based texture features are not satisfactory. There-fore, a semi-automatic method based on seeded texture primitive merging was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the initial primitives were obtained by the graph-based image segmentation algorithm, and then a new primitive-based Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix ( GLCM) texture feature extraction method was defined and directly applied to the irregular primitives. Based on the seed primitives provided artificially, the proposed algorithm merged primitives with similar texture features and applied a boundary extraction algorithm to the result of texture primitive merging in order to extract the forest boundary. In the experiment, multi-source high resolution remote sensing images were used to validate the proposed method. The comparative analysis with other methods shows that the proposed method can extract the boundary of large typical forests from high resolution remote sensing images with a higher extraction accuracy and computational efficiency.

  16. High-resolution cyclostratigraphy of geochemical records from Permo-Triassic boundary section of Dongpan,southwestern Guangxi,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spectral analysis is applied to geochemical data from a deep-water Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) section across PTB in Dongpan, Guangxi for high-resolution cyclostratigraphic research. The characteristics of the Milankovitch Cycles have been well recorded in the strata of the Dongpan section. Spectrum on Ce/La records shows especially that the ratios among its three preponderant cycles in the section are 5:2:1, which well displays the phenomenon of the sedimentary cycles driven by orbital force. The Milankovitch theory is further confirmed by the Paleozoic records.

  17. Exploring properties of high-density matter through remnants of neutron-star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauswein, Andreas [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Heidelberg (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)


    Remnants of neutron-star mergers are essentially massive, hot, differentially rotating neutron stars, which are initially strongly oscillating. As such they represent a unique probe for high-density matter because the oscillations are detectable via gravitational-wave measurements and are strongly dependent on the equation of state. The impact of the equation of state for instance is apparent in the frequency of the dominant oscillation mode of the remnant. For a fixed total binary mass a tight relation between the dominant postmerger oscillation frequency and the radii of nonrotating neutron stars exists. Inferring observationally the dominant postmerger frequency thus determines neutron star radii with high accuracy of the order of a few hundred meters. By considering symmetric and asymmetric binaries of the same chirp mass, we show that the knowledge of the binary mass ratio is not critical for this kind of radius measurements. We perform simulations which show that initial intrinsic neutron star rotation is unlikely to affect this method of constraining the high-density equation of state. We also summarize different possibilities about how the postmerger gravitational-wave emission can be employed to deduce the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars. We clarify the nature of the three most prominent features of the postmerger gravitational-wave spectrum and argue that the merger remnant can be considered to be a single, isolated, self-gravitating object that can be described by concepts of asteroseismology. We sketch how the consideration of the strength of secondary gravitational-wave peaks leads to a classification scheme of the gravitational-wave emission and postmerger dynamics. The understanding of the different mechanisms shaping the gravitational-wave signal yields a physically motivated analytic model of the gravitational-wave emission, which may form the basis for template-based gravitational-wave data analysis. We explore the observational

  18. Exploring high dimensional data with Butterfly: a novel classification algorithm based on discrete dynamical systems. (United States)

    Geraci, Joseph; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Haslehurst, Alexandria; Koti, Madhuri; Feilotter, Harriet E; Evans, Ken


    We introduce a novel method for visualizing high dimensional data via a discrete dynamical system. This method provides a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects according to a set of variables without geometric projections, transformed axes or principal components. The algorithm exploits a memory-type mechanism inherent in a certain class of discrete dynamical systems collectively referred to as the chaos game that are closely related to iterative function systems. The goal of the algorithm was to create a human readable representation of high dimensional patient data that was capable of detecting unrevealed subclusters of patients from within anticipated classifications. This provides a mechanism to further pursue a more personalized exploration of pathology when used with medical data. For clustering and classification protocols, the dynamical system portion of the algorithm is designed to come after some feature selection filter and before some model evaluation (e.g. clustering accuracy) protocol. In the version given here, a univariate features selection step is performed (in practice more complex feature selection methods are used), a discrete dynamical system is driven by this reduced set of variables (which results in a set of 2D cluster models), these models are evaluated for their accuracy (according to a user-defined binary classification) and finally a visual representation of the top classification models are returned. Thus, in addition to the visualization component, this methodology can be used for both supervised and unsupervised machine learning as the top performing models are returned in the protocol we describe here. Butterfly, the algorithm we introduce and provide working code for, uses a discrete dynamical system to classify high dimensional data and provide a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects. We report results on three datasets (two in the article; one in the appendix) including a public lung cancer

  19. Optimal boundary control and boundary stabilization of hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gugat, Martin


    This brief considers recent results on optimal control and stabilization of systems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations, specifically those in which the control action takes place at the boundary.  The wave equation is used as a typical example of a linear system, through which the author explores initial boundary value problems, concepts of exact controllability, optimal exact control, and boundary stabilization.  Nonlinear systems are also covered, with the Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers Equations serving as standard examples.  To keep the presentation as accessible as possible, the author uses the case of a system with a state that is defined on a finite space interval, so that there are only two boundary points where the system can be controlled.  Graduate and post-graduate students as well as researchers in the field will find this to be an accessible introduction to problems of optimal control and stabilization.

  20. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHolzgrefe


    Full Text Available Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer’s syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name. A closure positive shift (CPS — marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary — was elicited only for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context.

  1. A Morphing Radiator for High-Turndown Thermal Control of Crewed Space Exploration Vehicles (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Hardtl, Darren; Sheth, Rubik; Dinsmore, Craig


    Spacecraft designed for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) face a difficult thermal control challenge, particularly in the case of crewed vehicles where the thermal control system (TCS) must maintain a relatively constant internal environment temperature despite a vastly varying external thermal environment and despite heat rejection needs that are contrary to the potential of the environment. A thermal control system is in other words required to reject a higher heat load to warm environments and a lower heat load to cold environments, necessitating a quite high turndown ratio. A modern thermal control system is capable of a turndown ratio of on the order of 12:1, but for crew safety and environment compatibility these are massive multi-loop fluid systems. This paper discusses the analysis of a unique radiator design which employs the behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA) to vary the turndown of, and thus enable, a single-loop vehicle thermal control system for space exploration vehicles. This design, a morphing radiator, varies its shape in response to facesheet temperature to control view of space and primary surface emissivity. Because temperature dependence is inherent to SMA behavior, the design requires no accommodation for control, instrumentation, nor power supply in order to operate. Thermal and radiation modeling of the morphing radiator predict a turndown ranging from 11.9:1 to 35:1 independent of TCS configuration. Stress and deformation analyses predict the desired morphing behavior of the concept. A system level mass analysis shows that by enabling a single loop architecture this design could reduce the TCS mass by between 139 kg and 225 kg. The concept is demonstrated in proof-of-concept benchtop tests.

  2. Replication and explorations of high-order epistasis using a large advanced intercross line pedigree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Pettersson


    Full Text Available Dissection of the genetic architecture of complex traits persists as a major challenge in biology; despite considerable efforts, much remains unclear including the role and importance of genetic interactions. This study provides empirical evidence for a strong and persistent contribution of both second- and third-order epistatic interactions to long-term selection response for body weight in two divergently selected chicken lines. We earlier reported a network of interacting loci with large effects on body weight in an F(2 intercross between these high- and low-body weight lines. Here, most pair-wise interactions in the network are replicated in an independent eight-generation advanced intercross line (AIL. The original report showed an important contribution of capacitating epistasis to growth, meaning that the genotype at a hub in the network releases the effects of one or several peripheral loci. After fine-mapping of the loci in the AIL, we show that these interactions were persistent over time. The replication of five of six originally reported epistatic loci, as well as the capacitating epistasis, provides strong empirical evidence that the originally observed epistasis is of biological importance and is a contributor in the genetic architecture of this population. The stability of genetic interaction mechanisms over time indicates a non-transient role of epistasis on phenotypic change. Third-order epistasis was for the first time examined in this study and was shown to make an important contribution to growth, which suggests that the genetic architecture of growth is more complex than can be explained by two-locus interactions only. Our results illustrate the importance of designing studies that facilitate exploration of epistasis in populations for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the genetics underlying a complex trait.

  3. High Measurement Channel Density Sensor Array Impedance Analyzer for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary exploration missions, such as those planned by NASA and other space agencies over the next few decades, require advanced chemical and biological marker...

  4. High-Efficiency Reliable Stirling Generator for Space Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs advanced power-conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of power conversion for space exploration missions. We propose to develop...

  5. Arrangement of scale-interaction and large-scale modulation in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan


    Interactions between small- and large-scale motions are inherent in the near-wall dynamics of wall-bounded flows. We here examine the scale-interaction embedded within the streamwise velocity component. Data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry in ZPG turbulent boundary layers, for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ ≡ δUτ / ν ~ 2800 to 22800. After first decomposing velocity signals into contributions from small- and large-scales, we then represent the time-varying small-scale energy with time series of its instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency, via a wavelet-based method. Features of the scale-interaction are inferred from isocorrelation maps, formed by correlating the large-scale velocity with its concurrent small-scale amplitude and frequency. Below the onset of the log-region, the physics constitutes aspects of amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. Time shifts, associated with the correlation extrema--representing the lead/lag of the small-scale signatures relative to the large-scales--are shown to be governed by inner-scaling. Wall-normal trends of time shifts are explained by considering the arrangement of scales in the log- and intermittent-regions, and how they relate to stochastic top-down and bottom-up processes.

  6. Effect of roughness lengths on surface energy and the planetary boundary layer height over high-altitude Ngoring Lake (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Wen, Lijuan; Zhao, Lin; Meng, Xianhong; Ao, Yinhuan


    The special climate environment creates a distinctive air-lake interaction characteristic in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) lakes, where the variations of surface roughness lengths also differ somewhat from those of other regions. However, how different categories of roughness lengths affect the lake surface energy exchange and the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) remains unclear in the TP lakes. In this study, we used a tuned Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 to investigate the responses of the freeze-up date, turbulent fluxes, meteorological variables, and PBLH to surface roughness length variations in Ngoring Lake. Of all meteorological variables, the lake surface temperature responded to roughness length variations most sensitively; increasing roughness lengths can put the lake freeze-up date forward. The effect of momentum roughness length on wind speed was significantly affected by the fetch length. The increase in the roughness length for heat can induce the increment of the nightly PBLH in most months, especially for the central lake area in autumn. The primary factors that contribute to sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE) were the roughness lengths for heat and momentum during the ice-free period, respectively. Increasing roughness length for heat can increase the nightly PBLH, and decreasing roughness length for moisture can also promote growth of the PBLH, but there was no obvious correlation between the momentum roughness length and the PBLH.

  7. Thermodynamic Equilibrium Studies of Nanocrystallite CeO2 Grain Boundaries by High Temperature X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Xiang; XIE Kan


    Nanostructured CeO2 thin films and powders are studied by high temperature x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the surface composition strongly depends on temperature, the surface O/Ce ratio initially increases with increasing temperature, then decreases with the further increase of temperature, the maximum surface O/Ce ratio is at about 300℃ C. The variation of the surface composition with temperature arises from the ion migration, redistribution and transformation between lattice oxygen and gas phase oxygen near the grain boundaries during the thermodynamic equilibrium process. The results also show that CeO2 has a weakly bond oxygen, high oxygen mobility in the bulk and a high molecular dissociation rate at the surface, especially for the sol-gel prepared nanocrystallite CeO2.

  8. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.


    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  9. Effects of grinding-induced grain boundary and interfaces on electrical transportation and structure phase transition in ZnSe under high pressure (United States)

    Jie, Yang; Pei, Wang; Guo-Zhao, Zhang; Xiao-Xue, Zhou; Jing, Li; Cai-Long, Liu


    Interface and scale effects are the two most important factors which strongly affect the structure and the properties of nano-/micro-crystals under pressure. We conduct an experiment under high pressure in situ alternating current impedance to elucidate the effects of interface on the structure and electrical transport behavior of two ZnSe samples with different sizes obtained by physical grinding. The results show that (i) two different-sized ZnSe samples undergo the same phase transitions from zinc blend to cinnabar-type phase and then to rock salt phase; (ii) the structural transition pressure of the 859-nm ZnSe sample is higher than that of the sample of 478 nm, which indicates the strong scale effect. The pressure induced boundary resistance change is obtained by fitting the impedance spectrum, which shows that the boundary conduction dominates the electrical transport behavior of ZnSe in the whole experimental pressure range. By comparing the impedance spectra of two different-sized ZnSe samples at high pressure, we find that the resistance of the 478-nm ZnSe sample is lower than that of the 859-nm sample, which illustrates that the sample with smaller particle size has more defects which are due to physical grinding. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404133 and 11374121) and the Program of Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140520105JH).

  10. Reducing the Drag and Damage of a High-Speed Train by Analyzing and Optimizing its Boundary Layer Separation and Roll-up into Wake Vortices (United States)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip


    We present numerical calculations of the boundary layers and shed wake vortices behind several aerodynamic bodies and generic models of high-speed trains. Our calculations illustrate new visual diagnostics that we developed that clearly show where the separation of a boundary layer occurs and where, how, and with what angles (with respect to the stream-wise direction) the wake vortices form. The calculations also illustrate novel 3D morphing and mesh ``pushing and pulling'' techniques that allow us to change the shapes of aerodynamic bodies and models in a controlled and automated manner without spurious features appearing. Using these tools we have examined the patterns of the shed vortices behind generic bodies and trains and correlated them with the changes in the drag as well as with the effects of the shed vortices on the environment. In particular, we have applied these techniques to the end car of a next-generation, high-speed train in order to minimize the drag and to minimize the adverse effects of the shed vortices on the track ballast.

  11. Magnetostratigraphy and high-resolution cyclic stratigraphy of the continental Permian-Triassic boundary interval (Central Germany) (United States)

    Szurlies, M.; Bachmann, G. H.; Menning, M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Käding, K.-C.


    a total of nearly 900 oriented standard samples. The initial natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities range between 0.1 and 21 x 10-3 A m-1. Rock magnetic studies indicate that the carriers of characteristic magnetization are hematite in the red-brown lithologies and magnetite in the grey lithologies. According to results from thermal and alternating field demagnetization, two types of magnetization can be defined. 79% of all samples belong to type I magnetizations. The mean paleomagnetic direction of type I magnetizations (decl. = 16.4^o, incl. = 27.5^o, α95 = 3.3^o) is close to the expected Lower Triassic geomagnetic field direction for Central Germany. The inter-section correlation of the investigated profiles allows the establishment of a regional composite magnetostratigraphic polarity scale for Central Germany, serving as a reference scale for the type section of the Germanic Lower Buntsandstein of Central Europe. 21% of all investigated samples belong to type II magnetizations, which are characterized by steep positive inclination values (50--70^o), which approximate only the local present-day field direction (decl. = 0^o, incl. ≈66^o). The Lower Buntsandstein comprises a polarity sequence of 3 normal and 3 reversed magnetozones, being in good agreement with polarity scales from the Tethyal and Boreal Triassic. According to biostratigraphic results, the position of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is situated within the uppermost part of the "Graubankbereich", forming the sandy-oolitic base of the second cycle of the Calvörde Formation. Accordingly, in Central Germany the PTB is about 20 m above the lithostratigraphic Zechstein-Buntsandstein boundary, within the lower part of th first thick normal magnetozone of the Calvörde Formation.

  12. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  13. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein


    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of transnation

  14. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein


    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of

  15. Investigating the deformation of upper crustal faults at the N-Chilean convergent plate boundary at different scales using high-resolution topography datasets and creepmeter measurements (United States)

    Ewiak, O.; Victor, P.; Ziegenhagen, T.; Oncken, O.


    The Chilean convergent plate boundary is one of the tectonically most active regions on earth and prone to large megathrust earthquakes as e. g. the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake which ruptured a mature seismic gap in south-central Chile. In northern Chile historical data suggests the existence of a seismic gap between Arica and Mejillones Peninsula (MP), which has not ruptured since 1877. Further south, the 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake ruptured the subduction interface between MP and Taltal. In this study we investigate the deformation at four active upper plate faults (dip-slip and strike-slip) located above the coupling zone of the subduction interface. The target faults (Mejillones Fault - MF, Salar del Carmen Fault - SCF, Cerro Fortuna Fault - CFF, Chomache Fault - CF) are situated in forearc segments, which are in different stages of the megathrust seismic cycle. The main question of this study is how strain is accumulated in the overriding plate, what is the response of the target faults to the megathrust seismic cycle and what are the mechanisms / processes involved. The hyper arid conditions of the Atacama desert and the extremely low erosion rates enable us to investigate geomorphic markers, e .g. fault scarps and knickpoints, which serve as a record for upper crustal deformation and fault activity about ten thousands years into the past. Fault scarp data has been acquired with Differential-GPS by measuring high-resolution topographic profiles perpendicular to the fault scarps and along incised gullies. The topographic data show clear variations between the target faults which possibly result from their position within the forearc. The surveyed faults, e. g. the SCF, exhibit clear along strike variations in the morphology of surface ruptures attributed to seismic events and can be subdivided into individual segments. The data allows us to distinguish single, composite and multiple fault scarps and thus to detect differences in fault growth initiated

  16. Effect of a cold, dry air incursion on atmospheric boundary layer processes over a high-altitude lake in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Wen, Lijuan; Zhao, Lin; Ao, Yinhuan; Wang, Shaoying


    High-altitude lakes are frequently exposed to extreme meteorological conditions, but the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) processes have received little attention under specific weather conditions. This study used the multi-source field data, re-analysis and remote sensing data to investigate the varying patterns and driving forces of the convective boundary layer (CBL) height over Ngoring Lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) before and after the cold air incursion. Daily cumulative surface heat flux and buoyancy flux over the land were markedly larger than those over the lake on a clear summer day, but an opposite pattern was observed accompanied by the cold air incursion. CBLs determined by the potential temperature thinned (depth < 100 m) over the lake in the daytime and thickened (400-600 m) at night on a clear day. Along with the arrival of the cold air, CBL rapidly thickened to 2280 m over the lake, exceeded than the maximum value at adjacent Madoi station. Cold air dramatically cooled the middle-upper atmosphere but the temperature of the lower atmosphere cooled down slowly, partly due to a sharp increase of sensible heat flux over the lake, both of which linked up to weaken the potential temperature gradient. Moreover, increasing wind speed and vertical wind shear further facilitated the buoyancy flux to exert higher heat convection efficiency. All of these factors acted together to cause the rapid growth of CBL over the lake. This investigation provided a more in-depth knowledge of boundary layer dynamics in the lake-rich region of the TP.

  17. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts (United States)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    ): threshold sensitivity is (10 -9 ldots 10 -13) g (threshold is determine by customer with determination of sizes of sensor and electronic processing unit); dynamic range is 10 7 ldots 10 9 ; frequency range is 0 ldots 10 Hz; mass is 50 grams; size: length is 120 mm and diameter is 20 mm In addition, that it can be used as accelerometer properly, on its base it is possible to create the strapdown inertial systems (SIS) for spacecraft. Flight control is carried out in accordance to flight programe of spacecraft without support connection with external reference objects. These SIS allow: - direct control over changes of orbital parameter or flight track, caused by action of extra low but long time external force factors (braking action of planet atmosphere remains, sun wind pressure, etc.) on spacecraft; - checking correction of orbital parameters (spacecraft track) by including of low power spaceborne engine; The developed accelerometer can be also used as high sensitive gravimeter for geophysical investigations and geological explorations - anywhere, where it is required to measure extra low deviation of terrestrial gravity value. High sensitivity of described accelerometers allows to create, on its base, gradientometers of real system for investigation of Planet gravity field heterogeneity from spacecraft orbit. This opens possibilities of practical solution of number important tasks of Planet physics.

  18. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina


    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries.......After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  19. Born series for the Robin boundary condition


    Machida, Manabu; Nakamura, Gen


    We solve the diffusion equation by constructing the Born series for the Robin boundary condition. We develop a general theory for arbitrary domains with smooth enough boundaries and explore the convergence. The proposed Born series is validated by numerical calculation in the three-dimensional half space. We show that in this case the Born series converges regardless the value of the impedance term in the Robin boundary condition. We point out that the solution from the so-called extrapolated...

  20. Full Coverage Shaped Hole Film Cooling in an Accelerating Boundary Layer with High Free-Stream Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest E. [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota


    Full coverage shaped-hole film cooling and downstream heat transfer measurements have been acquired in the accelerating flows over a large cylindrical leading edge test surface. The shaped holes had an 8° lateral expansion angled at 30° to the surface with spanwise and streamwise spacings of 3 diameters. Measurements were conducted at four blowing ratios, two Reynolds numbers and six well documented turbulence conditions. Film cooling measurements were acquired over a four to one range in blowing ratio at the lower Reynolds number and at the two lower blowing ratios for the higher Reynolds number. The film cooling measurements were acquired at a coolant to free-stream density ratio of approximately 1.04. The flows were subjected to a low turbulence condition (Tu = 0.7%), two levels of turbulence for a smaller sized grid (Tu = 3.5%, and 7.9%), one turbulence level for a larger grid (8.1%), and two levels of turbulence generated using a mock aero-combustor (Tu = 9.3% and 13.7%). Turbulence level is shown to have a significant influence in mixing away film cooling coverage progressively as the flow develops in the streamwise direction. Effectiveness levels for the aero-combustor turbulence condition are reduced to as low as 20% of low turbulence values by the furthest downstream region. The film cooling discharge is located close to the leading edge with very thin and accelerating upstream boundary layers. Film cooling data at the lower Reynolds number, show that transitional flows have significantly improved effectiveness levels compared with turbulent flows. Downstream effectiveness levels are very similar to slot film cooling data taken at the same coolant flow rates over the same cylindrical test surface. However, slots perform significantly better in the near discharge region. These data are expected to be very useful in grounding computational predictions of full coverage shaped hole film cooling with elevated turbulence levels and acceleration. IR

  1. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.


    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  2. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.


    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  3. Challenges in Implementing Technology-Rich Curricular High School Biology Materials: First Year Findings from the "Exploring Life" Project. (United States)

    Price, Betsy; Cates, Ward M.; Bodzin, Alex

    Eighteen high school biology teachers from a stratified sample of 13 distinct geographical United States regions participated in evaluation of the first year prototypes of Exploring Life, a biology program that includes a textbook with an accompanying Internet component and wet-lab investigations. Web activities explain and reinforce the text and…

  4. Exploring Differences between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High and Low Achievers in Open Distance Learning (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette


    Open distance students differ in their preparedness for higher education studies. Students who are less self-regulated risk failure and drop out in the challenging milieu of open distance learning. In this study, the differences between the application of self-regulated learning strategies by low and high achievers were explored. A multi-method…

  5. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.


    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  6. The exploration of water gushing structure of coal mine with the sounding method of high resolution tri-electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.; Li, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)


    The paper introduces the working technology and data exploration method of high resolution tri-electrode sounding used to detect water gushing structure in the underworkings floor. The forecast result has shown that the method is effective. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Exploration of Teaching Skills of Pre-Service High School Teachers' through Self-Regulated Learning Based on Learning Style (United States)

    Habibi; Kuswanto, Heru; Yanti, Fitri April


    An expert in the field of science is often difficult to teach his knowledge to students. Conversely someone who is expert in the field of education is certainly more expert in transferring knowledge. The purpose of this research is to explore the skill of teaching skill preservice of physics teacher of High School. Samples were taken randomly as…

  8. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan


    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  9. The species diversity of fusulinaceans and high-frequency sea-level changes in the Carboniferous-Permian boundary section at Xikou, Zhen'an County,Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Haijun; WANG; Xunlian; DING; Lin; XIA; Guoying; WANG; Lei


    The study on the interrelation between sea-level changes and biodiversity with its evolution has great significance for understanding the impact of global changes on organic evolution and exploring the inherent laws of life-environment coevolution in geological history. In this paper, the stratigraphic distribution of fusulinacean fauna in the Carboniferous-Permian boundary section at Xikou, Zhen'an County, Shaanxi Province, is analyzed quantitatively, and the relationship between the species diversity of fusulinaceans and relative sea-level changes is discussed. As a whole, the species numbers of fusulinacean fauna experience a rapid increase and an obvious decline in Xikou,Zhen'an County, from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian. There is a significant increase in species diversity around the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, which is one of the biggest bio-events of the fusulinacean fauna, and represents the radiation of Pseudoschwagerininae subfamily in the studied area. Integrated fusulinacean species diversity into sequence stratigraphic framework, detailed study suggests that the species diversity of the fusulinaceans is closely related to its relative stratigraphic location, and is essentially controlled by the sea-level changes, especially by the high-frequency sea-level changes. Generally, the species diversity of fusulinaceans is low, andthe number of first and last appearance datum is small in the lower unit of high-frequency depositional cycle formed during the quick rise of the sea level; whereas the species diversity of fusulinaceans is high, and the number of first and last appearance datum is large in the upper unit of high-frequency cycle formed during the slow fall of the sea level. Within the third-order depositional sequence, the species diversity of the fusulinaceans at the first flooding surfaces and the maximum flooding surfaces is low, and it increases upward. The fusulinacean species diversity is low within the transgressive systems

  10. Millennial Values and Boundaries in the Classroom (United States)

    Espinoza, Chip


    Students' relationships with authority and information are changing rapidly, and this presents a new set of interpersonal boundary challenges for faculty. The topic of setting boundaries often conjures up thoughts of how to protect oneself. The intent of this chapter is to explore how good rapport between teacher and student can be developed and…

  11. Numerical investigation of implementation of air-earth boundary by acoustic-elastic boundary approach (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.


    The need for incorporating the traction-free condition at the air-earth boundary for finite-difference modeling of seismic wave propagation has been discussed widely. A new implementation has been developed for simulating elastic wave propagation in which the free-surface condition is replaced by an explicit acoustic-elastic boundary. Detailed comparisons of seismograms with different implementations for the air-earth boundary were undertaken using the (2,2) (the finite-difference operators are second order in time and space) and the (2,6) (second order in time and sixth order in space) standard staggered-grid (SSG) schemes. Methods used in these comparisons to define the air-earth boundary included the stress image method (SIM), the heterogeneous approach, the scheme of modifying material properties based on transversely isotropic medium approach, the acoustic-elastic boundary approach, and an analytical approach. The method proposed achieves the same or higher accuracy of modeled body waves relative to the SIM. Rayleigh waves calculated using the explicit acoustic-elastic boundary approach differ slightly from those calculated using the SIM. Numerical results indicate that when using the (2,2) SSG scheme for SIM and our new method, a spatial step of 16 points per minimum wavelength is sufficient to achieve 90% accuracy; 32 points per minimum wavelength achieves 95% accuracy in modeled Rayleigh waves. When using the (2,6) SSG scheme for the two methods, a spatial step of eight points per minimum wavelength achieves 95% accuracy in modeled Rayleigh waves. Our proposed method is physically reasonable and, based on dispersive analysis of simulated seismographs from a layered half-space model, is highly accurate. As a bonus, our proposed method is easy to program and slightly faster than the SIM. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. High precision dating of mass extinction events: a combined zircon geochronology, apatite tephrochronology, and Bayesian age modelling approach of the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs


    Chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals is preferably applied to tephra beds intercalated in sedimentary sequences. By assuming that the zircon crystallization age closely approximate that of the volcanic eruption and ash deposition, U-Pb zircon geochronology is the preferred approach for dating mass extinction events (such as the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction) in the sedimentary record. As tephra from large volcanic eruptions is often transported over long distances, it additionally provide an invaluable tool for stratigraphic correlation across distant geologic sections. Therefore, the combination of high-precision zircon geochronology with apatite chemistry of the same tephra bed (so called apatite tephrochronology) provides a robust fingerprint of one particular volcanic eruption. In addition we provide coherent Bayesian model ages for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) mass extinction, then compare it with PTB model ages at Meishan after Burgess et al. (2014). We will present new high-precision U-Pb zircon dates for a series of volcanic ash beds in deep- and shallow-marine Permian-Triassic sections in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. In addition, apatite crystals out of the same ash beds were analysed focusing on their halogen (F, Cl) and trace-element (e.g. Fe, Mg, REE) chemistry. We also show that Bayesian age models produce reproducible results from different geologic sections. On the basis of these data, including litho- and biostratigraphic correlations, we can precisely and accurately constrain the Permian-Triassic boundary in an equatorial marine setting, and correlate tephra beds over different sections and facies in the Nanpanjiang Basin independently from litho-, bio- or chemostratigraphic criteria. The results evidence that data produced in laboratories associated to the global EARTHTIME consortium can provide age information at the 0.05% level of 206

  13. Sensitivity studies of high-resolution RegCM3 simulations of precipitation over the European Alps: the effect of lateral boundary conditions and domain size (United States)

    Nadeem, Imran; Formayer, Herbert


    A suite of high-resolution (10 km) simulations were performed with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to study the effect of various lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), domain size, and intermediate domains on simulated precipitation over the Great Alpine Region. The boundary conditions used were ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis with grid spacing 0.75∘, the ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis with grid spacing 1.125 and 2.5∘, and finally the 2.5∘ NCEP/DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis. The model was run in one-way nesting mode with direct nesting of the high-resolution RCM (horizontal grid spacing Δx = 10 km) with driving reanalysis, with one intermediate resolution nest (Δx = 30 km) between high-resolution RCM and reanalysis forcings, and also with two intermediate resolution nests (Δx = 90 km and Δx = 30 km) for simulations forced with LBC of resolution 2.5∘. Additionally, the impact of domain size was investigated. The results of multiple simulations were evaluated using different analysis techniques, e.g., Taylor diagram and a newly defined useful statistical parameter, called Skill-Score, for evaluation of daily precipitation simulated by the model. It has been found that domain size has the major impact on the results, while different resolution and versions of LBCs, e.g., 1.125∘ ERA40 and 0.7∘ ERA-Interim, do not produce significantly different results. It is also noticed that direct nesting with reasonable domain size, seems to be the most adequate method for reproducing precipitation over complex terrain, while introducing intermediate resolution nests seems to deteriorate the results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉彬; A.Godfrey; 刘伟; 刘庆


    应用电子背散射衍射技术(EBSD)和电子通道衍衬成像技术(ECC)研究了大应变量(96%)冷轧纯度为99.996%的金属Ni在低温再结晶过程中∑3晶界的演化.研究表明,基于EBSD数据,∑3晶界可以分为两类--孪晶型和非孪晶型∑3晶界,二者可通过晶界取向差与60°的偏差△θ来区分.EBSD定位观察再结晶过程的结果表明,非共格孪晶是由共格孪晶发展而来;绝大部分∑3~n(n>1)晶界由晶核与其n次孪晶相遇而形成,并且晶界含量随着n的增加显著降低.大部分非孪晶型∑3晶界由孪晶型∑3晶界与小角晶界(∑1)相遇反应而来,可能比孪晶型∑3晶界更能够阻断大角晶界网络.%The concept of grain boundary engineering (GBE) has been proposed based on the fact that many studies have demonstrated that boundaries associated with low ∑-value coincident site lattice (CSL) misorientations show higher resistance to intergranular fracture and corrosion, reduced susceptibility to impurity segregation and superior ductility. It is commonly accepted that for fcc metals of low to medium stacking fault energy metals, including Ni and many Ni-alloys, the most important CSL boundary for the GBE process is a ∑3 boundary, the occurrence of which is dominated by the formation of annealing twins. Moreover, it has been found that repetitive thermo-mechanical processing can be used to increase further the fraction of ∑3 (and ∑3~n (n >1)) boundaries. However, the mechanism for this is not yet clear. Therefore, an investigation on the evolution of ∑3 boundaries during recrystallization is important for understanding the mechanisms of GBE for those materials. In the present paper the evolution of ∑3 boundaries during recrystallization in a 96% cold-rolled sample of pure nickel of 99.996% purity has been explored using orientation maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Each orientation map was taken from the same area after annealing for

  15. Requirements for high quality X-ray spectroscopy in an Explorer class mission (United States)

    Cash, W. C., Jr.


    Through the use of simulated X-ray spectra the question of instrument requirements for a spectrograph that could significantly advance X-ray astronomy is addressed. It it concluded that resolution (lambda/delta lambda) in the range of 200 to 500, and effective collecting area in excess of 200 sq cm are required. One design, based on the objective reflection grating concept, which would meet these stringent requirements in an Explorer class mission is presented.

  16. Compact difference approximation with consistent boundary condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dexun; MA Yanwen; LI Xinliang; LIU Mingyu


    For simulating multi-scale complex flow fields it should be noted that all the physical quantities we are interested in must be simulated well. With limitation of the computer resources it is preferred to use high order accurate difference schemes. Because of their high accuracy and small stencil of grid points computational fluid dynamics (CFD) workers pay more attention to compact schemes recently. For simulating the complex flow fields the treatment of boundary conditions at the far field boundary points and near far field boundary points is very important. According to authors' experience and published results some aspects of boundary condition treatment for far field boundary are presented, and the emphasis is on treatment of boundary conditions for the upwind compact schemes. The consistent treatment of boundary conditions at the near boundary points is also discussed. At the end of the paper are given some numerical examples. The computed results with presented method are satisfactory.

  17. Study on Anti-Disturbance and High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Exploration of Active Faults in Urban Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jishun; Zhang Xiankang; Liu Baojin; Fan Shengming; Wang Fuyun; Duan Yonghong; Zhang Hongqiang


    The significance of detection of urban active faults and the general situation concerning detection of urban active faults in the world are briefly introduced. In a brief description of the basic principles of anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration, the stress is put on the excitation of seismic sources, the performance of digital seismographs, receiving mode and conditions, geometry as well as data acquisition, processing and interpretation in the anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration of urban active faults. The study indicates that a controlled seismic source with a linear or nonlinear frequency-conversion scanning function and the relevant seismographs must be used in data acquisition, as well as working methods for small group interval, small offset, multi-channel receiving, short-array and high-frequency detectors for receiving are used. Attention should be paid to the application of techniques for static correction of refraction, noise suppressing, high-precision analysis of velocity, wavelet compressing, zero-phasing of wavelet and pre-stacking migration to data processing and interpretation. Finally, some cases of anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration of urban active faults are present in the paper.

  18. Large-scale experimental and theoretical study of graphene grain boundary structures (United States)

    Ophus, Colin; Shekhawat, Ashivni; Rasool, Haider; Zettl, Alex


    We have characterized the structure of 176 different single-layer graphene grain boundaries grown with chemical vapor deposition using >1000 experimental high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images using a semiautomated structure processing routine. We introduce an algorithm for generating grain boundary structures for a class of hexagonal two-dimensional materials and use this algorithm and molecular dynamics to simulate the structure of >79 000 linear graphene grain boundaries covering 4122 unique orientations distributed over the entire parameter space. The dislocation content and structural properties are extracted from all experimental and simulated boundaries, and various trends are explored. We find excellent agreement between the simulated and experimentally observed grain boundaries. Our analysis demonstrates the power of a statistically significant number of measurements as opposed to a small number of observations in atomic science.

  19. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grain boundary junction dc SQUIDs for operation in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, Konstantin; Nagel, Joachim; Turad, Markus; Bailer, Matthias; Gruenzweig, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)


    We investigate the suitability of dc SQUIDs for operation in high magnetic fields at 4.2 K. For this purpose, we fabricated small (micron-sized) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}(YBCO) grain boundary junction dc SQUIDs on SrTiO{sub 3} bicrystals with thin film Au shunt resistors. Fabrication was done by pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films, in-situ deposition of electron-beam evaporated Au films and Ar ion milling with photolithographically defined masks. For the fabricated SQUIDs we present results on electric transport properties, measured in a four-point arrangement, and on noise properties, measured with a Nb dc SQUID amplifier.

  20. Higgsless Deconstruction Without Boundary Condition

    CERN Document Server

    He, H J


    Deconstruction is a powerful means to explore the rich dynamics of gauge theories in four and higher dimensions. We demonstrate that gauge symmetry breaking in a compactified higher dimensional theory can be formulated via deconstructed 4D moose theory with {\\it spontaneous symmetry breaking} and {\\it without boundary condition.} The proper higher-D boundary conditions are automatically induced in the continuum limit rather than being imposed. We identify and analyze the moose theories which exhibit {\\it delayed unitarity violation} (effective unitarity) as a {\\it collective effect} of many gauge groups, without resorting to any known 5D geometry. Relevant phenomenological constraints are also addressed.

  1. Improved confinement in ELM-suppressed high-density H-modes at the ITER field via modification of the plasma boundary with Lower Hybrid RF (United States)

    Terry, J. L.


    Injecting Lower Hybrid (LH) power into Alcator C-Mod's high-density H-mode plasmas has enhanced global confinement by increasing pedestal temperature gradients, modifying edge rotation, and decreasing edge and SOL turbulence. These new experiments indicate that edge LHRF can be used as a tool to increase confinement via direct modification of boundary quantities. Ray-tracing modeling and accessibility calculations for the LH waves indicate that the LH waves do not penetrate to regions inside the top of the pedestal and are not driving current in these plasmas; instead the LH power modifies the boundary conditions. When moderate amounts of LH power (PLH/Ptot = 20%) are applied to high-density EDA H-modes (neo = 3.5×1020 m-3) , we observe the following effects: edge/SOL fluctuation power decreases by roughly an order of magnitude; pedestal temperature gradients are increased; global energy confinement time and H-factor increase by 30-40% (H98 from 0.7 to 1.0); co-current core and pedestal rotation velocities increase; power to the (outer) divertor target increases promptly with an increment that is roughly 1/2 of the injected LH power, qualitatively consistent with the inaccessibility of the LH waves; and the central frequency of the edge-localized Quasi-Coherent Mode down-shifts and becomes much more coherent. These H-mode confinement improvements brought about by the edge LHRF are the result of changes in the pedestal (e.g. changes in rotation/shear and increased pedestal temperature gradients), with no substantial change in peaking of core density or temperature profiles. There is not perfect correlation with edge turbulence suppression, indicating that the turbulence decrease may be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the pedestal and confinement improvements. Supported by US DoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Using Metaphor Analysis to Explore High School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Mathematics (United States)

    Guner, Necdet


    In this study, the attitudes of Anatolian high school and vocational high school students towards learning mathematics were examined by using the metaphor analysis method. The study included 669 12th grade students (317 female, 352 male) of two Anatolian and two vocational high schools located in a city center in the Aegean region of Turkey. The…

  3. High-Resolution P'P' Precursor Imaging of Nazca-South America Plate Boundary Zones and Inferences for Transition Zone Temperature and Composition (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.


    Knowledge of upper mantle transition zone stratification and composition is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract and properly interpret small seismic arrivals. A promising high-frequency seismic phase group particularly suitable for a global analysis is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of approximately 5 and 200 km, respectively, owing to their shallow incidence angle and small, quasi-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a simultaneous analysis of SS and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, Radon transform and depth migration. Our multi-resolution survey of the mantle near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveals both olivine and garnet related transitions at depth below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, especially near the plate boundary zone where anomalously high reflection amplitudes result from a sharp (~10 km thick) mineral phase change resonant with the dominant frequency of the P'P' precursors. Near the base of the upper mantle, the migration of SS precursors shows no evidence of split reflections near the 660-km discontinuity, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. At nominal mantle temperatures these two phase changes may be seismically indistinguishable, but colder mantle conditions from the descending Nazca plate, the presence of water and variable Fe contents may cause sufficient separation for a reliable analysis. In addition, our preliminary results provide compelling evidence for multiple shallow lower-mantle reflections (at ~800 km) along the

  4. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Callahan, Michael; Bailey, John [Greentech Solutions, Inc., Hanson, Massachusetts 02341 (United States); Look, David [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Efstathiadis, Harry [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), University of Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)


    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  5. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Nian


    Full Text Available Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10−3 Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  6. Observations of high rates of NO2 – HONO conversion in the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prinn


    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO plays a significant role in the atmosphere, especially in the polluted troposphere. Its photolysis after sunrise is an important source of hydroxyl free radicals (OH. Measurements of nitrous acid and other pollutants were carried out in the Kathmandu urban atmosphere during January–February 2003, contributing to the sparse knowledge of nitrous acid in South Asia. The results showed average nocturnal levels of HONO (1.7±0.8 ppbv, NO2 (17.9±10.2 ppbv, and PM10 (0.18±0.11 mg m−3 in urban air in Kathmandu. Surprisingly high ratios of chemically formed secondary [HONO] to [NO2] (up to 30% were found, which indicates unexpectedly efficient chemical conversion of NO2 to HONO in Kathmandu. The ratios of [HONO]/[NO2] at nights are much higher than previously reported values from measurements in urban air in Europe, North America and Asia. The influence of aerosol plumes, relative humidity, aerosol surface and ground reactive surface, temperature on NO2-HONO chemical conversion were discussed. The high humidity, strong and low inversion layer at night, and serious aerosol pollution burden may explain the particularly efficient conversion of NO2 to HONO.

  7. High-angle tilt boundary graphene domain recrystallized from mobile hot-wire-assisted chemical vapor deposition system. (United States)

    Lee, Jinsup; Baek, Jinwook; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Mi Jin; Oh, Seran; Hong, Seul Ki; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Cho, Byung Jin; Lee, Zonghoon; Jeon, Seokwoo


    Crystallization of materials has attracted research interest for a long time, and its mechanisms in three-dimensional materials have been well studied. However, crystallization of two-dimensional (2D) materials is yet to be challenged. Clarifying the dynamics underlying growth of 2D materials will provide the insight for the potential route to synthesize large and highly crystallized 2D domains with low defects. Here, we present the growth dynamics and recrystallization of 2D material graphene under a mobile hot-wire assisted chemical vapor deposition (MHW-CVD) system. Under local but sequential heating by MHW-CVD system, the initial nucleation of nanocrystalline graphenes, which was not extended into the growth stage due to the insufficient thermal energy, took a recrystallization and converted into a grand single crystal domain. During this process, the stitching-like healing of graphene was also observed. The local but sequential endowing thermal energy to nanocrystalline graphenes enabled us to simultaneously reveal the recrystallization and healing dynamics in graphene growth, which suggests an alternative route to synthesize a highly crystalline and large domain size graphene. Also, this recrystallization and healing of 2D nanocrystalline graphenes offers an interesting insight on the growth mechanism of 2D materials.

  8. Reweighting twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussone, Andrea; Hansen, Martin; Pica, Claudio


    Imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermionic fields is a procedure extensively used when evaluating, for example, form factors on the lattice. Twisting is usually performed for one flavour and only in the valence, and this causes a breaking of unitarity. In this work we explore the possibility of restoring unitarity through the reweighting method. We first study some properties of the approach at tree level and then we stochastically evaluate ratios of fermionic determinants for different boundary conditions in order to include them in the gauge averages, avoiding in this way the expensive generation of new configurations for each choice of the twisting angle, $\\theta$. As expected the effect of reweighting is negligible in the case of large volumes but it is important when the volumes are small and the twisting angles are large. In particular we find a measurable effect for the plaquette and the pion correlation function in the case of $\\theta=\\pi/2$ in a volume $16\\times 8^3$, and we observe a syst...

  9. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D. (Department of Materials Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0237 (United States)); De Hosson, J.T.M. (Department of Applied Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 18, 9747 AG, Groningen (Netherlands))


    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows {Sigma} determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum allowable deviations from exact CSL misorientations were examined. We tested these three criteria from a statistical distribution of grain boundary types in terms of {Sigma}. We compared grain boundary distributions from other studies in Ni{sub 3}Al and found discrepancies among them. It seems that the discrepancy came from the different criteria for special boundaries in {Sigma} determination and different experimental procedures they used. The statistical distribution of grain boundary plane orientations showed that low {Sigma} boundaries ({Sigma}{lt}11) were oriented to the plane of high density of coincident sites.

  10. Exploring the Impact of High Performance Work Systems in Professional Service Firms: A Practices-Resources-Uses-Performance Approach


    Fu, Na


    This article aims to explore how a system of human resource management (HRM)practices influence firm performance in a professional service context. It integrates multidisciplinary theory and research findings. The system of HRM practices are labeled as high performance work systems (HPWS). In this article, it is proposed that HPWS influence firm performance through two steps: (1) by creating resources of human, social and organizational capital; and (2) by efficient uses of these resource...

  11. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim


    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  12. Parental Involvement Across Middle and High School: Exploring Contributions of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics. (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Witherspoon, Dawn P


    Parental involvement in education is crucial during adolescence when grades decline and youth autonomy increases. This study examined parental involvement trajectories from 7th to 11th grade and explored whether individual and neighborhood characteristics affected this change. European American and African American (66 %) families participated (N = 1377, primary caregivers: 92 % female; adolescents: 51 % male, initial age range: 11-14). Results showed that, over time, parents reduced home- and school-based involvement but consistently engaged in academic socialization. Individual and neighborhood characteristics contributed differentially to parental involvement trajectories. These findings suggest that parental investment in adolescents' education persists during this critical developmental period, but individual and contextual differences impact the use of these strategies, which has implications for family-school partnerships and interventions.

  13. gamma* N --> Delta at JLab: Exploring the High Q2 Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurizio Ungaro; Kyungseon Jo; Paul Stoler


    We report a new measurement of the exclusive electroproduction reaction gamma* p --> pi0 p to explore the evolution from soft non-perturbative physics to hard processes via the Q2 dependence of the magnetic (M1+), electric (E1+) and scalar (S1+) multipoles in the N --> Delta transition. 9000 differential cross section data points cover W from threshold to 1.4 GeV/c2, 4pi center-of-mass solid angle, and Q2 from 3 to 6 GeV2/c2, the highest yet achieved. It is found that the magnetic form factor GM* decreases with Q2 more steeply than the proton magnetic form factor, the ratio E1+/M1+ is small and negative, indicating strong helicity non-conservation, and the ratio S1+/M1+ is negative, while its magnitude increases with Q2.

  14. Exploring the potential high energy locations and intensities in confined work spaces of waveguide dimensions (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.


    Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This

  15. A Framework for Evaluation and Exploration of Clustering Algorithms in Subspaces of High Dimensional Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan


    In high dimensional databases, traditional full space clustering methods are known to fail due to the curse of dimensionality. Thus, in recent years, subspace clustering and projected clustering approaches were proposed for clustering in high dimensional spaces. As the area is rather young, few c...

  16. Offshore high - Boundaries: When 10 women jostle for personal space with 270 men, establishing limits is the key

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, W.


    Male-female relationships on the Hibernia offshore site is discussed. Since women are outnumbered 27 to 1, some gender problems have been anticipated. Every employee on the platform, as well as every Hibernia and service company worker has taken gender sensitivity training and knows the rules. Although not every potential problem was anticipated, so far sexual harassment has not been a problem. The workers know what is acceptable and what is not, and the rules are generally observed. The ten women on the platform tend to work on administrative and support tasks, although by funding special scholarships the company is encouraging women to study engineering, computing and other petroleum-related fields, as well as pipefitting, welding and similar trades. The women aboard the platform live like the men, sharing a two-bunk berth with ensuite bathroom and shower. Off-duty time is spent congregating with the men in TV lounges, the smoking room or playing pool. Like the men, the women work 12-hour shifts for three weeks straight. It does get dull and repetitive, but in a province with chronic high unemployment, that is an acceptable irritation.

  17. Study of the near-wall-turbulent region of the high-Reynolds-number boundary layer using an atmospheric flow (United States)

    Kunkel, Gary J.; Marusic, Ivan


    Data from the near-wall-turbulent region of the high-Reynolds-number atmospheric surface layer are used to analyse the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. All data were acquired during near-neutral conditions at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility located in the western Utah Great Salt Lake Desert. Instantaneous streamwise and wall-normal components of velocity were collected with a wall-normal array of two-component hot wires within the first 2 m above the surface of the salt flats. Streamwise and wall-normal turbulence intensities and spectra are directly compared to corresponding laboratory data and similarity formulations hypothesized from the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. This affords the opportunity to compare results with Reynolds numbers varying over three orders of magnitude. The wall-normal turbulence-intensity similarity formulation is extended. The results show good support for the similarity arguments forwarded by the attached-eddy model as well as Townsend's (1956) Reynolds-number similarity hypothesis and lack of the ‘inactive’ motion influence on the wall-normal velocity component. The effects of wall roughness and the spread in the convection velocity due to this roughness are also discussed.

  18. New non-orthogonality treatment for atmospheric boundary layer flow simulation above highly non-uniform terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Nikola S.


    Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036

  19. Study of Boundary Structures. (United States)



  20. Generalized Supersymetric Boundary State



    Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfy the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the...

  1. Atmospheric boundary layer measurements at the 280 m high Hamburg weather mast 1995-2011. Mean annual and diurnal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Burghard; Lange, Ingo; Konow, Heike [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.


    In this paper, the 280 m high Hamburg weather mast and its instrumentation are introduced. Digital data recorded since 1995 are used to calculate the mean annual and diurnal cycles of the primary climate variables (pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, cloud coverage, cloud base, precipitation). The annual average of 2 m temperature is 9.8 C indicating an increase compared to the period 1971-2000 at the Hamburg airport climate station. Absolute humidity follows the temperature cycle with a maximum in July/August. Relative humidity is highest in winter and lowest in April/May. The fraction of received to clear-sky short-wave radiation is between 61 % in May and 34 % in December. Cloud coverage classes of 0-1 octas and 7-8 octas occur most frequently, but have opposite annual cycles. Cloud base distribution is narrow in winter and peaks around 300 m and is distributed over a wide height range in summer. Average annual precipitation amounts to 716 mm and falls in 9.3 % of the time. Monthly mean wind speed is highest (lowest) in January (August). Winds from west are most frequent followed by winds from southeast. A channelling by the Elbe river valley is indicated. The diurnal temperature cycle is weak in winter but strong in summer showing the evening generation and morning rise of the inversion. While relative humidity has a single diurnal cycle, absolute humidity has a double cycle in summer, but not in winter. Short-wave radiation in summer shows a weak asymmetry between forenoon and afternoon. The diurnal cycles of cloud cover and base are small in winter. In summer, cloud bases show a continuous increase from morning to afternoon and a break afterwards simultaneously with the diurnal rain maximum. Wind speed has opposite diurnal cycles at lower and upper levels. The upper-level cycle shows a temporal asymmetry in summer, i.e. the upper-level wind minimum does not occur simultaneously with the lower-level wind maximum. The reversal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Legat


    Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  3. Exploring The Gas Cycle In High-redshift Galaxies: A Joint Effort Of Theory And Observations (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele


    The evolution of high-redshift galaxies is regulated by the balance between the inflow of fresh fuel for star formation and the outflow of metal-polluted material from star forming regions. Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations indicate that galaxies at high redshifts are fed by extended streams of cold gas in a smooth component and in merging satellites, but direct evidence of this mode of accretion is lacking. To investigate the signatures of these "cold streams" in observations, we have studied the Lyman-α emission and hydrogen absorption properties in galaxies simulated at high-resolution, using state-of-the-art radiative transfer codes. I will present these model predictions and I will compare and contrast results of simulations with observations of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. I will also discuss the prospects of mapping the circumgalactic medium with absorption line systems and present preliminary results from ongoing observations.

  4. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  5. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  6. Exploring High Strangeness Dibaryons with the Extended Quark Delocalization and Color Screening Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hou-Rong; PING Jia-Lun; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang


    Promising high strangeness dibaryons are studied by the extended quark delocalization and color screening model. It is shown that besides H particle and di-Ω, there might be other dibaryon candidates worth to be searched experimentally such as NΩ.

  7. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3-04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek proposes to develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  8. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology


    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  9. Application of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors for geothermal exploration at the Salton Sea, California (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M.; Tratt, D. M.


    data of collected samples). Forward looking infrared (FLIR) data were also obtained in the field to better understand the temperature distribution and flux in order to verify an accurate surface temperature and capture degassing. By using this approach of progressively higher spatial and spectral resolution sensors, temperature and mineral anomalies commonly associated with geothermal activity were more easily detected. This approach enables an innovative exploration methodology for future exploration of new geothermal locations using TIR remote sensing.

  10. Deep-rooted “thick skinned” model for the High Atlas Mountains (Morocco. Implications for the seismic Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraud, M.


    Full Text Available Previous crustal models of the High Atlas suppose the existence of a mid-crustal detachment where all the surface thrusts merged and below which the lower crust was continuous. However, both seismic refraction data and gravity modeling detected a jump in crustal thickness between the High Atlas and the northern plains. Here we show that this rapid and vertical jump in the depth of Moho discontinuity suggests that a thrust fault may penetrate the lower crust and offset the Moho (deep-rooted “thick skinned” model. The distribution of Neogene and Quaternary volcanisms along and at the northern part of the High Atlas lineament can be related to the beginning of a partial continental subduction of the West African plate to the north underneath Moroccan microplate. Allowing from the complex problem of the plate boundary in the western zone of the Mediterranean, we propose to interpret the South-Atlasic fault zone as the actual northwestern boundary of the stable part of the African plate rather than the Azores-Gibraltar fault currently used.Los modelos geodinámicos existentes sobre la estructura profunda del alto Atlas suponen la existencia de un despegue medio-cortical donde convergen los cabalgamientos superficiales y bajo el cual la corteza inferior es continua. Los datos de sísmica de refracción y gravimetría, sin embargo, indican la existencia de una discontinuidad en el grosor de la corteza (profundidad del Moho bajo el Alto Atlas. En este artículo ponemos de manifiesto que este salto rápido en la profundidad del Moho puede ser causado por un cabalgamiento que penetra la corteza inferior, desplazando la base de la misma ("deeprooted thick skinned model". La distribución del volcanismo Neógeno y Cuaternario a lo largo de y al norte de la alineación del Alto Atlas pueden estar relacionados con el comienzo de una subducción continental parcial de la placa Africana occidental hacia el norte, bajo la microplaca marroquí. La expresi

  11. Stress corrosion cracking in the fusion boundary region of an alloy 182 - A533B low alloy steel dissimilar weld joint in high temperature oxygenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Q.; Xue, H.; Hou, J.; Takeda, Y.; Kuniya, J.; Shoji, T. [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University (Japan)


    In this work, following a microstructural characterization of the fusion boundary (FB) region in an Alloy 182 - A533B LAS dissimilar weld joint, the SCC growth behaviour in the FB region of the dissimilar weld joint in 288 C degrees water was investigated by employing crevice bent beam (CBB) and crack growth rate (CGR) testing, in conjunction with a simulation by finite element method (FEM). The microstructure characterization showed that there is a narrow high hardness zone (HHZ) in the dilution zone (DZ) of the weld metal adjacent to the FB. Further, a sharp increase of the hardness was observed immediately adjacent to the FB, suggesting the existence of a hardness gradient in the HHZ. FEM simulation of the growth of a crack perpendicular to the FB in the DZ showed that there is a drop in crack tip strain rate as the crack entered the HHZ, suggesting a decreased crack growth rate can be expected for a crack propagating perpendicular to the FB in the high hardness zone where a continuous increase of the hardness with crack growth may exist. Cracking path observation on the cross-section of the CBB specimen suggested that a SCC propagating perpendicular to the FB in the DZ was blunted by pitting after it reached the FB, indicating that the FB is a barrier to SCC growth. However, reactivation of crack growth from the pitting in LAS by preferential oxidation along the grain boundary was observed as well, suggesting a combined effect of microstructure and the high sulphate concentration in the water used for the test. The effects of sulphate doping and DO on CGR in the DZ and FB region were further clarified by the results of the SCC-CGR test. At a DO of 0.25 ppm, the SCC growth rate was low in the FB region even with a sulphate addition of up to 50 ppb in water. The crack growth, however, was reactivated by increasing the DO to 2 ppm at both sulphate concentrations of 50 ppb and 20 ppb, indicating an important role of DO in SCC growth in the DZ. The existence of a

  12. Exploring the maize rhizosphere microbiome in the field: A glimpse into a highly complex system. (United States)

    Peiffer, Jason A; Ley, Ruth E


    Maize is one of the most economically important crops in the world. Understanding how the genetics and management of this staple crop interact with local field environments is vital to securing sustainable harvests. The interface zone between the plant root and its surrounding soil, or rhizosphere, supports essential interactions between roots and local soils. These interactions include the exchange of carbon for nutrients and are strongly influenced by the microbial constituents of the soil, or the microbiome. In a recent multi-environment study, we explored the diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome at flowering time. We assessed the bacterial diversity of the maize rhizosphere by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes obtained from soil surrounding the roots of 27 genetically diverse maize inbreds grown in five field environments. We then partitioned variation in α- and β-diversity of the microbiome across plant inbreds in the different fields. The results of this study revealed the heritability and significance of genotype-by-environment interactions on the maize rhizosphere microbiome at a single time point. Longitudinal studies detailing the maize rhizosphere throughout an entire growing season are currently underway and should provide a more detailed view of how plant genotypes interact with the environment to shape the microbiome. Future efforts will aim to incorporate these interactions into genetic models of economically important traits such as yield.

  13. DD-HDS: A method for visualization and exploration of high-dimensional data. (United States)

    Lespinats, Sylvain; Verleysen, Michel; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard


    Mapping high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space, for example, for visualization, is a problem of increasingly major concern in data analysis. This paper presents data-driven high-dimensional scaling (DD-HDS), a nonlinear mapping method that follows the line of multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach, based on the preservation of distances between pairs of data. It improves the performance of existing competitors with respect to the representation of high-dimensional data, in two ways. It introduces (1) a specific weighting of distances between data taking into account the concentration of measure phenomenon and (2) a symmetric handling of short distances in the original and output spaces, avoiding false neighbor representations while still allowing some necessary tears in the original distribution. More precisely, the weighting is set according to the effective distribution of distances in the data set, with the exception of a single user-defined parameter setting the tradeoff between local neighborhood preservation and global mapping. The optimization of the stress criterion designed for the mapping is realized by "force-directed placement" (FDP). The mappings of low- and high-dimensional data sets are presented as illustrations of the features and advantages of the proposed algorithm. The weighting function specific to high-dimensional data and the symmetric handling of short distances can be easily incorporated in most distance preservation-based nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods.

  14. The Exploration of the Associations between Locus of Control & High School Students’ Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eslami-Rasekh


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between locus of control (LOC orientation and high school students’ language achievement. The popular categorization of internals and externals was taken into account. The participants of this study were 121 high school students in the second, third and pre-university grades in two public high schools of Isfahan, Iran. One of the instruments used in the study was an adopted version of Julian Rotters’ locus of control (1966 which identified internal and external orientations. The participants’ English scores were regarded as the measure of their achievement. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of 29 items was administered to all 121 students. Responses were put into one way and two-way ANOVA, the regression analysis, the independent t-test, chi-square and linear regression analysis to compare the means of two sets of scores. The findings of this study show a significant relationship between locus control and achievement of high school students. The findings can be used by EFL teachers and syllabus designers. Keywords: locus of control; high school students; language achievement; internals; externals

  15. Feasibility of high-helium natural gas exploration in the Presinian strata, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang


    Full Text Available Helium in China highly depends on import at present, so the most practical way to change the situation is searching for medium-to-large natural gas fields with high helium content. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and the helium origin of the Weiyuan high-helium natural gas reservoir have been analyzed to find out the feasibility of finding natural gas field with high helium content in the Presinian strata of the Sichuan Basin. Based on twelve outcrop sections and drilling data of four wells encountering the Presinian strata, the petrological features, sedimentary facies and source rocks of Presinian strata were systematically analyzed, which shows that the sedimentary formation developed in the Presinian is the Nanhua system, and the stratigraphic sequence revealed by outcrop section in the eastern margin includes the Nantuo, Datangpo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms, and it is inferred that the same stratigraphic sequence may occur inside the basin. The Nantuo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms are mainly glacial deposits of glutenite interbedded with mudstone; the Datangpo Fm is interglacial deposits of sandstone and shale, the lower part shale, rich in organic matter, is fairly good source rock. Further study showed that the Nantuo coarse-grained clastic reservoir, Datangpo source rock and the intruded granite “helium source rock” make up a good high-helium gas system. Controlled by the early rift, the thick Presinian sedimentary rocks occur primarily inside the rift. The distribution of sedimentary rocks and granite in the basin was predicted by use of the seismic data, which shows that the feasibility of finding high-helium gas reservoirs in Ziyang area of the Sichuan Basin is great.

  16. Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment. (United States)

    Harkin, T J; McGuinness, G; Goldring, R; Cohen, H; Parker, J E; Crane, M; Naidich, D P; Rom, W N


    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans have been advocated as providing greater sensitivity in detecting parenchymal opacities in asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in the presence of pleural fibrosis, and having excellent inter- and intraobserver reader interpretation. We compared the 1980 International Labor Organization (ILO) International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis with the high-resolution CT scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate normal versus abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. We studied 37 asbestos-exposed individuals using the ILO classification, HRCT grid scores, respiratory symptom questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. We used Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the linear relationship between outcome variables and each roentgenographic method. The normal HRCT scan proved to be an excellent predictor of "normality," with pulmonary function values close to 100% for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and no increase in BAL inflammatory cells. Concordant HRCT/ILO abnormalities were associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, reduced diffusing capacity, and alveolitis consistent with a definition of asbestosis. In our study, the ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis, with their combined use providing statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity.

  17. Topological Studies of Three-dimensional Flows in a High Pressure Compressor Stator Blade Row without and with Boundary Layer Aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ankit SACHDEVA; Francis LEBOEUF


    This paper presents a numerical study of the flow topologies of three-dimensional(3D)flows in a high pressure compressor stator blade row without and with boundary layer aspiration on the hub wall.The stator blade is representative of the first stage operating under transonic inlet conditions and the blade design encourages development of highly complex 3D flows.The blade has a small tip clearance.The computational fluid dynamics(CFD)studies show progressive increase of hub comer stall with the increase in incidence.Aspiration is implemented on the hub wall via a slot in the comer between the hub wall and the suction surface.The CFD studies show aspiration to be sensitive to the suction flow rate; lower rate leads to very complex flow structures and increased level of losses whereas higher rate renders aspiration effective for control of hub comer separation.The flow topologies are studied by trace of skin friction lines on the walls.The nature of flow can be explained by the topological rules of closed separation.Furthermore,a deeper analysis is done for a particular case with advanced criterion to test the non-degeneracy of critical points in the flow field.

  18. Boundary Spanners in Global Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence


    technology (IT) development projects from the rare perspective of Indian vendor managers in one of the world’s largest IT service companies. It draws on a qualitative study of a collaborative partnership and focuses on the key boundary spanners who are responsible for developing trustful and sustainable...... client relationships and coordinating highly complex projects. We analyze vendor managers’ narratives of their collaboration with a European client in a long-term project, which is presented as a strategic partnership in an outsourcing 3.0 mode. The study offers a rich and conceptualized account of those...... managers’ boundary-spanning activities and a context-sensitive understanding of their boundary work. The study applies Bourdieu’s concept of capital (economic, cultural, social, and symbolic) not only in its analysis of the two powerful partners but also in its discussion of the boundary...

  19. The Boundaries of Fictio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ivanova


    Full Text Available This essay surveys four articles of the section dedicated to the boundaries of fiction in literature, scientific discourse, and other areas of human creativity. The section is supposed to contribute to the study of a broad range of the problems of literary theory, such as the interaction between literature and other social practices, resulting in the creation of a particular discourse of ‘reality’ and ‘objectivity’, and the highly controversial issue of the relationship between ‘material’ and ‘form’ in the literary text.

  20. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors (United States)

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane


    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  1. Explorations of Metacognition among Academically Talented Middle and High School Mathematics Students (United States)

    Young, Adena Elizabeth


    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine metacognition among academically talented middle and high school mathematics students from both educational psychology and mathematics education perspectives. A synthesis of the literatures and three studies employing quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies were used to address three…

  2. Exploring Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Teachers at Norwegian Folk High Schools (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are


    The folk high school (FHS) is a Nordic contribution to global education and is a unique approach to non-university adult education. Because expanded tuition is the true nature of Norwegian FHS, it is important for FHS that its teachers perform discretionary individual extra-role behaviour advantageous to the school organization, a phenomenon…

  3. Assessing high reliability practices in wildland fire management: an exploration and benchmarking of organizational culture (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf. McBride


    In an effort to improve organizational outcomes, including safety, in wildland fire management, researchers and practitioners have turned to a domain of research on organizational performance known as High Reliability Organizing (HRO). The HRO paradigm emerged in the late 1980s in an effort to identify commonalities among organizations that function under hazardous...

  4. Explorations of Metacognition among Academically Talented Middle and High School Mathematics Students (United States)

    Young, Adena Elizabeth


    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine metacognition among academically talented middle and high school mathematics students from both educational psychology and mathematics education perspectives. A synthesis of the literatures and three studies employing quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies were used to address three…

  5. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Explore Genetics and Race in the High School Classroom (United States)

    Yang, Xinmiao; Hartman, Mark R.; Harrington, Kristin T.; Etson, Candice M.; Fierman, Matthew B.; Slonim, Donna K.; Walt, David R.


    With the development of new sequencing and bioinformatics technologies, concepts relating to personal genomics play an increasingly important role in our society. To promote interest and understanding of sequencing and bioinformatics in the high school classroom, we developed and implemented a laboratory-based teaching module called "The…

  6. A Phenomenological Exploration of Teacher Training Regarding Academically Advanced/High-Ability Students (United States)

    Sueker, Carrie Olstad


    The needs of academically advanced/high-ability students may not be met in today's schools. When educational needs are not met, students may not reach full potential, may lose intrinsic motivation for learning, and may develop poor work and study habits. The rural school district involved in this study lacks a formal gifted and talented program.…

  7. Exploring the Change from Low-Trust to High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    and employees. An especially important issue is the trust/self-control nexus. Following this analysis it may be argued that the distinction low versus high-trust is much more complex and involves radical changes in organizational culture and identity than assumed by most management literature on trust a new...

  8. Commercial vehicles and road safety in Pakistan: exploring high-risk attributes among drivers and vehicles. (United States)

    Mir, Mohammed Umer; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Ahmad, Khabir


    Road traffic injuries are on the rise in developing countries with a disproportionately high number of crashes involving commercial vehicles. Baseline information on risk factors is necessary to develop targeted prevention programmes. A survey of commercial drivers was conducted at the largest bus and truck station in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structured interviews elicited information from 857 drivers on their socio-demographics, high-risk driving behaviours, fatigue, use of drugs while driving, vehicle maintenance and health conditions, as well as crash involvement. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors associated with crash involvement in the last five years. Overall, 92 (11.2%) drivers reported having had a road crash in the last 5 years. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of crashes were alcohol use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), poor vehicle maintenance (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.01) and lack of seat belt use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). The high prevalence of high-risk attributes in the study population indicates a great need for targeted risk prevention.

  9. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments (United States)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.


    High-alpine areas are subject to rapid topographic changes, mainly caused by natural processes like glacial retreat and other geomorphological processes, and also due to anthropogenic interventions like construction of slopes and infrastructure in skiing resorts. Consequently, the demand for highly accurate digital terrain models (DTMs) in alpine environments has arisen. Public administrations often have dedicated resources for the regular monitoring of glaciers and natural hazard processes. In case of glaciers, traditional monitoring encompasses in-situ measurements of area and length and the estimation of volume and mass changes. Next to field measurements, data for such monitoring programs can be derived from DTMs and digital ortho photos (DOPs). Skiing resorts, on the other hand, require DTMs as input for planning and - more recently - for RTK-GNSS supported ski-slope grooming. Although different in scope, the demand of both user groups is similar: high-quality and up-to-date terrain data for extended areas often characterised by difficult accessibility and large elevation ranges. Over the last two decades, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has replaced photogrammetric approaches as state-of-the-art technology for the acquisition of high-resolution DTMs also in alpine environments. Reasons include the higher productivity compared to (manual) stereo-photogrammetric measurements, canopy-penetration capability, and limitations of photo measurements on sparsely textured surfaces like snow or ice. Nevertheless, the last few years have shown strong technological advances in the field of aerial camera technology, image processing and photogrammetric software which led to new possibilities for image-based DTM generation even in alpine terrain. At Vermessung AVT, an Austrian-based surveying company, and its subsidiary Terra Messflug, very promising results have been achieved for various projects in high-alpine environments, using images acquired by large-format digital


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using embedded atom potentials and molecular static relaxation method or Monte Carlo relaxation method, the grain boundary atomic structures of a series of [100], [110] and [111] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in NiAl with different geometrical indexes and compositions were studied. The grain boundary energies, grain boundary cohesive energies and point defects formation energies at the grain boundary were calculated. The results show that the grain boundaries of NiAl alloy have a periodic unit structure. Grain boundary energies of Al rich grain boundary is very high, but the cohesive energies are lower than those of others. The interaction of point defects and grain boundaries shows that grain boundaries incline to absorb point defects to decrease their orders and to relax the distortions caused by point defects. The boundary atomic structures relaxed by Monte Carlo method show that the disorder of them, grain boundary energies and cohesive energies increase with increasing temperature.

  11. Health Risks of Space Exploration: Targeted and Nontargeted Oxidative Injury by High-Charge and High-Energy Particles (United States)

    Li, Min; Gonon, Géraldine; Buonanno, Manuela; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Pain, Debkumar


    Abstract Significance: During deep space travel, astronauts are often exposed to high atomic number (Z) and high-energy (E) (high charge and high energy [HZE]) particles. On interaction with cells, these particles cause severe oxidative injury and result in unique biological responses. When cell populations are exposed to low fluences of HZE particles, a significant fraction of the cells are not traversed by a primary radiation track, and yet, oxidative stress induced in the targeted cells may spread to nearby bystander cells. The long-term effects are more complex because the oxidative effects persist in progeny of the targeted and affected bystander cells, which promote genomic instability and may increase the risk of age-related cancer and degenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Greater understanding of the spatial and temporal features of reactive oxygen species bursts along the tracks of HZE particles, and the availability of facilities that can simulate exposure to space radiations have supported the characterization of oxidative stress from targeted and nontargeted effects. Critical Issues: The significance of secondary radiations generated from the interaction of the primary HZE particles with biological material and the mitigating effects of antioxidants on various cellular injuries are central to understanding nontargeted effects and alleviating tissue injury. Future Directions: Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation. These studies are also relevant to hadron therapy of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1501–1523. PMID:24111926

  12. TripAdvisor^{N-D}: A Tourism-Inspired High-Dimensional Space Exploration Framework with Overview and Detail. (United States)

    Nam, Julia EunJu; Mueller, Klaus


    Gaining a true appreciation of high-dimensional space remains difficult since all of the existing high-dimensional space exploration techniques serialize the space travel in some way. This is not so foreign to us since we, when traveling, also experience the world in a serial fashion. But we typically have access to a map to help with positioning, orientation, navigation, and trip planning. Here, we propose a multivariate data exploration tool that compares high-dimensional space navigation with a sightseeing trip. It decomposes this activity into five major tasks: 1) Identify the sights: use a map to identify the sights of interest and their location; 2) Plan the trip: connect the sights of interest along a specifyable path; 3) Go on the trip: travel along the route; 4) Hop off the bus: experience the location, look around, zoom into detail; and 5) Orient and localize: regain bearings in the map. We describe intuitive and interactive tools for all of these tasks, both global navigation within the map and local exploration of the data distributions. For the latter, we describe a polygonal touchpad interface which enables users to smoothly tilt the projection plane in high-dimensional space to produce multivariate scatterplots that best convey the data relationships under investigation. Motion parallax and illustrative motion trails aid in the perception of these transient patterns. We describe the use of our system within two applications: 1) the exploratory discovery of data configurations that best fit a personal preference in the presence of tradeoffs and 2) interactive cluster analysis via cluster sculpting in N-D.

  13. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    scenarios? 3) How do they discover their relative worth in different worlds enacted in the test scenarios? Findings: The analysis shows that controversies have emerged in test scenarios where Chinese managers and engineers have enacted a market world and a domestic world, while Danish managers and engineers...... have enacted an industrial world and a civic world. Furthermore, it is suggested that controversies also occur when Chinese managers enact a fuzzy world. Different worlds collide in these types of test scenarios, creating ambiguity about the worth of the persons involved and the organizing principles...... in their practices. The Chinese and the Danes deal with the ambiguity in many different ways. Research limitation: Few cases exist and the data is limited. Practical implications: The analysis creates learning opportunities for Chinese and Danish managers and highly qualified employees. Keywords: Chinese high...

  14. Exploring Quantum Gravity with Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Instruments - Prospects and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Robert


    Some models for quantum gravity (QG) violate Lorentz invariance and predict an energy dependence of the speed of light, leading to a dispersion of high-energy gamma-ray signals that travel over cosmological distances. Limits on the dispersion from short-duration substructures observed in gamma-rays emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at cosmological distances have provided interesting bounds on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). Recent observations of unprecedentedly fast flares in the very-high energy gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) Mkn 501 in 2005 and PKS 2155-304 in 2006 resulted in the most constraining limits on LIV from light-travel observations, approaching the Planck mass scale, at which QG effects are assumed to become important. I review the current status of LIV searches using GRBs and AGN flare events, and discuss limitations of light-travel time analyses and prospects for future instruments in the gamma-ray domain.

  15. Exploring the blazar zone in high-energy flares of FSRQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, L.; Donnarumma, I. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziale, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Tavecchio, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Stamerra, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Mexico, Luis E, Erro 1, Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla, CP 72840 (Mexico); Uemura, M., E-mail: [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)


    The gamma-ray emission offers a powerful diagnostic tool to probe jets and their surroundings in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). In particular, sources emitting at high energies (>10 GeV) give us the strongest constraints. This motivates us to start a systematic study of flares with bright emission above 10 GeV, examining archival data of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray telescope. At the same time, we began to trigger Target of Opportunity observations to the Swift observatory at the occurrence of high-energy flares, obtaining a wide coverage of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for several FSRQs during flares. Among others, we investigate the SED of a peculiar flare of 3C 454.3, showing a remarkably hard gamma-ray spectrum, quite different from the brightest flares of this source, and a bright flare of CTA 102. We modeled the SED in the framework of the one-zone leptonic model, using also archival optical spectroscopic data to derive the luminosity of the broad lines and thus estimate the disk luminosity, from which the structural parameters of the FSRQ nucleus can be inferred. The model allowed us to evaluate the magnetic field intensity in the blazar zone and to locate the emitting region of gamma-rays in the particular case in which gamma-ray spectra show neither absorption from the broad-line region (BLR) nor the Klein-Nishina curvature expected in leptonic models assuming the BLR as the source of seed photons for the External Compton scenario. For FSRQs bright above 10 GeV, we were able to identify short periods lasting less than one day characterized by a high rate of high-energy gamma-rays and hard gamma-ray spectra. We discussed the observed spectra and variability timescales in terms of injection and cooling of energetic particles, arguing that these flares could be triggered by magnetic reconnection events or turbulence in the flow.

  16. Explorations of Metacognition Among Academically Talented Middle and High School Mathematics Students


    Young, Adena Elizabeth


    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine metacognition among academically talented middle and high school mathematics students from both educational psychology and mathematics education perspectives. A synthesis of the literatures and three studies employing quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies were used to address three research questions: (a) What is metacognition, (b) What are the relationships between metacognition and academic achievement, and (c) How should educati...

  17. Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tisenkopfs, T.; Kunda, I.; Sumane, S.; Brunori, G.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Moschitz, H.


    Purpose: The paper explores the role of boundary work and boundary objects in enhancing learning and innovation processes in hybrid multi-actor networks for sustainable agriculture (LINSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: Boundary work in LINSA is analysed on the basis of six case studies carried out i

  18. Exploring highly porous Co2P nanowire arrays for electrochemical energy storage (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Xia, Xinhui; Chen, Qingguo


    Controllable synthesis of mesoporous conductive metal phosphide nanowire arrays is critical for developing highly-active electrodes of alkaline batteries. Herein we develop a simple combined strategy for rational synthesis of mesoporous Co2P nanowire arrays by hydrothermal-phosphorization method. Free-standing mesoporous Co2P nanowires consisting of interconnected nanoparticles of 10-20 nm grow vertically to the substrate forming arrays. High electrical conductivity and large porosity are obtained in the arrays architecture. When characterized as the cathode of high-rate alkaline batteries, the designed Co2P nanowire arrays are proven with good electrochemical performance with a large capacity (133 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1), stable cycling life with a capacity retention of almost 100% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1 owing to the mesoporous nanowire structure with short ion/electron transport path. Our synthetic approach can be useful for construction of other porous metal phosphide arrays for energy storage and conversion.

  19. A structure-based distance metric for high-dimensional space exploration with multidimensional scaling. (United States)

    Lee, Jenny Hyunjung; McDonnell, Kevin T; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Mueller, Klaus


    Although the euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging intercluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe nonintuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our biscale framework distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate euclidean distance.

  20. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana


    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera......In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...

  1. First light: exploring the spectra of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations (United States)

    Barrow, Kirk S. S.; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Xu, Hao


    We present synthetic observations for the first generations of galaxies in the Universe and make predictions for future deep field observations for redshifts greater than 6. Due to the strong impact of nebular emission lines and the relatively compact scale of H ii regions, high-resolution cosmological simulations and a robust suite of analysis tools are required to properly simulate spectra. We created a software pipeline consisting of fsps, hyperion, cloudy and our own tools to generate synthetic IR observations from a fully three-dimensional arrangement of gas, dust, and stars. Our prescription allows us to include emission lines for a complete chemical network and tackle the effect of dust extinction and scattering in the various lines of sight. We provide spectra, 2D binned photon imagery for both HST and JWST IR filters, luminosity relationships, and emission-line strengths for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations. Our resulting synthetic spectra show high variability between galactic haloes with a strong dependence on stellar mass, metallicity, gas mass fraction, and formation history. Haloes with the lowest stellar mass have the greatest variability in [O iii]/Hβ, [O iii], and C iii], while haloes with higher masses are seen to show consistency in their spectra and [O iii] equivalent widths between 1 and 10 Å. Viewing angle accounted for threefold difference in flux due to the presence of ionized gas channels in a halo. Furthermore, JWST colour plots show a discernible relationship between redshift, colour, and mean stellar age.

  2. Exploring semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Gonzalez, L; Ripalda, J M [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Varela, M; Pennycook, S J, E-mail: sergio.molina@uca.e [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)


    We review in this communication our contribution to the structural characterisation of semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy, both in phase-contrast and Z-contrast modes. We show how these techniques contribute to predict the preferential sites of nucleation of these nanostructures, and also determine the compositional distribution in 1D and 0D nanostructures. The results presented here were produced in the framework of the European Network of Excellence entitled {sup S}elf-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics (SANDiE){sup .}

  3. Exploring high temperature magnetic order in CeTi_1-xSc_xGe



    Most of magnetic transitions related to Ce ordering are found below T_ord~12K. Among the few cases exceeding that temperature, two types of behaviors can be distinguished. One of them is related to the rare cases of Ce binary compounds formed in BCC structures, with a quartet ground state, whose degeneracy is reduced by undergoing different types of transitions mostly structural. The other group shows evidences of itinerant character with the outstanding example of CeRh_3B_2 showing the highe...

  4. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    van der Veen, Roeland C A; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of $\\mathrm{Ta}=10^{11}$ to $9\\cdot10^{12}$, by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond $\\mathrm{Ta}=10^{13}$. The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. Lastly, by mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states were again observed. Here, they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including, for the first time observed in highly turbulent TC flow, an ant...

  5. A High Power Solar Electric Propulsion - Chemical Mission for Human Exploration of Mars (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Martini, Michael C.; Oleson, Steven R.


    Recently Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) as a main propulsion system has been investigated as an option to support manned space missions to near-Earth destinations for the NASA Gateway spacecraft. High efficiency SEP systems are able to reduce the amount of propellant long duration chemical missions require, ultimately reducing the required mass delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by a launch vehicle. However, for long duration interplanetary Mars missions, using SEP as the sole propulsion source alone may not be feasible due to the long trip times to reach and insert into the destination orbit. By combining an SEP propulsion system with a chemical propulsion system the mission is able to utilize the high-efficiency SEP for sustained vehicle acceleration and deceleration in heliocentric space and the chemical system for orbit insertion maneuvers and trans-earth injection, eliminating the need for long duration spirals. By capturing chemically instead of with low-thrust SEP, Mars stay time increases by nearly 200 days. Additionally, the size the of chemical propulsion system can be significantly reduced from that of a standard Mars mission because the SEP system greatly decreases the Mars arrival and departure hyperbolic excess velocities (V(sub infinity)).

  6. Exploring slime mould diversity in high-altitude forests and grasslands by environmental RNA analysis. (United States)

    Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Fukui, Manabu; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria


    In spite of the ecological importance of protists, very little data is available on their distribution in soil. This investigation is the first of its kind on what could be the major components of the soil protistan community, the Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime-moulds, a monophyletic class in the phylum Amoebozoa. Myxomycetes have a complex life cycle culminating in the formation of mainly macroscopic fruiting bodies, highly variable in shape and colour, which can be found in every terrestrial biome. Despite their prevalence, they are paradoxically absent from environmental DNA sampling studies. We obtained myxomycete SSU rRNA gene sequences from soil-extracted RNAs using specific primers. Soil samples were collected in three mountain ranges (France, Scotland and Japan). Our study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of dark-spored Myxomycetes, with the recovery of 74 phylotypes. Of these, 74% had < 98% identity with known sequences, showing a hidden diversity; there was little overlap between localities, implying biogeographical patterns. Few phylotypes were dominant and many were unique, consistent with the 'rare biosphere' phenomenon. Our study provides the first detailed insight into the community composition of this ecologically important group of protists, establishing means for future studies of their distribution, abundance and ecology.

  7. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps: Reklaw 1 interval (Eocene), south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.P.; Breyer, J.A.


    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwestward by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that became Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons were trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of an extensive barrier-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary mouth bars prograded seaward, depositing the bar-finger sands that became the Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present today where small up-to-the-coast faults associated with the sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary mouth bars coalesced to form a broad delta-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand at the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields still to be discovered in the US are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps are the key to finding these subtle traps. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  9. Neutrons in a highly diffusive medium a new propulsion tool for deep space exploration?

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo


    The recently completed TARC Experiment at the CERN-PS has shown how it is possible to confine neutrons by diffusion in a limited volume of a highly transparent medium for very long times (tens of milliseconds), with correspondingly very long diffusive paths (> 60 m neutron path ÒwoundÓ within a ~ 60 cm effective radius). Assume an empty cavity is introduced inside the previous volume of diffusing medium. The inner walls of the cavity are covered with a thin layer of highly fissionable material, which acts as a neutron multiplying source. This configuration, called Òn-HohlraumÓ, is reminiscent of a classic black-body radiator, with the exception that now neutrons rather than photons are propagated. The flux can be sufficiently enhanced as to permit to reach criticality with a ~ 1 mm thick Americium deposit, corresponding to a mere 1100 atomic layers. Such a layer is so thin that the Fission Fragments (FF) exit freely into the cavity. The energy carried by FF can be recovered directly, thus making use of th...

  10. Exploring High-Velocity NH_3(6,6) Emission at the Center of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, J L; Ho, P T P; Donovan, Jennifer L.; Herrnstein, Robeson M.; Ho, Paul T.P.


    Using the NH\\3 (6,6) transition, which samples dense ($\\sim 10^{5}$) molecular gas with an energy above ground of 412 K, we find hot gas at high velocities (--142 to --210 km s$^{-1}$) associated with the central 2 pc of the Galactic center. This material may be either infalling gas due to shocks or tidal stripping, or possibly gas swept from the nuclear region. We identify two high-velocity features, which we call the Southern Runner and the Cap, and correlate these features with others detected in various molecular observations of the Galactic center. The characteristic linewidths of the Southern Runner and Cap, 10 -- 15 \\kms, are similar to those of other hot Galactic center clouds. The estimated H$_{2}$ masses of these clouds are 4$\\times 10^{3}$ M$\\sol$ and 2$\\times 10^{3}$ M$\\sol$, consistent with the masses of the western streamer and northern ridge, NH\\3 (6,6) emission features detected within the central 10 pc at lower velocities. Three possible explanations for this emission are discussed assuming t...

  11. STEM Education-An Exploration of Its Impact on Female Academic Success in High School (United States)

    Ybarra, Michael E.

    The 21st century presents many new career opportunities and choices for women today. However, over the past decade, there has been a growing concern that there will not be enough students trained in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) to fill jobs in the United States. Current research reveals that there will be a need for highly skilled workers in the STEM industries, along with the opportunities to earn higher wages. With these opportunities ahead, it is paramount that secondary schools prepare not only their male students, but also their female students for these lucrative STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what degree female high school students enrolled in a STEM academy, and who may play sports, experience academic differences in college preparatory math and science courses, and in the math and science portions of the California Standards Test. Academic differences shall be defined as differences in grade point averages. A comparison will be made of female students who take similar classes and play sports, but who are not enrolled in a STEM academy program. This comparison will then incorporate a quantitative non-experimental research design, along with a chi-square test.

  12. Exploration of the pituitary stalk and gland by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Fukami, T.; Takase, K.; Matsumoto, K.


    By means of high-resolution CT, pituitary stalks and glands were demonstrated in 189 normal subjects and in six patients with microadenomas. In the horizontal view and in reconstructed coronal and sagittal projections, the normal stalks and glands showed homogeneous enhancement with the contrast medium. On metrizamide CT, the stalks and glands were demonstrated in high-density areas as a ''defect''. The detection-rate of the stalks and glands was more than 93.6% in all dimensions on enhanced CT and 100% on metrizamide CT. On reconstructed sagittal projections, there was a tendency for the glands to decrease in size with advancing age. Under the age of 29, especially in females, most of the glands were demonstrated as an oval area that filled the sella turcica. After the age of 50, the gland frequently was flattened with enlargement of the CSF space within the sella turcica, giving an appearance reminiscent of the ''empty stella''. Of six patients with microadenomas, five presented the appearance of oval gland, and one showed visualization of CSF space in the anterosuperior portion of the stella turcica. On reconstructed coronal projections, the angle of inclination of stalks was 1.5+-1.2/sup 0/ in normal subjects and 9.3+-2.4/sup 0/ in patients with microadenomas.

  13. Earthshine observations at high spectral resolution: Exploring and detecting metal lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    González-Merino, B; Motalebi, F; Montañés-Rodríguez, P; Kissler-Patig, M


    Observations of the Earth as a planet using the earthshine technique (i.e. looking at the light reflected from the darkside of the Moon), have been used for climate and astrobiology studies. They provide information about the planetary albedo, a fundamental parameter of the Earth's energy balance. Here we present for the first time, observations of the earthshine taken at high spectral resolution. The high spectral resolution was chosen in order to investigate the possibility of detecting metallic layers in the Earth's atmosphere of geological or meteoritic origin. The SARG echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma was used to acquire the earthshine data. Observations were carried out on several nights in February 2011, with the spectral resolution set at 29,000, covering a spectral range from the near-ultraviolet (360 nm) to near-infrared (1011.9 nm). While we find evidence for the detection of a Na layer in the earthshine, other atomic species are not detected, perhaps due to the ...

  14. Feeding cosmic star formation: exploring high-redshift molecular gas with CO intensity mapping (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Rahman, Mubdi


    The study of molecular gas is crucial for understanding star formation, feedback and the broader ecosystem of a galaxy as a whole. However, we have limited understanding of its physics and distribution in all but the nearest galaxies. We present a new technique for studying the composition and distribution of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies inaccessible to existing methods. Our proposed approach is an extension of carbon monoxide intensity mapping methods, which have garnered significant experimental interest in recent years. These intensity mapping surveys target the 115 GHz 12CO (1-0) line, but also contain emission from the substantially fainter 110 GHz 13CO (1-0) transition. The method leverages the information contained in the 13CO line by cross-correlating pairs of frequency channels in an intensity mapping survey. Since 13CO is emitted from the same medium as the 12CO, but saturates at a much higher column density, this cross-correlation provides valuable information about both the gas density distribution and isotopologue ratio, inaccessible from the 12CO alone. Using a simple model of these molecular emission lines, we show that a future intensity mapping survey can constrain the abundance ratio of these two species and the fraction of emission from optically thick regions to order ˜30 per cent. These measurements cannot be made by traditional CO observations, and consequently the proposed method will provide unique insight into the physics of star formation, feedback and galactic ecology at high redshifts.

  15. Molecular exploration of the highly radiation resistant cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 (United States)

    Badri, Hanène; Leys, Natalie; Wattiez, Ruddy

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium able to use sunlight to release oxygen from water and remove carbon dioxide and nitrate from water. In addition, it is suited for human consumption (edible). For these traits, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the life support system MELiSSA for recycling oxygen, water, and food during future long-haul space missions. However, during such extended missions, Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 will be exposed to continuous artificial illumination and harmful cosmic radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate how Arthrospira will react and behave when exposed to such stress environment. The cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was exposed to high gamma rays doses in order to unravel in details the response of this bacterium following such stress. Test results showed that after acute exposure to high doses of 60Co gamma radiation upto 3200 Gy, Arthrospira filaments were still able to restart photosynthesis and proliferate normally. Doses above 3200 Gy, did have a detrimental effect on the cells, and delayed post-irradiation proliferation. The photosystem activity, measured as the PSII quantum yield immediately after irradiation, decreased significantly at radiation doses above 3200 Gy. Likewise through pigment content analysis a significant decrease in phycocyanin was observed following exposure to 3200 Gy. The high tolerance of this bacterium to 60Co gamma rays (i.e. ca. 1000x more resistant than human cells for example) raised our interest to investigate in details the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this amazing resistance. Optimised DNA, RNA and protein extraction methods and a new microarray chip specific for Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 were developed to identify the global cellular and molecular response following exposure to 3200 Gy and 5000 Gy A total of 15,29 % and 30,18 % genes were found differentially expressed in RNA

  16. Collaborative design of workplaces: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke


    Boundary objects may play an important role in collaborative design processes. Such objects can help participants with different background to better communicate and take part in a design process. The aim of this study is to explore the role of boundary objects in participatory ergonomics...... and to find out what characterizes boundary objects. The study lists eight characteristics of boundary objects and set up a framework for the conceptualization of boundary objects in collaborative design of workplaces. The framework emphasizes the need not to focus solely on the boundary object per se...

  17. Exploring the impact of a career development program on underrepresented minorities and low-income middle and high school students (United States)

    Holder-Luchey, Keli Koran F.

    Initially, when academic outreach programs for low income students and underrepresented minorities were created, the idea was to inspire and motivate students to prepare for a college education in very general terms. However, the new trend in outreach programming is to concentrate on career goals, as opposed to programs that simply provide basic information and enrichment. The focus is to create curriculum-based outreach programs, addressing the specific academic and career needs of low income and underrepresented minorities. This study explored the impact of participation in the University at Buffalo's Science and Technology Enrichment Program (STEP), a comprehensive career exploration and academic enrichment program for low income and underrepresented minority middle and high school students, on the level of education and career attainment---particularly in the areas in which they have historically been underrepresented---science, technology, health and the health-related professions. A survey questionnaire was mailed to former STEP high school graduates to measure the impact of STEP program services on the pursuit and attainment of postsecondary education as well as career attainment, particularly in the fields of Science and Technology. A control group, consisting of non-STEP high school graduates, was established and used to compare to the STEP program outcomes. Results indicate that former STEP participants were more likely to attend and graduate from college, along with be employed in a Science or Science related occupation. Results of additional findings, along with policy implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.

  18. Observations of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes and High-Frequency Internal Waves from Ship-Launched UAVs and Ship-based Instrumentation (United States)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Melville, W. K.


    We present measurements obtained during the October 2012 EquatorMix experiment (0N, 140W), in which we deployed ship-launched and recovered Boeing-Insitu ScanEagle unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure momentum and energy fluxes, ocean surface processes, and the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). The UAV dataset is complemented by measurements from a suite of ship-based instrumentation, including a foremast MABL eddy covariance system, scanning and point lidar altimeters, a laser Doppler wind profiler, and a digitized X-band radar system (WaMoS). The combination of the unmanned aircraft and the ship instrumentation provides a novel and valuable dataset of many air-sea interaction phenomena, extending from 100s of meters below the surface to 1500 m above. Ocean surface displacements observed with the UAV lidar altimeter (coupled with a GPS/IMU) give evidence of high-frequency equatorial internal waves, with measurements consistent and coherent with those from ship-based X-band radar, the Hydrographic Doppler Sonar System (HDSS), and a theoretical model. UAV-based flux measurements at low altitudes (down to 30 meters) are consistent with ship-based eddy covariance measurements, but reveal differences between along- and crosswind sampling flight legs associated with longitudinal roll structures that are not captured by the ship measurements from tracks mainly in the upwind-downwind directions.

  19. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.

  20. Exploring the mechanisms of carbon-nanotube dispersion aggregation in a highly polar solvent (United States)

    MacKernan, D.; Blau, W. J.


    One of the main obstacles to the exploitation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) remarkable electronic and materials properties is their tendency to form ropes or bundles. This complicates drastically the processing and purification of carbon nanotubes. An understanding of the free energy landscape associated with transitions from isolated SWCNTs to bundles in solution would facilitate the control of the process, and is the motivation of this work. Extensive molecular dynamics studies of this problem for the highly polar solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) indicate that i) pairs of SWCNTs in the form of bundles are far more stable than pairs of isolated tubes; and ii) free energy barriers lying between bundles and isolated tubes exist which are proportional to the surface tension of NMP, and are likely to be responsible for the long-lived transients reported in experiments.