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Sample records for boundary element model

  1. (Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.J.

    1990-11-09

    Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Modeling Method Based on Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study an improved dynamic modeling method based on a Boundary Element Method (BEM. The dynamic model was composed of the elements such as the beam element, plate element, joint element, lumped mass and spring element by the BEM. An improved dynamic model of a machine structure was established based on plate-beam element system mainly. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure were analyzed and the comparison of computational results and experimental’s showed the modeling method was effective. The analyses indicate that the introduced method inaugurates a good way for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a machine structure efficiently.

  3. Forward seismic modeling with the use of boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuejun, L.

    1991-01-01

    Boundary element method for wave equation boundary value problem involves three steps: the boundary value problem of wave equations is converted into the boundary value problem of Helmholtz's equations by performing the one-dimensional Fourier transform of time variable, the new boundary value problem is converted into an integral equation by using Green's formula; and the integral equation is solved using boundary element method, and the required numerical solution is obtained by using inverse Fourier transform. This paper analyzes the theoretical formulas and application of the method. This method can be applied to forward and inverse seismic problems. In solving integral equation using boundary element method, the adoption of interval truncation division results in less element knots, less internal storage, faster operation and more accurate computation.

  4. Boundary element modeling of nondissipative and dissipative waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Genmeng [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.; Zhou, Huawei [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    1994-01-01

    A boundary element (BE) algorithm is developed to compute acoustic or SH-waves in models consisting of limited or unlimited volumes and irregular interfaces. The authors solve the BE system in the frequency domain so that anelasticity can be easily represented by different viscoelastic models, such as the Kelvin-Voigt type. Three illustrative computations are shown. The waveform given by the BE method for a circular inclusion model agrees well with that given by the finite-difference (FD) method. Dissipation of waves at high frequency caused by the presence of multi-cracks in an elastic medium resembles the masking effect of anelasticity. The waveforms for nondissipative and dissipative models containing hexagonal inclusions illustrate some interesting characteristics of the composite media.

  5. Modeling mixed boundary conditions in a Hilbert space with the complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anthony N; Hromadka, T V

    2015-01-01

    The Laplace equation that results from specifying either the normal or tangential force equilibrium equation in terms of the warping functions or its conjugate can be modeled as a complex variable boundary element method or CVBEM mixed boundary problem. The CVBEM is a well-known numerical technique that can provide solutions to potential value problems in two or more dimensions by the use of an approximation function that is derived from the Cauchy Integral in complex analysis. This paper highlights three customizations to the technique.•A least squares approach to modeling the complex-valued approximation function will be compared and analyzed to determine if modeling error on the boundary can be reduced without the need to find and evaluated additional linearly independent complex functions.•The nodal point locations will be moved outside the problem domain.•Contour and streamline plots representing the warping function and its complementary conjugate are generated simultaneously from the complex-valued approximating function.

  6. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

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    E. Majchrzak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  7. The representation of boundary currents in a finite element shallow water model

    CERN Document Server

    Düben, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of local resolution, eddy viscosity, coastline structure, and boundary conditions on the numerical representation of boundary currents in a finite element shallow-water model. The use of finite element discretization methods offers a higher flexibility compared to finite difference and finite volume methods, that are mainly used in previous publications. This is true for the geometry of the coast lines and for the realization of boundary conditions. For our investigations we simulate steady separation of western boundary currents from idealized and realistic coast lines. The use of grid refinement allows a detailed investigation of boundary separation at reasonable numerical cost.

  8. Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore

    2009-01-01

    A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...

  9. A boundary element model for lined circular ducts with uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1996-01-01

    A boundary element method has been developed for predicting the acoustics in a circular duct in which a uniform flow propagates. Such a model may be used to predict the performance of different liner designs for inlets of turbo fan engines, which is important for the aeronautics industry...

  10. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  11. Preliminary Work for Modeling the Propellers of an Aircraft as a Noise Source in an Acoustic Boundary Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Lyle, Karen H.; Burley, Casey L.

    1998-01-01

    An algorithm for generating appropriate velocity boundary conditions for an acoustic boundary element analysis from the kinematics of an operating propeller is presented. It constitutes the initial phase of Integrating sophisticated rotorcraft models into a conventional boundary element analysis. Currently, the pressure field is computed by a linear approximation. An initial validation of the developed process was performed by comparing numerical results to test data for the external acoustic pressure on the surface of a tilt-rotor aircraft for one flight condition.

  12. Modeling the 3D Terrain Effect on MT by the Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Baiyao; Xu Shizhe; Xu Zhifeng

    2006-01-01

    A numerical method is put forward in this paper, using the boundary element method(BEM) to model 3D terrain effects on magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Using vector integral theory and electromagnetic field boundary conditions, the boundary problem of two electromagnetic fields in the upper half space (air) and lower half space (earth medium) was transformed into two vector integral equations just related to the topography: one magnetic equation for computing the magnetic field and the other electrical equation for computing the electrical field. The topography integral is decomposed into a series of integrals in a triangle element. For the integral in a triangle element, we suppose that the electromagnetic field in it is the stack of the electromagnetic field in the homogeneous earth and the topography response which is a constant; so the computation becomes simple, convenient and highly accurate. By decomposition and computation, each vector integral equation can be calculated by solving three linear equations that are related to the three Cartesian directions. The matrix of these linear equations is diagonally dominant and can be solved using the Symmetric Successive Over-Relaxation (SSOR) method. The apparent resistivity curve of MT on two 3D terrains calculated by BEM is shown in this paper.

  13. Estimation of Soil Electrical Properties in a Multilayer Earth Model with Boundary Element Formulation

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    T. Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient model for estimation of soil electric resistivity with depth and layer thickness in a multilayer earth structure. This model is the improvement of conventional two-layer earth model including Wenner resistivity formulations with boundary conditions. Two-layer soil model shows the limitations in specific soil characterizations of different layers with the interrelationships between soil apparent electrical resistivity (ρ and several soil physical or chemical properties. In the multilayer soil model, the soil resistivity and electric potential at any points in multilayer anisotropic soil medium are expressed according to the variation of electric field intensity for geotechnical investigations. For most soils with varying layers, multilayer soil resistivity profile is therefore more suitable to get soil type, bulk density of compacted soil and to detect anomalous materials in soil. A boundary element formulation is implemented to show the multilayer soil model with boundary conditions in soil resistivity estimations. Numerical results of soil resistivity ratio and potential differences for different layers are presented to illustrate the application, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed model. The nobility of the research is obtaining multilayer soil characterizations through soil electric properties in near surface soil profile.

  14. Hybrid Finite Element-Fast Spectral Domain Multilayer Boundary Integral Modeling of Doubly Periodic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Eibert; J.L. Volakis; Y.E. Erdemli

    2002-03-03

    Hybrid finite element (FE)--boundary integral (BI) analysis of infinite periodic arrays is extended to include planar multilayered Green's functions. In this manner, a portion of the volumetric dielectric region can be modeled via the finite element method whereas uniform multilayered regions can be modeled using a multilayered Green's function. As such, thick uniform substrates can be modeled without loss of efficiency and accuracy. The multilayered Green's function is analytically computed in the spectral domain and the resulting BI matrix-vector products are evaluated via the fast spectral domain algorithm (FSDA). As a result, the computational cost of the matrix-vector products is kept at O(N). Furthermore, the number of Floquet modes in the expansion are kept very few by placing the BI surfaces within the computational unit cell. Examples of frequency selective surface (FSS) arrays are analyzed with this method to demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the approach. One example involves complicated multilayered substrates above and below an inhomogeneous filter element and the other is an optical ring-slot array on a substrate several hundred wavelengths in thickness. Comparisons with measurements are included.

  15. A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Sanne

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Homma`s island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)

  16. A Fault-Cored Anticline Boundary Element Model Incorporating the Combined Fault Slip and Buckling Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a folding boundary element model in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers to show that anticlines growing over slipping reverse faults can be significantly amplified by mechanical layering buckling under horizontal shortening. Previous studies suggested that folds over blind reverse faults grow primarily during deformation increments associated with slips on the fault during and immediately after earthquakes. Under this assumption, the potential for earthquakes on blind faults can be determined directly from fold geometry because the amount of slip on the fault can be estimated directly from the fold geometry using the solution for a dislocation in an elastic half-space. Studies that assume folds grown solely by slip on a fault may therefore significantly overestimate fault slip. Our boundary element technique demonstrates that the fold amplitude produced in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers with free slip and subjected to layer-parallel shortening can grow to more than twice the fold amplitude produced in homogeneous media without mechanical layering under the same amount of shortening. In addition, the fold wavelengths produced by the combined fault slip and buckling mechanisms may be narrower than folds produced by fault slip in an elastic half space by a factor of two. We also show that subsurface fold geometry of the Kettleman Hills Anticline in Central California inferred from seismic reflection image is consistent with a model that incorporates layer buckling over a dipping, blind reverse fault and the coseismic uplift pattern produced during a 1985 earthquake centered over the anticline forelimb is predicted by the model.

  17. Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's Interface Waves in Elastic Models Using a Boundary Element Method

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    Esteban Flores-Mendez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.

  18. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF IN VIVO MOUSE TIBIAL COMPRESSION LOADING: INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

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    Hajar Razi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Though bone is known to adapt to its mechanical challenges, the relationship between the local mechanical stimuli and the adaptive tissue response seems so far unclear. A major challenge appears to be a proper characterization of the local mechanical stimuli of the bones (e.g. strains. The finite element modeling is a powerful tool to characterize these mechanical stimuli not only on the bone surface but across the tissue. However, generating a predictive finite element model of biological tissue strains (e.g., physiological-like loading encounters aspects that are inevitably unclear or vague and thus might significantly influence the predicted findings. We aimed at investigating the influence of variations in bone alignment, joint contact surfaces and displacement constraints on the predicted strains in an in vivo mouse tibial compression experiment. We found that the general strain state within the mouse tibia under compressive loading was not affected by these uncertain factors. However, strain magnitudes at various tibial regions were highly influenced by specific modeling assumptions. The displacement constraints to control the joint contact sites appeared to be the most influential factor on the predicted strains in the mouse tibia. Strains could vary up to 150% by modifying the displacement constraints. To a lesser degree, bone misalignment (from 0 to 20° also resulted in a change of strain (+300 µε = 40%. The definition of joint contact surfaces could lead to up to 6% variation. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of the specific boundary conditions in the in vivo mouse tibia loading experiment for the prediction of local mechanical strain values using finite element modeling.

  19. Stress Wave Propagation in Soils Modelled by the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. M.

    This thesis deals with different aspects of the boundary element method (BEM) applied to stress wave propagation problems in soils. Among other things BEM formulations for coupled FEM and BEM, moving loads, direct BEM and indirect BEM are presented. For all the formulations both analytical expres...

  20. On the modeling of narrow gaps using the standard boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Jacobsen, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . This paper makes use of a standard axisymmetric Helmholtz integral equation formulation and its boundary element method (BEM) implementation to study the behavior of the method on two test cases: a thin rigid disk of variable thickness and two rigid cylinders separated by a gap of variable width. Both...

  1. Efficient finite element modeling of elastodynamic scattering with non-reflecting boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2012-05-01

    An efficient technique for predicting the complete scattering behavior for an arbitrarily-shaped scatterer is presented. The spatial size of the modeling domain around the scatterer is as small as possible to minimize computational expense and a minimum number of models are executed. This model uses non-reflecting boundary conditions on the surface surrounding the scatterer which are non-local in space. Example results for 2D and 3D scattering in isotropic material and guided wave scattering are presented.

  2. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-11-01

    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  3. Modelling sheet-flow sediment transport in wave-bottom boundary layers using discrete-element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calantoni, Joseph; Holland, K Todd; Drake, Thomas G

    2004-09-15

    Sediment transport in oscillatory boundary layers is a process that drives coastal geomorphological change. Most formulae for bed-load transport in nearshore regions subsume the smallest-scale physics of the phenomena by parametrizing interactions amongst particles. In contrast, we directly simulate granular physics in the wave-bottom boundary layer using a discrete-element model comprised of a three-dimensional particle phase coupled to a one-dimensional fluid phase via Newton's third law through forces of buoyancy, drag and added mass. The particulate sediment phase is modelled using discrete particles formed to approximate natural grains by overlapping two spheres. Both the size of each sphere and the degree of overlap can be varied for these composite particles to generate a range of non-spherical grains. Simulations of particles having a range of shapes showed that the critical angle--the angle at which a grain pile will fail when tilted slowly from rest--increases from approximately 26 degrees for spherical particles to nearly 39 degrees for highly non-spherical composite particles having a dumbbell shape. Simulations of oscillatory sheet flow were conducted using composite particles with an angle of repose of approximately 33 degrees and a Corey shape factor greater than about 0.8, similar to the properties of beach sand. The results from the sheet-flow simulations with composite particles agreed more closely with laboratory measurements than similar simulations conducted using spherical particles. The findings suggest that particle shape may be an important factor for determining bed-load flux, particularly for larger bed slopes.

  4. A musculo-mechanical model of esophageal transport based on an immersed boundary-finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-11-01

    This work extends a fiber-based immersed boundary (IB) model of esophageal transport by incorporating a continuum model of the deformable esophageal wall. The continuum-based esophagus model adopts finite element approach that is capable of describing more complex and realistic material properties and geometries. The leakage from mismatch between Lagrangian and Eulerian meshes resulting from large deformations of the esophageal wall is avoided by careful choice of interaction points. The esophagus model, which is described as a multi-layered, fiber-reinforced nonlinear elastic material, is coupled to bolus and muscle-activation models using the IB approach to form the esophageal transport model. Cases of esophageal transport with different esophagus models are studied. Results on the transport characteristics, including pressure field and esophageal wall kinematics and stress, are analyzed and compared. Support from NIH grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 is gratefully acknowledged. BEG is supported by NSF award ACI 1460334.

  5. A new magneto-cardiogram study using a vector model with a virtual heart and the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Shou, Guo-Fa; Lu, Hong; Hua, Ning; Tang, Xue-Zheng; Xia, Ling; Ma, Ping; Tang, Fa-Kuan

    2013-09-01

    A cardiac vector model is presented and verified, and then the forward problem for cardiac magnetic fields and electric potential are discussed based on this model and the realistic human torso volume conductor model, including lungs. A torso—cardiac vector model is used for a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) and magneto-cardiogram (MCG) simulation study by using the boundary element method (BEM). Also, we obtain the MCG wave picture using a compound four-channel HTc·SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. By comparing the simulated results and experimental results, we verify the cardiac vector model and then do a preliminary study of the forward problem of MCG and ECG. Therefore, the results show that the vector model is reasonable in cardiac electrophysiology.

  6. Modelling magnetic anomalies of solid and fractal bodies with defined boundaries using the finite cube elements method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mostafa E.

    2009-04-01

    The finite cube elements method (FCEM) is a numerical tool designed for modelling gravity anomalies and estimating structural index (SI) of solid and fractal bodies with defined boundaries, tilted or in normal position and with variable density contrast. In this work, we apply FCEM to modelling magnetic anomalies and estimating SI of bodies with non-uniform magnetization having variable magnitude and direction. In magnetics as in gravity, FCEM allows us to study the spatial distribution of SI of the modelled bodies on contour maps and profiles. We believe that this will impact the forward and inverse modelling of potential field data, especially Euler deconvolution. As far as the author knows, this is the first time that gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as SI, of self similar fractal bodies such as Menger sponges and Sierpinsky triangles are calculated using FCEM. The SI patterns derived from different order sponges and triangles are perfectly overlapped. This is true for bodies having variable property distributions (susceptibility or density contrast) under different field conditions (in case of magnetics) regardless of their orientation and depth of burial. We therefore propose SI as a new universal fractal-order-invariant measure which can be used in addition to the fractal dimensions for formulating potential field theory of fractal objects.

  7. Recent advances in boundary element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, GD

    2009-01-01

    Addresses the needs of the computational mechanics research community in terms of information on boundary integral equation-based methods and techniques applied to a variety of fields. This book collects both original and review articles on contemporary Boundary Element Methods (BEM) as well as on the Mesh Reduction Methods (MRM).

  8. Boundary element-free method for elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Yumin; PENG; Miaojuan

    2005-01-01

    The moving least-square approximation is discussed first. Sometimes the method can form an ill-conditioned equation system, and thus the solution cannot be obtained correctly. A Hilbert space is presented on which an orthogonal function system mixed a weight function is defined. Next the improved moving least-square approximation is discussed in detail. The improved method has higher computational efficiency and precision than the old method, and cannot form an ill-conditioned equation system. A boundary element-free method (BEFM) for elastodynamics problems is presented by combining the boundary integral equation method for elastodynamics and the improved moving least-square approximation. The boundary element-free method is a meshless method of boundary integral equation and is a direct numerical method compared with others, in which the basic unknowns are the real solutions of the nodal variables and the boundary conditions can be applied easily. The boundary element-free method has a higher computational efficiency and precision. In addition, the numerical procedure of the boundary element-free method for elastodynamics problems is presented in this paper. Finally, some numerical examples are given.

  9. Analysis of 3-D Frictional Contact Mechanics Problems by a Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEUM Bangyong; LIU Yijun

    2005-01-01

    The development of two boundary element algorithms for solving 3-D, frictional, and linear elastostatic contact problems is reported in this paper. The algorithms employ nonconforming discretizations for solving 3-D boundary element models, which provide much needed flexibility in the boundary element modeling for 3-D contact problems. These algorithms are implemented in a new 3-D boundary element code and verified using several examples. For the numerical examples studied, the results using the new boundary element algorithms match very well with the results using a commercial finite element code, and clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the new boundary element approach for 3-D contact analysis.

  10. On the roles of minimization and linearization in least-squares finite element models of nonlinear boundary-value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, G. S.; Reddy, J. N.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we examine the roles of minimization and linearization in the least-squares finite element formulations of nonlinear boundary-values problems. The least-squares principle is based upon the minimization of the least-squares functional constructed via the sum of the squares of appropriate norms of the residuals of the partial differential equations (in the present case we consider L2 norms). Since the least-squares method is independent of the discretization procedure and the solution scheme, the least-squares principle suggests that minimization should be performed prior to linearization, where linearization is employed in the context of either the Picard or Newton iterative solution procedures. However, in the least-squares finite element analysis of nonlinear boundary-value problems, it has become common practice in the literature to exchange the sequence of application of the minimization and linearization operations. The main purpose of this study is to provide a detailed assessment on how the finite element solution is affected when the order of application of these operators is interchanged. The assessment is performed mathematically, through an examination of the variational setting for the least-squares formulation of an abstract nonlinear boundary-value problem, and also computationally, through the numerical simulation of the least-squares finite element solutions of both a nonlinear form of the Poisson equation and also the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The assessment suggests that although the least-squares principle indicates that minimization should be performed prior to linearization, such an approach is often impractical and not necessary.

  11. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...... as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution...

  12. Highly Efficient Boundary Element Analysis of Whispering Gallery Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Leyuan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of the boundary element whispering gallery microcavity analysis can be improved by orders of magnitude with the inclusion of Fresnel approximation. Using this formulation, simulation of a microdisk with wave-number-radius product as large as $kR\\approx8,000$ was demonstrated in contrast to a previous record of $kR\\approx100$. In addition to its high accuracy on computing the modal field distribution and resonance wavelength, this method yields a relative error of $10%$ in calculating the quality factor as high as $10^{11}$ through a direct root searching method where the conventional boundary element method failed to achieve. Finally, quadrupole shaped cavities and double disks as large as $100 {\\mu}m$ in diameter were modeled by employing as few as $512$ boundary elements whilst the simulation of such large cavities using conventional boundary element method were not reported previously.

  13. A Kind of Boundary Element Methods for Boundary Value Problem of Helmholtz Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张然; 姜正义; 马富明

    2004-01-01

    Problems for electromagnetic scattering are of significant importance in many areas of technology. In this paper we discuss the scattering problem of electromagnetic wave incident by using boundary element method associated with splines. The problem is modelled by a boundary value problem for the Helmholtz eouation

  14. Introducing the Boundary Element Method with MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Keng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The boundary element method provides an excellent platform for learning and teaching a computational method for solving problems in physical and engineering science. However, it is often left out in many undergraduate courses as its implementation is deemed to be difficult. This is partly due to the perception that coding the method requires…

  15. An inverse problem by boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran-Cong, T.; Nguyen-Thien, T. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD (Australia); Graham, A.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Boundary Element Methods (BEM) have been established as useful and powerful tools in a wide range of engineering applications, e.g. Brebbia et al. In this paper, we report a particular three dimensional implementation of a direct boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation and its application to numerical simulations of practical polymer processing operations. In particular, we will focus on the application of the present boundary element technology to simulate an inverse problem in plastics processing.by extrusion. The task is to design profile extrusion dies for plastics. The problem is highly non-linear due to material viscoelastic behaviours as well as unknown free surface conditions. As an example, the technique is shown to be effective in obtaining the die profiles corresponding to a square viscoelastic extrudate under different processing conditions. To further illustrate the capability of the method, examples of other non-trivial extrudate profiles and processing conditions are also given.

  16. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  17. BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONTACT PROBLEMS USING ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY NODE APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahattin KANBER; Ibrahim H. GUZELBEY; Ahmet ERKLI

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the regular boundary element method, the artificial boundary node approach, is derived. A simple contact algorithm is designed and implemented into the direct boundary element, regular boundary element and artificial boundary node approaches. The exisiting and derived approaches are tested using some case studies. The results of the artificial boundary node approach are compared with those of the existing boundary element program, the regular element approach, ANSYS and analytical solution whenever possible. The results show the effectiveness of the artificial boundary node approach for a wider range of boundary offsets.

  18. 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Wendland, W; Kuhn, G

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the edited versions of most of the papers presented at the 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements held at the University of Stuttgart, Germany from August 31st to September 4th, 1987, which was organized in co-operation with the Computational Mechanics Institute and GAMM (Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). This Conference, as the previous ones, aimed to review the latest developments in technique and theory and point out new advanced future trends. The emphasis of the meeting was on the engineering advances versus mathematical formulations, in an effort to consolidate the basis of many new applications. Recently engineers have proposed different techniques to solve non-linear and time dependent problems and many of these formulations needed a better mathematical understanding. Furthermore, new approximate formulations have been proposed for boundary elements which appeared to work in engineering practice, but did not have a proper theoretical background. The Conferen...

  19. Boundary element methods for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    POLJAK, D

    2005-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become a well-established technique that is widely used for solving various problems in electrical engineering and electromagnetics. Although there are many excellent research papers published in the relevant literature that describe various BEM applications in electrical engineering and electromagnetics, there has been a lack of suitable textbooks and monographs on the subject. This book presents BEM in a simple fashion in order to help the beginner to understand the very basic principles of the method. It initially derives B

  20. Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Radek

    The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced

  1. Foundations of the complex variable boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hromadka, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and examines the theoretical underpinnings of the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) as applied to higher dimensions, providing the reader with the tools for extending and using the CVBEM in various applications. Relevant mathematics and principles are assembled and the reader is guided through the key topics necessary for an understanding of the development of the CVBEM in both the usual two- as well as three- or higher dimensions. In addition to this, problems are provided that build upon the material presented. The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) is an approximation method useful for solving problems involving the Laplace equation in two dimensions. It has been shown to be a useful modelling technique for solving two-dimensional problems involving the Laplace or Poisson equations on arbitrary domains. The CVBEM has recently been extended to 3 or higher spatial dimensions, which enables the precision of the CVBEM in solving the Laplace equation to be now ava...

  2. Finite element method for solving geodetic boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fašková, Zuzana; Čunderlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the finite element scheme for solving the Earth potential problems in 3D domains above the Earth surface. To that goal we formulate the boundary-value problem (BVP) consisting of the Laplace equation outside the Earth accompanied by the Neumann as well as the Dirichlet boundary conditions (BC). The 3D computational domain consists of the bottom boundary in the form of a spherical approximation or real triangulation of the Earth’s surface on which surface gravity disturbances are given. We introduce additional upper (spherical) and side (planar and conical) boundaries where the Dirichlet BC is given. Solution of such elliptic BVP is understood in a weak sense, it always exists and is unique and can be efficiently found by the finite element method (FEM). We briefly present derivation of FEM for such type of problems including main discretization ideas. This method leads to a solution of the sparse symmetric linear systems which give the Earth’s potential solution in every discrete node of the 3D computational domain. In this point our method differs from other numerical approaches, e.g. boundary element method (BEM) where the potential is sought on a hypersurface only. We apply and test FEM in various situations. First, we compare the FEM solution with the known exact solution in case of homogeneous sphere. Then, we solve the geodetic BVP in continental scale using the DNSC08 data. We compare the results with the EGM2008 geopotential model. Finally, we study the precision of our solution by the GPS/levelling test in Slovakia where we use terrestrial gravimetric measurements as input data. All tests show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the given solutions.

  3. Tectonic role of margin-parallel and margin-transverse faults during oblique subduction in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes: Insights from Boundary Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Yonge, A.; Griffith, W. A.; Cembrano, J.; St. Julien, R.; Iturrieta, P.

    2016-09-01

    Obliquely convergent subduction margins develop trench-parallel faults shaping the regional architecture of orogenic belts and partitioning intraplate deformation. However, transverse faults also are common along most orogenic belts and have been largely neglected in slip partitioning analysis. Here we constrain the sense of slip and slip rates of differently oriented faults to assess whether and how transverse faults accommodate plate-margin slip arising from oblique subduction. We implement a forward 3-D boundary element method model of subduction at the Chilean margin evaluating the elastic response of intra-arc faults during different stages of the Andean subduction seismic cycle (SSC). Our model results show that the margin-parallel, NNE striking Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System accommodates dextral-reverse slip during the interseismic period of the SSC, with oblique slip rates ranging between 1 and 7 mm/yr. NW striking faults exhibit sinistral-reverse slip during the interseismic phase of the SSC, displaying a maximum oblique slip of 1.4 mm/yr. ENE striking faults display dextral strike slip, with a slip rate of 0.85 mm/yr. During the SSC coseismic phase, all modeled faults switch their kinematics: NE striking fault become sinistral, whereas NW striking faults are normal dextral. Because coseismic tensile stress changes on NW faults reach 0.6 MPa at 10-15 km depth, it is likely that they can serve as transient magma pathways during this phase of the SSC. Our model challenges the existing paradigm wherein only margin-parallel faults account for slip partitioning: transverse faults are also capable of accommodating a significant amount of plate-boundary slip arising from oblique convergence.

  4. Comparison of boundary element and finite element methods in spur gear root stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Mavriplis, D.; Huston, R. L.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is used to compute fillet stress concentration in spur gear teeth. The results are shown to compare favorably with analogous results obtained using the finite element method (FEM). A partially supported thin rim gear is studied. The loading is applied at the pitch point. A three-dimensional analysis is conducted using both the BEM and FEM (NASTRAN). The results are also compared with those of a two-dimensional finite element model. An advantage of the BEM over the FEM is that fewer elements are needed with the BEM. Indeed, in the current study the BEM used 92 elements and 270 nodes whereas the FEM used 320 elements and 2037 nodes. Moreover, since the BEM is especially useful in problems with high stress gradients it is potentially a very useful tool for fillet stress analyses.

  5. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  6. Accuracy and stability of a set of free-surface time-domain boundary element models based on B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchmann, Bjarne

    2000-05-01

    An analysis is given for the accuracy and stability of some perturbation-based time-domain boundary element models (BEMs) with B-spline basis functions, solving hydrodynamic free-surface problems, including forward speed effects. The spatial convergence rate is found as a function of the order of the B-spline basis. It is shown that for all the models examined the mixed implicit-explicit Euler time integration scheme is correct to second order. Stability diagrams are found for models based on B-splines of orders third through to sixth for two different time integration schemes. The stability analysis can be regarded as an extension of the analysis by Vada and Nakos [Vada T, Nakos DE. Time marching schemes for ship motion simulations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, 1993; 155-158] to include B-splines of orders higher than three (piecewise quadratic polynomials) and to include finite water depth and a current at an oblique angle to the model grid. Copyright

  7. Boundary sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G

    2002-01-01

    We review our recent results on the on-shell description of sine-Gordon model with integrable boundary conditions. We determined the spectrum of boundary states together with their reflection factors by closing the boundary bootstrap and checked these results against WKB quantization and numerical finite volume spectra obtained from the truncated conformal space approach. The relation between a boundary resonance state and the semiclassical instability of a static classical solution is analyzed in detail.

  8. Conductivity interface modelling with dipoles by means of optimal control and boundary element methods in impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, P M; Mounié, G; Granié, M; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Optimal control techniques have been combined with Alessandrini's singular perturbation method and Wexler's algorithm to reconstruct images in impedance imaging. We have also considered an integral formulation of the potential problem, which has led us to introduce an array of dipoles whose position, orientation and length can be optimised to model the conductivity discontinuities.

  9. Submarine Magnetic Field Extrapolation Based on Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-ji; LIU Da-ming; YAO Qiong-hui; ZHOU Guo-hua; YAN Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the magnetic field distribution of submarines in the air completely and exactly and study the magnetic stealthy performance of submarine, a mathematic model of submarine magnetic field extrapolation is built based on the boundary element method (BEM). An experiment is designed to measure three components of magnetic field on the envelope surface surrounding a model submarine. The data in differentheights above the model submarine are obtained by use of tri-axial magnetometers. The results show that this extrapolation model has good stabilities and high accuracies compared the measured data with the extrapolated data. Moreover, the model can reflect the submarine magnetic field distribution in the air exactly, and is valuable in practical engineering.

  10. Equivariant preconditioners for boundary element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausch, J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author proposes and discusses two preconditioners for boundary integral equations on domains which are nearly symmetric. The preconditioners under consideration are equivariant, that is, they commute with a group of permutation matrices. Numerical experiments demonstrate their efficiency for the GMRES method.

  11. NEW BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR TORSION PROBLEMS OF CYLINDER WITH CURVILINEAR CRACKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yin-bang; LU Zi-zi

    2005-01-01

    The Saint-Venant torsion problems of a cylinder with curvilinear cracks were considered and reduced to solving the boundary integral equations only on cracks. Using the interpolation models for both singular crack tip elements and other crack linear elements, the boundary element formulas of the torsion rigidity and stress intensity factors were given. Some typical torsion problems of a cylinder involving a straight,kinked or curvilinear crack were calculated. The obtained results for the case of straight crack agree well with those given by using the Gauss-Chebyshev integration formulas,which demonstrates the validity and applicability of the present boundary element method.

  12. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods solve...... for the unknown normal velocities of the structure at the relatively large number of nodes in the numerical model. Efficiently the regularization technique smoothes the solution spatially, since a fast spatial variation is associated with high index singular values, which is filtered out or damped...... in the regularization. Hence, the effective number of degrees of freedom in the model is often much lower than the number of nodes in the model. The present paper deals with an alternative formulation possible for the subset of radiation problems in which a (structural) modal expansion is known for the structure...

  13. Stochastic Boundary Element Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 吴清高

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic boundary integral equations for analyzing large structures are obtained from the partial derivatives of basic random variables. A stochastic boundary element method based on the equations is developed to solve engineering problems of gravity dams using random factors including material parameters of the dam body and the foundation, the water level in the upper reaches, the anti-slide friction coefficient of the dam base, etc. A numerical example shows that the stochastic boundary element method presented in this paper to calculate the reliability index of large construction projects such as a large concrete gravity dam has the advantages of less input data and more precise computational results.

  14. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  15. A Boundary Element Method for Simulation of Deformable Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a boundary element method is first applied to real-tim animation of deformable objects and to simplify data preparation.Next,the visibleexternal surface of the object in deforming process is represented by B-spline surface,whose control points are embedded in dynamic equations of BEM.Fi-nally,the above method is applied to anatomical simulation.A pituitary model in human brain,which is reconstructed from a set of anatomical sections, is selected to be the deformable object under action of virtual tool such as scapel or probe.It produces fair graphic realism and high speed performance.The results show that BEM not only has less computational expense than FEM,but also is convenient to combine with the 3D reconstruction and surface modeling as it enables the reduction of the dimensionality of the problem by one.

  16. Novel boundary element method for resolving plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颂英; 王乐勤; 焦磊

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the boundary contour method for resolving plate bending problems. The exploitation of the integrand divergence free property of the plate bending boundary integral equation based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and a very useful application of Stokes' Theorem are presented to convert surface integrals on boundary elements to the computation of bending potential functions on the discretized boundary points, even for curved surface elements of arbitrary shape. Singularity and treatment of the discontinued corner point are not needed at all. The evaluation of the physics variant at internal points is also shown in this article. Numerical results are presented for some plate bending problems and compared against analytical and previous solutions.

  17. A new simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-09-01

    A simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for solving potential problems is presented in this paper, which can be applied to solve a true multidomain problem or a large-scale single domain problem using the domain decomposition technique. In this multidomain BEM, the coefficient matrix is formed simply by assembling the coefficient matrices of each subdomain and the interface conditions between subdomains without eliminating any unknown variables on the interfaces. Compared with other conventional multidomain BEM approaches, this new approach is more efficient with the fast multipole method, regardless how the subdomains are connected. Instead of solving the linear system of equations directly, the entire coefficient matrix is partitioned and decomposed using Schur complement in this new approach. Numerical results show that the new multidomain fast multipole BEM uses fewer iterations in most cases with the iterative equation solver and less CPU time than the traditional fast multipole BEM in solving large-scale BEM models. A large-scale fuel cell model with more than 6 million elements was solved successfully on a cluster within 3 h using the new multidomain fast multipole BEM.

  18. An axisymmetric boundary element formulation of sound wave propagation in fluids including viscous and thermal losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutanda-Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2013-11-01

    The formulation presented in this paper is based on the boundary element method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff's decomposition into viscous, thermal, and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses are solved using extended boundary conditions that assume (i) negligible temperature fluctuations at the boundary and (ii) normal and tangential matching of the boundary's particle velocity. The proposed model does not require constructing a special mesh for the viscous and thermal boundary layers as is the case with the existing finite element method (FEM) implementations with losses. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated using an axisymmetrical BEM and two test cases where the numerical results are compared with analytical solutions.

  19. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo;

    2001-01-01

    suited for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularisation is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors. In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov......Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim of the present work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form...

  20. Coupled Finite Element/Boundary Element Analysis of a Vehicle Moving Along a Railway Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2004-01-01

    . In this work, analyses are carried out with the aim of investigating the influence of the track design and properties on the level of ground vibration due to a vehicle moving with subsonic speed. A coupled finite element and boundary element model of the track and subsoil is employed, adopting a formulation......Trains running in build-up areas are a source to ground-borne noise. A careful design of the track structure may be one way of minimizing the vibrations in the surroundings. For example, open or in-filled trenches may be constructed along the track, or the soil underneath the track may be improved...... stiffening?even at low frequencies. However, for high-speed vehicles rubber chip barriers may be a promising means of vibration screening...

  1. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...

  2. Boundary control of parabolic systems - Finite-element approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiecka, I.

    1980-01-01

    The finite element approximation of a Dirichlet type boundary control problem for parabolic systems is considered. An approach based on the direct approximation of an input-output semigroup formula is applied. Error estimates are derived for optimal state and optimal control, and it is noted that these estimates are actually optimal with respect to the approximation theoretic properties.

  3. A Geometrical Approach to the Boundary Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Rjasanow, S

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a geometric formulation of the boundary element method (BEM), using concepts of the discrete electromagnetic theory. Geometric BEM is closely related to Galerkin-BEM and to the generalized collocation scheme. It is easy to implement, accurate, and computationally efficient. We validate our approach with 2-D examples and give an outlook to 3-D results.

  4. The use of discrete orthogonal projections in boundary element methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.

    2001-01-01

    In recent papers by Sloan and Wendland Grigorie and Sloan and Grigorie Sloan and Brandts a formalismwas developed that serves many important and interesting applications in boundary element methods the commutator property for splines Based on superapproximation results this property is for exam

  5. Anisotropic Boundary Layer Adaptivity of Multi-Element Wings

    CERN Document Server

    Chitale, Kedar C; Sahni, Onkar; Shephard, Mark S; Jansen, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element wings are popular in the aerospace community due to their high lift performance. Turbulent flow simulations of these configurations require very fine mesh spacings especially near the walls, thereby making use of a boundary layer mesh necessary. However, it is difficult to accurately determine the required mesh resolution a priori to the simulations. In this paper we use an anisotropic adaptive meshing approach including adaptive control of elements in the boundary layers and study its effectiveness for two multi-element wing configurations. The results are compared with experimental data as well as nested refinements to show the efficiency of adaptivity driven by error indicators, where superior resolution in wakes and near the tip region through adaptivity are highlighted.

  6. PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENOUS RESERVOIRS WITH IMPERMEABILITY BARRIER USING PERTURBATION BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hong-jun; HE Ying-fu; FU Chun-quan

    2005-01-01

    The transient flow mathematical model of arbitrary shaped heterogeneous reservoirs with impermeability barrier is proposed in this paper. In order to establish this model, the perturbation method is employed and the solution of model is expanded into a series in powers of perturbation parameter. By using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and Duhamel principle, wellbore pressure with effects of skins and wellbore storage is obtained. The type curves are plotted and analyzed considering effects of heterogeneity, arbitrary shape and impermeable barriers. Finally, the results obtained by perturbation boundary element method is compared with the analytical solution and is available for the transient pressure analysis of arbitrary shaped reservoirs.

  7. Joint simulation of radiated noise of electric powertrain based on finite element modeling and boundary element method%电动车动力总成辐射噪声有限元和边界元联合仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方源; 章桐; 于蓬; 郭荣

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) performance of automotive powertrain has been an integral part of the vehicle development process. Although electric vehicles are generally considerably quieter than their counterparts powered by internal combustion engines, some problems about NVH still exist, which are becoming more challenging in terms of the future of vehicle. Firstly, the sound only from dominant engine but not from tire, wind or auxiliaries disappears, which consequently becomes increasingly audible due to the removal of the masking sound of broadband engine. Moreover, the interior noise is characterized by high-frequency noise components which can be subjectively perceived as annoying and unpleasant. Thirdly, as the electric vehicle develops toward the direction of high speed and large torque, electric vehicle vibration and noise problems highlight gradually. The subject of this paper is the numerical and experimental evaluation of the acoustic behavior of an electric powertrain, which is helpful for the electric vehicle in the design stage. For this purpose, a co-simulation method based on finite element modeling (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) for the acoustic radiation analysis of an electric powertrain under multi-excitations is presented. The vibration and noise characteristics of electric vehicle are quite different from that of internal combustion engine due to different exciting forces. The calculation of the internal excitations of motor-reducer integrated drive system is the foundation of dynamic analysis. The internal dynamic excitations of a certain electric powertrain in rated revolution are calculated by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation method on the basis of gear dynamics and electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic radial force, electromagnetic tangential force and external circuit in the motor, and the time-varying gear meshing stiffness, meshing error and meshing impact in the gear system

  8. Model Reduction by Manifold Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transtrum, Mark K.; Qiu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the collective behavior of complex systems from their basic components is a difficult yet fundamental problem in science. Existing model reduction techniques are either applicable under limited circumstances or produce “black boxes” disconnected from the microscopic physics. We propose a new approach by translating the model reduction problem for an arbitrary statistical model into a geometric problem of constructing a low-dimensional, submanifold approximation to a high-dimensional manifold. When models are overly complex, we use the observation that the model manifold is bounded with a hierarchy of widths and propose using the boundaries as submanifold approximations. We refer to this approach as the manifold boundary approximation method. We apply this method to several models, including a sum of exponentials, a dynamical systems model of protein signaling, and a generalized Ising model. By focusing on parameters rather than physical degrees of freedom, the approach unifies many other model reduction techniques, such as singular limits, equilibrium approximations, and the renormalization group, while expanding the domain of tractable models. The method produces a series of approximations that decrease the complexity of the model and reveal how microscopic parameters are systematically “compressed” into a few macroscopic degrees of freedom, effectively building a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic descriptions. PMID:25216014

  9. COUPLING OF ASSUMED STRESS FINITE ELEMENT AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS WITH STRESS-TRACTION EQUILIBRIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUZELBEY Ibrahim H.; KANBER Bahattin; AKPOLAT Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the stress based finite element method is coupled with the boundary element method in two different ways. In the first one, the ordinary distribution matrix is used for coupling. In the second one, the stress traction equilibrium is used at the interface line of both regions as a new coupling process. This new coupling procedure is presented without a distribution matrix. Several case studies are solved for the validation of the developed coupling procedure. The results of case studies are compared with the distribution matrix coupling, displacement based finite element method, assumed stress finite element method, boundary element method, ANSYS and analytical results whenever possible. It is shown that the coupling of the stress traction equilibrium with assumed stress finite elements gives as accurate results as those by the distribution matrix coupling.

  10. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    2003-01-01

    Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim in this work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form suited...... for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularization is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors., In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov regularization...... and parameter-choice methods not requiring an error-norm estimate for choosing the right amount of regularization. Several parameter-choice strategies have been presented lately, but it still remains to be seen how well these can handle industrial applications with real measurement data. In the present work...

  11. Geodynamic simulations using the fast multipole boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drombosky, Tyler W.

    Interaction between viscous fluids models two important phenomena in geophysics: (i) the evolution of partially molten rocks, and (ii) the dynamics of Ultralow-Velocity Zones. Previous attempts to numerically model these behaviors have been plagued either by poor resolution at the fluid interfaces or high computational costs. We employ the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method, which tracks the evolution of the fluid interfaces explicitly and is scalable to large problems, to model these systems. The microstructure of partially molten rocks strongly influences the macroscopic physical properties. The fractional area of intergranular contact, contiguity, is a key parameter that controls the elastic strength of the grain network in the partially molten aggregate. We study the influence of matrix deformation on the contiguity of an aggregate by carrying out pure shear and simple shear deformations of an aggregate. We observe that the differential shortening, the normalized difference between the major and minor axes of grains is inversely related to the ratio between the principal components of the contiguity tensor. From the numerical results, we calculate the seismic anisotropy resulting from melt redistribution during pure and simple shear deformation. During deformation, the melt is expelled from tubules along three grain corners to films along grain edges. The initially isotropic fractional area of intergranular contact, contiguity, becomes anisotropic due to deformation. Consequently, the component of contiguity evaluated on the plane parallel to the axis of maximum compressive stress decreases. We demonstrate that the observed global shear wave anisotropy and shear wave speed reduction of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary are best explained by 0.1 vol% partial melt distributed in horizontal films created by deformation. We use our microsimulation in conjunction with a large scale mantle deep Earth simulation to gain insight into the formation of

  12. A finite element-boundary integral method for cavities in a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. However, due to a lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, antenna designers resort to measurement and planar antenna concepts for designing non-planar conformal antennas. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We extend this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this report, we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the shape functions, the resulting finite elements and the boundary integral equations, and the solution of the conformal finite element-boundary integral system. Some validation results are presented and we further show how this formulation can be applied with minimal computational and memory resources.

  13. 8th International Conference on Boundary Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Brebbia, C

    1986-01-01

    The International Conference on Boundary Element Methods in Engineering was started in 1978 with the following objectives: i) To act as a focus for BE research at a time when the technique wasjust emerging as a powerful tool for engineering analysis. ii) To attract new as weIl as established researchers on Boundary Elements, in order to maintain its vitality and originality. iii) To try to relate the Boundary Element Method to other engineering techniques in an effort to help unify the field of engineering analysis, rather than to contribute to its fragmentation. These objectives were achieved during the last 7 conferences and this meeting - the eighth - has continued to be as innovative and dynamic as any ofthe previous conferences. Another important aim ofthe conference is to encourage the participation of researchers from as many different countries as possible and in this regard it is a policy of the organizers to hold the conference in different locations. It is easy to forget when working on scientific ...

  14. Advanced boundary element methods in aeroacoustics and elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li

    In the first part of this dissertation, advanced boundary element methods (BEM) are developed for acoustic radiation in the presence of subsonic flows. A direct boundary integral formulation is first introduced for acoustic radiation in a uniform flow. This new formulation uses the Green's function derived from the adjoint operator of the governing differential equation. Therefore, it requires no coordinate transformation. This direct BEM formulation is then extended to acoustic radiation in a nonuniform-flow field. All the terms due to the nonuniform-flow effect are taken to the right-hand side and treated as source terms. The source terms result in a domain integral in the standard boundary integral formulation. The dual reciprocity method is then used to convert the domain integral into a number of boundary integrals. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the development of advanced BEM algorithms to overcome the multi-frequency and nonuniqueness difficulties in steady-state elastodynamics. For the multi-frequency difficulty, two different interpolation schemes, borrowed from recent developments in acoustics, are first extended to elastodynamics to accelerate the process of matrix re-formation. Then, a hybrid scheme that retains only the merits of the two different interpolation schemes is suggested. To overcome the nonuniqueness difficulty, an enhanced CHIEF (Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation) method using a linear combination of the displacement and the traction boundary integral equations on the surface of a small interior volume is proposed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate all the advanced BEM formulations.

  15. A study on boundary separation in an idealized ocean model

    CERN Document Server

    Düben, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    In numerical ocean models coast lines change the direction from one grid cell to its neighbor and the value for viscosity is set to be as small as possible. Therefore, model simulations are not converged with resolution and boundary separation points differ in essential properties from flow separation in continuous flow fields. In this paper, we investigate the quality of the representation of boundary separation points in global ocean models. To this end, we apply well established criteria for boundary separation within an idealized ocean model setup. We investigate an eddy-resolving as well as a steady test case with idealized and unstructured coast lines in a shallow water model that is based on a finite element discretization method. The results show that well established criteria for separation fail to detect boundary separation points due to an insufficient representation of ocean flows along free-slip boundaries. Along no-slip boundaries, most separation criteria provide adequate results. However, a ve...

  16. Frictional unilateral contact for hemitropic solids in micropolar elasticity and boundary element approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    This contribution deals with unilateral contact problems with Tresca friction (given friction model) in hemitropic mi-cropolar elasticity. Based on a boundary integral approach such problems can be reduced to boundary variational inequalities. This suggests the use of boundary element methods for their numerical treatment. With higher order approximation this leads to a nonconforming approximation what can numerically be realized by means of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature. The contribution is based on the recent papers [7, 8] of the author and on joint work [3] with A. Gachechiladze, R. Gachechi-ladze, and D. Natroshvili.

  17. A new conformal absorbing boundary condition for finite element meshes and parallelization of FEMATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, J. L.; Nguyen, J.; Nurnberger, M.; Ross, D.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the progress toward the development and parallelization of an improved version of the finite element code FEMATS is described. This is a finite element code for computing the scattering by arbitrarily shaped three dimensional surfaces composite scatterers. The following tasks were worked on during the report period: (1) new absorbing boundary conditions (ABC's) for truncating the finite element mesh; (2) mixed mesh termination schemes; (3) hierarchical elements and multigridding; (4) parallelization; and (5) various modeling enhancements (antenna feeds, anisotropy, and higher order GIBC).

  18. Practical application of inverse boundary element method to sound field studies of tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    An approach based on boundary element modelling of sound sources and regularisation techniques was compared with Near-field Acoustical Holography in a study of vibration patterns on a rolling tyre [1]. In the present paper, a further investigation of this Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM......) is done. Emphasis is put on the regularisation process and how to choose an appropriate regularisation parameter in conjunction with the Tikhonov regularisation. This choice is of vital importance when solving a discrete ill-posed problem and a useful solution is sought. Another aspect...... of the reconstruction process is to feed our model of the problem with as much a priori knowledge as possible, e.g. in the sense of known velocity data on some surfaces. In the modelling of the tyre this can be done by imposing a boundary condition to the nodes belonging to the rim structure, where the normal surface...

  19. CALCULATION OF MILL RIGIDITY BY THREE DIMENSION CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vertical rigidity of the space self-adaptive 530 high rigidity mill is calculated by applying the boundary element method (BEM) of three-dimension elastic contact problem,which can update the existed deforming separation calculating theory and corresponding methods of material mechanics,elastic mechanics and finite element method.The method has less hypotheses and stronger synthesis in contact-type calculating model.The advantages of the method are high calculating rate,high calculating accuracy,etc..

  20. An element by element spectral element method for elastic wave modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WANG Xiuming; ZHANG Hailan

    2006-01-01

    The spectral element method which combines the advantages of spectral method with those of finite element method,provides an efficient tool in simulating elastic wave equation in complex medium. Based on weak form of elastodynamic equations, mathematical formulations for Legendre spectral element method are presented. The wave field on an element is discretized using high-order Lagrange interpolation, and integration over the element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. This results in a diagonal mass matrix which leads to a greatly simplified algorithm. In addition, the element by element technique is introduced in our method to reduce the memory sizes and improve the computation efficiency. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy and the efficiency. Because of combinations of the finite element scheme and spectral algorithms, this method can be used for complex models, including free surface boundaries and strong heterogeneity.

  1. Telomerase RNA stem terminus element affects template boundary element function, telomere sequence, and shelterin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A

    2015-09-08

    The stem terminus element (STE), which was discovered 13 y ago in human telomerase RNA, is required for telomerase activity, yet its mode of action is unknown. We report that the Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomerase RNA, TER1 (telomerase RNA 1), also contains a STE, which is essential for telomere maintenance. Cells expressing a partial loss-of-function TER1 STE allele maintained short stable telomeres by a recombination-independent mechanism. Remarkably, the mutant telomere sequence was different from that of wild-type cells. Generation of the altered sequence is explained by reverse transcription into the template boundary element, demonstrating that the STE helps maintain template boundary element function. The altered telomeres bound less Pot1 (protection of telomeres 1) and Taz1 (telomere-associated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe 1) in vivo. Thus, the S. pombe STE, although distant from the template, ensures proper telomere sequence, which in turn promotes proper assembly of the shelterin complex.

  2. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Grain-Boundary Fracture: Cohesive Zone Models Parameterized From Atomistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale modeling strategy is developed to study grain boundary fracture in polycrystalline aluminum. Atomistic simulation is used to model fundamental nanoscale deformation and fracture mechanisms and to develop a constitutive relationship for separation along a grain boundary interface. The nanoscale constitutive relationship is then parameterized within a cohesive zone model to represent variations in grain boundary properties. These variations arise from the presence of vacancies, intersticies, and other defects in addition to deviations in grain boundary angle from the baseline configuration considered in the molecular dynamics simulation. The parameterized cohesive zone models are then used to model grain boundaries within finite element analyses of aluminum polycrystals.

  4. A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This was due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays. As a result, the design of conformal arrays was primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We are extending this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In doing so, we will develop a mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation. It is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements.

  5. Petrov-Galerkin Spectral Element Method for Mixed Inhomogeneous Boundary Value Problems on Polygons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli JIA; Benyu GUO

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigate Petrov-Galerkin spectral element method.Some results on Legendre irrational quasi-orthogonal approximations are established,which play important roles in Petrov-Galerkin spectral element method for mixed inhomogeneous boundary value problems of partial differential equations defined on polygons.As examples of applications,spectral element methods for two model problems,with the spectral accuracy in certain Jacobi weighted Sobolev spaces,are proposed.The techniques developed in this paper are also applicable to other higher order methods.

  6. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  7. Three dimensional boundary element solutions for eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Jiming; Nakagawa, Norio

    2014-02-01

    The boundary integral equations (BIE) method is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations. It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromagnetics, and fracture mechanics. The eddy current problem is formulated by the BIE and discretized into matrix equations by the method of moments (MoM) or the boundary element method (BEM). The three dimensional arbitrarily shaped objects are described by a number of triangular patches. The Stratton-Chu formulation is specialized for the conductive medium. The equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents are expanded in terms of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) vector basis function while the normal component of magnetic field is expanded in terms of the pulse basis function. Also, a low frequency approximation is applied in the external medium. Additionally, we introduce Auld's impedance formulas to calculate impedance variation. There are very good agreements between numerical results and those from theory and/or experiments for a finite cross-section above a wedge.

  8. Numerical Improvement of The Three-dimensional Boundary Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Gil-Zepeda, A.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Luzon-Martinez, F.

    2001-12-01

    Boundary element methods have been applied to calculate the seismic response of various types of geological structures. Dimensionality reduction and a relatively easy fulfillment of radiation conditions at infinity are recognized advantages over domain approaches. Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) formulations give rise to large systems of equations, and the considerable amount of operations required for solving them suggest the possibility of getting some benefit from exploitation of sparsity patterns. In this article, a brief study on the structure of the linear systems derived from the IBEM method is carried out. Applicability of a matrix static condensation algorithm to the inversion of the IBEM coefficient matrix is explored, in order to optimize the numerical burden of such method. Seismic response of a 3-D alluvial valley of irregular shape, as originally proposed by Sánchez-Sesma and Luzon (1995), was computed and comparisons on time consumption and memory allocation are established. An alternative way to deal with those linear systems is the use of threshold criteria for the truncation of the coefficient matrix, which implies the solution of sparse approximations instead of the original full IBEM systems (Ortiz-Aleman et al., 1998). Performance of this optimized approach is evaluated on its application to the case of a three-dimensional alluvial basin with irregular shape. Transfer functions were calculated for the frequency range from 0 to 1.25 Hz. Inversion of linear systems by using this algorithm lead to significant saving on computer time and memory allocation relative to the original IBEM formulation. Results represent an extension in the range of application of the IBEM method.

  9. Automatic generation of 2D micromechanical finite element model of silicon–carbide/aluminum metal matrix composites: Effects of the boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations of the deformation and damage evolution of Silicon–Carbide (SiC) particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite including interphase are carried out for different microstructures and particle volume fractions of the composites. A program is developed...

  10. Boundary correlators in supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V.

    2008-04-15

    We investigate correlation functions for maximally symmetric boundary conditions in the WZNW model on GL(11). Special attention is payed to volume filling branes. Generalizing earlier ideas for the bulk sector, we set up a Kac-Wakimotolike formalism for the boundary model. This first order formalism is then used to calculate bulk-boundary 2-point functions and the boundary 3-point functions of the model. The note ends with a few comments on correlation functions of atypical fields, point-like branes and generalizations to other supergroups. (orig.)

  11. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUPLING ANALYSIS OF MEMS STRUCTURES BY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kai; Cui Yunjun; Xiong Chunyang; Wang Congshun; Fang Jing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of Boundary Element Method (BEM)to simulate the electro-mechanical coupling responses of Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems (MEMS).The algorithm is programmed in our research group based on BEM modeling for electrostatics and elastostatics. Good agreement is shown while the simulation results of the pull-in voltages are compared with the theoretical/experimental ones for some examples.

  12. A numerical model of stress driven grain boundary diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethian, J. A.; Wilkening, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The stress driven grain boundary diffusion problem is a continuum model of mass transport phenomena in microelectronic circuits due to high current densities (electromigration) and gradients in normal stress along grain boundaries. The model involves coupling many different equations and phenomena, and difficulties such as non-locality, stiffness, complex geometry, and singularities in the stress tensor near corners and junctions make the problem difficult to analyze rigorously and simulate numerically. We present a new numerical approach to this problem using techniques from semigroup theory to represent the solution. The generator of this semigroup is the composition of a type of Dirichlet to Neumann map on the grain boundary network with the Laplace operator on the network. To compute the former, we solve the equations of linear elasticity several times, once for each basis function on the grain boundary. We resolve singularities in the stress field near corners and junctions by adjoining special singular basis functions to both finite element spaces (2d for elasticity, 1d for grain boundary functions). We develop data structures to handle jump discontinuities in displacement across grain boundaries, singularities in the stress field, complicated boundary conditions at junctions and interfaces, and the lack of a natural ordering for the nodes on a branching grain boundary network. The method is used to study grain boundary diffusion for several geometries.

  13. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL BOUNDARY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guangle; WANG Huanchen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the problems of modeling and analyzing the system with change able boundary are researched. First, a kind of expanding system is set up, in which the changeable boundary is dealt with as a regional boundary. Then some relative models are developed to describe the regional boundary system. Next, the transition or the driftage of bifurcation points in the system is discussed. A fascinating case is studied in which two or more than two classes of chaotic attractive points coexist together or exist alternatively in the same system. Lastly, an effective new method of chaos avoidance for the system is put forward.

  14. Boundary scattering in the phi^4 model

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, Patrick; Mercer, James; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz; Shnir, Yasha

    2015-01-01

    We study boundary scattering in the phi^4 model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state.

  15. Lubrication approximation in completed double layer boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, S.; Phan-Thien, N.; Fan, X.-J.

    This paper reports on the results of the numerical simulation of the motion of solid spherical particles in shear Stokes flows. Using the completed double layer boundary element method (CDLBEM) via distributed computing under Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), the effective viscosity of suspension has been calculated for a finite number of spheres in a cubic array, or in a random configuration. In the simulation presented here, the short range interactions via lubrication forces are also taken into account, via the range completer in the formulation, whenever the gap between two neighbouring particles is closer than a critical gap. The results for particles in a simple cubic array agree with the results of Nunan and Keller (1984) and Stoksian Dynamics of Brady etal. (1988). To evaluate the lubrication forces between particles in a random configuration, a critical gap of 0.2 of particle's radius is suggested and the results are tested against the experimental data of Thomas (1965) and empirical equation of Krieger-Dougherty (Krieger, 1972). Finally, the quasi-steady trajectories are obtained for time-varying configuration of 125 particles.

  16. Novel TMS coils designed using an inverse boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos Sánchez, Clemente; María Guerrero Rodriguez, Jose; Quirós Olozábal, Ángel; Blanco-Navarro, David

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new method to design TMS coils is presented. It is based on the inclusion of the concept of stream function of a quasi-static electric current into a boundary element method. The proposed TMS coil design approach is a powerful technique to produce stimulators of arbitrary shape, and remarkably versatile as it permits the prototyping of many different performance requirements and constraints. To illustrate the power of this approach, it has been used for the design of TMS coils wound on rectangular flat, spherical and hemispherical surfaces, subjected to different constraints, such as minimum stored magnetic energy or power dissipation. The performances of such coils have been additionally described; and the torque experienced by each stimulator in the presence of a main magnetic static field have theoretically found in order to study the prospect of using them to perform TMS and fMRI concurrently. The obtained results show that described method is an efficient tool for the design of TMS stimulators, which can be applied to a wide range of coil geometries and performance requirements.

  17. A Matlab library for solving quasi-static volume conduction problems using the boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, M; Mäntynen, V; Nenonen, J

    2007-12-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is commonly used in the modeling of bioelectromagnetic phenomena. The Matlab language is increasingly popular among students and researchers, but there is no free, easy-to-use Matlab library for boundary element computations. We present a hands-on, freely available Matlab BEM source code for solving bioelectromagnetic volume conduction problems and any (quasi-)static potential problems that obey the Laplace equation. The basic principle of the BEM is presented and discretization of the surface integral equation for electric potential is worked through in detail. Contents and design of the library are described, and results of example computations in spherical volume conductors are validated against analytical solutions. Three application examples are also presented. Further information, source code for application examples, and information on obtaining the library are available in the WWW-page of the library: (http://biomed.tkk.fi/BEM).

  18. An edge element approach for dynamic micromagnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottauscio, O.; Chiampi, M.; Manzin, A.

    2008-04-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional dynamic micromagnetic model, based on the Galerkin weak formulation, reconstructing magnetization by finite element edge vector shape functions. The demagnetizing filed is computed using a hybrid finite element boundary element method. The procedure is compared to analytical formulas and simulations performed with the NIST/OOMMF code, focusing on damping and precessional switching in magnetic thin films.

  19. Acoustic analysis of lightweight auto-body based on finite element method and boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xinhua; ZHU Ping; LIN Zhongqin; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A lightweight automotive prototype using alter- native materials and gauge thickness is studied by a numeri- cal method. The noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance is the main target of this study. In the range of 1-150 Hz, the frequency response function (FRF) of the body structure is calculated by a finite element method (FEM) to get the dynamic behavior of the auto-body structure. The pressure response of the interior acoustic domain is solved by a boundary element method (BEM). To find the most contrib- uting panel to the inner sound pressure, the panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is performed. Finally, the most contributing panel is located and the resulting structural optimization is found to be more efficient.

  20. Application of scaled boundary finite element method in static and dynamic fracture problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang

    2006-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a recently developed numerical method combining advantages of both finite element methods (FEM)and boundary element methods (BEM) and with its own special features as well. One of the most prominent advantages is its capability of calculating stress intensity factors (SIFs) directly from the stress solutions whose singularities at crack tips are analytically represented. This advantage is taken in this study to model static and dynamic fracture problems. For static problems, a remeshing algorithm as simple as used in the BEM is developed while retaining the generality and flexibility of the FEM. Fully-automatic modelling of the mixed-mode crack propagation is then realised by combining the remeshing algorithm with a propagation criterion.F0r dynamic fracture problems, a newly developed series-increasing solution to the SBFEM governing equations in the frequency domain is applied to calculate dynamic SIFs. Three plane problems are modelled. The numerical results show that the SBFEM can accurately predict static and dynamic SIFs, cracking paths and load-displacement curves, using only a fraction of degrees of freedom generally needed by the traditional finite element methods.

  1. Noise source localization on tyres using an inverse boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Saemann, E-U; Hald, J

    1998-01-01

    A dominating part of tyre noise is radiated from a region close to the tyre/road contact patch, where it is very difficult to measure both the tyre vibration and the acoustic near field. The approach taken in the present paper is to model the tyre and road surfaces with a Boundary Element Model...... (BEM), with unknown node vibration data on the tyre surface. The BEM model is used to calculate a set of transfer functions from the node vibrations to the sound pressure at a set of microphone positions around the tyre. By approximate inversion of the matrix of transfer functions, the surface...

  2. A combined application of boundary-element and Runge-Kutta methods in three-dimensional elasticity and poroelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igumnov Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.

  3. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  5. Topological structures of boundary value problems in block elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-10-01

    Block structures are considered; a boundary value problem for a system of inhomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients is formulated in each block of a structure. The problem of matching solutions to boundary value problems in blocks with each other by topological study of the properties of solutions in the block structure is examined in the conditions of correct solvability of boundary value problems in blocks of the block structure. Some new properties of solutions to boundary value problems in block structures are found that are important for applications.

  6. Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eliáš

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson’s ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 2D FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-zhong; ZHENG Xiao-ping; YAO Zhen-han

    2005-01-01

    The boundary element method was improved for the 2D elastic composites with randomly distributed inclusions. This problem can be reduced to a boundary integral equation for a multi-connected domain. Further, considering the matrices of the tractions and displacements for each group of the identical inclusion were the same, an effective computational scheme was designed, since the orders of the resulting matrix equations can be greatly reduced. Numerical examples indicate that this boundary element method scheme is more effective than the conventional multi-domain boundary element method for such a problem. The present scheme can be used to investigate the effective mechanical properties of the fiber-reinforced composites.

  8. New Boundaries for the B-Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Witten couples the open topological B-model to a holomorphic vector bundle by adding to the boundary of the worldsheet a Wilson loop for an integrable connection on the bundle. Using the descent procedure for boundary vertex operators in this context, I generalize this construction to write a worldsheet coupling for a graded vector bundle with an integrable superconnection. I then compute the open string vertex operators between two such boundaries. A theorem of J. Block gives that this is equivalent to coupling the B-model to an arbitrary object in the derived category.

  9. Seismic wave propagation in non-homogeneous elastic media by boundary elements

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George D; Rangelov, Tsviatko V; Wuttke, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both ...

  10. Solving forward and inverse seismic problems by boundary-element method in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianxi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Solving the boundary value problem of wave equation by boundary element method in frequency domain involves these steps: 1. ID Fourier transform of time variable is made to convert the wave equation into Helmholtz equation; 2. this equation is then solved using boundary-element method in frequency domain; 3. the result is returned to time domain by making inverse Fourier transform. Compared with other formulas, the formula in this paper brings higher accuracy but less computation.

  11. A practical guide to boundary element methods with the software library BEMLIB

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2002-01-01

    LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN ONE DIMENSIONGreen's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal Relation Green's FunctionsBoundary-Value Representation Boundary-Value EquationLAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONS Green's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal RelationGreen's Functions Integral Representation Integral Equations Hypersingular Integrals Irrotational FlowGeneralized Single- and Double-Layer Representations BOUNDARY-ELEMENT METHODS FOR LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONSBoundary Element Discretization .Discretization of

  12. A rigid surface boundary element for soil-structure interaction analysis in the direct time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, D. C.

    Many soil-structure interaction problems involve studies of single or multiple rigid bodies of arbitrary shape and soil media. The commonly used boundary element methods implement the equations of the rigid body in a form that depends on the particulars of the geometry and requires partitioning and condensation of the associated algebraic system of equations. The present work employs the direct time domain B-Spline BEM for 3D elastodynamic analysis and presents an efficient implementation of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape in contact with, or embedded in, elastic media. The formulation of a rigid surface boundary element introduced herein is suitable for direct superposition in the BEM system of algebraic equations. Consequently, solutions are computed in a single analysis step, eliminating, thus, the need for partitioning of the system of equations. Computational efficiency is also achieved due to the extremely sparse form of the associated coefficient matrices. The proposed element can be used for the modeling of single or multiple rigid bodies of arbitrary shape within the framework of the BEM method. The efficiency and general nature of the proposed element is demonstrated through applications related to the dynamic analysis of rigid surface and embedded foundations and their interaction with embedded rigid bodies of arbitrary shape.

  13. Element-Based Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Mueller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A variation on the data-flow model is proposed to use for developing parallel architectures. While the model is a data driven model it has significant differences to the data-flow model. The proposed model has an evaluation cycleof processing elements (encapsulated data that is similar to the instruction cycle of the von Neumann model. The elements contain the information required to process them. The model is inherently parallel. An emulation of the model has been implemented. The objective of this paper is to motivate support for taking the research further. Using matrix multiplication as a case study, the element/data-flow based model is compared with the instruction-based model. This is done using complexity analysis followed by empirical testing to verify this analysis. The positive results are given as motivation for the research to be taken to the next stage - that is, implementing the model using FPGAs.

  14. Logarithmic Minimal Models with Robin Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Tartaglia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We consider general logarithmic minimal models ${\\cal LM}(p,p')$, with $p,p'$ coprime, on a strip of $N$ columns with the $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions introduced by Pearce, Rasmussen and Tipunin. The associated conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the Kac labels $r\\in{\\Bbb Z}$ and $s\\in{\\Bbb N}$. The Robin vacuum boundary condition, labelled by $(r,s\\!-\\!\\frac{1}{2})=(0,\\mbox{$\\textstyle \\frac{1}{2}$})$, is given as a linear combination of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The general $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions are constructed, using fusion, by acting on the Robin vacuum boundary with an $(r,s)$-type seam consisting of an $r$-type seam of width $w$ columns and an $s$-type seam of width $d=s-1$ columns. The $r$-type seam admits an arbitrary boundary field which we fix to the special value $\\xi=-\\tfrac{\\lambda}{2}$ where $\\lambda=\\frac{(p'-p)\\pi}{2p'}$ is the crossing parameter. The $s$-type boundary introduces $d$ defects into the bulk. We consider the associated quantum Hamiltoni...

  15. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2014-01-01

    both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations......A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...... are done using different boundary conditions in order to investigate the influence of phase shifts in reflections, the angle dependence of the reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient. The focus of the simulations is to investigate the influence of the boundary condition on room acoustic...

  16. A new interface element for connecting independently modeled substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.

    1993-01-01

    A new interface element based on the hybrid variational formulation is presented and demonstrated. The element provides a means of connecting independently modeled substructures whose nodes along the common boundary need not be coincident. The interface element extends previous work to include connecting an arbitrary number of substructures, the use of closed and generally curved interfaces, and the use of multiple, possibly nested, interfaces. Several applications of the element are presented and aspects of the implementation are discussed.

  17. A direct mixed-body boundary element method for packed silencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T W; Cheng, C Y R; Zhang, P

    2002-06-01

    Bulk-reacting sound absorbing materials are often used in packed silencers to reduce broadband noise. A bulk-reacting material is characterized by a complex mean density and a complex speed of sound. These two material properties can be measured by the two-cavity method or calculated by empirical formulas. Modeling the entire silencer domain with a bulk-reacting lining will involve two different acoustic media, air and the bulk-reacting material. Traditionally, the interior silencer domain is divided into different zones and a multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) may be applied to solve the problem. However, defining different zones and matching the elements along each interface is tedious, especially when the zones are intricately connected. In this paper, a direct mixed-body boundary element method is used to model a packed silencer without subdividing it into different zones. This is achieved by summing up all the integral equations in different zones and then adding the hypersingular integral equations at interfaces. Several test cases, including a packed expansion chamber with and without an absorbing center bullet, and a parallel baffle silencer, are studied. Numerical results for the prediction of transmission loss (TL) are compared to experimental data.

  18. Interpretation of horizontal well performance in complicated systems by the boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongkittinarukorn, K.; Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering (United States); Escobar, F. H. [Surcolombiana Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    A solution obtained by using the boundary element method to simulate pressure behaviour of horizontal wells in complicated reservoir-wellbore configurations is presented. Three different types of well bore and reservoir models were studied, i.e. a snake-shaped horizontal wellbore intersecting a two-layer reservoir with cross flow, a horizontal well in a three-layer reservoir with cross flow, and a vertical well intersecting a two-layer reservoir without cross flow. In each case, special attention was paid to the influence of wellbore inclination angle, the distance from the wellbore to the different boundaries and the permeability ratio. Performance of each of these types of wells are discussed. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  19. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  20. Electronic Theoretical Study of the Interaction between Rare Earth Elements and Impurities at Grain Boundaries in Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵立; 张国英; 李荣德

    2003-01-01

    The model of dislocations was used to construct the model of grain boundary (GB) with pure rare earths, and rare earth elements and impurities. The influence of the interaction between rare earth elements and impurities on the cohesive properties of 5.3° low angle GB of Fe was investigated by the recursion method. The calculated results of environment sensitive embeding energy(EESE) show that the preferential segregation of rare earth elements towards GBs exists. Calculations of bond order integrals (BOI) show that rare earth elements increase the cohesive strength of low angle GB, and impurities such as S, P weaken the intergranular cohesion of the GB. So rare earth element of proper quantity added in steel not only cleanses other harmful impurities off the GBs, but also enhances the intergranular cohesion. This elucidates the action mechanism of rare earth elements in steel from electronic level and offers theoretical evidence for applications of rare earth elements in steels.

  1. The Boundary Element Method Applied to the Two Dimensional Stefan Moving Boundary Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    iterate 12 times to reach :34 BOUNDARY TIME EVOLUION Figure 3.4. Fixed Boundary Time Evolution ’onvergence in the successive approximation. The squares...memory requirements of the code, especially if more intricate geometries are to be considered. If fast conmput.- ing resources are not available, the

  2. An Investigation of the Indirect Boundary Element Method in One- and Two-Dimensional Elastostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Editors. Development in boundary element methods - 1. London, England, Applied Sciences Publishers Ltd., 1979. 6. G. Arfken . Mathematical methods for...FD-R133 142 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE INDIRECT BOUNDARY ELEMENT 112 METHOD IN ONE- AND TWO-..(U) NAVAL CIVIL ENGINEERING LAB PORT HUENEME CA T A SHUGAR...BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD IN ONE- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATICS LDTIW AUTHOR: T.A. Shugar and J. V. Cox S E CTE !& S3 0 1983M DATE: May 1983 B SPONSOR

  3. Multireflection boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; d'Humières, Dominique

    2003-12-01

    We present a general framework for several previously introduced boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models, such as the bounce-back rule and the linear and quadratic interpolations. The objectives are twofold: first to give theoretical tools to study the existing link-type boundary conditions and their corresponding accuracy; second to design boundary conditions for general flows which are third-order kinetic accurate. Using these new boundary conditions, Couette and Poiseuille flows are exact solutions of the lattice Boltzmann models for a Reynolds number Re=0 (Stokes limit) for arbitrary inclination with the lattice directions. Numerical comparisons are given for Stokes flows in periodic arrays of spheres and cylinders, linear periodic array of cylinders between moving plates, and for Navier-Stokes flows in periodic arrays of cylinders for Re<200. These results show a significant improvement of the overall accuracy when using the linear interpolations instead of the bounce-back reflection (up to an order of magnitude on the hydrodynamics fields). Further improvement is achieved with the new multireflection boundary conditions, reaching a level of accuracy close to the quasianalytical reference solutions, even for rather modest grid resolutions and few points in the narrowest channels. More important, the pressure and velocity fields in the vicinity of the obstacles are much smoother with multireflection than with the other boundary conditions. Finally the good stability of these schemes is highlighted by some simulations of moving obstacles: a cylinder between flat walls and a sphere in a cylinder.

  4. Crack propagation analysis of welded thin-walled joints using boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiri, F. R.; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Grundy, P.

    Tube-to-plate nodal joints under cyclic bending are widely used in the road transport and agricultural industry. The square hollow sections (SHS) used in these constructions are thin-walled and cold formed, and they have thicknesses of less than 4mm. Some fatigue failures have been observed. The weld undercut may affect the fatigue life of welded tubular joints especially for thin-walled sections. The undercut dimensions were measured using the silicon imprint technique. Modelling of thin-walled cruciform joints, as a simplification of welded tubular joints, is described in this paper to determine the effect of weld undercut on fatigue propagation life. The Boundary Element Analysis System Software (BEASY) is used. The results of the effect of weld toe undercut from this analysis are compared with results from previous research to determine the comparative reduction in fatigue life between thin-walled joints (T=3mm) and those made of thicker sections (T=20mm). The loss in fatigue strength of the thin-walled joints is found to be relatively more than that for thicker walled joints. A 3D model of a tube to plate T-joint is also modelled using the boundary element software, BEASY. The nodal joint consists of a square hollow section, 50×50×3 SHS, fillet welded to a 10-mm thick plate, and subjected to cyclic bending stress. Fatigue analyses are carried out and the results are compared with the only available S-N design curve.

  5. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  6. Recursive Determination for Effect of Alloying Element on Impurity Induced Low Angle Grain Boundary Embrittlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of alloying element (Ni, Co, Mn) on P doped Fe 5.3° low angle grain boundary (GB) embrittlement was investigated by the Recursion method. The model of dislocations was used to construct the atomic structure for the P doped GB. The result indicated that the role of impurity and alloying element segregation to GB can be studied with BOI and the difference between their segregation energies at GB and at free surface (FS) (ΔE=Egbseg-Efsseg). The BOI results showed that P leads the “loosening” of the 5.3° low angle GB and decreases the cohesion strength of P doped GB when the alloying element (Ni, Co, or Mn) is added into the P doped 5.3° low angle GB. The ΔE value reveals that the alloying element Ni, Co and Mn have higher energy at P doped 5.3° low angle GB, indicating it serves as a GB embrittler. The BOI results and ΔE calculation were comparable with each other, and they are also consistent with the experimental results, which confirm the embrittling effect of alloying element (Ni, Co, Mn) on P-induced GB embrittlement.

  7. COUPLING OF FINITE ELEMENT AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS FOR THE SCATTERING BY PERIODIC CHIRAL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habib Ammari; Gang Bao

    2008-01-01

    Consider a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on a biperiodic structure in R3. The periodic structure separates two homogeneous regions. The medium inside the structure is chiral and nonhomogeneous. In this paper, variational formulations coupling finite element methods in the chiral medium with a method of integral equations on the periodic interfaces are studied. The well-posedness of the continuous and discretized problems is established. Uniform convergence for the coupling variational approximations of the model problem is obtained.

  8. Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  9. Physical model of Nernst element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki [Venture Business Lab., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    1998-08-01

    Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)

  10. An adaptive scaled boundary finite element method by subdividing subdomains for elastodynamic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method(SBFEM) is a semi-analytical numerical method,which models an analysis domain by a small number of large-sized subdomains and discretises subdomain boundaries only.In a subdomain,all fields of state variables including displacement,stress,velocity and acceleration are semi-analytical,and the kinetic energy,strain energy and energy error are all integrated semi-analytically.These advantages are taken in this study to develop a posteriori h-hierarchical adaptive SBFEM for transient elastodynamic problems using a mesh refinement procedure which subdivides subdomains.Because only a small number of subdomains are subdivided,mesh refinement is very simple and efficient,and mesh mapping to transfer state variables from an old mesh to a new one is also very simple but accurate.Two 2D examples with stress wave propagation were modelled.The results show that the developed method is capable of capturing propagation of steep stress regions and calculating accurate dynamic responses,using only a fraction of degrees of freedom required by adaptive finite element method.

  11. Nonlinear nonuniform torsional vibrations of bars by the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper a boundary element method is developed for the nonuniform torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross-section taking into account the effect of geometrical nonlinearity. The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated conservative dynamic twisting and warping moments along its length, while its edges are supported by the most general torsional boundary conditions. The transverse displacement components are expressed so as to be valid for large twisting rotations (finite displacement-small strain theory), thus the arising governing differential equations and boundary conditions are in general nonlinear. The resulting coupling effect between twisting and axial displacement components is considered and torsional vibration analysis is performed in both the torsional pre- or post-buckled state. A distributed mass model system is employed, taking into account the warping, rotatory and axial inertia, leading to the formulation of a coupled nonlinear initial boundary value problem with respect to the variable along the bar angle of twist and to an "average" axial displacement of the cross-section of the bar. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed using the analog equation method, a BEM based method, leading to a system of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations (DAE), which is solved using an efficient time discretization scheme. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated with respect to the fundamental mode shape at the points of reversal of motion after ignoring the axial inertia to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The problem is solved using the direct iteration technique (DIT), with a geometrically linear fundamental mode shape as a starting vector. The validity of negligible axial inertia assumption is examined for the problem at hand.

  12. An axisymmetric boundary element formulation of sound wave propagation in fluids including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2013-01-01

    The formulation presented in this paper is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff’s decomposition into viscous, thermal and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses ar...

  13. The interaction between membrane structure and wind based on the discontinuous boundary element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Small disturbance potential theory is widely used in solving aerodynamic problems with low Mach numbers, and it plays an important role in engineering design. Concerning structure wind engineering, the body of the structure is in a low velocity wind field, with a low viscosity of air and thin boundary layer, therefore, the tiny shear stress caused by the boundary layer can be ignored, only wind pressure being considered. In this paper, based on small disturbance potential theory, the fluid-structure interaction between the wind and membrane structure is analyzed by joint utilization of the boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) through a loose-coupling procedure. However, the boundary of flow field to be calculated is not fully smooth, corners and edges still exist, so the discontinuous boundary element is introduced. Furthermore, because a large scale boundary element equation set with a nonsymmetrical coefficient matrix must be solved, this paper imports a preconditioning GMRES (the generalized minimum residual) iterative algorithm, which takes full advantage of the boundary element method. Several calculation examples have verified the correctness and soundness of the treatments mentioned above.

  14. Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Modeling and Parameterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we deal with the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for modeling studies of weather, climate, and air quality. As such we review the major characteristics of the ABL, and summarize the basic parameterizations for the description of atmospheric turbulence and

  15. Quantifying trace element and isotope fluxes at the ocean-sediment boundary: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoky, William B.; Weber, Thomas; Berelson, William M.; Conway, Tim M.; Henderson, Gideon M.; van Hulten, Marco; Jeandel, Catherine; Severmann, Silke; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying fluxes of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) at the ocean's sediment-water boundary is a pre-eminent challenge to understand their role in the present, past and future ocean. There are multiple processes that drive the uptake and release of TEIs, and properties that determine their rates are unevenly distributed (e.g. sediment composition, redox conditions and (bio)physical dynamics). These factors complicate our efforts to find, measure and extrapolate TEI fluxes across ocean basins. GEOTRACES observations are unveiling the oceanic distributions of many TEIs for the first time. These data evidence the influence of the sediment-water boundary on many TEI cycles, and underline the fact that our knowledge of the source-sink fluxes that sustain oceanic distributions is largely missing. Present flux measurements provide low spatial coverage and only part of the empirical basis needed to predict TEI flux variations. Many of the advances and present challenges facing TEI flux measurements are linked to process studies that collect sediment cores, pore waters, sinking material or seawater in close contact with sediments. However, such sampling has not routinely been viable on GEOTRACES expeditions. In this article, we recommend approaches to address these issues: firstly, with an interrogation of emergent data using isotopic mass-balance and inverse modelling techniques; and secondly, by innovating pursuits of direct TEI flux measurements. We exemplify the value of GEOTRACES data with a new inverse model estimate of benthic Al flux in the North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, we review viable flux measurement techniques tailored to the sediment-water boundary. We propose that such activities are aimed at regions that intersect the GEOTRACES Science Plan on the basis of seven criteria that may influence TEI fluxes: sediment provenance, composition, organic carbon supply, redox conditions, sedimentation rate, bathymetry and the benthic nepheloid inventory

  16. Quantifying trace element and isotope fluxes at the ocean–sediment boundary: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, William M.; Severmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying fluxes of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) at the ocean's sediment–water boundary is a pre-eminent challenge to understand their role in the present, past and future ocean. There are multiple processes that drive the uptake and release of TEIs, and properties that determine their rates are unevenly distributed (e.g. sediment composition, redox conditions and (bio)physical dynamics). These factors complicate our efforts to find, measure and extrapolate TEI fluxes across ocean basins. GEOTRACES observations are unveiling the oceanic distributions of many TEIs for the first time. These data evidence the influence of the sediment–water boundary on many TEI cycles, and underline the fact that our knowledge of the source–sink fluxes that sustain oceanic distributions is largely missing. Present flux measurements provide low spatial coverage and only part of the empirical basis needed to predict TEI flux variations. Many of the advances and present challenges facing TEI flux measurements are linked to process studies that collect sediment cores, pore waters, sinking material or seawater in close contact with sediments. However, such sampling has not routinely been viable on GEOTRACES expeditions. In this article, we recommend approaches to address these issues: firstly, with an interrogation of emergent data using isotopic mass-balance and inverse modelling techniques; and secondly, by innovating pursuits of direct TEI flux measurements. We exemplify the value of GEOTRACES data with a new inverse model estimate of benthic Al flux in the North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, we review viable flux measurement techniques tailored to the sediment–water boundary. We propose that such activities are aimed at regions that intersect the GEOTRACES Science Plan on the basis of seven criteria that may influence TEI fluxes: sediment provenance, composition, organic carbon supply, redox conditions, sedimentation rate, bathymetry and the benthic nepheloid

  17. Scaled Boundary Finite Element Analysis of Wave Passing A Submerged Breakwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a novel semi-analytical technique combining the advantage of the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM) with its unique properties. In this paper, the SBFEM is used for computing wave passing submerged breakwaters, and the reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient are given for the case of wave passing by a rectangular submerged breakwater, a rigid submerged barrier breakwater and a trapezium submerged breakwater in a constant water depth. The results are compared with the analytical solution and experimental results. Good agreement is obtained. Through comparison with the results using the dual boundary element method (DBEM), it is found that the SBFEM can obtain higher accuracy with fewer elements. Many submerged breakwaters with different dimensions are computed by the SBFEM, and the changing character of the reflection coefficient and the transmission coefficient are given in the current study.

  18. BOUNDARY ELEMENT APPROXIMATION OF THE SEMI-DISCRETE PARABOLIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES OF THE SECOND KIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Rui; Jiang Meiqun; Peng Daping

    2005-01-01

    The boundary element approximation of the parabolic variational inequalities of the second kind is discussed. First, the parabolic variational inequalities of the second kind can be reduced to an elliptic variational inequality by using semidiscretization and implicit method in time; then the existence and uniqueness for the solution of nonlinear non-differentiable mixed variational inequality is discussed. Its corresponding mixed boundary variational inequality and the existence and uniqueness of its solution are yielded. This provides the theoretical basis for using boundary element method to solve the mixed variational inequality.

  19. Acoustic scattering for 3D multi-directional periodic structures using the boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahmoud; Croaker, Paul; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    An efficient boundary element formulation is proposed to solve three-dimensional exterior acoustic scattering problems with multi-directional periodicity. The multi-directional periodic acoustic problem is represented as a multilevel block Toeplitz matrix. By exploiting the Toeplitz structure, the computational time and storage requirements to construct and to solve the linear system of equations arising from the boundary element formulation are significantly reduced. The generalized minimal residual method is implemented to solve the linear system of equations. To efficiently calculate the matrix-vector product in the iterative algorithm, the original matrix is embedded into a multilevel block circulant matrix. A multi-dimensional discrete Fourier transform is then employed to accelerate the matrix-vector product. The proposed approach is applicable to a periodic acoustic problem for any arbitrary shape of the structure in both full space and half space. Two case studies involving sonic crystal barriers are presented. In the first case study, a sonic crystal barrier comprising rigid cylindrical scatterers is modeled. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, periodicity in one, two, or three directions is examined. In the second case study, the acoustic performance of a sonic crystal barrier with locally resonant C-shaped scatterers is studied.

  20. Boundary Element Method with Non—overlapping Domain Decomposition for Diffusion Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJialin; ZHANGTaiping

    2002-01-01

    A boundary element method based on non-overlapping domain decomposition method to solve the time-dependent diffusion equations is presented.The time-dependent fundamental solution is used in the formulation of boundary integrals and the time integratioin process always restarts from the initial time condition.The process of replacing the interface values,which needs a summation of boundary integrals related to the boundary values at previous time steps can be treated in parallel parallel iterative procedure,Numerical experiments demonstrate that the implementation of the present alogrithm is efficient.

  1. An interpolating boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for elasticity problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper begins by discussing the interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) method. Then the formulae of the IMLS method obtained by Lancaster are revised. On the basis of the boundary element-free method (BEFM), combining the boundary integral equation method with the IMLS method improved in this paper, the interpolating boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for two-dimensional elasticity problems is presented, and the corresponding formulae of the IBEFM for two-dimensional elasticity problems are obtained. In the IMLS method in this paper, the shape function satisfies the property of Kronecker δ function, and then in the IBEFM the boundary conditions can be applied directly and easily. The IBEFM is a direct meshless boundary integral equation method in which the basic unknown quantity is the real solution to the nodal variables. Thus it gives a greater computational precision. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method.

  2. Conforming Discretizations of Boundary Element Solutions of the Electroencephalography Forward Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmouni, Lyes; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new discretization strategy for the boundary element formulation of the Electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem. Boundary integral formulations, classically solved with the Boundary Element Method (BEM), are widely used in high resolution EEG imaging because of their recognized advantages in several real case scenarios. Unfortunately however, it is widely reported that the accuracy of standard BEM schemes is limited, especially when the current source density is dipolar and its location approaches one of the brain boundary surfaces. This is a particularly limiting problem given that during an high-resolution EEG imaging procedure, several EEG forward problem solutions are required for which the source currents are near or on top of a boundary surface. This work will first present an analysis of standardly discretized EEG forward problems, reporting on a theoretical issue of some of the formulations that have been used so far in the community. We report on the fact that several ...

  3. Forward and inverse problem for cardiac magnetic field and electric potential using two boundary element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fa-Kuan; Wang, Qian; Hua, Ning; Tang, Xue-Zheng; Lu, Hong; Ma, Ping

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the forward and inverse problem for cardiac magnetic fields and electric potentials. A torso-heart model established by boundary element method (BEM) is used for studying the distributions of cardiac magnetic fields and electric potentials. Because node-to-node and triangle-to-triangle BEM can lead to discrepant field distributions, their properties and influences are compared. Then based on constructed torso-heart model and supposed current source functional model—current dipole array, the magnetic and electric imaging by optimal constrained linear inverse method are applied at the same time. Through figure and reconstructing parameter comparison, though the magnetic current dipole array imaging possesses better reconstructing effect, however node-to-node BEM and triangle-to-triangle BEM make little difference to magnetic and electric imaging.

  4. A coupled boundary element-finite difference solution of the elliptic modified mild slope equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naserizadeh, R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Noorzad, A.

    2011-01-01

    The modified mild slope equation of [5] is solved using a combination of the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). The exterior domain of constant depth and infinite horizontal extent is solved by a BEM using linear or quadratic elements. The interior domain...

  5. A minimum-order boundary element method to extract the 3-D inductance and resistance of the interconnects in VLSI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方蜀州; 王泽毅

    2002-01-01

    The high frequency resistance and inductance of the 3-D complex interconnect structures can be calculated by solving an eddy current electromagnetic problem. In this paper, a model for charactering such a 3-D eddy current problem is proposed, in which the electromagnetic fields in both the conducting and non-conducting regions are described in terms of the magnetic vector potential, and a set of the indirect boundary integral equations (IBIE) is obtained. The IBIEs can be solved by boundary element method, so this method avoids discretizing the domain of the conductors. As an indirect boundary element method, it is of minimum order. It does not restrict the direction of the current in conductors, and hence it can consider the mutual impedance between two perpendicular conductors. The numerical results can well meet the analytical solution of a 2-D problem. The mutual impedance of two perpendicular conductors is also shown under the different gaps between conductors and different frequencies.

  6. A Regularized Galerkin Boundary Element Method (RGBEM) for Simulating Potential Flow About Zero Thickness Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GHARAKHANI,ADRIN; WOLFE,WALTER P.

    1999-10-01

    The prediction of potential flow about zero thickness membranes by the boundary element method constitutes an integral component of the Lagrangian vortex-boundary element simulation of flow about parachutes. To this end, the vortex loop (or the panel) method has been used, for some time now, in the aerospace industry with relative success [1, 2]. Vortex loops (with constant circulation) are equivalent to boundary elements with piecewise constant variation of the potential jump. In this case, extending the analysis in [3], the near field potential velocity evaluations can be shown to be {Omicron}(1). The accurate evaluation of the potential velocity field very near the parachute surface is particularly critical to the overall accuracy and stability of the vortex-boundary element simulations. As we will demonstrate in Section 3, the boundary integral singularities, which arise due to the application of low order boundary elements, may lead to severely spiked potential velocities at vortex element centers that are near the boundary. The spikes in turn cause the erratic motion of the vortex elements, and the eventual loss of smoothness of the vorticity field and possible numerical blow up. In light of the arguments above, the application of boundary elements with (at least) a linear variation of the potential jump--or, equivalently, piecewise constant vortex sheets--would appear to be more appropriate for vortex-boundary element simulations. For this case, two strategies are possible for obtaining the potential flow field. The first option is to solve the integral equations for the (unknown) strengths of the surface vortex sheets. As we will discuss in Section 2.1, the challenge in this case is to devise a consistent system of equations that imposes the solenoidality of the locally 2-D vortex sheets. The second approach is to solve for the unknown potential jump distribution. In this case, for commonly used C{sup o} shape functions, the boundary integral is singular at

  7. Boundary element method applied to a gas-fired pin-fin-enhanced heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Drewien, C.A.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal conduction of a portion of an enhanced surface heat exchanger for a gas fired heat pipe solar receiver was modeled using the boundary element and finite element methods (BEM and FEM) to determine the effect of weld fillet size on performance of a stud welded pin fin. A process that could be utilized by others for designing the surface mesh on an object of interest, performing a conversion from the mesh into the input format utilized by the BEM code, obtaining output on the surface of the object, and displaying visual results was developed. It was determined that the weld fillet on the pin fin significantly enhanced the heat performance, improving the operating margin of the heat exchanger. The performance of the BEM program on the pin fin was measured (as computational time) and used as a performance comparison with the FEM model. Given similar surface element densities, the BEM method took longer to get a solution than the FEM method. The FEM method creates a sparse matrix that scales in storage and computation as the number of nodes (N), whereas the BEM method scales as N{sup 2} in storage and N{sup 3} in computation.

  8. Boundary element analysis for elastic and elastoplastic problems of 2D orthotropic media with stress concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiushan Sun; Lixin Huang; Yinghua Liu; Zhangzhi Cen; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    Both the orthotropy and the stress concentration are common issues in modern structural engineering. This paper introduces the boundary element method (BEM) into the elastic and elastoplastic analyses for 2D orthotropic media with stress concentration. The discretized boundary element formulations are established, and the stress formulae as well as the fundamental solutions are derived in matrix notations. The numerical procedures are proposed to analyze both elastic and elastoplastic problems of2D orthotropic media with stress concentration. To obtain more precise stress values with fewer elements, the quadratic isoparametric element formulation is adopted in the boundary discretization and numerical procedures. Numerical examples show that there are significant stress concentrations and different elastoplastic behaviors in some orthotropic media, and some of the computational results are compared with other solutions.Good agreements are also observed, which demonstrates the efficiency and reliability of the present BEM in the stress concentration analysis for orthotropic media.

  9. Geometric Conversion Approach for the Numerical Evaluation of Hypersingular and Nearly Hypersingular Boundary Integrals over Curved Surface Boundary Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杭

    2002-01-01

    With the aid of the properties of the hypersingular kernels,a geometric conversion approach was presented in this paper.The conversion leads to a general approach for the accurate and reliable numerical evaluation of the hypersingular surface boundary integrals encountered in a variety of applications with boundary element method.Based on the conversion,the hypersingularity in the boundary integrals could be lowered by one order,resulting in the simplification of the computer code.Moreover,an integral transformation was introduced to damp out the nearly singular behavior of the kernels by the distance function defined in the local polar coordinate system for the nearly hypersingular case.The approach is simple to use,which can be inserted readily to computer code,thus getting rid of the dull routine deduction of formulae before the numerical implementatins,as the expressions of these kernels are in general complicated.The numerical examples were gien in three-dimensional elasticity,verifying the effectiveness of the proposed approach,which makes it possible to observe numerically the behavior of the boundary integral values with hypersingular kernels across the boundary.

  10. SOLVING CONTACT PROBLEM WITH FRICTION BY A NEW FAST BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The formulation of boundary element method for handling contact problems with friction and the technique for high-speed contact analysis are presented. This formulation is based on the idea of modifying the length of contact elements without altering the total number of elements. The high precision of solution and high-speed analysis are verified according to the results of conventional method and analysis method.

  11. Poroelastic modeling of seismic boundary conditions across a fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Schoenberg, Michael A

    2007-08-01

    Permeability of a fracture can affect how the fracture interacts with seismic waves. To examine this effect, a simple mathematical model that describes the poroelastic nature of wave-fracture interaction is useful. In this paper, a set of boundary conditions is presented which relate wave-induced particle velocity (or displacement) and stress including fluid pressure across a compliant, fluid-bearing fracture. These conditions are derived by modeling a fracture as a thin porous layer with increased compliance and finite permeability. Assuming a small layer thickness, the boundary conditions can be derived by integrating the governing equations of poroelastic wave propagation. A finite jump in the stress and velocity across a fracture is expressed as a function of the stress and velocity at the boundaries. Further simplification for a thin fracture yields a set of characteristic parameters that control the seismic response of single fractures with a wide range of mechanical and hydraulic properties. These boundary conditions have potential applications in simplifying numerical models such as finite-difference and finite-element methods to compute seismic wave scattering off nonplanar (e.g., curved and intersecting) fractures.

  12. AN EFFECTIVE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF CRACK PROBLEMS IN A PLANE ELASTIC PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-qiao

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective boundary element method for stress intensity factor calculation for crack problems in a plane elastic plate is presented. The boundary element method consists of the constant displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfield and the crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by YAN Xiangqiao. In the boundary element implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element was placed locally at the corresponding left or right each crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. Test examples ( i. e. , a center crack in an infinite plate under tension, a circular hole and a crack in an infinite plate under tension) are included to illustrate that the numerical approach is very simple and accurate for stress intensity factor calculation of plane elasticity crack problems. In addition, specifically, the stress intensity factors of branching cracks emanating from a square hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads were analysed. These numerical results indicate the present numerical approach is very effective for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a 2-D finite body, and are used to reveal the effect of the biaxial loads and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  13. Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.

  14. Efficient Smoothing for Boundary Value Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 29, pp. 803-821, 1984. [2] A. Bagchi and H. Westdijk, "Smoothing...and likelihood ratio for Gaussian boundary value processes," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 34, pp. 954-962, 1989. [3] R. Nikoukhah et...77-96, 1988. [6] H. L. Weinert and U. B. Desai, "On complementary models and fixed- interval smoothing," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  15. Computational hydrodynamics of animal swimming: boundary element method and three-dimensional vortex wake structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J Y; Chahine, G L

    2001-12-01

    The slender body theory, lifting surface theories, and more recently panel methods and Navier-Stokes solvers have been used to study the hydrodynamics of fish swimming. This paper presents progress on swimming hydrodynamics using a boundary integral equation method (or boundary element method) based on potential flow model. The unsteady three-dimensional BEM code 3DynaFS that we developed and used is able to model realistic body geometries, arbitrary movements, and resulting wake evolution. Pressure distribution over the body surface, vorticity in the wake, and the velocity field around the body can be computed. The structure and dynamic behavior of the vortex wakes generated by the swimming body are responsible for the underlying fluid dynamic mechanisms to realize the high-efficiency propulsion and high-agility maneuvering. Three-dimensional vortex wake structures are not well known, although two-dimensional structures termed 'reverse Karman Vortex Street' have been observed and studied. In this paper, simulations about a swimming saithe (Pollachius virens) using our BEM code have demonstrated that undulatory swimming reduces three-dimensional effects due to substantially weakened tail tip vortex, resulting in a reverse Karman Vortex Street as the major flow pattern in the three-dimensional wake of an undulating swimming fish.

  16. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in three ways, including comparison to finite element method (FEM). In a two-compartment split-sphere model with two spaced monopoles, the results obtained with high-resolution FEM and the BEMs were almost identical (relative difference < 0.003).

  17. Boundary form factors in the Smirnov--Fateev model with a diagonal boundary $S$ matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The boundary conditions with diagonal boundary $S$ matrix and the boundary form factors for the Smirnov--Fateev model on a half line has been considered in the framework of the free field representation. In contrast to the case of the sine-Gordon model, in this case the free field representation is shown to impose severe restrictions on the boundary $S$ matrix, so that a finite number of solutions is only consistent with the free field realization.

  18. Precision enhancement in boundary element methods with application to electron optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody S; Gregory, Don A

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid approach is presented for obtaining electric potentials for use in electron optics modeling. An initial solution from the boundary element method (BEM) is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain subsequently used in a Fourier series solution. The approach combines the inherent precision of this analytic solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized systems of electrodes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. Example ray-traces through a simple, known einzel lens are given as validation of this approach.

  19. A simulation method of combinding boundary element method with generalized Langevin dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new simulation approach to incorporate hydration force into generalized Langevin dynamics (GLD) is developed in this note. The hydration force determined by the boundary element method (BEM) is taken into account as the mean force terms of solvent including Coulombic interactions with the induced surface charge and the surface pressure of solvent. The exponential model is taken for the friction kernel. A simulation study has been performed on the cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A (CPA). The results obtained from the new method (GLDBEM) have been analyzed and compared with that obtained from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and the conventional stochastic dynamics (SD) simulation. We have found that the results obtained from GLDBEM show the obvious improvement over the SD simulation technique in the study of molecular structure and dynamic properties.

  20. Automatic Recognition of Element Classes and Boundaries in the Birdsong with Variable Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Koumura

    Full Text Available Researches on sequential vocalization often require analysis of vocalizations in long continuous sounds. In such studies as developmental ones or studies across generations in which days or months of vocalizations must be analyzed, methods for automatic recognition would be strongly desired. Although methods for automatic speech recognition for application purposes have been intensively studied, blindly applying them for biological purposes may not be an optimal solution. This is because, unlike human speech recognition, analysis of sequential vocalizations often requires accurate extraction of timing information. In the present study we propose automated systems suitable for recognizing birdsong, one of the most intensively investigated sequential vocalizations, focusing on the three properties of the birdsong. First, a song is a sequence of vocal elements, called notes, which can be grouped into categories. Second, temporal structure of birdsong is precisely controlled, meaning that temporal information is important in song analysis. Finally, notes are produced according to certain probabilistic rules, which may facilitate the accurate song recognition. We divided the procedure of song recognition into three sub-steps: local classification, boundary detection, and global sequencing, each of which corresponds to each of the three properties of birdsong. We compared the performances of several different ways to arrange these three steps. As results, we demonstrated a hybrid model of a deep convolutional neural network and a hidden Markov model was effective. We propose suitable arrangements of methods according to whether accurate boundary detection is needed. Also we designed the new measure to jointly evaluate the accuracy of note classification and boundary detection. Our methods should be applicable, with small modification and tuning, to the songs in other species that hold the three properties of the sequential vocalization.

  1. Automatic Recognition of Element Classes and Boundaries in the Birdsong with Variable Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Researches on sequential vocalization often require analysis of vocalizations in long continuous sounds. In such studies as developmental ones or studies across generations in which days or months of vocalizations must be analyzed, methods for automatic recognition would be strongly desired. Although methods for automatic speech recognition for application purposes have been intensively studied, blindly applying them for biological purposes may not be an optimal solution. This is because, unlike human speech recognition, analysis of sequential vocalizations often requires accurate extraction of timing information. In the present study we propose automated systems suitable for recognizing birdsong, one of the most intensively investigated sequential vocalizations, focusing on the three properties of the birdsong. First, a song is a sequence of vocal elements, called notes, which can be grouped into categories. Second, temporal structure of birdsong is precisely controlled, meaning that temporal information is important in song analysis. Finally, notes are produced according to certain probabilistic rules, which may facilitate the accurate song recognition. We divided the procedure of song recognition into three sub-steps: local classification, boundary detection, and global sequencing, each of which corresponds to each of the three properties of birdsong. We compared the performances of several different ways to arrange these three steps. As results, we demonstrated a hybrid model of a deep convolutional neural network and a hidden Markov model was effective. We propose suitable arrangements of methods according to whether accurate boundary detection is needed. Also we designed the new measure to jointly evaluate the accuracy of note classification and boundary detection. Our methods should be applicable, with small modification and tuning, to the songs in other species that hold the three properties of the sequential vocalization. PMID:27442240

  2. BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN AN ELASTIC RECTANGULAR INCLUSION AND A CRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银邦

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between an elastic rectangular inclusion and a kinked crack in an infinite elastic body was considered by using boundary element method. The new complex boundary integral equations were derived. By introducing a complex unknown function H(t)related to the interface displacement density and traction and applying integration by parts,the traction continuous condition was satisfied automatically. Only one complex boundary integral equation was obtained on interface and involves only singularity of order l/ r. To verify the validity and effectiveness of the present boundary element method, some typical examples were calculated. The obtained results show that the crack stress intensity factors decrease as the shear modulus of inclusion increases. Thus, the crack propagation is easier near a softer inclusion and the harder inclusion is helpful for crack arrest.

  3. Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H. H.; Xiao, J. J.; Lai, Y.; Chan, C. T.

    2010-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that active sources can be used to cloak any objects that lie outside the cloaking devices [F. Guevara Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073901 (2009)]. Here, we propose that active sources can create illusion effects so that an object outside the cloaking device can be made to look like another object. Invisibility is a special case in which the concealed object is transformed to a volume of air. From a boundary element perspective, we show that active sources can create a nearly “silent” domain which can conceal any objects inside and at the same time make the whole system look like an illusion of our choice outside a virtual boundary. The boundary element method gives the fields and field gradients, which can be related to monopoles and dipoles, on continuous curves which define the boundary of the active devices. Both the cloaking and illusion effects are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  4. Calculation of compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils by a finite element/finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.

  5. Extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation and boundary element method for cracks in thermo-magneto-electro-elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Dang, HuaYang; Xu, GuangTao; Fan, CuiYing; Zhao, MingHao

    2016-08-01

    The extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation (EDDBIE) and boundary element method is developed for the analysis of planar cracks of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of three-dimensional (3D) transversely isotropic thermo-magneto-electro-elastic (TMEE) media. The extended displacement discontinuities (EDDs) include conventional displacement discontinuity, electric potential discontinuity, magnetic potential discontinuity, as well as temperature discontinuity across crack faces; correspondingly, the extended stresses represent conventional stress, electric displacement, magnetic induction and heat flux. Employing a Hankel transformation, the fundamental solutions for unit point EDDs in 3D transversely isotropic TMEE media are derived. The EDDBIEs for a planar crack of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of a 3D transversely isotropic TMEE medium are then established. Using the boundary integral equation method, the singularities of near-crack border fields are obtained and the extended stress field intensity factors are expressed in terms of the EDDs on crack faces. According to the analogy between the EDDBIEs for an isotropic thermoelastic material and TMEE medium, an analogical solution method for crack problems of a TMEE medium is proposed for coupled multi-field loadings. Employing constant triangular elements, the EDDBIEs are discretized and numerically solved. As an application, the problems of an elliptical crack subjected to combined mechanical-electric-magnetic-thermal loadings are investigated.

  6. E-coil: an inverse boundary element method for a quasi-static problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Clemente Cobos; Garcia, Salvador Gonzalez [Depto. Electromagnetismo y F. de la Materia Facultad de Ciencias University of Granada Avda. Fuentenueva E-18071 (Spain); Power, Henry, E-mail: ccobos@ugr.e [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    Boundary element methods represent a valuable approach for designing gradient coils; these methods are based on meshing the current carrying surface into an array of boundary elements. The temporally varying magnetic fields produced by gradient coils induce electric currents in conducting tissues and so the exposure of human subjects to these magnetic fields has become a safety concern, especially with the increase in the strength of the field gradients used in magnetic resonance imaging. Here we present a boundary element method for the design of coils that minimize the electric field induced in prescribed conducting systems. This work also details some numerical examples of the application of this coil design method. The reduction of the electric field induced in a prescribed region inside the coils is also evaluated.

  7. Exactly soluble model of boundary degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Sriram; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Gurarie, Victor; Galitski, Victor M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.075118]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.

  8. Contact position controlling for two-dimensional motion bodies by the boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for controlling two-dimensional motion contact bodies with conforming discretization. Since a kind of special boundary element is utilized in the algorithm, the displacement compatibility and traction equilibrium conditions at nodes can be satisfied simultaneously in arbitrary locations of the contact interface. In addition, a method is also proposed in which the contact boundary location can be moved flexibly on the possible contact boundary. This method is effective to deal with moving and rolling contact problems on a possible larger moving or rolling contact region. Numerical examples show effectiveness of the presented scheme.

  9. BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR MOVING AND ROLLING CONTACT OF 2D ELASTIC BODIES WITH DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚振汉; 蒲军平; 金哲植

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of boundary element method for moving contact of two dimensional elastic bodies using conforming discretization is presented. Both the displacement and the traction boundary conditions are satisfied on the contacting region in the sense of discretization. An algorithm to deal with the moving of the contact boundary on a larger possible contact region is presented. The algorithm is generalized to rolling contact problem as well. Some numerical examples of moving and rolling contact of 2D elastic bodies with or without friction, including the bodies with a hole-type defect, are given to show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the presented schemes.

  10. A finite element algorithm for high-lying eigenvalues with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a finite element algorithm that computes eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator for two-dimensional problems with homogeneous Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions, or combinations of either for different parts of the boundary. We use an inverse power plus Gauss-Seidel algorithm to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem. For Neumann boundary conditions the method is much more efficient than the equivalent finite difference algorithm. We checked the algorithm by comparing the cumulative level density of the spectrum obtained numerically with the theoretical prediction given by the Weyl formula. We found a systematic deviation due to the discretization, not to the algorithm itself.

  11. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-11-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from the standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in four ways, including comparisons of volume and surface potentials to those obtained using the finite element method (FEM), and the effect of a hole in skull on electroencephalographic scalp potentials is demonstrated.

  12. DYNAMIC SURFACE BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS - A SIMPLE BOUNDARY MODEL FOR MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUFFER, AH; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the treatment of boundaries in molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method involves the positioning of boundary atoms on a surface that surrounds a system of interest. The boundary atoms interact with the inner region and represent the effect of atoms outside the surfa

  13. Simulation of the Ill-Posed Problem of Reinforced Concrete Corrosion Detection Using Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarizal Fonna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have suggested that the corrosion detection of reinforced concrete (RC based on electrical potential on concrete surface was an ill-posed problem, and thus it may present an inaccurate interpretation of corrosion. However, it is difficult to prove the ill-posed problem of the RC corrosion detection by experiment. One promising technique is using a numerical method. The objective of this study is to simulate the ill-posed problem of RC corrosion detection based on electrical potential on a concrete surface using the Boundary Element Method (BEM. BEM simulates electrical potential within a concrete domain. In order to simulate the electrical potential, the domain is assumed to be governed by Laplace’s equation. The boundary conditions for the corrosion area and the noncorrosion area of rebar were selected from its polarization curve. A rectangular reinforced concrete model with a single rebar was chosen to be simulated using BEM. The numerical simulation results using BEM showed that the same electrical potential distribution on the concrete surface could be generated from different combinations of parameters. Corresponding to such a phenomenon, this problem can be categorized as an ill-posed problem since it has many solutions. Therefore, BEM successfully simulates the ill-posed problem of reinforced concrete corrosion detection.

  14. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  15. A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C.-M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2009-04-01

    Engineering methods for modelling the generation of railway rolling noise are well established. However, these necessarily involve some simplifying assumptions to calculate the sound powers radiated by the wheel and the track. For the rail, this involves using an average vibration together with a radiation efficiency determined for a two-dimensional (2D) problem. In this paper, the sound radiation from a rail is calculated using a method based on a combination of waveguide finite elements and wavenumber boundary elements. This new method allows a number of the simplifying assumptions in the established methods to be avoided. It takes advantage of the 2D geometry of a rail to provide an efficient numerical approach but nevertheless takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the vibration and sound field and the infinite extent of the rail. The approach is used to study a conventional 'open' rail as well as an embedded tram rail of the type used for street running. In the former case it is shown that the conventional approach gives correct results and the complexity of the new method is mostly not necessary. However, for the embedded rail it is found that it is important to take into account the radiation from several wave types in the rail and embedding material. The damping effect of the embedding material on the rail vibration is directly taken into account and, for the example shown, causes the embedded rail to radiate less sound than the open rail above about 600 Hz. The free surface of the embedding material amplifies the sound radiation at some frequencies, while at other frequencies it moves out of phase with the rail and reduces the radiation efficiency. At low frequencies the radiation from the embedded rail resembles a line monopole source which produces greater power than the 'open' rail which forms a line dipole.

  16. Intra Plate Stresses Using Finite Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in the estimation of seismic hazard is the ability to quantify seismic activity. Empirical models based on the available earthquake catalogue are often used to obtain activity of source regions. The major limitation with this approach is the lack of sufficient data near a specified source. The non-availability of data poses difficulties in obtaining distribution of earthquakes with large return periods. Such events recur over geological time scales during which tectonic processes, including mantle convection, formation of faults and new plate boundaries, are likely to take place. The availability of geometries of plate boundaries, plate driving forces, lithospheric stress field and GPS measurements has provided numerous insights on the mechanics of tectonic plates. In this article, a 2D finite element model of Indo-Australian plate is developed with the focus of representing seismic activity in India. The effect of large scale geological features including sedimentary basins, fold belts and cratons on the stress field in India is explored in this study. In order to address long term behaviour, the orientation of stress field and tectonic faults of the present Indo-Australian plate are compared with a reconstructed stress field from the early Miocene (20 Ma.

  17. APPLICATION OF THE DUAL RECIPROCITY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD TO SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shuyao; Zhang Qin

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the dual reciprocity boundary element method is employed to solve nonlinear differential equation 2 u + u + εu3 = b. Results obtained in an example have a good agreement with those by FEM and show the applicability and simplicity of dual reciprocity method(DRM) in solving nonlinear dif ferential equations.

  18. Toeplitz Matrices Whose Elements Are the Coefficients of Functions with Bounded Boundary Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R denote the family of functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn of bounded boundary rotation so that Ref′(z>0 in the open unit disk U={z:z<1}. We obtain sharp bounds for Toeplitz determinants whose elements are the coefficients of functions f∈R.

  19. Experimental validation of a boundary element solver for exterior acoustic radiation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Rene; Nilsson, A.; Boden, H.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between harmonic structural vibrations and the corresponding acoustic radiation is given by the Helmholtz integral equation (HIE). To solve this integral equation a new solver (BEMSYS) based on the boundary element method (BEM) has been implemented. This numerical tool can be used for b

  20. Finite Element - Artificial Transmitting Boundary Method for Acoustical Field on Tapered Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.; S.; Yang; G; F.; Fan; J.; P.; Zhu; C.K.; Sun; Y.; H.; Zhu

    2003-01-01

    In earlier approach, the 2-D acoustical field profiles on the substrate region are often calculated with BPM. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the finite element -artificial transmitting boundary method and calculate acoustical field on the substrate region.

  1. A MATLAB Code for Three Dimensional Linear Elastostatics using Constant Boundary Elements

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Present work presents a code written in the very simple programming language MATLAB, for three dimensional linear elastostatics, using constant boundary elements. The code, in full or in part, is not a translation or a copy of any of the existing codes. Present paper explains how the code is written, and lists all the formulae used. Code is verified by using the code to solve a simple problem which has the well known approximate analytical solution. Of course, present work does not make any contribution to research on boundary elements, in terms of theory. But the work is justified by the fact that, to the best of author's knowledge, as of now, one cannot find an open access MATLAB code for three dimensional linear elastostatics using constant boundary elements. Author hopes this paper to be of help to beginners who wish to understand how a simple but complete boundary element code works, so that they can build upon and modify the present open access code to solve complex engineering problems quickly and easi...

  2. Hybrid model for QCD deconfining phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.

    2012-06-01

    Intensive search for a proper and realistic equations of state (EOS) is still continued for studying the phase diagram existing between quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas (HG) phases. Lattice calculations provide such EOS for the strongly interacting matter at finite temperature (T) and vanishing baryon chemical potential (μB). These calculations are of limited use at finite μB due to the appearance of notorious sign problem. In the recent past, we had constructed a hybrid model description for the QGP as well as HG phases where we make use of a new excluded-volume model for HG and a thermodynamically-consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase and used them further to get QCD phase boundary and a critical point. Since then many lattice calculations have appeared showing various thermal and transport properties of QCD matter at finite T and μB=0. We test our hybrid model by reproducing the entire data for strongly interacting matter and predict our results at finite μB so that they can be tested in future. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the model in fixing the precise location, the order of the phase transition and the nature of CP existing on the QCD phase diagram. We thus emphasize the suitability of the hybrid model as formulated here in providing a realistic EOS for the strongly interacting matter.

  3. Fast multipole boundary element analysis of 2D viscoelastic composites with imperfect interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A fast multipole boundary element method(FMBEM)is developed for the analysis of 2D linear viscoelastic composites with imperfect viscoelastic interfaces.The transformed fast multipole formulations are established using the time domain method. To simulate the viscoelastic behavior of imperfect interfaces that are frequently encountered in practice,the Kelvin type model is introduced.The FMBEM is further improved by incorporating naturally the interaction among inclusions as well as eliminating the phenomenon of material penetration.Since all the integrals are evaluated analytically,high accuracy and fast convergence of the numerical scheme are obtained.Several numerical examples,including planar viscoelastic composites with a single inclusion or randomly distributed multi-inclusions are presented.The numerical results are compared with the developed analytical solutions,which illustrates that the proposed FMBEM is very efficient in determining the macroscopic viscoelastic behavior of the particle-reinforced composites with the presence of imperfect interfaces.The laboratory measurements of the mixture creep compliance of asphalt concrete are also compared with the prediction by the developed model.

  4. DUAL RECIPROCITY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLEXURAL WAVES IN THIN PLATE WITH CUTOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Suo-wen; WANG Yue-sheng; ZHANG Zi-mao; MA Xing-rui

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical analysis and numerical calculation of scattering of elastic waves and dynamic stress concentrations in the thin plate with the cutout was studied using dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRM). Based on the work equivalent law, the dual reciprocity boundary integral equations for flexural waves in the thin plate were established using static fundamental solution. As illustration, numerical results for the dynamic stress concentration factors in the thin plate with a circular hole are given.The results obtained demonstrate good agreement with other reported results and show high accuracy.

  5. Boundary states and finite size effects in sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G

    2001-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition is investigated. Using the bootstrap principle the spectrum of boundary bound states is established. Somewhat surprisingly it is found that Coleman-Thun diagrams and bound state creation may coexist. A framework to describe finite size effects in boundary integrable theories is developed and used together with the truncated conformal space approach to confirm the bound states and reflection factors derived by bootstrap.

  6. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) for Seismic Response of Topographical Irregularities in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Sánchez-Alvaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic hazard assessment of extended developments, such as a dam, a bridge or a pipeline, needs the strong ground motion simulation taking into account the effects of surface geology. In many cases the incoming wave field can be obtained from attenuation relations or simulations for layered media using Discrete Wave Number (DWN). Sometimes there is a need to include in simulations the seismic source as well. A number of methods to solve these problems have been developed. Among them the Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods (FEM and FDM) are generally preferred because of the facility of use. Nevertheless, the analysis of realistic dynamic loading induced by earthquakes requires a thinner mesh of the entire domain to consider high frequencies. Consequently this may imply a high computational cost. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) can also be employed. Here it is used to study the response of a site to historical seismic activity. This method is particularly suited to model wave propagation through wide areas as it requires only the meshing of boundaries. Moreover, it is well suited to represent finely the diffraction that can occur on a fault. However, the IBEM has been applied mainly to simple geometrical configurations. In this communication significant refinements of the formulation are presented. Using IBEM we can simulate wave propagation in complex geometrical configurations such as a stratified medium crossed by thin faults or having a complex topography. Two main developments are here described; one integrates the DWN method inside the IBEM in order to represent the Green's functions of stratified media with relatively low computational cost but assuming unbounded parallel flat layers, and the other is the extension of IBEM to deal with multi-regions in contact which allows more versatility with a higher computational cost compared to the first one but still minor to an equivalent FEM formulation. The two approaches are fully

  7. Seamless Integration of Global Dirichlet-to-Neumann Boundary Condition and Spectral Elements for Transformation Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhiguo; Rong, Zhijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-element method (SEM) for solving general two-dimensional Helmholtz equations in anisotropic media, with particular applications in accurate simulation of polygonal invisibility cloaks, concentrators and circular rotators arisen from the field of transformation electromagnetics (TE). In practice, we adopt a transparent boundary condition (TBC) characterized by the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map to reduce wave propagation in an unbounded domain to a bounded domain. We then introduce a semi-analytic technique to integrate the global TBC with local curvilinear elements seamlessly, which is accomplished by using a novel elemental mapping and analytic formulas for evaluating global Fourier coefficients on spectral-element grids exactly. From the perspective of TE, an invisibility cloak is devised by a singular coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations that leads to anisotropic materials coating the cloaked region to render any object inside invisible to observe...

  8. International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Kadin

    1990-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary­ wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto­ dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas­ sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...

  9. General and efficient parallel approach of finite element-boundary integral-multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaomin; Sheng Xinqing

    2008-01-01

    A general and efficient parallel approach is proposed for the first time to parallelize the hybrid finite-element-boundary-integral-multi-level fast multipole algorithm (FE-BI-MLFMA). Among many algorithms of FE-BI-MLFMA, the decomposition algorithm (DA) is chosen as a basis for the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA because of its distinct numerical characteristics suitable for parallelization. On the basis of the DA, the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA is carried out by employing the parallelized multi-frontal method for the matrix from the finite-element method and the parallelized MLFMA for the matrix from the boundary integral method respectively. The programming and numerical experiments of the proposed parallel approach are carried out in the high perfor-mance computing platform CEMS-Liuhui. Numerical experiments demonstrate that FE-BI-MLFMA is efficiently parallelized and its computational capacity is greatly improved without losing accuracy, efficiency, and generality.

  10. Boundary element numerical method for the electric field generated by oblique multi-needle electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuPing; WANG AnLing; WANG AnXuan; CAO YueZu; CHEN Qiang; YANG ChangChun

    2009-01-01

    According to the electric potential of oblique multi-needle electrodes (OMNE) in biological tissue, the discrete equations based on the indetermination linear current density were established by the boundary element integral equations (BEIE). The non-uniform distribution of the current flowing from multi-needle electrodes to conductive biological tissues was imaged by solving a set of linear equa-tions. Then, the electric field and potential generated by OMNE in biological tissues at any point may be determined through the boundary element method (BEM). The time of program running and stability of computing method are examined by an example. It demonstrates that the algorithm possesses a quick speed and the steady computed results. It means that this method has an important referenced significance for computing the field and the potential generated by OMNE in bio-tissue, which is a fast, effective and accurate computing method.

  11. Boundary element numerical method for the electric field generated by oblique multi-needle electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the electric potential of oblique multi-needle electrodes (OMNE) in biological tissue, the discrete equations based on the indetermination linear current density were established by the boundary element integral equations (BEIE). The non-uniform distribution of the current flowing from multi-needle electrodes to conductive biological tissues was imaged by solving a set of linear equa- tions. Then, the electric field and potential generated by OMNE in biological tissues at any point may be determined through the boundary element method (BEM). The time of program running and stability of computing method are examined by an example. It demonstrates that the algorithm possesses a quick speed and the steady computed results. It means that this method has an important referenced sig- nificance for computing the field and the potential generated by OMNE in bio-tissue, which is a fast, effective and accurate computing method.

  12. Analysis of the role of diffraction in topographic site effects using boundary element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan; Restrepo, Doriam; Jaramillo, Juan; Valencia, Camilo

    2013-10-01

    The role played by the diffraction field on the problem of seismic site effects is studied. For that purpose we solve and analyze simple scattering problems under P and SV in-plane wave assumptions, using two well known direct boundary-element-based numerical methods. After establishing the difference between scattered and diffracted motions, and introducing the concept of artificious and physically based incoming fields, we obtain the amplitude of the Fourier spectra for the diffracted part of the response: this is achieved after establishing the connection between the spatial distribution of the transfer function over the studied simple topographies and the diffracted field. From the numerical simulations it is observed that this diffracted part of the response is responsible for the amplification of the surface ground motions due to the geometric effect. Furthermore, it is also found that the diffraction field sets in a fingerprint of the topographic effect in the total ground motions. These conclusions are further supported by observations in the time-domain in terms of snapshots of the propagation patterns over the complete computational model. In this sense the geometric singularities are clearly identified as sources of diffraction and for the considered range of dimensionless frequencies it is evident that larger amplifications are obtained for the geometries containing a larger number of diffraction sources thus resulting in a stronger topographic effect. The need for closed-form solutions of canonical problems to construct a robust analysis method based on the diffraction field is identified.

  13. Numerical improvement of the three-dimensional indirect boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Gil-Zepeda, S. A.; Luzon, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, several numerical techniques for the estimation of the seismic response in complex geologic configurations have been developed. The flexibility and versatility of these techniques have increased along with the improvement of computational systems, and they altogether have allowed the study of 3D geometries to model several sedimentary basins around the world. In this article we study the structure of the linear systems derived from the Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM). We apply a LU-sparse decomposition solver to the inversion of the IBEM coefficient matrix in order to optimise the numerical burden of such method. As pointed out before, special emphasis is given to understanding the main features of ground motion in sedimentary basins. We compute the seismic response of a 3D alluvial valley of irregular shape, as originally proposed by Sánchez-Sesma and Luzón (1995), and we establish comparisons on time consumption and memory allocation. Inversion of linear systems by using this new algorithm lead us to a significant saving on CPU time and memory allocation relative to the original IBEM formulation. Results represent an extension in the range of application of the IBEM method.

  14. Finite element formulation of unilateral boundary conditions for unsaturated flow in porous continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, A.; Callari, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the numerical resolution of unilateral boundary conditions able to effectively model several problems of unsaturated flow, as those involving rainfall infiltration and seepage faces. Besides the penalty technique, we also consider the novel regularization of these conditions by means of the more effective augmented Lagrangian method. The performance of the so-obtained finite element method is carefully investigated in terms of accuracy and ill-conditioning effects, including comparisons with analytical solutions and a complete identification of the analogies with the problem of frictionless contact. In this way, we provide a priori estimates of optimal and admissible ranges for the penalty coefficient as functions of permeability and spatial discretization. The proposed method and the estimated coefficient ranges are validated in further numerical examples, involving the propagation of a wetting front due to rainfall and the partial saturation of an aged concrete dam. These applications show that the proposed regularizations do not induce any detrimental effect on solution accuracy and on convergence rate of the employed Newton-Raphson method. Hence, the present approach should be preferred to the commonly used iterative switching between the imposed-flow and the imposed-pressure conditions, which often leads to spurious oscillations and convergence failures.

  15. A wideband fast multipole boundary element method for half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Jun Zheng; Hai-Bo Chen; Lei-Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/planesymmetric acoustic wave problems.The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only.Moreover,a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived,and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating,translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain.The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems.As for exterior acoustic problems,the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method.Details on the implementation of the present method are described,and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.

  16. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...... with mesh definition, geometrical singularities and treatment of closed cavities. These issues are specific of the BEM with losses. Using examples, some strategies are presented that can alleviate shortcomings and improve performance....

  17. Experimental validation of a boundary element solver for exterior acoustic radiation problems

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Rene; Nilsson, A; Boden, H.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between harmonic structural vibrations and the corresponding acoustic radiation is given by the Helmholtz integral equation (HIE). To solve this integral equation a new solver (BEMSYS) based on the boundary element method (BEM) has been implemented. This numerical tool can be used for both sound radiation and nearfield acoustic source localization purposes. After validation of the solver with analytic solutions of simple test problems, a well-defined experimental setup has been d...

  18. FLUID BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORM OF DOUBLE COMPLEX VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗义银

    2003-01-01

    A concept of orthogonal double function and its complex variables space was putforward. Its corresponding operation rules, the concept of analytic function and conformaltransform are established. And using this concept discussed its foreground for application offluid boundary element method. In results, this concept and special marks may be toenlarge the plane complex into three-dimensional space, and then extensive application maybe obtained in physics and mathematics.

  19. THREE DIMENSIONAL ELASTO-PLASTIC CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING WITH CONSIDERATION OF FRICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The boundary element method in framework is given to evaluate three dimensional frictional contact problems. Elasto-plastic material behavior is taken into account by mean of an initial stress formulation and Von Mises yield criterion. The amount of tangential traction at contact surface is limited by Coulomb's friction law and constant shear rule. From some numerical results of a plate rolling problem, it is demonstrated here that the BEM can be used to efficiently and accurately analyze this class of forming problems.

  20. Finite Element Simulation of Photoacoustic Pressure in a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell Using Lossy Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lopes, Natasha; Willatzen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) is used to simulate the photoacoustic signal in a cylindrical resonant photoacoustic cell. Simulations include loss effects near the cell walls that appear in the boundary conditions for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation governing the acoustic pressure. Reasonably...... the photoacoustic signal was demonstrated and good agreement with experiments for the actual resonance frequency and the quality factor of the cell was obtained despite its complicated geometry....

  1. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Boundary Relations, Unitary Colligations, and Functional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new notion, the so-called boundary relation, has been introduced involving an analytic object, the so-called Weyl family. Weyl families and boundary relations establish a link between the class of Nevanlinna families and unitary relations acting from one Krein in space, a basic (state) sp

  3. Numerical solutions of multi-dimensional solidification/melting problems by the dual reciprocity boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  4. Trace-element anomalies at the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary in Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Charles J.; Quintana, Leonard R.; Gilmore, James S.; Grayson, Robert C., Jr.; Westergaard, Edwin H.

    1986-12-01

    Trace-element abundance anomalies have been found at the Mississippian/Pennsylvania boundary at sites in Oklahoma and Texas where the boundary has been precisely located on the basis of an abrupt change in conodont diversity and species composition. Enriched elements include osmium, indium, platinum, chromium, most chalcophiles, rare earths, and uranium. The anomalies are more intense (e.g., Os = 4 ppb, Ir = 0.38 ppb, Pt = 6 ppb, Cr = 12000 ppm, U = 380 ppm) and peisist through a thicker interval at the south-central Texas locality than in Oklahoma, and in bolh locations the anomalies are associated with an increase in phosphate content of the rocks. There is no tangible evidence of an asteroid or comet impact source for the excess Pt-group elements and fauna! crisis. The cause of the elemental enrichments and the biological disturbance may possibly be related to a change in the ocean chemistry of the Paleozoic seaway, such as increased upwelling, stagnation, or nearby submarine volcanism.

  5. Dynamic-stiffness matrix of embedded and pile foundations by indirect boundary-element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.P.; Darbre, G.R. (Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland))

    1984-08-01

    The boundary-integral equation method is well suited for the calculation of the dynamic-stiffness matrix of foundations embedded in a layered visco-elastic halfspace (or a transmitting boundary of arbitrary shape), which represents an unbounded domain. It also allows pile groups to be analyzed, taking pile-soil-pile interaction into account. The discretization of this boundary-element method is restricted to the structure-soil interface. All trial functions satisfy exactly the field equations and the radiation condition at infinity. In the indirect boundary-element method distributed source loads of initially unknown intensities act on a source line located in the excavated part of the soil and are determined such that the prescribed boundary conditions on the structure-soil interface are satisfied in an average sense. In the two-dimensional case the variables are expanded in a Fourier integral in the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and Bessel functions of the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and Bessel functions of the wave number in the radial direction are selected. Accurate results arise with a small number of parameters of the loads acting on a source line which should coincide with the structure-soil interface. In a parametric study the dynamic-stiffness matrices of rectangular foundations of various aspect ratios embedded in a halfplane and in a layer built-in at its base are calculated. For the halfplane, the spring coefficients for the translational directions hardly depend on the embedment, while the corresponding damping coefficients increase for larger embedments, this tendency being more pronounced in the horizontal direction.

  6. Discrete holomorphicity and integrability in loop models with open boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Gier, Jan; Rasmussen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    We consider boundary conditions compatible with discrete holomorphicity for the dilute O(n) and C_2^(1) loop models. In each model, for a general set of boundary plaquettes, multiple types of loops can appear. A generalisation of Smirnov's parafermionic observable is therefore required in order to maintain the discrete holomorphicity property in the bulk. We show that there exist natural boundary conditions for this observable which are consistent with integrability, that is to say that, by imposing certain boundary conditions, we obtain a set of linear equations whose solutions also satisfy the corresponding reflection equation. In both loop models, several new sets of integrable weights are found using this approach.

  7. Duality and conformal twisted boundaries in the Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, U

    2002-01-01

    There has been recent interest in conformal twisted boundary conditions and their realisations in solvable lattice models. For the Ising and Potts quantum chains, these amount to boundary terms that are related to duality, which is a proper symmetry of the model at criticality. Thus, at criticality, the duality-twisted Ising model is translationally invariant, similar to the more familiar cases of periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. The complete finite-size spectrum of the Ising quantum chain with this peculiar boundary condition is obtained.

  8. Optimal Boundary Conditions for ORCA-2 Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A 4D-Var data assimilation technique is applied to a ORCA-2 configuration of the NEMO in order to identify the optimal parametrization of the boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries as well as on the bottom and on the surface of the ocean. The influence of the boundary conditions on the solution is analyzed as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. It is shown that optimal conditions for vertical operators allows to get stronger and finer jet streams (Gulf Stream, Kuroshio) in the solution. Analyzing the reasons of the jets reinforcement, we see that the major impact of the data assimilation is made on the parametrization of the bottom boundary conditions for lateral velocities u and v. Automatic generation of the tangent and adjoint codes is also discussed. Tapenade software is shown to be able to produce the adjoint code that can be used after a memory usage optimization.

  9. Stress analysis of 3D complex geometries using the scaled boundary polyhedral finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Hossein; Saputra, Albert; Song, Chongmin

    2016-10-01

    While dominating the numerical stress analysis of solids, the finite element method requires a mesh to conform to the surface of the geometry. Thus the mesh generation of three dimensional complex structures often require tedious human interventions. In this paper, we present a formulation for arbitrary polyhedral elements based on the scaled boundary finite element method, which reduces the difficulties in automatic mesh generation. We also propose a simple method to generate polyhedral meshes with local refinements. The mesh generation method is based on combining an octree mesh with surfaces defined using signed distance functions. Through several numerical examples, we verify the results, study the convergence behaviour and depict the many advantages and capabilities of the presented method. This contribution is intended to assist us to eventually frame a set of numerical methods and associated tools for the full automation of the engineering analysis where minimal human interaction is needed.

  10. Comparison of perfectly matched layer and multi-transmitting formula artificial boundary condition based on hybrid finite element formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; XIE Li-li; ZHAI Chang-hai

    2007-01-01

    The theory of perfectly matched layer (PML) artificial boundary condition (ABC), which is characterized by absorption any wave motions with arbitrary frequency and arbitrarily incident angle, is introduced. The construction process of PML boundary based on elastodynamic partial differential equation (PDE) system is developed.Combining with velocity-stress hybrid finite element formulation, the applicability of PML boundary is investigated and the numerical reflection of PML boundary is estimated. The reflectivity of PML and multi-transmitting formula (MTF) boundary is then compared based on body wave and surface wave simulations. The results show that although PML boundary yields some reflection, its absorption performance is superior to MTF boundary in the numerical simulations of near-fault wave propagation, especially in corner and large angle grazing incidence situations. The PML boundary does not arise any unstable phenomenon and the stability of PML boundary is better than MTF boundary in hybrid finite element method. For a specified problem and analysis tolerance, the computational efficiency of PML boundary is only a little lower than MTF boundary.

  11. Poynting Flux-Conserving Boundary Conditions for Global MHD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O.; Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux-conserving boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the low-altitude (or inner) boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. This method involves the mapping of both the potential from the ionosphere and the perpendicular magnetic field from the inner magnetosphere to the ghost cells of the computational domain. The single fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method. The comparisons of simulations using the standard hardwall boundary conditions of the LFM model and the flux-conserving boundary conditions show that the method reported here improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is very nearly equal to the ionospheric Joule heating, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved.

  12. Mixed Finite Element Method and Higher-Order Local Artificial Boundary Conditions for Exterior 3-D Poisson Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩厚德; 郑春雄

    2002-01-01

    The mixed finite element method is used to solve the exterior Poisson equations with higher-order local artificial boundary conditions in 3-D space. New unknowns are introduced to reduce the order of the derivatives of the unknown to two. The result is an equivalent mixed variational problem which was solved using bilinear finite elements. The primary advantage is that special finite elements are not needed on the adjacent layer of the artificial boundary for the higher-order derivatives. Error estimates are obtained for some local artificial boundary conditions with prescibed orders. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  13. Variational Data Assimilation for Optimizing Boundary Conditions in Ocean Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Christine; Tolstykh, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The review describes the development of ideas Gury Ivanovich Marchuk in the field of variational data assimilation for ocean models applied in particular in coupled models for long-range weather forecasts. Particular attention is paid to the optimization of boundary conditions on rigid boundaries. As idealized and realistic model configurations are considered. It is shown that the optimization allows us to determine the most sensitive model operators and bring the model solution closer to the assimilated data.

  14. The characteristic mixed finite element method and analysis for three-dimensional moving boundary value problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁益让

    1996-01-01

    The software for oil-gas transport and accumulation is to describe the history of oil-gas transport and accumulation in basin evolution. It is of great value in rational evaluation of prospecting and exploiting oil-gas resources. This thesis, from actual conditions such as the effects of gravitation, buoyancy and capillary pressure, puts forward for the two class boundary value problem a kind of characteristic mixed finite element scheme by making use of the change of region, time step modified techniques of handling boundary value condition, negative norm estimate and the theory of prior estimates. Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived for the error in approximate solutions. Thus the well-known theoretical problem proposed by J. Douglas, Jr has been thoroughly and completely solved.

  15. Isogeometric Boundary Element Analysis with elasto-plastic inclusions. Part 1: Plane problems

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Gernot; Zechner, Jürgen; Dünser, Christian; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel approach is presented for the isogeometric Boundary Element analysis of domains that contain inclusions with different elastic properties than the ones used for computing the fundamental solutions. In addition the inclusion may exhibit inelastic material behavior. In this paper only plane stress/strain problems are considered. In our approach the geometry of the inclusion is described using NURBS basis functions. The advantage over currently used methods is that no discretization into cells is required in order to evaluate the arising volume integrals. The other difference to current approaches is that Kernels of lower singularity are used in the domain term. The implementation is verified on simple finite and infinite domain examples with various boundary conditions. Finally a practical application in geomechanics is presented.

  16. An iterative Rankine boundary element method for wave diffraction of a ship with forward speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广华

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D time-domain seakeeping analysis tool has been newly developed by using a higher-order boundary element method with the Rankine source as the kernel function. An iterative time-marching scheme for updating both kinematic and dynamic free-surface boundary conditions is adopted for achieving numerical accuracy and stability. A rectangular computational domain moving with the mean speed of ship is introduced. A damping beach at the outer portion of the truncated free surface is installed for satisfying the radiation condition. After numerical convergence checked, the diffraction unsteady problem of a Wigley hull traveling with a constant forward speed in waves is studied. Extensive results including wave exciting forces, wave patterns and pressure distributions on the hull are presented to validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed 3-D time-domain iterative Rankine BEM approach. Computed results are compared to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and other published numerical solutions.

  17. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2016-02-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

  18. A biomolecular electrostatics solver using Python, GPUs and boundary elements that can handle solvent-filled cavities and Stern layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Christopher D; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    The continuum theory applied to bimolecular electrostatics leads to an implicit-solvent model governed by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Solvers relying on a boundary integral representation typically do not consider features like solvent-filled cavities or ion-exclusion (Stern) layers, due to the added difficulty of treating multiple boundary surfaces. This has hindered meaningful comparisons with volume-based methods, and the effects on accuracy of including these features has remained unknown. This work presents a solver called PyGBe that uses a boundary-element formulation and can handle multiple interacting surfaces. It was used to study the effects of solvent-filled cavities and Stern layers on the accuracy of calculating solvation energy and binding energy of proteins, using the well-known APBS finite-difference code for comparison. The results suggest that if required accuracy for an application allows errors larger than about 2%, then the simpler, single-surface model can be used. When calculating b...

  19. Implementation of a boundary element method to solve for the near field effects of an array of WECs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskamp, J. A.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.

    2010-12-01

    When Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are installed, they affect the shoreline wave climate by removing some of the wave energy which would have reached the shore. Before large WEC projects are launched, it is important to understand the potential coastal impacts of these installations. The high cost associated with ocean scale testing invites the use of hydrodynamic models to play a major role in estimating these effects. In this study, a wave structure interaction program (WAMIT) is used to model an array of WECs. The program predicts the wave field throughout the array using a boundary element method to solve the potential flow fluid problem, taking into account the incident waves, the power dissipated, and the way each WEC moves and interacts with the others. This model is appropriate for a small domain near the WEC array in order to resolve the details in the interactions, but not extending to the coastline (where the far-field effects must be assessed). To propagate these effects to the coastline, the waves leaving this small domain will be used as boundary conditions for a larger model domain which will assess the shoreline effects caused by the array. The immediate work is concerned with setting up the WAMIT model for a small array of point absorbers. A 1:33 scale lab test is planned and will provide data to validate the WAMIT model on this small domain before it is nested with the larger domain to estimate shoreline effects.

  20. Boundary Element Method Solution in the Time Domain For a Moving Time-Dependent Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rasmussen, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    satisfy the radiation conditions exactly. In this paper a model based on the BEM is formulated for the solution of the mentioned problem. A numerical solution is obtained for the 2D plane strain case, and comparison is made with the results obtained from a corresponding FEM solution with an impedance...... absorbing boundary condition....

  1. ON?THE?ERROR?ESTIMATE?OF?LINEAR?FINITE?ELEMENT?APPROXIMATION?TO?THE?ELASTIC?CONTACT?PROBLEM? WITH?CURVED?CONTACT?BOUNDARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie-heng Wang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the linear finite element approximation to the elastic contact problem with curved contact boundary is considered. The error bound O(h1-2) is obtained with requirements of two times continuously differentiable for contact boundary and the usual regular triangulation, while I.Hlavacek et. al. obtained the error bound O(h ) with requirements of three times continuously differentiable for contact boundary and extra regularities of triangulation (c.f. [2]).

  2. OpenBEM - An open source Boundary Element Method software in Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2010-01-01

    -symmetric and half-space problems. It also contains a number of improvements such a dealing with thin objects and close surfaces, meshing for 2D and axisymmetrical problems, analytical solutions for verification, and a number of additional functions. This paper gives an overview of the capabilities of the program......OpenBEM is a collection of open source programs for solving the Helmholtz Equation using the Boundary Element Method. The collection is written in Matlab by the authors and contains codes for dealing with exterior and interior problems in two or three dimensions as well as implementation of axi...

  3. Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 梁利华; GlaucioH.Paulino

    2000-01-01

    An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of vis-coplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.

  4. Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of viscoplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.

  5. A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface........ In order to verify the reconstruction process, part of the measurement data is used together with Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH). Estimated distributions of sound pressure and particle velocity over a plane surface obtained from the two methods are compared....

  6. Research related to improved computer aided design software package. [comparative efficiency of finite, boundary, and hybrid element methods in elastostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, W. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The comparative computational efficiencies of the finite element (FEM), boundary element (BEM), and hybrid boundary element-finite element (HVFEM) analysis techniques are evaluated for representative bounded domain interior and unbounded domain exterior problems in elastostatics. Computational efficiency is carefully defined in this study as the computer time required to attain a specified level of solution accuracy. The study found the FEM superior to the BEM for the interior problem, while the reverse was true for the exterior problem. The hybrid analysis technique was found to be comparable or superior to both the FEM and BEM for both the interior and exterior problems.

  7. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  8. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.

    1995-11-01

    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.

  9. Computational Acoustics of Noise Propagation in Fluids - Finite and Boundary Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marburg, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Among numerical methods applied in acoustics, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is normally favored for interior problems whereas the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is quite popular for exterior ones. That is why this valuable reference provides a complete survey of methods for computational acoustics, namely FEM and BEM. It demonstrates that both methods can be effectively used in the complementary cases. The chapters by well-known authors are evenly balanced: 10 chapters on FEM and 10 on BEM. An initial conceptual chapter describes the derivation of the wave equation and supplies a unified approach to FEM and BEM for the harmonic case. A categorization of the remaining chapters and a personal outlook complete this introduction. In what follows, both FEM and BEM are discussed in the context of very different problems. Firstly, this comprises numerical issues, e.g. convergence, multi-frequency solutions and highly efficient methods; and secondly, solutions techniques for the particular difficulties that arise wi...

  10. Shakedown Analysis of 3-D Structures Using the Boundary Element Method Based on the Static Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰; 刘应华; 岑章志

    2003-01-01

    The static shakedown theorem was reformulated for the boundary element method (BEM) rather than the finite element method with Melan's theorem, then used to develop a numerical solution procedure for shakedown analysis. The self-equilibrium stress field was constructed by a linear combination of several basis self-equilibrium stress fields with undetermined parameters. These basis self-equilibrium stress fields were expressed as elastic responses of the body to imposed permanent strains obtained using a 3-D BEM elastic-plastic incremental analysis. The lower bound for the shakedown load was obtained from a series of nonlinear mathematical programming problems solved using the Complex method. Numerical examples verified the precision of the present method.

  11. LES model intercomparisons for the stable atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, A.F.; Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Model intercomparisons are one possible method to gain confidence in Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) as a viable tool to study turbulence in the atmospheric boundary-layer. This paper discusses the setup and some results of two intercomparison cases focussing on the stably stratified nocturnal boundary-

  12. An improved optimal elemental method for updating finite element models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Zhongdong(段忠东); Spencer B.F.; Yan Guirong(闫桂荣); Ou Jinping(欧进萍)

    2004-01-01

    The optimal matrix method and optimal elemental method used to update finite element models may not provide accurate results. This situation occurs when the test modal model is incomplete, as is often the case in practice. An improved optimal elemental method is presented that defines a new objective function, and as a byproduct, circumvents the need for mass normalized modal shapes, which are also not readily available in practice. To solve the group of nonlinear equations created by the improved optimal method, the Lagrange multiplier method and Matlab function fmincon are employed. To deal with actual complex structures,the float-encoding genetic algorithm (FGA) is introduced to enhance the capability of the improved method. Two examples, a 7-degree of freedom (DOF) mass-spring system and a 53-DOF planar frame, respectively, are updated using the improved method.Thc example results demonstrate the advantages of the improved method over existing optimal methods, and show that the genetic algorithm is an effective way to update the models used for actual complex structures.

  13. Analysis of radiation noise from cylinder block by boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Akinori; Sakurai, Yoichi

    1987-08-01

    As an approach toward low noise in the cylinder blocks of engines for large vehicles, the analysis of emitted noise was attempted. The method of forecasting the sound pressure level emitted from a cylinder block using boundary element method, from the calculated values or the measured values of vibration modes by partial structure synthesis method, was developed. The method of forecasting emitted noise using the result of holography measurement was developed, and by utilizing this method, the experimental optimizing technique for reducing noise was worked up. By applying the combination of the partial structure synthesis method and boundary element method to the cylinder blocks of large and medium sized diesel engines, the investigation of low noise cylinder blocks has become feasible at the stage of desk work. By these methods, from the result of holography, the part which is most effective when its noise level is reduced is determined, and the effect of reduction can be forecast. Besides, low noise structures can be studied on a desk, and the products manufactured for trial can be decreased, and the efficient development can be made. (9 figs, 2 tabs, 15 refs)

  14. Inexact Krylov iterations and relaxation strategies with fast-multipole boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Boundary element methods produce dense linear systems that can be accelerated via multipole expansions. Solved with Krylov methods, this implies computing the matrix-vector products within each iteration with some error, at an accuracy controlled by the order of the expansion, $p$. We take advantage of a unique property of Krylov iterations that allow lower accuracy of the matrix-vector products as convergence proceeds, and propose a relaxation strategy based on progressively decreasing $p$. Via extensive numerical tests, we show that the relaxed Krylov iterations converge with speed-ups of between 2x and 4x for Laplace problems and between 3.5x and 4.5x for Stokes problems. We include an application to Stokes flow around red blood cells, computing with up to 64 cells and problem size up to 131k boundary elements and nearly 400k unknowns. The study was done with an in-house multi-threaded C++ code, on a quad-core CPU.

  15. Boundary elements method for microfluidic two-phase flows in shallow channels

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    In the following work we apply the boundary element method to two-phase flows in shallow microchannels, where one phase is dispersed and does not wet the channel walls. These kinds of flows are often encountered in microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip devices and characterized by low Reynolds and low capillary numbers. Assuming that these channels are homogeneous in height and have a large aspect ratio, we use depth-averaged equations to describe these two-phase flows using the Brinkman equation, which constitutes a refinement of Darcy's law. These partial differential equations are discretized and solved numerically using the boundary element method, where a stabilization scheme is applied to the surface tension terms, allowing for a less restrictive time step at low capillary numbers. The convergence of the numerical algorithm is checked against a static analytical solution and on a dynamic test case. Finally the algorithm is applied to the non-linear development of the Saffman-Taylor instability and compared to expe...

  16. Mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcelli, S.A.; Kress, J.D.; Pratt, L.R.

    1995-08-07

    This paper develops and characterizes mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models. We give an example, the Ca{sup ++}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sup {minus}} pair potential of mean force in aqueous solution, for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is difficult and, thus for which mixed direct-iterative methods seem necessary to obtain the required high resolution. For the simplest such formulations, Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the non-symmetric iteration matrix. This establishes that those divergences are due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations used in evaluation of the matrix elements corresponding to accidental close encounters of boundary elements on different atomic spheres. The spectral radii are then greater than one for those diverging cases. This problem is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those cases performing an ``in-line`` Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. These difficulties are not expected and have not been observed for the thoroughly coarsened equations obtained when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of hybrid quantum-classical methods to deprotonation of orthosilicic acid in water.

  17. Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Transtrum, Mark K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...

  18. A boundary element method for the simulation of non-spherical bubbles and their interactions near a free surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Rui Li; Lei Sun; Zhi Zong; Jing Dong

    2012-01-01

    The basic principle and numerical technique for simulating two three-dimensional bubbles near a free surface are studied in detail by using boundary element method.The singularities of influence coefficient matrix are eliminated using coordinate transformation and so-called 4π rule.The solid angle for the open surface is treated in direct method based on its definition.Several kinds of configurations for the bubbles and free surface have been investigated.The pressure contours during the evolution of bubbles are obtained in our model and can better illuminate the mechanism underlying the motions of bubbles and free surface.The bubble dynamics and their interactions have close relation with the standoff distances,buoyancy parameters and initial sizes of bubbles.Completely different bubble shapes,free surface motions,jetting patterns and pressure distributions under different parameters can be observed in our model,as demonstrated in our calculation results.

  19. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  20. Identification of topographic elements composition based on landform boundaries from radar interferometry segmentation (preliminary study on digital landform mapping)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmanti, Wirastuti; Wicaksono, Ikhsan; Dinta Rahma Syam, Prima

    2016-06-01

    Dense vegetation that covers most landscapes in Indonesia becomes a common limitation in mapping the landforms in tropical region. This paper aims to examine the use of radar interferometry for landform mapping in tropical region; to examine the application of segmentation method to develop landform type boundaries; and to identify the topographic elements composition for each type of landform. Using Idrisi® and “eCognition ®” softwares, toposhape analysis, segmentation and multi-spectral classification were applied to identify the composition of topographic elements i.e. the types of land-cover from Landsat 8, elevation, slope, relief intensity and curvatures from SRTM (DEM). Visual interpretation on DEM and land-cover fusion imagery was conducted to derive basic control maps of landform and land-cover. The result shows that in segmentation method, shape and compactness levels are essential in obtaining land-cover, elevation, and slope class units to determine the most accurate class borders of each element. Despite a complex procedure applied in determining landform classification, the combination of topographic elements segmentation result presents a distinct border of each landform class. The comparison between landform maps derived from segmentation process and visual interpretation method demonstrates slight dissimilarities, meaning that multi-stage segmentation approach can improve and provide more effective digital landform mapping method in tropical region. Topographic elements on each type of landforms show distinctive composition key containing the percentage of each curvature elements per area unit. Supported by GIS programming and modeling in the future, this finding is significant in reducing effort in landform mapping using visual interpretation method for a very large coverage but in detail scale level.

  1. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  2. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  3. Structure of 2-D and 3-D Turbulent Boundary Layers with Sparsely Distributed Roughness Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-28

    straight orientation. Stations U, 6, mm 6", mm 0, mm Ree k+ k/6 1 25.98 58.565 12.70 7.65 11997 58.5 0.0130 2 25.36 54.56 12.65 7.52 11518 60.4 0.0139 3...a flat plate boundary layer transition. Engineering Turbulence Modeling and Experiments - 4, W. Rodi and D. Laurence (Eds.), Elsevier Science Ltd

  4. Modeling aquifer systems with analytic elements and subdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, C. R.

    2010-07-01

    A new approach for analytic element (AE) modeling of groundwater flow is presented. The approach divides the modeled region into polygonal subdomains, each with its own analytic flow model and its own local isotropic or anisotropic aquifer parameters. This allows analytic modeling of systems where the anisotropy ratio and direction vary spatially, an AE capability not possible without subdomains. It also allows for flexible layering in a model, with more layers in the area of interest abutting fewer layers in the far field. The approach is demonstrated in a model with seven subdomains and a mix of single-layer and triple-layer areas. Checks of the model indicate that the inter-subdomain boundary conditions can be approximated well, and where the differential equation is approximated (multilayer areas and transient flow), that approximation can be quite accurate.

  5. The spectrum of boundary states in sine-Gordon model with integrable boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G; Tóth, G

    2002-01-01

    The bound state spectrum and the associated reflection factors are determined for the sine-Gordon model with arbitrary integrable boundary condition by closing the bootstrap. Comparing the symmetries of the bound state spectrum with that of the Lagrangian it is shown how one can "derive" the relationship between the UV and IR parameters conjectured earlier.

  6. The Boundary States of the q-Deformed Supersymmetric t-J Model with a Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Li; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    The q-deformed supersymmetric t J model on a semi-infinite lattice is diagonalized by using the level-one vertex operators of the quantum affine superalgebra Uq[sl(2|1)]. We give the bosonization of the boundary states.``

  7. Indirect boundary element method for three dimensional problems. Analytical solution for contribution to wave field by triangular element; Sanjigen kansetsu kyokai yosoho. Sankakukei yoso no kiyo no kaisekikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T. [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F. [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria

    1997-05-27

    Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.

  8. Accurate computation of Galerkin double surface integrals in the 3-D boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, Ross; Duraiswami, Ramani

    2015-01-01

    Many boundary element integral equation kernels are based on the Green's functions of the Laplace and Helmholtz equations in three dimensions. These include, for example, the Laplace, Helmholtz, elasticity, Stokes, and Maxwell's equations. Integral equation formulations lead to more compact, but dense linear systems. These dense systems are often solved iteratively via Krylov subspace methods, which may be accelerated via the fast multipole method. There are advantages to Galerkin formulations for such integral equations, as they treat problems associated with kernel singularity, and lead to symmetric and better conditioned matrices. However, the Galerkin method requires each entry in the system matrix to be created via the computation of a double surface integral over one or more pairs of triangles. There are a number of semi-analytical methods to treat these integrals, which all have some issues, and are discussed in this paper. We present novel methods to compute all the integrals that arise in Galerkin fo...

  9. A Regularized Boundary Element Formulation for Contactless SAR Evaluations within Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Head Phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Mitharwal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a Boundary Element Method (BEM) formulation for contactless electromagnetic field assessments. The new scheme is based on a regularized BEM approach that requires the use of electric measurements only. The regularization is obtained by leveraging on an extension of Calderon techniques to rectangular systems leading to well-conditioned problems independent of the discretization density. This enables the use of highly discretized Huygens surfaces that can be consequently placed very near to the radiating source. In addition, the new regularized scheme is hybridized with both surfacic homogeneous and volumetric inhomogeneous forward BEM solvers accelerated with fast matrix-vector multiplication schemes. This allows for rapid and effective dosimetric assessments and permits the use of inhomogeneous and realistic head phantoms. Numerical results corroborate the theory and confirms the practical effectiveness of all newly proposed formulations.

  10. Ab initio search for cohesion-enhancing impurity elements at grain boundaries in molybdenum and tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, D.; Pippan, R.; Puschnig, P.; Romaner, L.

    2016-12-01

    We report high throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations to simulate segregation of s- and p-elements in Mo and W. First, the preference of solutes for interstitial or substitutional positions in the bulk is evaluated and then the segregation energies for the solutes to interstitial and different substitutional sites at a grain boundary (GB) and a free surface (FS) are computed. We show that several solutes change their site preference from substitutional to interstitial position upon segregation to the GB. With the segregation energies to GB and FS, the changes in cohesion can be calculated and GB cohesion enhancing solutes can be identified. The results show striking similarity for both W and Mo. In addition, we collected the available literature data from experimental and theoretical side, which we consequently compare to our results. From our results and the comparison to literature, we identify B, C and Be as potential alloying additions for an increased GB cohesion in Mo and W.

  11. Research on the cyclostationary nearfield acoustic holography based on boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibin; WAN Quan; JIANG Weikang

    2009-01-01

    Cyclostationary sound field is a special kind of nonstationary sound field, in which the pressure signal is modulated seriously and sidebands exist in its spectrum. The reconstructed sound field can't figure the cyclostationary features in conventional Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) procedure. On the basis of planar cyclostationary NAH, the cyclostationary NAH based on boundary element method is proposed which can be utilized to analyze radiators with complicated surface. Replacing the Fourier's transform with the second-order cyclic statistics, the Cyclic Spectral Density (CSD) functions is used as the reconstructed physical quantity in the proposed NAH technique, instead of the spectrum or power spectral density of pressure signal. By virtue of the demodulation ability of CSD function, the reconstructed CSD can effectively express the information of modulating and carrier wave respectively. The simulation and experiment illustrate that the validity and accuracy of this cyclostationary NAH technique satisfy the request of engineering.

  12. General Boundary Element Method:an Application of Homotopy Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShijunLIAO

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,based on a new kind of analytic method,namely the homotopy analysis method(HAM),we greatly generalize the traditional boundary element method(BEM) and propose a so-called general BEM approach,The general BEM can overcome the limitations and restrictions of the traditional BEM.It is valid even for strongly nonlinear problems whose governing equations don't contain any linear terms.Moreover,by the proposed general BEM,one can solve a nonlinear problem even by means of no iterations! This shakes the governing place of the iterative methodology of the BEM for nonlinear problems.Besides,the proposed general BEM contains the traditional BEM in logic.The general BEM approach greatly increases the application area of the BEM as a numerical tool.

  13. Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently.

  14. Thermal analysis of a functionally graded material subject to a thermal gradient using the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary element method is utilized in this study to conduct thermal analysis of functionally graded composites, materials in which the internal microstructure or properties are explicitly tailored in order to obtain an optimal response, on the micromechanical (constituent) scale. A unique feature of the boundary element formulations used here is the use of circular shape functions to convert the two-dimensional integrations of the composite fibers to one dimensional integrations. Using the computer code BEST-CMS, the through the thickness temperature profiles are computed for a representative material with varying numbers of fibers and fiber spacing in the thickness direction. The computed temperature profiles are compared to those obtained using an alternate analytical theory which explicitly couples the heterogeneous microstructure to the global analysis. The boundary element results compared favorably to the analytical calculations, with discrepancies that are explainable based on the boundary element formulation. The results serve both to demonstrate the ability of the boundary element method to analyze these types of materials, and to verify the accuracy of the analytical theory.

  15. High-speed boundary layer transition induced by a discrete roughness element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prahladh; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2011-11-01

    The effect of a hemispherical bump on a Mach 3.37 laminar boundary layer is studied using DNS for three conditions with k / δ = 2.54, 0.25 and 0.125, where k is the roughness height. The simulation parameters are based on the experiment by Danehy et. al. (AIAA-2009-394). The flow downstream of the roughness is transitional for all the three conditions accompanied by a rise in skin friction and heat transfer. Upon interaction with the roughness element, the boundary layer separates to form a series of spanwise vortices upstream and a shear layer. These vortices wrap around the roughness to yield a system of streamwise vortices downstream. Perturbation of the shear layer due to the vortices results in the formation of hairpin-shaped vortices further downstream of the roughness. While hairpin vortices were observed in both the center plane and off-symmetry planes on either side for the smallest δ case, they were observed only in the center plane for the other cases. This work was supported by NASA under the hypersonics NRA program under grant NNX08AB33A.

  16. Modeling Charge-Sign Asymmetric Solvation Free Energies With Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2014-01-01

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory but replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [J. Phys. Chem. B, v. 112:2408, 2008]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.

  17. Boundary conditions control for a Shallow-Water model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A variational data assimilation technique was used to estimate optimal discretization of interpolation operators and derivatives in the nodes adjacent to the rigid boundary. Assimilation of artificially generated observational data in the shallow-water model in a square box and assimilation of real observations in the model of the Black sea are discussed. It is shown in both experiments that controlling the discretization of operators near a rigid boundary can bring the model solution closer to observations as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. This type of control allows also to improve climatic variability of the model.

  18. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corato, M.; Slot, J. J. M.; Hütter, M.; D'Avino, G.; Maffettone, P. L.; Hulsen, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation-dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  19. DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF PLANE WAVES WITH A UNILATERALLY FRICTIONALLY CONSTRAINED INCLUSION-TIME DOMAIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengYangde; WangYuesheng; ZhangZimao; CuiJunzhi

    2003-01-01

    A 2D time domain boundary element method (BEM) is developed to solve the transient scattering of plane waves by a unilaterally frictionally constrained inclusion. Coulomb friction is assumed along the contact interface. The incident wave is assumed strong enough so that localized slip and separation take place along the interface. The present problem is in effect a nonlinear boundary value problem since the mixed boundary conditions involve unknown intervals (slip, separation and stick regions). In order to determine the unknown intervals, an iterative technique is developed. As an example, we consider the scattering of a circular cylinder embeddedin an infinite solid.

  20. Boundary element computations in the forward and inverse problems of electrocardiography: comparison of collocation and Galerkin weightings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Matti; Haueisen, Jens

    2008-09-01

    In electrocardiographic imaging, epicardial potentials are reconstructed computationally from electrocardiographic measurements. The reconstruction is typically done with the help of the boundary element method (BEM), using the point collocation weighting and constant or linear basis functions. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of constant and linear point collocation and Galerkin BEMs in the epicardial potential problem. The integral equations and discretizations were formulated in terms of the single- and double-layer operators. All inner element integrals were calculated analytically. The computational methods were validated against analytical solutions in a simplified geometry. On the basis of the validation, no method was optimal in all testing scenarios. In the forward computation of the epicardial potential, the linear Galerkin (LG) method produced the smallest errors. The LG method also produced the smallest discretization error on the epicardial surface. In the inverse computation of epicardial potential, the electrode-specific transfer matrix performed better than the full transfer matrix. The Tikhonov 2 regularization outperformed the Tikhonov 0. In the optimal modeling conditions, the best BEM technique depended on electrode positions and chosen error measure. When large modeling errors such as omission of the lungs were present, the choice of the basis and weighting functions was not significant.

  1. Model Order Reduction for Fluid Dynamics with Moving Solid Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haotian; Wei, Mingjun

    2016-11-01

    We extended the application of POD-Galerkin projection for model order reduction from usual fixed-domain problems to more general fluid-solid systems when moving boundary/interface is involved. The idea is similar to numerical simulation approaches using embedded forcing terms to represent boundary motion and domain change. However, such a modified approach will not get away with the unsteadiness of boundary terms which appear as time-dependent coefficients in the new Galerkin model. These coefficients need to be pre-computed for prescribed motion, or worse, to be computed at each time step for non-prescribed motion. The extra computational cost gets expensive in some cases and eventually undermines the value of using reduced-order models. One solution is to decompose the moving boundary/domain to orthogonal modes and derive another low-order model with fixed coefficients for boundary motion. Further study shows that the most expensive integrations resulted from the unsteady motion (in both original and domain-decomposition approaches) have almost negligible impact on the overall dynamics. Dropping these expensive terms reduces the computation cost by at least one order while no obvious effect on model accuracy is noticed. Supported by ARL.

  2. An Immersed Boundary Finite-Element Solver for Flow-Induced Deformation of Soft Structures with Application in Cardiac Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-11-01

    The modeling of complex biological phenomena such as cardiac mechanics is challenging. It involves complex three dimensional geometries, moving structure boundaries inside the fluid domain and large flow-induced deformations of the structure. We present a fluid-structure interaction solver (FSI) which couples a sharp-interface immersed boundary method for flow simulation with a powerful finite-element based structure dynamics solver. An implicit partitioned (or segregated) approach is implemented to ensure the stability of the solver. We validate the FSI solver with published benchmark for a configuration which involves a thin elastic plate attached to a rigid cylinder. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations of the plate are in good agreement with published results and non-linear dynamics of the plate and its coupling with the flow field are discussed. The FSI solver is used to understand left-ventricular hemodynamics and flow-induced dynamics of mitral leaflets during early diastolic filling and results from this study are presented.

  3. Finite element solution of double-diffusive boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluids over a stretching sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Bhargava, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the double-diffusive boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching sheet. In this model, where binary nanofluid is used, the Brownian motion and thermophoresis are classified as the main mechanisms which are responsible for the enhancement of the convection features of the nanofluid. The boundary layer equations governed by the partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. The variational finite element method (FEM) is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. We have examined the effects of different controlling parameters, namely, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, modified Dufour number, viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, regular Lewis number, Dufour Lewis number, and nanofluid Lewis number on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics. Graphical display of the numerical examine are performed to illustrate the influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration, reduced Nusselt, reduced Sherwood and reduced nanofluid Sherwood number distributions. The present study has many applications in coating and suspensions, movement of biological fluids, cooling of metallic plate, melt-spinning, heat exchangers technology, and oceanography.

  4. Boundary-layer model of pattern formation in solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.

    1984-01-01

    A model of pattern formation in crystal growth is proposed, and its analytic properties are investigated. The principal dynamical variables in this model are the curvature of the solidification front and the thickness (or heat content) of a thermal boundary layer, both taken to be functions of position along the interface. This model is mathematically much more tractable than the realistic, fully nonlocal version of the free-boundary problem, and still recaptures many of the features that seem essential for studying dendritic behavior, for example. Preliminary numerical solutions produce snowflakelike patterns similar to those seen in nature.

  5. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude x longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  6. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude × longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  7. A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES OF A NON-CONFORMING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PROBLEMS WITH ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianmin Xu; Zhiping Li

    2009-01-01

    An a posteriori error estimator is obtained for a nonconforming finite element approx-imation of a linear elliptic problem, which is derived from a corresponding unbounded domain problem by applying a nonlocal approximate artificial boundary condition. Our method can be easily extended to obtain a class of a posteriori error estimators for various conforming and nonconforming finite element approximations of problems with different artificial boundary conditions. The reliability and efficiency of our a posteriori error esti-mator are rigorously proved and axe verified by numerical examples.

  8. The femur as a musculo-skeletal construct: a free boundary condition modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A T M

    2009-07-01

    Previous finite element studies of the femur have made simplifications to varying extents with regard to the boundary conditions used during analysis. Fixed boundary conditions are generally applied to the distal femur when examining the proximal behaviour at the hip joint, while the same can be said for the proximal femur when examining the distal behaviour at the knee joint. While fixed boundary condition analyses have been validated against in vitro experiments it remains a matter of debate as to whether the numerical and experimental models are indicative of the in vivo situation. This study presents a finite element model in which the femur is treated as a complete musculo-skeletal construct, spanning between the hip and knee joints. Linear and non-linear implementations of a free boundary condition modelling approach are applied to the bone through the explicit inclusion of muscles and ligaments spanning both the hip joint and the knee joint. A non-linear force regulated, muscle strain based activation strategy was found to result in lower observed principal strains in the cortex of the femur, compared to a linear activation strategy. The non-linear implementation of the model in particular, was found to produce hip and knee joint reaction forces consistent with in vivo data from instrumented implants.

  9. Nanoscale finite element models for vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes:atomistic versus continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R ANSARI; S ROUHI; M ARYAYI

    2013-01-01

    By the atomistic and continuum finite element models, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied. In the atomistic finite element model, the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively. The molecular mechanics is linked to structural mechanics to determine the elastic properties of the mentioned beam elements. In the continuum finite element approach, by neglecting the discrete nature of the atomic structure of the nanotubes, they are modeled with shell elements. By both models, the natural frequencies of SWCNTs are computed, and the effects of the geometrical parameters, the atomic structure, and the boundary conditions are investigated. The accuracy of the utilized methods is verified in comparison with molecular dynamic simulations. The molecular structural model leads to more reliable results, especially for lower aspect ratios. The present analysis provides valuable information about application of continuum models in the investigation of the mechanical behaviors of nanotubes.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundaries in ZrB2: Structure, Energetics, and Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Squire, Thomas H.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of ab initio, atomistic and finite element methods (FEM) were used to investigate the structures, energetics and lattice thermal conductance of grain boundaries for the ultra high temperature ceramic ZrB2. Atomic models of idealized boundaries were relaxed using density functional theory. Information about bonding across the interfaces was determined from the electron localization function. The Kapitza conductance of larger scale versions of the boundary models were computed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The interfacial thermal parameters together with single crystal thermal conductivities were used as parameters in microstructural computations. FEM meshes were constructed on top of microstructural images. From these computations, the effective thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline structure was determined.

  11. Parameter identification in tidal models with uncertain boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Brummelhuis, ten Paul

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simultaneous state and parameter estimation procedure for tidal models with random inputs, which is formulated as a minimization problem. It is assumed that some model parameters are unknown and that the random noise inputs only act upon the open boundaries. The hyperboli

  12. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2017-01-01

    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  13. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology a...... blocks are investigated: Product Innovation, Infrastructure management, Customer relationship, Financial Aspects.......The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology...

  14. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

  15. Exact Solution for Perk-Schultz Model with Boundary Impurities *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Liang; YUE Rui-Hong; SHI Kang-Jie; HOU Bo-Yu

    2001-01-01

    The Perk-Schultz model with SUq(m|n) spin boundary impurities is constructed by dressing the c-number reflecting K-matrix with the local L-matrix which acts non-trivially on an impurity Hilbert space. The eigenvalue of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations with different c-number reflecting K-matrices are obtained by using the nested Bethe ansatz method (m ≠ n). When m = 1,n = 2, our results come back to that of supersymmetric t - J model with SUq(1|2) spin boundary impurities.

  16. Finite element modelling of SAW correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-12-01

    Numerical simulations of SAW correlators so far are limited to delta function and equivalent circuit models. These models are not accurate as they do not replicate the actual behaviour of the device. Manufacturing a correlator to specifically realise a different configuration is both expensive and time consuming. With the continuous improvement in computing capacity, switching to finite element modelling would be more appropriate. In this paper a novel way of modelling a SAW correlator using finite element analysis is presented. This modelling approach allows the consideration of different code implementation and device structures. This is demonstrated through simulation results for a 5×2-bit Barker sequence encoded SAW correlator. These results show the effect of both bulk and leaky modes on the device performance at various operating frequencies. Moreover, the ways in which the gain of the correlator can be optimised though variation of design parameters will also be outlined.

  17. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

  18. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  19. Linear Algebra Aspects in the Equilibrium-Based Implementation of Finite/Boundary Element Methods for FGMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ney Augusto

    2008-02-01

    The paper briefly outlines the conventional and three variational implementations of the boundary element method, pointing out the conceptual imbrications of their constituent matrices. The nature of fundamental solutions is investigated in terms of the resulting matrix spectral properties, as applied to multiply-connected domains, reentering corners and FGMs.

  20. HIGH ACCURACY FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同科

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  1. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D L P

    2006-01-01

    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  2. Computation of Aerodynamic Noise Radiated from Ducted Tail Rotor Using Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed aerodynamic performance of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD technique. The general governing equations of turbulent flow around ducted tail rotor are given and directly solved by using finite volume discretization and Runge-Kutta time integration. The calculations of the lift characteristics of the ducted tail rotor can be obtained. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combining computational aeroacoustic with boundary element method (BEM has been proposed. The computational steps include the following: firstly, the unsteady flow around rotor is calculated using the CFD method to get the noise source information; secondly, the radiate sound pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy Curle equation in the frequency domain; lastly, the scattering effect of the duct wall on the propagation of the sound wave is presented using an acoustic thin-body BEM. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels are compared with the known technique for validation. The sound pressure directivity and scattering effect are shown to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method.

  3. High-speed laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition induced by a discrete roughness element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prahladh; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2013-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study laminar to turbulent transition induced by a discrete hemispherical roughness element in a high-speed laminar boundary layer. The simulations are performed under conditions matching the experiments of Danehy et al. (AIAA Paper 2009-394, 2009) for free-stream Mach numbers of 3.37, 5.26 and 8.23. It is observed that the Mach 8.23 flow remains laminar downstream of the roughness, while the lower Mach numbers undergo transition. The Mach 3.37 flow undergoes transition closer to the bump when compared with Mach 5.26, in agreement with experimental observations. Transition is accompanied by an increase in Cf and Ch (Stanton number). Even for the case that did not undergo transition (Mach 8.23), streamwise vortices induced by the roughness cause a significant rise in Cf until 20 D downstream. The mean van Driest transformed velocity and Reynolds stress for Mach 3.37 and 5.26 show good agreement with available data. A local Reynolds number based on the wall properties is seen to correlate with the onset of transition for the cases considered. Partially supported by NASA.

  4. The boundary element method applied to viscous and vortex shedding flows around cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Tim

    Studies are presented to further extend the use of the boundary element method (BEM) for the solution of viscous flows around bluff bodies, governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Two distinct formulations are applied to various flows around cylindrical geometries for Reynolds numbers Tan (1994) and known herein as the global BEM, was coded to execute in parallel on multi-processor computers. Reductions in execution time were achieved and the method was employed to solve an oscillating cylinder problem. In this study, the displacement undergone by the body was very large but the Reynolds number was always Tan et al (1998). A validation for isolated and double circular cylinders in a uniform stream was performed against experimental evidence to demonstrate the method's stability and accuracy for laminar vortex shedding with geometries involving multiply connected domains. Finally, computational results for flows around four equispaced circular cylinders of equal diameter and two cylinders, one circular the other elliptical, are reported. Many of the concepts established for the flow around two cylinders of equal diameter were found to be useful in interpretation of these more complicated arrangements.

  5. Finite element modeling of permanent magnet devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, J. R.; Larkin, L. A.; Overbye, V. D.

    1984-03-01

    New techniques are presented for finite element modeling of permanent magnets in magnetic devices such as motors and generators. These techniques extend a previous sheet-current permanent magnet model that applies only for straight line B-H loops and rectangular-shaped magnets. Here Maxwell's equations are used to derive the model of a permanent magnet having a general curved B-H loop and any geometric shape. The model enables a nonlinear magnetic finite element program to use Newton-Raphson iteration to solve for saturable magnetic fields in a wide variety of devices containing permanent magnets and steels. The techniques are applied to a brushless dc motor with irregular-shaped permanent magnets. The calculated motor torque agrees well with measured torque.

  6. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  7. Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.

    2010-04-01

    We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.

  8. MODELING A SOLID BOUNDARY AS A FLUID OF INFINITE VISCOSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new approach to model viscosity in the conservation of momentum equations is presented and discussed. Coefficient of viscosity is modeled in such a way that it reaches asymptotically to infinity at the solid boundary but still yields a finite value for the shear stress at the solid wall. Basic objective of this research is to show that certain combinations of higher order normal velocity gradients become zero at the solid boundary.Modified solutions for the Couette flow and Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates are obtained by modeling the coefficient of viscosity in a novel way. Also,viscous drag computed by our model is expected to yield higher values than the values predicted by the existing models, which matches closely to the experimental data.

  9. Prediction of acoustic radiation from axisymmetric surfaces with arbitrary boundary conditions using the boundary element method on a distributed computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Louise; Robinson, Stephen P; Humphrey, Victor F

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a computational technique using the boundary element method for prediction of radiated acoustic waves from axisymmetric surfaces with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. The aim is to predict the far-field behavior of underwater acoustic transducers based on their measured behavior in the near-field. The technique is valid for all wavenumbers and uses a volume integral method to calculate the singular integrals required by the boundary element formulation. The technique has been implemented on a distributed computing system to take advantage of its parallel nature, which has led to significant reductions in the time required to generate results. Measurement data generated by a pair of free-flooding underwater acoustic transducers encapsulated in a polyurethane polymer have been used to validate the technique against experiment. The dimensions of the outer surface of the transducers (including the polymer coating) were an outer diameter of 98 mm with an 18 mm wall thickness and a length of 92 mm. The transducers were mounted coaxially, giving an overall length of 185 mm. The cylinders had resonance frequencies at 13.9 and 27.5 kHz, and the data were gathered at these frequencies.

  10. Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    -number estimates based on output from the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (a version of SMHI with a grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20 km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary...

  11. Multiscale modelling as a tool to prescribe realistic boundary conditions for the study of surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, K; Dubini, G; Migliavacca, F; Pietrabissa, R; Pennati, G; Veneziani, A; Quarteroni, A

    2002-01-01

    This work was motivated by the problems of analysing detailed 3D models of vascular districts with complex anatomy. It suggests an approach to prescribing realistic boundary conditions to use in order to obtain information on local as well as global haemodynamics. A method was developed which simultaneously solves Navier-Stokes equations for local information and a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations for global information. This is based on the principle that an anatomically detailed 3D model of a cardiovascular district can be achieved by using the finite element method. In turn the finite element method requires a specific boundary condition set. The approach outlined in this work is to include the system of ordinary differential equations in the boundary condition set. Such a multiscale approach was first applied to two controls: (i) a 3D model of a straight tube in a simple hydraulic network and (ii) a 3D model of a straight coronary vessel in a lumped-parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The results obtained are very close to the solutions available for the pipe geometry. This paper also presents preliminary results from the application of the methodology to a particular haemodynamic problem: namely the fluid dynamics of a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in paediatric cardiac surgery.

  12. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Cheng; Weifu Liu; Kaixin Liu

    2009-01-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application, The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  13. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Liu, Weifu; Liu, Kaixin

    2009-10-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application. The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  14. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...

  15. Effect of segregated elements on the interactions between twin boundaries and screw dislocations in Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Yuasa, Motohiro; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of { 10 1 ¯ 2 } and { 10 1 ¯ 1 } twin boundaries (TBs), segregated by X (X = Sc, Y, or Nd), with screw partial dislocations were simulated using molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, mechanical tests were carried out on pure Mg and Mg-Y alloy. The MD simulation results suggested that the dislocations passed through the { 10 1 ¯ 2 } TB in all the models and that the shear strains for transmission in the Mg-X models were larger than that in the pure Mg model; in particular, the shear strain in the Mg-Y model was the largest. This corresponded to the experimental result that strain hardening was enhanced by Y addition. For interactions of a { 10 1 ¯ 1 } TB, some segregated atoms induced the emission of dislocations from the TB, whereas other segregated atoms locked the dislocation absorbed in the TB. As a result, the interaction behaviors of the { 10 1 ¯ 1 } TB were divided into five patterns. The interactions of this TB could be explained by the criterion of energy variations, as well as the interactions, of the { 10 1 ¯ 2 } TB, although segregation complicated the interactions of the { 10 1 ¯ 1 } TB.

  16. Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high

  17. Modeling magnetized star-planet interactions: boundary conditions effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strugarek, Antoine; Matt, Sean P; Reville, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We model the magnetized interaction between a star and a close-in planet (SPMIs), using global, magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. In this proceedings, we study the effects of the numerical boundary conditions at the stellar surface, where the stellar wind is driven, and in the planetary interior. We show that is it possible to design boundary conditions that are adequate to obtain physically realistic, steady-state solutions for cases with both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. This encourages further development of numerical studies, in order to better constrain and understand SPMIs, as well as their effects on the star-planet rotational evolution.

  18. The finite element modeling of spiral ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Accurate understanding the behavior of spiral rope is complicated due to their complex geometry and complex contact conditions between the wires. This study proposed the finite element models of spiral ropes subjected to tensile loads. The parametric equations developed in this paper were implemented for geometric modeling of ropes. The 3D geometric models with different twisting manner, equal diameters of wires were generated in details by using Pro/ENGINEER software. The results of the present finite element analysis were on an acceptable level of accuracy as compared with those of theoretical and experimental data. Further development is ongoing to analysis the equivalent stresses induced by twisting manner of cables. The twisting manner of wires was important to spiral ropes in the three wire layers and the outer twisting manner of wires should be contrary to that of the second layer, no matter what is the first twisting manner of wires.

  19. THE EFFECT OF BOUNDARY SHAPE ON BOUNDARY LAYER OF P-MODEL PLATEPROBLEMS WITH HARD SIMPLY SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILIKANG; CHENJIUHUA

    1996-01-01

    The paper shows that: for a unit circular plate: Reissner-Mindlin plate model with hardsimply support does not capture the boundary, layer behaviour for the bending moment whenthe load is independent of θ, where (r,θ) is the polar coordinates in plane. In contrast p-modelshows this boundary layer, which is proved theoretically and numerically. But for the case whenthe boundary is a straight line, the boundary layer for p-model is weak and disappears as thePlate thickness tends to zero.

  20. Final Report for Time Domain Boundary Element and Hybrid Finite Element Simulation for Maxwell's Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingenot, J; Jandhyala, V

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the University of Washington between September 2004 and May 2006. This project studied fast solvers and stability for time domain integral equations (TDIE), especially as applied to radiating boundary for a massively parallel FEM solver.

  1. Bifurcation analysis for a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a free boundary problem modeling the growth of nonnecrotic tumors.The tumor is treated as an incompressible fluid, the tissue elasticity is neglected and no chemical inhibitor species are present. We re-express the mathematical model as an operator equation and by using a bifurcation argument we prove that there exist stationary solutions of the problem which are not radially symmetric.

  2. The XXZ model with anti-periodic twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Niekamp, Sönke; Frahm, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We derive functional equations for the eigenvalues of the XXZ model subject to anti-diagonal twisted boundary conditions by means of fusion of transfer matrices and by Sklyanin's method of separation of variables. Our findings coincide with those obtained using Baxter's method and are compared to the recent solution of Galleas. As an application we study the finite size scaling of the ground state energy of the model in the critical regime.

  3. The XXZ model with anti-periodic twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekamp, Soenke; Wirth, Tobias; Frahm, Holger [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We derive functional equations for the eigenvalues of the XXZ model subject to anti-diagonal twisted boundary conditions by means of fusion of transfer matrices and by Sklyanin's method of separation of variables. Our findings coincide with those obtained using Baxter's method and are compared to the recent solution of Galleas. As an application we study the finite size scaling of the ground-state energy of the model in the critical regime.

  4. Application of dual reciprocity boundary element method to predict acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhen-lin; WANG Xue-ren

    2008-01-01

    In marine engine exhaust silencing systems,the presence of exhaust gas flow influences the sound propagation inside the systems and the acoustic attenuation performance of silencers.In order to investigate the effects of three-dimensional gas flow and acoustic damping on the acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers,a dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM)was developed.The acoustic governing equation in three-dimensional potential flow was derived first,and then the DRBEM numerical procedure is given.Compared to the conventional boundary elementmethod (CBEM),the DRBEM considers the second order terms of flow Mach number in the acoustic governing equation,so it is suitable for the cases with higher Mach number subsonic flow.For complex exhaust silencers,it is difficult to apply the single-domain boundary element method,so a substructure approach based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method is presented.The experiments for measuring transmission loss of silencers are conducted,and the experimental setup and measurements are explained.The transmission loss of a single expansion chamber silencer with extended inlet and outlet were predicted by DRBEM and compared with the measurements.The good agreements between predictions and measurements are observed,which demonstrated that the derived acoustic governing equation and the DRBEM numerical procedure in the present study are correct.

  5. Analysis of vibroacoustic properties of dimpled beams using a boundary value model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kyle R.

    Attention has been given recently to the use of dimples as a means of passively altering the vibroacoustic properties of structures. Because of their geometric complexity, previous studies have modeled dimpled structures using the finite element method. However, the dynamics of dimpled structures are not completely understood. The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of these structures through the development of a boundary value model (BVM) using Hamilton's Variational Principle. The focus of this study is on dimpled beams, which represent the simplest form of a dimpled structure. A general model of a beam with N dimples in free vibration is developed. Since dimples formed via a stamping process do not change the mass of the beam, the dimple thickness is less than that of the straight segments. Differential equations of motion that describe the normal and axial motion of the dimpled beams are derived. Their numerical solution yields the natural frequencies and analytical mode shapes of a dimpled beam. The accuracy of this model is checked against those obtained using the finite element method, as well as the analytical studies on the vibrations of arches, and shown to be accurate. The effect of dimple placement, dimple angle, its chord length, its thickness, as well as beam boundary conditions on beam natural frequencies and mode shapes are investigated. For beams with axially restrictive boundary conditions, the results.

  6. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Coupled finite difference and boundary element methods for fluid flow through a vessel with multibranches in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Wu, Guo Xiong

    2013-03-01

    A mathematical model and a numerical solution procedure are developed to simulate flow field through a 3D permeable vessel with multibranches embedded in a solid tumour. The model is based on Poisseuille's law for the description of the flow through the vessels, Darcy's law for the fluid field inside the tumour interstitium, and Starling's law for the flux transmitted across the vascular walls. The solution procedure is based on a coupled method, in which the finite difference method is used for the flow in the vessels and the boundary element method is used for the flow in the tumour. When vessels meet each other at a junction, the pressure continuity and mass conservation are imposed at the junction. Three typical representative structures within the tumour vasculature, symmetrical dichotomous branching, asymmetrical bifurcation with uneven radius of daughter vessels and trifurcation, are investigated in detail as case studies. These results have demonstrated the features of tumour flow environment by the pressure distributions and flow velocity field.

  8. An Extended Finite Element Method Formulation for Modeling the Response of Polycrystalline Materials to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.

    2007-12-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite-element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static meso-scale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Vitali and Benson [2] and Song et al. [3] to model dynamic loading of a polycrystalline material. We use demonstration problems to examine the method's efficacy for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline materials at the meso-scale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries.

  9. Finite element modelling of internal and multiple localized cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloustros, Savvas; Pelà, Luca; Cervera, Miguel; Roca, Pere

    2017-02-01

    Tracking algorithms constitute an efficient numerical technique for modelling fracture in quasi-brittle materials. They succeed in representing localized cracks in the numerical model without mesh-induced directional bias. Currently available tracking algorithms have an important limitation: cracking originates either from the boundary of the discretized domain or from predefined "crack-root" elements and then propagates along one orientation. This paper aims to circumvent this drawback by proposing a novel tracking algorithm that can simulate cracking starting at any point of the mesh and propagating along one or two orientations. This enhancement allows the simulation of structural case-studies experiencing multiple cracking. The proposed approach is validated through the simulation of a benchmark example and an experimentally tested structural frame under in-plane loading. Mesh-bias independency of the numerical solution, computational cost and predicted collapse mechanisms with and without the tracking algorithm are discussed.

  10. Speech Repairs, Intonational Boundaries and Discourse Markers Modeling Speakers' Utterances in Spoken Dialog

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a statistical language model for resolving speech repairs, intonational boundaries and discourse markers. Rather than finding the best word interpretation for an acoustic signal, we redefine the speech recognition problem to so that it also identifies the POS tags, discourse markers, speech repairs and intonational phrase endings (a major cue in determining utterance units). Adding these extra elements to the speech recognition problem actually allows it to better predict the words involved, since we are able to make use of the predictions of boundary tones, discourse markers and speech repairs to better account for what word will occur next. Furthermore, we can take advantage of acoustic information, such as silence information, which tends to co-occur with speech repairs and intonational phrase endings, that current language models can only regard as noise in the acoustic signal. The output of this language model is a much fuller account of the speaker's turn, with part-of-speech ...

  11. Multiphase Transformer Modelling using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Mohd Yusoff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 1970 saw the starting invention of the five-phase motor as the milestone in advanced electric motor. Through the years, there are many researchers, which passionately worked towards developing for multiphase drive system. They developed a static transformation system to obtain a multiphase supply from the available three-phase supply. This idea gives an influence for further development in electric machines as an example; an efficient solution for bulk power transfer. This paper highlighted the detail descriptions that lead to five-phase supply with fixed voltage and frequency by using Finite-Element Method (FEM. Identifying of specification on a real transformer had been done before applied into software modeling. Therefore, Finite-Element Method provides clearly understandable in terms of visualize the geometry modeling, connection scheme and output waveform.

  12. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  13. Boundary States of the Potts Model on Random Planar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, Max; Wheater, John

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the 3-states Potts model on random planar triangulations as a Hermitian matrix model. As a novelty, we obtain an algebraic curve which encodes the partition function on the disc with both fixed and mixed spin boundary conditions. We investigate the critical behaviour of this model and find scaling exponents consistent with previous literature. We argue that the conformal field theory that describes the double scaling limit is Liouville quantum gravity coupled to the $(A_4,D_4)$ minimal model with extended $\\mathcal{W}_3$-symmetry.

  14. Automatic method for building indoor boundary models from dense point clouds collected by laser scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2012-11-22

    In this paper we present a method that automatically yields Boundary Representation Models (B-rep) for indoors after processing dense point clouds collected by laser scanners from key locations through an existing facility. Our objective is particularly focused on providing single models which contain the shape, location and relationship of primitive structural elements of inhabited scenarios such as walls, ceilings and floors. We propose a discretization of the space in order to accurately segment the 3D data and generate complete B-rep models of indoors in which faces, edges and vertices are coherently connected. The approach has been tested in real scenarios with data coming from laser scanners yielding promising results. We have deeply evaluated the results by analyzing how reliably these elements can be detected and how accurately they are modeled.

  15. Finite Element/Boundary Element Simulation of 3 D Rail Gun with Coupling Method Based on Symmetry Condition%对称边界条件下轨道炮有限元/边界元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志朋; 刘振祥; 杨栋; 欧阳建明; 杨丽佳

    2016-01-01

    基于deal.ii编写了电磁轨道炮有限元仿真程序,建立了拉格朗日运动坐标下电磁轨道炮的有限元仿真模型;通过使用有限元边界元耦合方法可以对电磁轨道炮的边界条件进行计算,而无需对轨道炮周边的空气划分网格,是一种处理电磁场边界问题的有效方法;但是,由于边界元方法,使用的是满秩矩阵,在三维情况下计算量大,利用轨道炮的对称性,使用对称边界条件,减少了参与计算的网格数目,从而减少计算量。%This article created finite element program and model for rail launch based on deal.ii in La-grange coordinate frame.By using coupling finite element/boundary element coupling method,we can cal-culate boundary condition without air grid surround rail gun.It is a valid method to handle boundary prob-lems of electromagnetic without the perimeter of the rail gun air mesh.But for boundary element method u-sing full matrix which will cost a lot of calculation in 3D situation,we would better using symmetry condi-tions for rail gun to reduce the grid number and calculation.

  16. Finite element model calibration of a nonlinear perforated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, David A.; Allen, Matthew S.; Beberniss, Timothy J.; Neild, Simon A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a case study in which the finite element model for a curved circular plate is calibrated to reproduce both the linear and nonlinear dynamic response measured from two nominally identical samples. The linear dynamic response is described with the linear natural frequencies and mode shapes identified with a roving hammer test. Due to the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics from the manufactured perforations, the linear natural frequencies are used to update the effective modulus of elasticity of the full order finite element model (FEM). The nonlinear dynamic response is described with nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) measured using force appropriation and high speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC). The measured NNMs are used to update the boundary conditions of the full order FEM through comparison with NNMs calculated from a nonlinear reduced order model (NLROM). This comparison revealed that the nonlinear behavior could not be captured without accounting for the small curvature of the plate from manufacturing as confirmed in literature. So, 3D-DIC was also used to identify the initial static curvature of each plate and the resulting curvature was included in the full order FEM. The updated models are then used to understand how the stress distribution changes at large response amplitudes providing a possible explanation of failures observed during testing.

  17. Measurement and Modeling of the Fluctuating Wall Pressure Field Beneath Transitional Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarski, Stephen R.

    2001-11-01

    Measurements have been performed to better understand the space-varying character of the fluctuating wall pressure field beneath a transitional boundary layer and to develop an appropriate model for the space-varying (nonhomogeneous) wavenumber-frequency wall pressure spectrum. Although a great deal is understood regarding the structure of the wall pressure field beneath turbulent boundary layers, the current understanding of the wall pressure field beneath the transitional boundary layer is incomplete. Overlooked have been critical issues concerning spatial variations in turbulence structure and the convection and decay of pressure producing disturbances—properties that define the character of the field and resulting form of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. The experiments involve measurement of the space-time fluctuating wall pressure field across the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer by means of a 64-element linear array of hearing-aid microphones and hot wire velocity measurements in the adjacent laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers. Because the field is nonhomogeneous, wavelet based transform methods are required to appropriately resolve the space-varying structure of the field and form of the nonhomogeneous wavenumber-frequency spectrum.

  18. Slarti: A boundary condition editor for a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, S. A.; Jacob, R. L.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2006-12-01

    One of the largest barriers to making climate models more flexible is the difficulty in creating new boundary conditions, especially for "deep time" paleoclimate cases where continents are in different positions. Climate models consist of several mutually-interacting component models and the boundary conditions must be consistent between them. We have developed a program called Slarti which uses a Graphical User Interface and a set of consistency rules to aid researchers in creating new, consistent, boundary condition files for the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM). Users can start from existing mask, topography, or bathymetry data or can build a "world" entirely from scratch (e.g. a single island continent). Once a case has been started, users can modify mask, vegetation, bathymetry, topography, and river flow fields by drawing new data through a "paint" interface. Users activate a synchronization button which goes through the fields to eliminate inconsistencies. When the changes are complete and save is selected, Slarti creates all the necessary files for an initial run of FOAM. The data is edited at the highest resolution (the ocean-land surface in FOAM) and then interpolated to the atmosphere resolution. Slarti was implemented in Java to maintain portability across platforms. We also relied heavily on Java Swing components to create the interface. This allowed us to create an object-oriented interface that could be used on many different systems. Since Slarti allows users to visualize their changes, they are able to see areas that may cause problems when the model is ran. Some examples would be lakes from the river flow field and narrow trenches within the bathymetry. Through different checks and options available through its interface, Slarti makes the process of creating new boundary conditions for FOAM easier and faster while reducing the chance for user errors.

  19. An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenji

    2010-03-01

    An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers (BBLs) is proposed using eddy viscosity of a quadratic form. The common definition of friction velocity based on maximum bottom shear stress is found unsatisfactory for BBLs under rotating flows, and a possible extension based on turbulent kinetic energy balance is proposed. The model solutions show that the flow may slip at the top of the boundary layer due to capping by the water surface or stratification, reducing the bottom shear stress, and that the Earth's rotation induces current and bottom shear stress components perpendicular to the interior flow with a phase lag (or lead). Comparisons with field and numerical experiments indicate that the model predicts the essential characteristics of the velocity profiles, although the agreement is rather qualitative due to assumptions of quadratic eddy viscosity with time-independent friction velocity and a well-mixed boundary layer. On the other hand, the predicted linear friction coefficients, phase lead, and veering angle at the bottom agreed with available data with an error of 3%-10%, 5°-10°, and 5°-10°, respectively. As an application of the model, the friction coefficients are used to calculate e-folding decay distances of progressive internal waves with a semidiurnal frequency.

  20. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  1. A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn

    2013-01-01

    The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...

  2. Thermal boundary resistance from transient nanocalorimetry: A multiscale modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Claudia; Melis, Claudio; Ronchi, Andrea; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Rurali, Riccardo; Colombo, Luciano; Banfi, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The thermal boundary resistance at the interface between a nanosized Al film and an Al2O3 substrate is investigated at an atomistic level. The thermal dynamics occurring in time-resolved thermoreflectance experiments is then modeled via macrophysics equations upon insertion of the materials parameters obtained from atomistic simulations. Electrons and phonons nonequilibrium and spatiotemporal temperatures inhomogeneities are found to persist up to the nanosecond time scale. These results question the validity of the commonly adopted lumped thermal capacitance model in interpreting transient nanocalorimetry experiments. The strategy adopted in the literature to extract the thermal boundary resistance from transient reflectivity traces is revised in the light of the present findings. The results are of relevance beyond the specific system, the physical picture being general and readily extendable to other heterojunctions.

  3. A data model for regions with indeterminate boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NHAN Vu-thi-hong; CHI Jeong-hee; RYU Keun-ho

    2004-01-01

    Most of spatial phenomena like natural vegetation units and land use areas constantly change over time and have uncertainty spatial extents. Till now, a considerable number of data models have been proposed for spatial objects with sharp boundaries as well as with indeterminate boundaries. However, they mainly concern space and time or space and fuzziness and not yet integrate them into a single unified framework. This paper introduces a formal definition of the conceptual fuzzy spatiotemporal data model, called FSTDM for fuzzy regions based on fuzzy set theory. We also contribute a method of manipulating queries with the presence of both temporal predicate and fuzzy spatial predicate in the condition clause efficiently. We then implement a prototype system.Through the experimental results, we prove that our work can be used to build a specialized system such as GIS, spatial database, and so on.

  4. Boundary Element Method for Reconstructing Absorption and Diffusion Coefficients of Biological Tissues in DOT/MicroCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenhao; Deng, Yong; Lian, Lichao; Yan, Dongmei; Yang, Xiaoquan; Luo, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    The functional information, the absorption and diffusion coefficients, as well as the structural information of biological tissues can be provided by the DOT(Diffuse Optical Tomograph)/MicroCT. In this paper, we use boundary element method to calculate the forward problem of DOT based on the structure prior given by the MicroCT, and then we reconstruct the absorption and diffusion coefficients of different biological tissues by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The method only needs surface meshing, reducing the complexity of calculation; in addition, it reconstructs a single value within an organ, which reduces the ill-posedness of the inverse problem to make reconstruction results have good noise stability. This indicates that the boundary element method-based reconstruction can serve as an new scheme for getting absorption and diffusion coefficients in DOT/MicroCT multimodality imaging.

  5. CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman

    to the atmospheric boundary-layer, are mostly ignored so far. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include atmospheric stability and the Coriolis effect. Within the present work a RANS model framework is developed and implemented......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface-layer. Physical processes like the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, that are important...

  6. Boundary Layer Parameterization for a Global Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-27

    submitting to a refereed journal. An additional study was conducted to examine how the relative humidity field evolves in the modelled daytime boundary...zo.\\MNz0H=10 15.’- z0.NI0H=100 6.00 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 Tine ( DrC ) Figure 4. As Figure 2 for the skin temperature. 136 15000 EzOk1500O

  7. Calculation of the effective thermal properties of the composites based on the finite element solutions of the boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovichenko, I. I.; Yakovlev, M. Ya; Vershinin, A. V.; Levin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    One of the key problems of mechanics of composite materials is an estimation of effective properties of composite materials. This article describes the algorithms for numerical evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of composites. An algorithm of effective thermal conductivity evaluation is based on sequential solution of boundary problems of thermal conductivity with different boundary conditions (in the form of the temperature on the boundary) on representative volume element (RVE) of composite with subsequent averaging of the resulting vector field of heat flux. An algorithm of effective thermal expansion evaluation is based on the solution of the boundary problem of elasticity (considering the thermal expansion) on a RVE of composite material with subsequent averaging of a resulting strain tensor field. Numerical calculations were performed with the help of Fidesys Composite software module of CAE Fidesys using the finite element method. The article presents the results of numerical calculations of the effective coefficients of thermal conductivity and thermoelasticity for two types of composites (single-layer fiber and particulate materials) in comparison with the analytical estimates. The comparison leads to the conclusion about the correctness of algorithms and program developed.

  8. A symmetric Trefftz-DG formulation based on a local boundary element method for the solution of the Helmholtz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucq, H.; Bendali, A.; Fares, M.; Mattesi, V.; Tordeux, S.

    2017-02-01

    A general symmetric Trefftz Discontinuous Galerkin method is built for solving the Helmholtz equation with piecewise constant coefficients. The construction of the corresponding local solutions to the Helmholtz equation is based on a boundary element method. A series of numerical experiments displays an excellent stability of the method relatively to the penalty parameters, and more importantly its outstanding ability to reduce the instabilities known as the "pollution effect" in the literature on numerical simulations of long-range wave propagation.

  9. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers; Novas formulacoes de elementos finitos para problemas de valor de contorno com camadas limite interna/externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins

    1998-06-15

    New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)

  10. Leukocyte deformability: finite element modeling of large viscoelastic deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Skalak, R

    1992-09-21

    An axisymmetric deformation of a viscoelastic sphere bounded by a prestressed elastic thin shell in response to external pressure is studied by a finite element method. The research is motivated by the need for understanding the passive behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) and interpreting extensive experimental data in terms of the mechanical properties. The cell at rest is modeled as a sphere consisting of a cortical prestressed shell with incompressible Maxwell fluid interior. A large-strain deformation theory is developed based on the proposed model. General non-linear, large strain constitutive relations for the cortical shell are derived by neglecting the bending stiffness. A representation of the constitutive equations in the form of an integral of strain history for the incompressible Maxwell interior is used in the formulation of numerical scheme. A finite element program is developed, in which a sliding boundary condition is imposed on all contact surfaces. The mathematical model developed is applied to evaluate experimental data of pipette tests and observations of blood flow.

  11. Langevin equation model of dispersion in the convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, J S

    1998-08-01

    This dissertation presents the development and evaluation of a Lagrangian stochastic model of vertical dispersion of trace material in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This model is based on a Langevin equation of motion for a fluid particle, and assumes the fluid vertical velocity probability distribution is skewed and spatially homogeneous. This approach can account for the effect of large-scale, long-lived turbulent structures and skewed vertical velocity distributions found in the CBL. The form of the Langevin equation used has a linear (in velocity) deterministic acceleration and a skewed randomacceleration. For the case of homogeneous fluid velocity statistics, this ""linear-skewed" Langevin equation can be integrated explicitly, resulting in a relatively efficient numerical simulation method. It is shown that this approach is more efficient than an alternative using a "nonlinear-Gaussian" Langevin equation (with a nonlinear deterministic acceleration and a Gaussian random acceleration) assuming homogeneous turbulence, and much more efficient than alternative approaches using Langevin equation models assuming inhomogeneous turbulence. "Reflection" boundary conditions for selecting a new velocity for a particle that encounters a boundary at the top or bottom of the CBL were investigated. These include one method using the standard assumption that the magnitudes of the particle incident and reflected velocities are positively correlated, and two alternatives in which the magnitudes of these velocities are negatively correlated and uncorrelated. The constraint that spatial and velocity distributions of a well-mixed tracer must be the same as those of the fluid, was used to develop the Langevin equation models and the reflection boundary conditions. The two Langevin equation models and three reflection methods were successfully tested using cases for which exact, analytic statistical properties of particle velocity and position are known, including well

  12. Impact of Neutral Boundary-Layer Turbulence on Wind-Turbine Wakes: A Numerical Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The wake characteristics of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer under neutral stratification are investigated systematically by means of large-eddy simulations. A methodology to maintain the turbulence of the background flow for simulations with open horizontal boundaries, without the necessity of the permanent import of turbulence data from a precursor simulation, was implemented in the geophysical flow solver EULAG. These requirements are fulfilled by applying the spectral energy distribution of a neutral boundary layer in the wind-turbine simulations. A detailed analysis of the wake response towards different turbulence levels of the background flow results in a more rapid recovery of the wake for a higher level of turbulence. A modified version of the Rankine-Froude actuator disc model and the blade element momentum method are tested as wind-turbine parametrizations resulting in a strong dependence of the near-wake wind field on the parametrization, whereas the far-wake flow is fairly insensitive to it. The wake characteristics are influenced by the two considered airfoils in the blade element momentum method up to a streamwise distance of 14 D ( D = rotor diameter). In addition, the swirl induced by the rotation has an impact on the velocity field of the wind turbine even in the far wake. Further, a wake response study reveals a considerable effect of different subgrid-scale closure models on the streamwise turbulent intensity.

  13. Towards Automatic and Topologically Consistent 3D Regional Geological Modeling from Boundaries and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data. This method could also be used in other fields of study, including mining geology and urban geotechnical investigations.

  14. Acoustic boundary element method formulation with treatment of nearly singular integrands by element subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    of the integrand or the whole method. On the other hand, it is also possible to refine or improve the numerical integration, and maintain the standard BEM formulation. In this paper a numerical technique based on element subdivision, previously proposed by the authors, is made more general to cover most cases...

  15. Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Flash flooding is characterised by high velocity flows which impact vulnerable catchments with little warning time and as such, result in complex flow dynamics which are difficult to replicate through modelling. The impacts of flash flooding can be made yet more severe by the transport of both natural and anthropogenic debris, ranging from tree trunks to vehicles, wheelie bins and even storage containers, the effects of which have been clearly evident during recent UK flooding. This cargo of debris can have wide reaching effects and result in actual flood impacts which diverge from those predicted. A build-up of debris may lead to partial channel blockage and potential flow rerouting through urban centres. Build-up at bridges and river structures also leads to increased hydraulic loading which may result in damage and possible structural failure. Predicting the impacts of debris transport; however, is difficult as conventional hydrodynamic modelling schemes do not intrinsically include floating debris within their calculations. Subsequently a new tool has been developed using an emerging approach, which incorporates debris transport through the coupling of two existing modelling techniques. A 1D hydrodynamic modelling scheme has here been coupled with a 2D discrete element scheme to form a new modelling tool which predicts the motion and flow-interaction of floating debris. Hydraulic forces arising from flow around the object are applied to instigate its motion. Likewise, an equivalent opposing force is applied to fluid cells, enabling backwater effects to be simulated. Shock capturing capabilities make the tool applicable to predicting the complex flow dynamics associated with flash flooding. The modelling scheme has been applied to experimental case studies where cylindrical wooden dowels are transported by a dam-break wave. These case studies enable validation of the tool's shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied between the two numerical

  16. Finite element modeling methods for photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, B M Azizur

    2013-01-01

    The term photonics can be used loosely to refer to a vast array of components, devices, and technologies that in some way involve manipulation of light. One of the most powerful numerical approaches available to engineers developing photonic components and devices is the Finite Element Method (FEM), which can be used to model and simulate such components/devices and analyze how they will behave in response to various outside influences. This resource provides a comprehensive description of the formulation and applications of FEM in photonics applications ranging from telecommunications, astron

  17. Flow Modeling Based Wall Element Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Tamimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of flow where examined, pressure and combination of pressure and Coquette flow of confined turbulent flow with a one equation model used to depict the turbulent viscosity of confined flow in a smooth straight channel when a finite element technique based on a zone close to a solid wall has been adopted for predicting the distribution of the pertinent variables in this zone and examined even with case when the near wall zone was extended away from the wall. The validation of imposed technique has been tested and well compared with other techniques.

  18. Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelmann, N.; Wang, K.; Fortney, J. J.; Hamel, S.; Yellamilli, S.; Bethkenhagen, M.; Redmer, R.

    2016-09-01

    The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ≃ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2-3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of 1 × solar. Finally, we allow for an equilibrium evolution (Teff ≃ Teq) that begun prior to the present day, which would therefore no longer require the current era to be a "special time" in Uranus' evolution. In this scenario, the thermal boundary leads to more rapid cooling of the outer envelope. When Teff ≃ Teq is reached, a shallow, subadiabatic zone in the atmosphere begins to develop. Its depth is adjusted to meet the luminosity constraint. This work provides a simple foundation for future Ice Giant structure and evolution models, that can be improved by properly treating the heat and particle fluxes in the diffusive zones.

  19. A finite element parametric modeling technique of aircraft wing structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jiapeng; Xi Ping; Zhang Baoyuan; Hu Bifu

    2013-01-01

    A finite element parametric modeling method of aircraft wing structures is proposed in this paper because of time-consuming characteristics of finite element analysis pre-processing. The main research is positioned during the preliminary design phase of aircraft structures. A knowledge-driven system of fast finite element modeling is built. Based on this method, employing a template parametric technique, knowledge including design methods, rules, and expert experience in the process of modeling is encapsulated and a finite element model is established automatically, which greatly improves the speed, accuracy, and standardization degree of modeling. Skeleton model, geometric mesh model, and finite element model including finite element mesh and property data are established on parametric description and automatic update. The outcomes of research show that the method settles a series of problems of parameter association and model update in the pro-cess of finite element modeling which establishes a key technical basis for finite element parametric analysis and optimization design.

  20. Quasimodes instability analysis of uncertain asymmetric rotor system based on 3D solid element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanfei; Wang, Jianjun; Ma, Weimeng

    2017-03-01

    Uncertainties are considered in the equation of motion of an asymmetric rotor system. Based on Hill's determinant method, quasimodes stability analysis with uncertain parameters is used to get stochastic boundaries of unstable regions. Firstly, A 3D finite element rotor model was built in rotating frame with four parameterized coefficients, which is assumed as random parameters representing the uncertainties existing in the rotor system. Then the influences of uncertain coefficients on the distribution of the unstable region boundaries are analyzed. The results show that uncertain parameters have various influences on the size, boundary and number of unstable regions. At last, the statistic results of the minimum and maximum spin speeds of unstable regions were got by Monte Carlo simulation. The used method is suitable for real engineering rotor system, because arbitrary configuration of rotors can be modeled by 3D finite element.

  1. A NEW MODEL FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GRAIN BOUNDARY DIFFUSIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R LOUAHDI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A new model, based on a surface saturation technique, is suggested to determine grain boundary diffusivity of impurities. The model is applied to the Ni-S system that is of great practical interest. The initial saturation of nickel grain boundaries with sulphur is obtained by annealing at a temperature which satisfies the thermodynamics criterion for surface saturation. In order to reduce the annealing time, dynamic (non-equilibrium segregation is induced by carrying out the anneal on cold worked nickel (e = 0.2 true strain. Both the grain boundaries and the surface were saturated after only 24 hours of annealing at a temperature as low as 450°C. The heat treatment of the cold rolled material was carried out inside the vacuum chamber of an Auger Electron Spectrometer (AES. The diffusivity, as obtained from the slope of the linear parts of the kinetics curves recorded by the AES, is found to be given by the relationship D = 2.7×10-9exp(-58.700/RT m2s-1 in the temperature range 450 to 700°C.

  2. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  3. Boundary algebras and Kac modules for logarithmic minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Ridout, David

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro Kac modules were initially introduced indirectly as representations whose characters arise in the continuum scaling limits of certain transfer matrices in logarithmic minimal models, described using Temperley-Lieb algebras. The lattice transfer operators include seams on the boundary that use Wenzl-Jones projectors. If the projectors are singular, the original prescription is to select a subspace of the Temperley-Lieb modules on which the action of the transfer operators is non-singular. However, this prescription does not, in general, yield representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebras and the Virasoro Kac modules have remained largely unidentified. Here, we introduce the appropriate algebraic framework for the lattice analysis as a quotient of the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. The corresponding standard modules are introduced and examined using invariant bilinear forms and their Gram determinants. The structures of the Virasoro Kac modules are inferred from these results and are found to be...

  4. The boundary RSOS \\mathcal{M}(3,5) model

    CERN Document Server

    Deeb, Omar El

    2015-01-01

    We consider the critical non-unitary minimal model {\\cal M}(3,5) with integrable boundaries. We analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory through the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) equations. We derive these equations for all excitations by solving, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A_{4} RSOS lattice model of Forrester and Baxter in Regime III, then determine their corresponding energies. The excitations are classified in terms of (m,n) systems.

  5. A numerical study of the second-order wave excitation of ship springing by a higher-order boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.

  6. Finite element modeling of retinal prosthesis mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, B. C.; Rowley, A. P.; Chen, K.; Humayun, M. S.; Weiland, J. D.

    2009-10-01

    Epiretinal prostheses used to treat degenerative retina diseases apply stimulus via an electrode array fixed to the ganglion cell side of the retina. Mechanical pressure applied by these arrays to the retina, both during initial insertion and throughout chronic use, could cause sufficient retinal damage to reduce the device's effectiveness. In order to understand and minimize potential mechanical damage, we have used finite element analysis to model mechanical interactions between an electrode array and the retina in both acute and chronic loading configurations. Modeling indicates that an acute tacking force distributes stress primarily underneath the tack site and heel edge of the array, while more moderate chronic stresses are distributed more evenly underneath the array. Retinal damage in a canine model chronically implanted with a similar array occurred in correlating locations, and model predictions correlate well with benchtop eyewall compression tests. This model provides retinal prosthesis researchers with a tool to optimize the mechanical electrode array design, but the techniques used here represent a unique effort to combine a modifiable device and soft biological tissues in the same model and those techniques could be extended to other devices that come into mechanical contact with soft neural tissues.

  7. Finite Element Model of Cardiac Electrical Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, John Zhihao

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop mathematical models to study electrical conduction of the heart. One important pattern of wave propagation of electrical excitation in the heart is reentry which is believed to be the underlying mechanism of some dangerous cardiac arhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. We present in this thesis a new ionic channel model of the ventricular cardiac cell membrane to study the microscopic electrical properties of myocardium. We base our model on recent single channel experiment data and a simple physical diffusion model of the calcium channel. Our ionic channel model of myocardium has simpler differential equations and fewer parameters than previous models. Further more, our ionic channel model achieves better results in simulating the strength-interval curve when we connect the membrane patch model to form a one dimensional cardiac muscle strand. We go on to study a finite element model which uses multiple states and non-nearest neighbor interactions to include curvature and dispersion effects. We create a generalized lattice randomization to overcome the artifacts generated by the interaction between the local dynamics and the regularities of the square lattice. We show that the homogeneous model does not display spontaneous wavefront breakup in a reentrant wave propagation once the lattice artifacts have been smoothed out by lattice randomization with a randomization scale larger than the characteristic length of the interaction. We further develop a finite 3-D 3-state heart model which employs a probability interaction rule. This model is applied to the simulation of Body Surface Laplacian Mapping (BSLM) using a cylindrical volume conductor as the torso model. We show that BSLM has a higher spatial resolution than conventional mapping methods in revealing the underlying electrical activities of the heart. The results of these studies demonstrate that mathematical modeling and computer simulation are very

  8. Complex Wall Boundary Conditions for Modeling Combustion in Catalytic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huayang; Jackson, Gregory

    2000-11-01

    Monolith catalytic reactors for exothermic oxidation are being used in automobile exhaust clean-up and ultra-low emissions combustion systems. The reactors present a unique coupling between mass, heat, and momentum transport in a channel flow configuration. The use of porous catalytic coatings along the channel wall presents a complex boundary condition when modeled with the two-dimensional channel flow. This current work presents a 2-D transient model for predicting the performance of catalytic combustion systems for methane oxidation on Pd catalysts. The model solves the 2-D compressible transport equations for momentum, species, and energy, which are solved with a porous washcoat model for the wall boundary conditions. A time-splitting algorithm is used to separate the stiff chemical reactions from the convective/diffusive equations for the channel flow. A detailed surface chemistry mechanism is incorporated for the catalytic wall model and is used to predict transient ignition and steady-state conversion of CH4-air flows in the catalytic reactor.

  9. Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Nettelmann, N; Fortney, J J; Hamel, S; Yellamilli, S; Bethkenhagen, M; Redmer, R

    2016-01-01

    The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ~ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2--3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of $1\\tim...

  10. Sonic eddy model of the turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Robert; Dintilhac, Paul; Williams, Owen

    2016-11-01

    A model of the compressible turbulent boundary layer is proposed. It is based on the notion that turbulent transport by an eddy requires that information of nonsteady events propagates across the diameter of that eddy during one rotation period. The finite acoustic signaling speed then controls the turbulent fluxes. As a consequence, the fluxes are limited by the largest eddies that satisfies this requirement. Therefore "sonic eddies" with a rotational Mach number of about unity would determine the skin friction, which is predicted to vary inversely with Mach number. This sonic eddy model contrasts with conventional models that are based on the energy equation and variations in the density. The effect of density variations is known to be weak in free shear flows, and the sonic eddy model assumes the same for the boundary layer. In general, Mach number plays two simultaneous roles in compressible flow, one related to signaling and the other related to the energy equation. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and DNS results from the literature.

  11. Finite-Element Modelling of Biotransistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaganapathy PR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current research efforts in biosensor design attempt to integrate biochemical assays with semiconductor substrates and microfluidic assemblies to realize fully integrated lab-on-chip devices. The DNA biotransistor (BioFET is an example of such a device. The process of chemical modification of the FET and attachment of linker and probe molecules is a statistical process that can result in variations in the sensed signal between different BioFET cells in an array. In order to quantify these and other variations and assess their importance in the design, complete physical simulation of the device is necessary. Here, we perform a mean-field finite-element modelling of a short channel, two-dimensional BioFET device. We compare the results of this model with one-dimensional calculation results to show important differences, illustrating the importance of the molecular structure, placement and conformation of DNA in determining the output signal.

  12. Structure of two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers with sparsely distributed roughness elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jacob

    The present study deals with the effects of sparsely distributed three-dimensional elements on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) such as those that occur on submarines, ship hulls, etc. This study was achieved in three parts: Part 1 dealt with the cylinders when placed individually in the turbulent boundary layers, thereby considering the effect of a single perturbation on the TBL; Part 2 considered the effects when the same individual elements were placed in a sparse and regular distribution, thus studying the response of the flow to a sequence of perturbations; and in Part 3, the distributions were subjected to 3-D turbulent boundary layers, thus examining the effects of streamwise and spanwise pressure gradients on the same perturbed flows as considered in Part 2. The 3-D turbulent boundary layers were generated by an idealized wing-body junction flow. Detailed 3-velocity-component Laser-Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and other measurements were carried out to understand and describe the rough-wall flow structure. The measurements include mean velocities, turbulence quantities (Reynolds stresses and triple products), skin friction, surface pressure and oil flow visualizations in 2-D and 3-D rough-wall flows for Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, greater than 7000. Very uniform circular cylindrical roughness elements of 0.38mm, 0.76mm and 1.52mm height (k) were used in square and diagonal patterns, yielding six different roughness geometries of rough-wall surface. For the 2-D rough-wall flows, the roughness Reynolds numbers, k +, based on the element height (k) and the friction velocity (Utau), range from 26 to 131. Results for the 2-D rough-wall flows reveal that the velocity-defect law is similar for both smooth and rough surfaces, and the semi-logarithmic velocity-distribution curve is shifted by an amount DeltaU/U, depending on the height of the roughness element, showing that Delta U/Utau is a function

  13. Computational model for short-fiber composites with eigenstrain formulation of boundary integral equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hang; XIA Li-wei; QIN Qing-hua

    2008-01-01

    A computational model is proposed for short-fiber reinforced materials with the eigenstrain formulation of the boundary integral equations(BIE)and solved with the newly developed boundary point method(BPM).The model is closely derived from the concept of the equivalent inclusion of Eshelby tensors.Eigenstrains are iteratively determined for each short.fiber embedded in the matrix with various properties via the Eshelby tensors,which can be readily obtained beforehand either through analytical or numerical means.As unknown variables appear only on the boundary of the solution domain,the solution scale of the inhomogeneity problem with the model is greatly reduced.This feature is considered significant because such a traditionally time-consuming problem with inhomogeneity can be solved most cost-effectively compared with existing numerical models of the FEM or the BEM.The numerical examples are presented to compute the overall elastic properties for various short-fiber reinforced composites over a representative volume element(RVE),showing the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed computational modal and the solution procedure.

  14. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  15. Parallelized 3D CSEM modeling using edge-based finite element with total field formulation and unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Li, Jianhui; Endo, Masashi; Xiong, Bin

    2017-02-01

    We solve the 3D controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) problem using the edge-based finite element method. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh. We adopt the total field formulation for the quasi-static variant of Maxwell's equation and the computation cost to calculate the primary field can be saved. We adopt a new boundary condition which approximate the total field on the boundary by the primary field corresponding to the layered earth approximation of the complicated conductivity model. The primary field on the modeling boundary is calculated using fast Hankel transform. By using this new type of boundary condition, the computation cost can be reduced significantly and the modeling accuracy can be improved. We consider that the conductivity can be anisotropic. We solve the finite element system of equations using a parallelized multifrontal solver which works efficiently for multiple source and large scale electromagnetic modeling.

  16. Wind tunnel experiment of drag of isolated tree models in surface boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For very sparse tree land individual tree was the basic element of interaction between atmosphere and the surface. Drag of isolated tree was preliminary aerodynamic index for analyzing the atmospheric boundary layer of this kind of surface. A simple pendulum method was designed and carried out in wind tunnel to measure drag of isolated tree models according to balance law of moment of force. The method was easy to conduct and with small error. The results showed that the drag and drag coefficient of isolated tree increased with decreasing of its permeability or porosity. Relationship between drag coefficient and permeability of isolated tree empirically was expressed by quadric curve.

  17. Concentration Boundary Layer Model of Mortar Corrosion by Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhigang; ZHANG Xuesong; MIN Hongguang

    2011-01-01

    A long time immersion experiment of mortar specimens is carried out to investigate their degradation mechanism by sulfuric acid. Water-cement ratios of mortar are ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and the pH value of sulfuric acid is 3.5 and 4.0 respectively. The pH meter is used to monitor the soak solution and the titration sulfuric acid with given concentration is added to maintain original pH value, through which the acid consumption of mortar is recorded. A theoretical reaction rate model is also proposed based on concentration boundary layer model. The results show that theoretical model fits the experimental results well and the corrosion mechanism can be modeled by a diffusion process accompanied with an irreversible chemical reaction when pH value of soak solution is no less than 3.5.

  18. Parallel Semi-Implicit Spectral Element Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A.; Thomas, S.; Loft, R.

    2001-05-01

    The shallow-water equations (SWE) have long been used to test atmospheric-modeling numerical methods. The SWE contain essential wave-propagation and nonlinear effects of more complete models. We present a semi-implicit (SI) improvement of the Spectral Element Atmospheric Model to solve the SWE (SEAM, Taylor et al. 1997, Fournier et al. 2000, Thomas & Loft 2000). SE methods are h-p finite element methods combining the geometric flexibility of size-h finite elements with the accuracy of degree-p spectral methods. Our work suggests that exceptional parallel-computation performance is achievable by a General-Circulation-Model (GCM) dynamical core, even at modest climate-simulation resolutions (>1o). The code derivation involves weak variational formulation of the SWE, Gauss(-Lobatto) quadrature over the collocation points, and Legendre cardinal interpolators. Appropriate weak variation yields a symmetric positive-definite Helmholtz operator. To meet the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition and avoid spurious modes, we use a staggered grid. The SI scheme combines leapfrog and Crank-Nicholson schemes for the nonlinear and linear terms respectively. The localization of operations to elements ideally fits the method to cache-based microprocessor computer architectures --derivatives are computed as collections of small (8x8), naturally cache-blocked matrix-vector products. SEAM also has desirable boundary-exchange communication, like finite-difference models. Timings on on the IBM SP and Compaq ES40 supercomputers indicate that the SI code (20-min timestep) requires 1/3 the CPU time of the explicit code (2-min timestep) for T42 resolutions. Both codes scale nearly linearly out to 400 processors. We achieved single-processor performance up to 30% of peak for both codes on the 375-MHz IBM Power-3 processors. Fast computation and linear scaling lead to a useful climate-simulation dycore only if enough model time is computed per unit wall-clock time. An efficient SI

  19. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dommergue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements and modeling studies showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were suspected. Unexpectedly high Hg0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to snow photochemistry. We suggest that a daily cycling of reemission/oxidation occurs during summer within the mixing layer at Dome Concordia. Hg0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. Unlike previous Antarctic studies, we think that atmospheric Hg0 removal may not be the result of advection processes. The daily and dramatic Hg0 losses could be a consequence of surface or snow induced oxidation pathways. It remains however unclear whether halogens are involved. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg species in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic plateau.

  20. Discrete Element Modeling for Mobility and Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, M. A.; Hopkins, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The planning and completion of mobility and excavation efforts on the moon requires a thorough understanding of the planetary regolith. In this work, a discrete element method (DEM) model is created to replicate those activities in the laboratory and for planning mission activities in the future. The crux of this work is developing a particle bed that best replicates the regolith tool/wheel interaction seen in the laboratory. To do this, a DEM geotechnical triaxial strength cell was created allowing for comparison of laboratory JSC-1a triaxial tests to DEM simulated soils. This model relies on a triangular lattice membrane covered triaxial cell for determining the macroscopic properties of the modeled granular material as well as a fast and efficient contact detection algorithm for a variety of grain shapes. Multiple grain shapes with increasing complexity (ellipsoid, poly-ellipsoid and polyhedra) have been developed and tested. This comparison gives us a basis to begin scaling DEM grain size and shape to practical values for mobility and excavation modeling. Next steps include development of a DEM scoop for percussive excavation testing as well as continued analysis of rover wheel interactions using a wide assortment of grain shape and size distributions.

  1. Benchmarking high order finite element approximations for one-dimensional boundary layer problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malagu, M.; Benvenuti, E.; Simone, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate the application of high order approximation techniques to one-dimensional boundary layer problems. In particular, we use second order differential equations and coupled second order differential equations as case studies. The accuracy and convergence rate of numerical

  2. On the trigonometric Felderhof model with domain wall boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Caradoc, A; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M; 10.1088/1742-5468/2007/03/P03010

    2008-01-01

    We consider the trigonometric Felderhof model, of free fermions in an external field, on a finite lattice with domain wall boundary conditions. The vertex weights are functions of rapidities and external fields. We obtain a determinant expression for the partition function in the special case where the dependence on the rapidities is eliminated, but for general external field variables. This determinant can be evaluated in product form. In the homogeneous limit, it is proportional to a 2-Toda tau function. Next, we use the algebraic Bethe ansatz factorized basis to obtain a product expression for the partition function in the general case with dependence on all variables.

  3. Analysis of a Free Boundary Problem Modeling Tumor Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Bin CUI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study a free boundary problem arising from the modeling of tumor growth. The problem comprises two unknown functions: R = R(t), the radius of the tumor, and u = u(r, t), the concentration of nutrient in the tumor. The function u satisfies a nonlinear reaction diffusion equation in the region 0 < r < R(t), t > 0, and the function R satisfies a nonlinear integrodifferential equation containing u. Under some general conditions, we establish global existence of transient solutions, unique existence of a stationary solution, and convergence of transient solutions toward the stationary solution as t →∞.

  4. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchun Li

    2015-01-01

    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  5. COMGEN: A computer program for generating finite element models of composite materials at the micro level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    1990-01-01

    COMGEN (Composite Model Generator) is an interactive FORTRAN program which can be used to create a wide variety of finite element models of continuous fiber composite materials at the micro level. It quickly generates batch or session files to be submitted to the finite element pre- and postprocessor PATRAN based on a few simple user inputs such as fiber diameter and percent fiber volume fraction of the composite to be analyzed. In addition, various mesh densities, boundary conditions, and loads can be assigned easily to the models within COMGEN. PATRAN uses a session file to generate finite element models and their associated loads which can then be translated to virtually any finite element analysis code such as NASTRAN or MARC.

  6. ABAQUS动力无限元人工边界研究%Study of ABAQUS dynamic infinite element artificial boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚玉亮; 大塚久哲

    2014-01-01

    Some valuable studies have been done in the aspects of numerical simulation of natural infinite foundation and seismic wave input. The thesis comments the advantages and disadvantages of infinite element, and expatiates on the theory system of ABAQUS infinite element which is improved. The artificial boundary of ABAQUS dynamic infinite element considering the impact of outland fluctuations is proposed. Based on the equivalent boundary force superposition principle, the incident and scattered waves are dealt with separately, and assumed that they are independently to each other. The input ground motion is converted to equivalent stress acting on the interface between the finite element and infinite element to solve the problem of exogenous incident wave. Case study results show that:for the calculation results obtained from inside vibration source and the fixed boundary, the distortion and disturbances appear;the results calculated by the method mentioned above are compared with the results of viscoelastic boundary, which make it certain that the filter function of outgoing scattered wave with the method mentioned above is better than viscoelastic boundary. Therefore, the improved ABAQUS dynamic infinite element boundary method is effective and has certain stability.%针对动力场天然无限地基的数值模拟与地震波输入问题进行了一些有意义的研究,评述了现有动力计算常用无限元的优缺点,详细阐述了ABAQUS无限元理论体系框架,并加以改进,提出一种考虑外域地震动影响的ABAQUS动力无限元人工边界。采用等效边界力的叠加原理,对入射波和散射波分开处理,视入射波和散射波在边界上互不影响,将输入地震动转化为作用于有限元无限元交界面上的等效应力的方法来解决外源波的入射问题。算例验证结果表明:内源振动和固定边界会出现失真和扰动现象,同时该计算结果与黏弹性边界的计算结果对

  7. The finite element method for the global gravity field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Michal; Macák, Marek; Mikula, Karol; Minarechová, Zuzana

    2014-05-01

    We present a finite element approach for solving the fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem on a global level. To that goal, we have defined the computational domain bounded by the real topography and a chosen satellite level. The boundary-value problem consists of the Laplace equation for the disturbing potential and the Neumann boundary condition given by the gravity disturbances applied on the bottom boundary, and the Dirichlet boundary condition given by the disturbing potential applied on the upper boundary. Afterwards, the computational domain is meshed with several different meshes chosen to avoid the problem of simple spherical meshes that contain a singularity at poles. Our aim has been to show how the right mesh can improve results as well as significantly reduce the computational time. The practical implementation has been done in the FEM software ANSYS using 3D linear elements SOLID70 and for solving the linear system of equations, the preconditioned conjugate gradients method has been chosen. The obtained disturbing potential has been applied to calculate the geopotential value W0.

  8. The semi-discrete Galerkin finite element modelling of compressible viscous flow past an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Andrew J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A method is developed to solve the two-dimensional, steady, compressible, turbulent boundary-layer equations and is coupled to an existing Euler solver for attached transonic airfoil analysis problems. The boundary-layer formulation utilizes the semi-discrete Galerkin (SDG) method to model the spatial variable normal to the surface with linear finite elements and the time-like variable with finite differences. A Dorodnitsyn transformed system of equations is used to bound the infinite spatial domain thereby permitting the use of a uniform finite element grid which provides high resolution near the wall and automatically follows boundary-layer growth. The second-order accurate Crank-Nicholson scheme is applied along with a linearization method to take advantage of the parabolic nature of the boundary-layer equations and generate a non-iterative marching routine. The SDG code can be applied to any smoothly-connected airfoil shape without modification and can be coupled to any inviscid flow solver. In this analysis, a direct viscous-inviscid interaction is accomplished between the Euler and boundary-layer codes, through the application of a transpiration velocity boundary condition. Results are presented for compressible turbulent flow past NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils at various freestream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. All results show good agreement with experiment, and the coupled code proved to be a computationally-efficient and accurate airfoil analysis tool.

  9. A paradigm for human body finite element model integration from a set of regional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A B; Gayzik, F S; Moreno, D P; Rhyne, A C; Vavalle, N A; Stitzel, J D

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling offers versatility, scalability, and cost advantages to researchers in the trauma and injury biomechanics communities. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) is a group of government, industry, and academic researchers developing human body models (HBMs) that aim to become the standard tool to meet this growing research need. The objective of this study is to present the methods used to develop the average seated male occupant model (M50, weight = 78 kg, height = 175 cm) from five separately validated body region models (BRMs). BRMs include the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and a combined pelvis and lower extremity model. Modeling domains were split at the atlanto-occipital joint, C7-T1 boundary, diaphragm, abdominal cavity (peritoneum/retroperitoneum), and the acetabulum respectively. BRM meshes are based on a custom CAD model of the seated male built from a multi-modality imaging protocol of a volunteer subject found in literature.[1] Various meshing techniques were used to integrate the full body model (FBM) including 1-D beam and discrete element connections (e.g. ligamentous structures), 2D shell nodal connections (e.g. inferior vena cava to right atrium), 3D hexahedral nodal connections (e.g. soft tissue envelope connections between regions), and contact definitions varying from tied (muscle insertions) to sliding (liver and diaphragm contact). The model was developed in a general-purpose finite element code, LS-Dyna (LTSC, Livermore, CA) R4.2.1., and consists of 1.95 million elements and 1.3 million nodes. The element breakdown by type is 41% hexahedral, 33.7% tetrahedral, 19.5% quad shells and 5% tria shell. The integration methodology presented highlights the viability of using a collaborative development paradigm for the construction of HBMs, and will be used as template for expanding the suite of GHBMC models.

  10. A simulation of fatigue crack propagation in a welded T-joint using 3D boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang Zhihai; Lie, S.T.; Wang Bo; Cen Zhangzhi

    2003-02-01

    A general procedure to investigate the fatigue propagation process of a 3D surface crack based on multi-region Boundary Element Method is detailed in this paper. The mesh can be automatically regenerated as the crack propagates. A new formula for estimating the effective stress intensity factor is used to calculate the crack extension. The maximum principal stress criterion is then employed to predict the crack growth direction. Comparison between numerical and experimental results of a welded T-joint shows that the proposed procedure is reliable.

  11. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis - A study of boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Nils Refstrup; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer...... that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced...... models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and but not very well for acoustically soft PDMS systems shorter than the PDMS damping length of 3 mm....

  12. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis --- a study of boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Nils Refstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and not at all for the acoustically soft PDMS systems.

  13. Modeling of Microdevices for SAW-Based Acoustophoresis — A Study of Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Refstrup Skov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW. We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and but not very well for acoustically soft PDMS systems shorter than the PDMS damping length of 3 mm.

  14. Advanced boundary electrode modeling for tES and parallel tES/EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Agsten, Britte; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Wolters, Carsten H

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. We focus on boundary condition based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g. sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance and normal current distribution. The CEM can be applied for both tES and EEG electrodes which is advantageous when a parallel system is used. In comparison to the CEM, we test two important reduced approaches: the gap model (GAP) and the point electrode model (PEM). We aim to find out the differences of these approaches for a realistic numerical setting based on the stimulation of the auditory cortex. The results obtained suggest, among other things, that GAP and GAP/PEM are sufficiently accurate for the practical appli...

  15. Finite Element Model and Validation of Nasal Tip Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Harb, Rani; Badran, Alan; Ho, David; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-03-01

    Nasal tip mechanical stability is important for functional and cosmetic nasal airway surgery. Palpation of the nasal tip provides information on tip strength to the surgeon, though it is a purely subjective assessment. Providing a means to simulate nasal tip deformation with a validated model can offer a more objective approach in understanding the mechanics and nuances of the nasal tip support and eventual nasal mechanics as a whole. Herein we present validation of a finite element (FE) model of the nose using physical measurements recorded using an ABS plastic-silicone nasal phantom. Three-dimensional photogrammetry was used to capture the geometry of the phantom at rest and while under steady state load. The silicone used to make the phantom was mechanically tested and characterized using a linear elastic constitutive model. Surface point clouds of the silicone and FE model were compared for both the loaded and unloaded state. The average Hausdorff distance between actual measurements and FE simulations across the nose were 0.39 ± 1.04 mm and deviated up to 2 mm at the outermost boundaries of the model. FE simulation and measurements were in near complete agreement in the immediate vicinity of the nasal tip with millimeter accuracy. We have demonstrated validation of a two-component nasal FE model, which could be used to model more complex modes of deformation where direct measurement may be challenging. This is the first step in developing a nasal model to simulate nasal mechanics and ultimately the interaction between geometry and airflow.

  16. Boundary Correlation Functions of the gl(1|1) Supersymmetric Vertex Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen-Jun; ZHOU Jian-Hua; YUE Rui-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The gl(1|1) supersymmetric vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) on an N×N square lattice is considered.We derive the reduction formulae for the one-point boundary correlation functions of the model.The determinant representation for the boundary correlation functions is also obtained.

  17. Modelling bacterial behaviour close to a no-slip plane boundary: the influence of bacterial geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Shum, H.

    2010-01-13

    We describe a boundary-element method used to model the hydrodynamics of a bacterium propelled by a single helical flagellum. Using this model, we optimize the power efficiency of swimming with respect to cell body and flagellum geometrical parameters, and find that optima for swimming in unbounded fluid and near a no-slip plane boundary are nearly indistinguishable. We also consider the novel optimization objective of torque efficiency and find a very different optimal shape. Excluding effects such as Brownian motion and electrostatic interactions, it is demonstrated that hydrodynamic forces may trap the bacterium in a stable, circular orbit near the boundary, leading to the empirically observable surface accumulation of bacteria. Furthermore, the details and even the existence of this stable orbit depend on geometrical parameters of the bacterium, as described in this article. These results shed some light on the phenomenon of surface accumulation of micro-organisms and offer hydrodynamic explanations as to why some bacteria may accumulate more readily than others based on morphology. © 2010 The Royal Society.

  18. An extended finite element formulation for modeling the response of polycrystalline materials to shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static mesoscale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Benson et al. [2] and Belytchko et al. [3] to model shock loading of polycrystalline material. Through several demonstration problems we evaluate the method for modeling the shock response of polycrystalline materials at the mesoscale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries. ([1] N. Moes, J. Dolbow, J and T. Belytschko, 1999,``A finite element method for crack growth without remeshing,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 46, 131-150. [2] E. Vitali, and D. J. Benson, 2006, ``An extended finite element formulation for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian calculations,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 1420-1444. [3] J-H Song, P. M. A. Areias and T. Belytschko, 2006, ``A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation with phantom nodes,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 868-893.)

  19. Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, B.; Andersson, P.; Dahl, J.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: (1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents about 50% of the Ir present in the bulk sample Fish clay. Strong organometallic complexes is the most probable carrier phase for this fraction of Ir. Kerogen separated from the K-T boundary clay at Caravaca, Spain, similarly exhibits enhanced Ir concentrations. (2) Sulfur isotope analyses of metal-rich pyrite spherules, which occur in extreme abundance (about 10% by weight) in the basal Fish Clay, give a delta/sup 34/S value of -32 per thousand. This very low value shows that sulfide formation by anaerobic bacteria was intensive in the Fish Clay during early diagenesis. Since the pyrite spherules are major carriers of elements such as Ni, Co, As, Sb and Zn, microbial activity may have played an important role for concentrating these elements. In the Fish Clay large amounts of rare earth elements have precipitated from sea water on fish scales. Analyses reveal that, compared with sea water, the Fish Clay is only about four times less enriched in sea-water derived lanthanides than in Ir. This shows that a sea-water origin is plausible for elements that are strongly enriched in the clay, but whose origin cannot be accounted for by a lithogenic precursor.

  20. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, Michiel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; von der Heydt, Anna S.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Sluijs, Appy; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bijl, Peter K.

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models frequently use reconstructions in which the latest state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions, palaeotopography and -bathymetry, or vegetation have not yet been incorporated. In this paper, we therefore provide a new method to efficiently generate a global geographical reconstruction for the middle-late Eocene. The generalised procedure is also reusable to create reconstructions for other time slices within the Cenozoic, suitable for palaeoclimate modelling. We use a plate-tectonic model to make global masks containing the distribution of land, continental shelves, shallow basins and deep ocean. The use of depth-age relationships for oceanic crust together with adjusted present-day topography gives a first estimate of the global geography at a chosen time frame. This estimate subsequently needs manual editing of areas where existing geological data indicate that the altimetry has changed significantly over time. Certain generic changes (e.g. lowering mountain ranges) can be made relatively easily by defining a set of masks while other features may require a more specific treatment. Since the discussion regarding many of these regions is still ongoing, it is crucial to make it easy for changes to be incorporated without having to redo the entire procedure. In this manner, a complete reconstruction can be made that suffices as a boundary condition for numerical models with a limited effort. This facilitates the interaction between experts in geology and palaeoclimate modelling, keeping reconstructions up to date and improving the consistency between different studies. Moreover, it facilitates model inter-comparison studies and sensitivity tests regarding certain

  1. A set of mixed-elements patterns for domain boundary approximation in hexahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hexahedral meshes are largely used by the Finite Element Method in a high variety of simulation problems. One of the most common problems of these type of meshes is to achieve an adequate approximation of curved domains; a feature typically found in the shape of organs. This work introduces a set of mixed-elements patterns, which are employed at the surface of target domain, and allow to conserve hexahedra elsewhere. These patterns are meant to be combined with any meshing technique producing a regular or non-regular hexahedral mesh.

  2. Interaction of Linear Waves with Infinitely Long Horizontal Cylinders Studied by Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bo; ZHENG Yong-hong; YOU Ya-ge; HE Zai-ming

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional problems concerning the interaction of linear water waves with cylinders of arbitrary shape in two-layer deep water are investigated by use of the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM). Simpler new expressions for the Green functions are derived, and verified by comparison of results obtained by BIEM with those by an analytical method. Examined are the radiation and scattering of linear waves by two typical configurations of cylinders in two-layer deep water. Hydrodynamic behaviors including hydrodynamic coefficients, wave forces, reflection and transmission coefficients and energies are analyzed in detail, and some interesting physical phenomena are observed.

  3. Hydrogeological boundary settings in SR 97. Uncertainties in regional boundary settings and transfer of boundary conditions to site-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, S. [Golder Grundteknik, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    The SR 97 project presents a performance assessment (PA) of the overall safety of a hypothetical deep repository at three sites in Sweden arbitrarily named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One component of this PA assesses the uncertainties in the hydrogeological modelling. This study focuses on uncertainties in boundary settings (size of model domain and boundary conditions) in the regional and site-scale hydrogeological modelling of the three sites used to simulating the possible transport of radionuclides from the emplacement waste packages through the host rock to the accessible environment. Model uncertainties associated with, for instance, parameter heterogeneity and structural interpretations are addressed in other studies. This study concludes that the regional modelling of the SR 97 project addresses uncertainties in the choice of boundary conditions and size of model domain differently at each site, although the overall handling is acceptable and in accordance with common modelling practice. For example, the treatment of uncertainties with regard to the ongoing post-glacial flushing of the Baltic Shield is creditably addressed although not exhaustive from a modelling point of view. A significant contribution of the performed modelling is the study of nested numerical models, i.e., the numerical interplay between regional and site-scale numerical models. In the site-scale modelling great efforts are made to address problems associated with (i) the telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) technique with regard to the stochastic continuum approach, and (ii) the transfer of boundary conditions between variable-density flow systems and flow systems that are constrained to treat uniform density flow. This study concludes that the efforts made to handle these problems are acceptable with regards to the objectives of the SR 97 project.

  4. Orbital and Maxillofacial Computer Aided Surgery: Patient-Specific Finite Element Models To Predict Surgical Outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Luboz, V; Swider, P; Payan, Y; Luboz, Vincent; Chabanas, Matthieu; Swider, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an important issue raised for the clinical relevance of Computer-Assisted Surgical applications, namely the methodology used to automatically build patient-specific Finite Element (FE) models of anatomical structures. From this perspective, a method is proposed, based on a technique called the Mesh-Matching method, followed by a process that corrects mesh irregularities. The Mesh-Matching algorithm generates patient-specific volume meshes from an existing generic model. The mesh regularization process is based on the Jacobian matrix transform related to the FE reference element and the current element. This method for generating patient-specific FE models is first applied to Computer-Assisted maxillofacial surgery, and more precisely to the FE elastic modelling of patient facial soft tissues. For each patient, the planned bone osteotomies (mandible, maxilla, chin) are used as boundary conditions to deform the FE face model, in order to predict the aesthetic outcome of the surgery. Seven F...

  5. Bursting process of large- and small-scale structures in turbulent boundary layer perturbed by a cylinder roughness element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanqi; Jiang, Nan; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yanhua

    2016-05-01

    Hot-wire measurements on a turbulent boundary layer flow perturbed by a wall-mounted cylinder roughness element (CRE) are carried out in this study. The cylindrical element protrudes into the logarithmic layer, which is similar to those employed in turbulent boundary layers by Ryan et al. (AIAA J 49:2210-2220, 2011. doi: 10.2514/1.j051012) and Zheng and Longmire (J Fluid Mech 748:368-398, 2014. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2014.185) and in turbulent channel flow by Pathikonda and Christensen (AIAA J 53:1-10, 2014. doi: 10.2514/1.j053407). The similar effects on both the mean velocity and Reynolds stress are observed downstream of the CRE perturbation. The series of hot-wire data are decomposed into large- and small-scale fluctuations, and the characteristics of large- and small-scale bursting process are observed, by comparing the bursting duration, period and frequency between CRE-perturbed case and unperturbed case. It is indicated that the CRE perturbation performs the significant impact on the large- and small-scale structures, but within the different impact scenario. Moreover, the large-scale bursting process imposes a modulation on the bursting events of small-scale fluctuations and the overall trend of modulation is not essentially sensitive to the present CRE perturbation, even the modulation extent is modified. The conditionally averaging fluctuations are also plotted, which further confirms the robustness of the bursting modulation in the present experiments.

  6. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; Boer, de André; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controll

  7. Progress on Determining the alpha-beta Phase Boundary of Elemental Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi; Schwegler, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was reported that the phase boundary between alpha-boron and beta-boron has been directly determined using high-pressure and temperature experiments down to P˜4GPa and T˜1400K [Scientific Reports 1, 96 (2011)]. Based on linear extrapolation of their results to lower pressure and temperature, these authors proposed that at P=0GPa alpha-boron is the stable form below about T˜933(20)K, in conflict with the recent theoretical works based on DFT total energy calculations [JACS 129, 2458 (2007); PRB 77, 064113 (2008); JACS 131, 1903 (2009) ], where it was concluded that beta-boron is the most stable at all temperature below melting temperature and down to zero Kelvin. At the talk, we show that the theoretical alpha-beta boundary obtained with a few approximations agrees well with the aforementioned experimental results within the error bars except for the lowest P, T point, and in this case, the ground state is still beta-boron [submitted]. We will also discuss on the recent experimental efforts in measuring the specific heat of boron allotropes that lead to a tentative conclusion supporting the aforementioned DFT results.

  8. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol

    2013-12-01

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.

  9. Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fotyga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

  10. An immersed boundary model of the cochlea with parametric forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, William

    2015-01-01

    The cochlea or inner ear has a remarkable ability to amplify sound signals. This is understood to derive at least in part from some active process that magnifies vibrations of the basilar membrane (BM) and the cochlear partition in which it is embedded, to the extent that it overcomes the effect of viscous damping from the surrounding cochlear fluid. Many authors have associated this amplification ability to some type of mechanical resonance within the cochlea, however there is still no consensus regarding the precise cause of amplification. Our work is inspired by experiments showing that the outer hair cells within the cochlear partition change their lengths when stimulated, which can in turn cause periodic distortions of the BM and other structures in the cochlea. This paper investigates a novel fluid-mechanical resonance mechanism that derives from hydrodynamic interactions between an oscillating BM and the surrounding cochlear fluid. We present a model of the cochlea based on the immersed boundary method...

  11. A Hybrid Model for QCD Deconfining Phase Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, P K

    2012-01-01

    Intensive search for a proper and realistic equations of state (EOS) is still continued for studying the phase diagram existing between quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas (HG) phases. Lattice calculations provide such EOS for the strongly interacting matter at finite temperature ($T$) and vanishing baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_{B}$). These calculations are of limited use at finite $\\mu_{B}$ due to the appearance of notorious sign problem. In the recent past, we had constructed a hybrid model description for the QGP as well as HG phases where we make use of a new excluded-volume model for HG and a thermodynamically-consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase and used them further to get QCD phase boundary and a critical point. Since then many lattice calculations have appeared showing various thermal and transport properties of QCD matter at finite $T$ and $\\mu_{B}=0$. We test our hybrid model by reproducing the entire data for strongly interacting matter and predict our results at finite $\\mu_{B}...

  12. A numerical-physical planetary boundary layer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padro, Jacob

    1983-07-01

    A numerical-physical model for the planetary boundary layer has been formulated for the purpose of predicting the winds, temperatures and humidities in the lowest 1600 m of the atmosphere. An application of the model to the synoptic situation of 30 August, 1972, demonstrates its ability to produce useful forecasts for a period of 24 h. Results are illustrated in terms of horizontal maps and time-height sections of winds and temperatures. The model is divided in the vertical direction into three layers that are governed, respectively, by different physical formulations. At the lowest level, which is the surface of the earth, forecasts of temperature and humidity are computed from empirical relations. In the first layer, the surface layer, application is made of the similarity theories of Monin-Obukhov, Monin-Kazanski and Businger’s form of the universal functions. The second layer, the Ekman layer, is 1550 m deep and is governed by diagnostic momentum and time-dependent thermodynamic and humidity equations. External input to the model are large-scale pressure gradients and middle-level cloudiness. Cressman’s objective analysis procedure is applied to conventional surface and upper air data over a horizontal region of about 2500 km by 2500 km, centered about Lake Ontario. With a grid distance of 127 km and a time interval of 30 min, the computer time required on Control Data Cyber 76 for a 24 h forecast for the case study is less than two minutes.

  13. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions: The Neumann problem

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2011-01-01

    We discuss local and global existence and uniqueness for the price formation free boundary model with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. The results are based on a transformation of the problem to the heat equation with nonstandard boundary conditions. The free boundary becomes the zero level set of the solution of the heat equation. The transformation allows us to construct an explicit solution and discuss the behavior of the free boundary. Global existence can be verified under certain conditions on the free boundary and examples of non-existence are given.

  14. Solutions Stability of Initial Boundary Problem, Modeling of Dynamics of Some Discrete Continuum Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution stability of an initial boundary problem for a linear hybrid system of differential equations, which models the rotation of a rigid body with two elastic rods located in the same plane is studied in the paper. To an axis passing through the mass center of the rigid body perpendicularly to the rods location plane is applied the stabilizing moment proportional to the angle of the system rotation, derivative of the angle, integral of the angle. The external moment provides a feedback. A method of studying the behavior of solutions of the initial boundary problem is proposed. This method allows to exclude from the hybrid system of differential equations partial differential equations, which describe the dynamics of distributed elements of a mechanical system. It allows us to build one equation for an angle of the system rotation. Its characteristic equation defines the stability of solutions of all the system. In the space of feedback-coefficients the areas that provide the asymptotic stability of solutions of the initial boundary problem are built up.

  15. Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Through a Gap in a Wall-Mounted Roughness Element,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    smallest gap settings considered here the gap edge separation vortices dominate the gap flow , the centreline flow is brought nearly to separation and much...of the "through gap " flow is diverted up and over the gap, increasing mean flow velocities at distances greater than the element height. The gap edge...lines and hence reliable values of skin friction coefficient could be inferred. Early profiles in the small gap flows did show sinuousity as was

  16. Computation of the head-related transfer function via the fast multipole accelerated boundary element method and its spherical harmonic representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerov, Nail A; O'Donovan, Adam E; Duraiswami, Ramani; Zotkin, Dmitry N

    2010-01-01

    The head-related transfer function (HRTF) is computed using the fast multipole accelerated boundary element method. For efficiency, the HRTF is computed using the reciprocity principle by placing a source at the ear and computing its field. Analysis is presented to modify the boundary value problem accordingly. To compute the HRTF corresponding to different ranges via a single computation, a compact and accurate representation of the HRTF, termed the spherical spectrum, is developed. Computations are reduced to a two stage process, the computation of the spherical spectrum and a subsequent evaluation of the HRTF. This representation allows easy interpolation and range extrapolation of HRTFs. HRTF computations are performed for the range of audible frequencies up to 20 kHz for several models including a sphere, human head models [the Neumann KU-100 ("Fritz") and the Knowles KEMAR ("Kemar") manikins], and head-and-torso model (the Kemar manikin). Comparisons between the different cases are provided. Comparisons with the computational data of other authors and available experimental data are conducted and show satisfactory agreement for the frequencies for which reliable experimental data are available. Results show that, given a good mesh, it is feasible to compute the HRTF over the full audible range on a regular personal computer.

  17. A global finite-element shallow-water model supporting continuous and discontinuous elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ullrich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel nodal finite element method for either continuous and discontinuous elements, as applied to the 2-D shallow-water equations on the cubed-sphere. The cornerstone of this method is the construction of a robust derivative operator which can be applied to compute discrete derivatives even over a discontinuous function space. A key advantage of the robust derivative is that it can be applied to partial differential equations in either conservative or non-conservative form. However, it is also shown that discontinuous penalization is required to recover the correct order of accuracy for discontinuous elements. Two versions with discontinuous elements are examined, using either the g1 and g2 flux correction function for distribution of boundary fluxes and penalty across nodal points. Scalar and vector hyperviscosity operators valid for both continuous and discontinuous elements are also derived for stabilization and removal of grid-scale noise. This method is validated using three standard shallow-water test cases, including geostrophically balanced flow, a mountain-induced Rossby wave train and a barotropic instability. The results show that although the discontinuous basis requires a smaller time step size than that required for continuous elements, the method exhibits better stability and accuracy properties in the absence of hyperviscosity.

  18. Boundary Conditions in 2D Numerical and 3D Exact Models for Cylindrical Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tornabene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical bending condition for structural models is very common in the literature because it allows an incisive and simple verification of the proposed plate and shell models. In the present paper, 2D numerical approaches (the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ and the finite element (FE methods are compared with an exact 3D shell solution in the case of free vibrations of functionally graded material (FGM plates and shells. The first 18 vibration modes carried out through the 3D exact model are compared with the frequencies obtained via the 2D numerical models. All the 18 frequencies obtained via the 3D exact model are computed when the structures have simply supported boundary conditions for all the edges. If the same boundary conditions are used in the 2D numerical models, some modes are missed. Some of these missed modes can be obtained modifying the boundary conditions imposing free edges through the direction perpendicular to the direction of cylindrical bending. However, some modes cannot be calculated via the 2D numerical models even when the boundary conditions are modified because the cylindrical bending requirements cannot be imposed for numerical solutions in the curvilinear edges by definition. These features are investigated in the present paper for different geometries (plates, cylinders, and cylindrical shells, types of FGM law, lamination sequences, and thickness ratios.

  19. Adaptive finite element modeling of direct current resistivity in 2-D generally anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Li, Yuguo; Liu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptive finite element (FE) algorithm for direct current (DC) resistivity modeling in 2-D generally anisotropic conductivity structures. Our algorithm is implemented on an unstructured triangular mesh that readily accommodates complex structures such as topography and dipping layers and so on. We implement a self-adaptive, goal-oriented grid refinement algorithm in which the finite element analysis is performed on a sequence of refined grids. The grid refinement process is guided by an a posteriori error estimator. The problem is formulated in terms of total potentials where mixed boundary conditions are incorporated. This type of boundary condition is superior to the Dirichlet type of conditions and improves numerical accuracy considerably according to model calculations. We have verified the adaptive finite element algorithm using a two-layered earth with azimuthal anisotropy. The FE algorithm with incorporation of mixed boundary conditions achieves high accuracy. The relative error between the numerical and analytical solutions is less than 1% except in the vicinity of the current source location, where the relative error is up to 2.4%. A 2-D anisotropic model is used to demonstrate the effects of anisotropy upon the apparent resistivity in DC soundings.

  20. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

  1. NORMAL INCIDENCE SOUND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF DIRECT PIERCING CARVED WOOD PANEL WITH DAUN SIREH MOTIF USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zamri Jusoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Direct Piercing Carved Wood Panel (DPCWP installed in Masjid Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, is one example that carries much aesthetic and artistic value. The use of DPCWP in earlier mosques was envisaged to improve the intelligibility of indoor speech because the perforated panels allow some of the sound energy to pass through. In this paper, the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif, which is a form of floral pattern, is discussed. The Daun Sireh motif was chosen and investigated for 30%, 35%, 40%, and 45% perforation ratios. The simulations were conducted using BEASY Acoustic Software based on the boundary element method. The simulation results were compared with measurements obtained by using the sound intensity technique. An accompanying discussion on both the numerical and the measurement tendencies of the sound absorption characteristics of the DPCWP is provided. The results show that the DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif can act as a good sound absorber.

  2. Numerical design and testing of a sound source for secondary calibration of microphones using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Secondary calibration of microphones in free field is performed by placing the microphone under calibration in an anechoic chamber with a sound source, and exposing it to a controlled sound field. A calibrated microphone is also measured as a reference. While the two measurements are usually made...... consecutively, a variation of this procedure, where the microphones are measured simultaneously, is considered more advantageous from the metrological point of view. However, it must be guaranteed that the two microphones receive the same excitation from the source, although their positions are some distance...... apart to avoid acoustic interaction. As a part of the project Euromet-792, aiming to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones, a sound source suitable for simultaneous secondary free-field calibration has been designed using the Boundary Element Method...

  3. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  4. POD-Galerkin reduced-order modeling with adaptive finite element snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Sebastian; Rotkvic, Marko; Lang, Jens

    2016-11-01

    We consider model order reduction by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for parametrized partial differential equations, where the underlying snapshots are computed with adaptive finite elements. We address computational and theoretical issues arising from the fact that the snapshots are members of different finite element spaces. We propose a method to create a POD-Galerkin model without interpolating the snapshots onto their common finite element mesh. The error of the reduced-order solution is not necessarily Galerkin orthogonal to the reduced space created from space-adapted snapshot. We analyze how this influences the error assessment for POD-Galerkin models of linear elliptic boundary value problems. As a numerical example we consider a two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation with a parametrized convective direction. To illustrate the applicability of our techniques to non-linear time-dependent problems, we present a test case of a two-dimensional viscous Burgers equation with parametrized initial data.

  5. Interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction in electrical capacitance tomography based on boundary and finite-elements coupling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangjie; Dong, Feng

    2016-06-28

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-destructive detection technique for imaging the permittivity distributions inside an observed domain from the capacitances measurements on its boundary. Owing to its advantages of non-contact, non-radiation, high speed and low cost, ECT is promising in the measurements of many industrial or biological processes. However, in the practical industrial or biological systems, a deposit is normally seen in the inner wall of its pipe or vessel. As the actual region of interest (ROI) of ECT is surrounded by the deposit layer, the capacitance measurements become weakly sensitive to the permittivity perturbation occurring at the ROI. When there is a major permittivity difference between the deposit and the ROI, this kind of shielding effect is significant, and the permittivity reconstruction becomes challenging. To deal with the issue, an interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction approach is proposed. Both the permittivity at the ROI and the geometry of the deposit layer are recovered using the block coordinate descent method. The boundary and finite-elements coupling method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with the simulation tests. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  6. Calculation of Head Related Transfer Functions of bats using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads ...... and noses are very complicated and involve thin surfaces, the numerical modelling is challenging. The paper reports preliminary results of the numerical study and investigates the possibilities of reducing the computational complexity of the models....

  7. Straightened cervical lordosis causes stress concentration: a finite element model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Liao, Shenhui; Shi, Shiyuan; Fei, Jun; Wang, Yifan; Chen, Chunyue

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we propose a finite element analysis of the complete cervical spine with straightened and normal physiological curvature by using a specially designed modelling system. An accurate finite element model is established to recommend plausible approaches to treatment of cervical spondylosis through the finite element analysis results. There are few reports of biomechanics influence of the straightened cervical curve. It is difficult to measure internal responses of cervical spine directly. However, the finite element method has been reported to have the capability to quantify both external and internal responses to mechanical loading, such as the strain and stress distribution of spinal components. We choose a subject with a straightened cervical spine from whom to collect the CT scan data, which formed the basis of the finite element analysis. By using a specially designed modelling system, a high quality finite element model of the complete cervical spine with straightened curvature was generated, which was then mapped to reconstruct a normal physiological curvature model by a volumetric mesh deformation method based on discrete differential properties. Then, the same boundary conditions were applied to do a comparison. The result demonstrated that the active movement range of straightened cervical spine decreased by 24-33 %, but the stress increased by 5-95 %. The stress was concentrated at the facet joint cartilage, uncovertebral joint and the disk. The results suggest that cervical lordosis may have a direct impact on cervical spondylosis treatment. These results may be useful for clinical treatment of cervical spondylosis with straightened curvature.

  8. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dommergue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg(0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg(0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were observed leading to an enrichment of the upper snow layers in divalent Hg. Unexpectedly high Hg(0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to the reemission of Hg(0 by the snowpack via photochemical reactions. Hg(0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. It remains unclear whether halogens are involved in Hg(0 oxidation. We suggest that snow surfaces may play a role in promoting the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg(0. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic Plateau.

  9. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF ROTARY ULTRASONIC MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHIVU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of rotary ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF LINEAR ULTRASONIC MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHIVU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  11. High-response piezoelectricity modeled quantitatively near a phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Interconversion of mechanical and electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect is fundamental to a wide range of technologies. The discovery in the 1990s of giant piezoelectric responses in certain materials has therefore opened new application spaces, but the origin of these properties remains a challenge to our understanding. A key role is played by the presence of a structural instability in these materials at compositions near the "morphotropic phase boundary" (MPB) where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical responses are maximal. Here we formulate a simple, unified theoretical description which accounts for extreme piezoelectric response, its observation at compositions near the MPB, accompanied by ultrahigh dielectric constant and mechanical compliances with rather large anisotropies. The resulting model, based upon a Landau free energy expression, is capable of treating the important domain engineered materials and is found to be predictive while maintaining simplicity. It therefore offers a general and powerful means of accounting for the full set of signature characteristics in these functional materials including volume conserving sum rules and strong substrate clamping effects.

  12. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalenko, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  13. Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jones, C.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore......-dimensional wave propagation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of the information that can be gained from a two-dimensional model of a railway tunnel. The vibration transmission from the tunnel floor to the ground surface is analysed for the frequency range relevant to the perception of whole...

  14. Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jones, C. J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore......-dimensional wave propagation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of the information that can be gained from a two-dimensional model of a railway tunnel. The vibration transmission from the tunnel floor to the ground surface is analysed for the frequency range relevant to the perception of whole...

  15. Finite element modelling of solidification phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K N Seetharamu; R Paragasam; Ghulam A Quadir; Z A Zainal; B Sathya Prasad; T Sundararajan

    2001-02-01

    The process of solidification process is complex in nature and the simulation of such process is required in industry before it is actually undertaken. Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer process accompanying the solidification process. The metal and the mould along with the air gap formation is accounted in the heat transfer simulation. Distortion of the casting is caused due to non-uniform shrinkage associated with the process. Residual stresses are induced in the final castings. Simulation of the shrinkage and the thermal stresses are also carried out using finite element methods. The material behaviour is considered as visco-plastic. The simulations are compared with available experimental data and the comparison is found to be good. Special considerations regarding the simulation of solidification process are also brought out.

  16. Metal-core piezoelectric fiber-based smart layer for damage detection using sparse virtual element boundary measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cheng, Li; Qiu, Jinhao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metal-core Piezoelectric Fiber (MPF) was shown to have great potential to be a structurally integrated sensor for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Compared with the typical foil strain gauge, MPF is more suitable for high frequency strain measurement and can create direct conversion of mechanical energy into electric energy without the need for complex signal conditioners or gauge bridges. In this paper, a MPF-based smart layer is developed as an embedded network of distributed strain sensors that can be surface-mounted on a thin-walled structure. Each pair of the adjacent MPFs divides the entire structure into several "virtual elements (VEs)". By exciting the structure at the natural frequency of the VE, a "weak" formulation of the previously developed Pseudo-excitation (PE) approach based on sparse virtual element boundary measurement (VEBM) is proposed to detect the damage. To validate the effectiveness of the VEBM based approach, experiments are conducted to locate a small crack in a cantilever beam by using a MPF- based smart layer and a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Results demonstrate that the proposed VEBM approach not only inherits the enhanced noise immunity capability of the "weak" formulation of the PE approach, but also allows a significant reduction in the number of measurement points as compared to the original version of the PE approach.

  17. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  18. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I. N.; Baklanov, A.

    2005-03-01

    Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow). It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral) or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions) depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S were overlooked

  19. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  20. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Fang; ZHANG Chun-Min; YUE Rui-Hong; LI Run-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the generalboundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  1. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  2. Energy Based Multiscale Modeling with Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    subroutine and Python script are highlighted in Figure 14. 1. Reads the EVOL , or current element volume for all elements 2...Extracts the element stresses within the unit-cell RVE 3. Computes the volume average of the stresses based on the EVOL values 4. Using the volume

  3. Finite element analysis of nano-scale Timoshenko beams using the integral model of nonlocal elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzzadeh, A.; Ansari, R.

    2017-04-01

    Stress-strain relation in Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory was originally formulated within the framework of an integral model. Due to difficulty of working with that integral model, the differential model of nonlocal constitutive equation is widely used for nanostructures. However, paradoxical results may be obtained by the differential model for some boundary and loading conditions. Presented in this article is a finite element analysis of Timoshenko nano-beams based on the integral model of nonlocal continuum theory without employing any simplification in the model. The entire procedure of deriving equations of motion is carried out in the matrix form of representation, and hence, they can be easily used in the finite element analysis. For comparison purpose, the differential counterparts of equations are also derived. To study the outcome of analysis based on the integral and differential models, some case studies are presented in which the influences of boundary conditions, nonlocal length scale parameter and loading factor are analyzed. It is concluded that, in contrast to the differential model, there is no paradox in the numerical results of developed integral model of nonlocal continuum theory for different situations of problem characteristics. So, resolving the mentioned paradoxes by means of a purely numerical approach based on the original integral form of nonlocal elasticity theory is the major contribution of present study.

  4. Mixed finite element models for free vibrations of thin-walled beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.; Min, Byung-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Simple, mixed finite element models are developed for the free vibration analysis of curved thin-walled beams with arbitrary open cross section. The analytical formulation is based on a Vlasov's type thin-walled beam theory with the effects of flexural-torsional coupling, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia included. The fundamental unknowns consist of seven internal forces and seven generalized displacements of the beam. The element characteristic arrays are obtained by using a perturbed Lagrangian-mixed variational principle. Only C(sup o) continuity is required for the generalized displacements. The internal forces and the Lagrange multiplier are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the elements developed. The standard of comparison is taken to be the solutions obtained by using 2-D plate/shell models for the beams.

  5. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  6. The effects of aging on the speed-accuracy compromise: Boundary optimality in the diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Ratcliff, Roger

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated age-related differences in the optimality of decision boundary settings in a diffusion model analysis. In the model, the width of the decision boundary represents the amount of evidence that must accumulate in favor of a response alternative before a decision is made. Wide boundaries lead to slow but accurate responding, and narrow boundaries lead to fast but inaccurate responding. There is a single value of boundary separation that produces the most correct answers in a given period of time, and we refer to this value as the reward rate optimal boundary (RROB). We consistently found across a variety of decision tasks that older adults used boundaries that were much wider than the RROB value. Young adults used boundaries that were closer to the RROB value, although age differences in optimality were smaller with instructions emphasizing speed than with instructions emphasizing accuracy. Young adults adjusted their boundary settings to more closely approach the RROB value when they were provided with accuracy feedback and extensive practice. Older participants showed no evidence of making boundary adjustments in response to feedback or task practice, and they consistently used boundary separation values that produced accuracy levels that were near asymptote. Our results suggest that young adults attempt to balance speed and accuracy to achieve the most correct answers per unit time, whereas older adultts attempt to minimize errors even if they must respond quite slowly to do so.

  7. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements......Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...

  8. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Mixed finite elements for global tide models

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, Colin J

    2014-01-01

    We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation -- the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in $L^2$ as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.

  10. Integrable boundary interaction in 3D target space: The “pillow-brane” model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergei L., E-mail: sergei@physics.rutgers.edu [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Zamolodchikov, Alexander B. [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-21

    We propose a model of boundary interaction, with three-dimensional target space, and the boundary values of the field X∈R{sup 3} constrained to lay on a two-dimensional surface of the “pillow” shape. We argue that the model is integrable, and suggest that its exact solution is described in terms of certain linear ordinary differential equation.

  11. Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffi, E.N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fisher, R.E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H.A.; Williams, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (222Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 model with obser

  12. The Open Boundary Dynamical Elliptic Quantum Gaudin Model and Its Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shao-You; YUE Rui-Hong

    2001-01-01

    We construct the Hamiltonians of open elliptic quantum Gaudin model and show its relation with the open boundary elliptic quantum group. We define eigenstates of the model to be Bethe vectors with η = 0 of the boundary elliptic quantum group. Then, the Hamiltonian is exactly diagonalized by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method.``

  13. ASYMPTOTICS OF INITIAL BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS OF BIPOLAR HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qiangchang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the solutions to the bipolar hydrodynamic model with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It is shown that the initial boundary problem of the model admits a global smooth solution which decays to the steady state exponentially fast.

  14. Numerical Calculation of Marine Propeller Hydrodynamic Characteristics in Unsteady Flow by Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,a low-order potential based on surface panel method is used for the analysis of marine propellers in unsteady flow.A linear propeller wake model is employed and its geometry is assumed to be independent of the time.The calculation in time domain is carried out from a moment when the rotation of the propeller becomes steady instead of from the moment when the rotation starts from stationary condition.At every time step a linear algebraic equation established on a key blade is solved numerically combined with the Kutta pressure condition.The calculated results by developed code indicate good convergency and effectiveness of present algorithm for conventional propellers and highly skewed propellers.

  15. Grain boundary atomic structures and light-element visualization in ceramics: combination of Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Grain boundaries and interfaces of crystals have peculiar electronic structures, caused by the disorder in periodicity, providing the functional properties, which cannot be observed in a perfect crystal. In the vicinity of the grain boundaries and interfaces, dopants or impurities are often segregated, and they play a crucial role in deciding the properties of a material. Spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), allowing the formation of sub-angstrom-sized electron probes, can directly observe grain boundary-segregated dopants. On the other hand, ceramic materials are composed of light elements, and these light elements also play an important role in the properties of ceramic materials. Recently, annular bright-field (ABF)-STEM imaging has been proposed, which is now known to be a very powerful technique in producing images showing both light- and heavy-element columns simultaneously. In this review, the atomic structure determination of ceramic grain boundaries and direct observation of grain boundary-segregated dopants and light elements in ceramics were shown to combine with the theoretical calculations. Examples are demonstrated for well-defined grain boundaries in rare earth-doped Al(2)O(3) and ZnO ceramics, CeO(2) and SrTiO(3) grain boundary, lithium battery materials and metal hydride, which were characterized by Cs-corrected high-angle annular dark-field and ABF-STEM. It is concluded that the combination of STEM characterization and first-principles calculation is very useful in interpreting the structural information and in understanding the origin of the properties in various ceramics.

  16. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR SEISMICITY INDUCED BY FAULT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huaran; Li Yiqun; He Qiaoyun; Zhang Jieqing; Ma Hongsheng; Li Li

    2003-01-01

    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the area of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.

  17. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR SEISMICITY INDUCED BY FAULT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenHuaran; LiYiqun; HeQiaoyun; ZhangJieqing; MaHongsheng; LiLi

    2003-01-01

    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the are a of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.

  18. ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME REACTION DIFFUSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.

  19. 2D BEM modeling of a singular thermal diffusion free boundary problem with phase change

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    We report a 2D Boundary Element Method (BEM) modeling of the thermal diffusion-controlled growth of a vapor bubble attached to a heating surface during saturated pool boiling. The transient heat conduction problem is solved in a liquid that surrounds a bubble with a free boundary and in a semi-infinite solid heater. The heat generated homogeneously in the heater causes evaporation, i. e. the bubble growth. A singularity exists at the point of the triple (liquid-vapor-solid) contact. At high system pressure the bubble is assumed to grow slowly, its shape being defined by the surface tension and the vapor recoil force, a force coming from the liquid evaporating into the bubble. It is shown that at some typical time the dry spot under the bubble begins to grow rapidly under the action of the vapor recoil. Such a bubble can eventually spread into a vapor film that can separate the liquid from the heater, thus triggering the boiling crisis (Critical Heat Flux phenomenon).

  20. Automatic procedure for realistic 3D finite element modelling of human brain for bioelectromagnetic computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristovich, K Y; Khan, S H, E-mail: kirill.aristovich.1@city.ac.u [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Realistic computer modelling of biological objects requires building of very accurate and realistic computer models based on geometric and material data, type, and accuracy of numerical analyses. This paper presents some of the automatic tools and algorithms that were used to build accurate and realistic 3D finite element (FE) model of whole-brain. These models were used to solve the forward problem in magnetic field tomography (MFT) based on Magnetoencephalography (MEG). The forward problem involves modelling and computation of magnetic fields produced by human brain during cognitive processing. The geometric parameters of the model were obtained from accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and the material properties - from those obtained from Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTMRI). The 3D FE models of the brain built using this approach has been shown to be very accurate in terms of both geometric and material properties. The model is stored on the computer in Computer-Aided Parametrical Design (CAD) format. This allows the model to be used in a wide a range of methods of analysis, such as finite element method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Monte-Carlo Simulations, etc. The generic model building approach presented here could be used for accurate and realistic modelling of human brain and many other biological objects.

  1. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  2. Discrete element modelling of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw

  3. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  4. Extension of FDTD absorbing boundary condition methods to lossy dielectrics for the modeling of microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, David Christian

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has become a main stream analysis tool for engineers solving complex electromagnetic wave interaction problems. Its first principles approach affords it a wide range of applications from radar cross section (RCS) predictions of electrically large structures to molecular scale analysis of complex materials. This wide area of application may be attributed to the coupling of auxiliary differential equations with Maxwell's equations to describe the physical properties of a given problem. Previous extensions have included sub-cell models for describing lumped circuit elements within a single Yee cell, transformation of near-field information to the far-field for the analysis of antenna problems, dispersive material models and mesh truncation techniques. A review of these extensions is presented. What has not been previously developed is the ability to truncate lossy dielectric materials at the boundary of the simulation domain. Such outer boundary conditions (OBCs) are required in simulations dealing with ground penetrating radar, integrated circuits and many microwave devices such as stripline and microstrip structures. We have developed such an OBC by surrounding the exterior of the simulation domain with a lossy dispersive material based on a two time-derivative Lorentz model (L2TDLM). We present the development of the material as an absorber and ultimately as a full 3D OBC. Examples of microstrip, structures are presented to re-enforce the importance of modeling losses in dielectric structures. Finally, validation of the FDTD simulator and demonstration of the L2TDLM OBC's effectiveness is achieved by comparison with measured results from these microwave devices.

  5. Key Elements of Effective Teaching in the Direct Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Roger H.

    Summaries and outlines are presented of key elements in effective teaching identified in research studies by Kounin (1970), Brophy (1973), Brophy and Evertson (1976), Stallings (1974; l975), Berliner (1979), and Good and Grouws (1979). These elements are synthesized in a direct teaching model that delineates the characteristics of effective…

  6. Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. C. Akuetevi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents, subject to two different types of idealized wind forcing, Monsoon Wind and Trade Wind, is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and above, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical solutions of the Munk-layer and the inertial-layer, derived from quasigeostrophic theory. Modifications due to variations in the layer thickness (vortex stretching are only important close to the boundary. When the viscosity is reduced the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.

  7. ON A PARABOLIC FREE BOUNDARY EQUATION MODELING PRICE FORMATION

    KAUST Repository

    MARKOWICH, P. A.

    2009-10-01

    We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  8. SPH Modeling of Droplet Impact on Solid Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大鸣; 白玲; 李玲玲; 赵明宇

    2014-01-01

    A droplet undergoes spreading, rebounding or splashing when it impacts solid boundary, which is a typical phenomenon of free surface flow that exists widely in modern industry. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is applied to numerically study the dynamical behaviors of the droplet impacting solid boundary, and both the spreading and rebounding phenomena of the droplet are reproduced in the simulation. The droplet deformation, flow fields and pressure fields inside the droplet at different moments are analyzed. Two important factors, the initial veloc-ity and diameter, are discussed in determining the maximum spreading factor, revealing that the maximum spreading factor increases with the increase of the impact velocity and droplet diameter respectively.

  9. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory,

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  10. The boundary states and correlation functions of the tricritical Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Balaska, S

    2006-01-01

    We consider the minimal model describing the tricritical Ising model on the upper half plane or equivalently on an infinite strip of finite width and we determine its consistents boundary states as well as its 1-point correlation functions.

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Airflow During Phonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a mathematical model of airflow in human vocal folds is presented. The geometry of the glottal channel is based on measurements of excised human larynges. The airflow is modeled by nonstationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a 2D computational domain, which is deformed in time due to vocal fold vibration. The paper presents numerical results and focuses on flow separation in glottis. Quantitative data from numerical simulations are compared to results of measurements by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV, performed on a scaled self-oscillating physical model of vocal folds.

  12. DPL Model Analysis of Non-Fourier Heat Conduction Restricted by Continuous Boundary Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Fangming; Liu Dengying

    2001-01-01

    Dual-phase lag (DPL) model is used to describe the non-Fourier heat conduction in a finite medium where the boundary at x=-0 is heated by a rectangular pulsed energy source and the other boundary is tightly contacted with another medium and satisfies the continuous boundary condition. Numerical solution of this kind of. non-Fourier heat conduction is presented in this paper. The results are compared with those predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC) equation.

  13. Efficient parallel iterative solvers for the solution of large dense linear systems arising from the boundary element method in electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleon, G. [EADS-CCR, 31 - Blagnac (France); Carpentieri, B.; Du, I.S.; Giraud, L.; Langou, J.; Martin, E. [Cerfacs, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    The boundary element method has become a popular tool for the solution of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism. It discretizes only the surface of the radiating object and gives rise to linear systems that are smaller in size compared to those arising from finite element or finite difference discretizations. However, these systems are prohibitively demanding in terms of memory for direct methods and challenging to solve by iterative methods. In this paper we address the iterative solution via preconditioned Krylov methods of electromagnetic scattering problems expressed in an integral formulation, with main focus on the design of the pre-conditioner. We consider an approximate inverse method based on the Frobenius-norm minimization with a pattern prescribed in advance. The pre-conditioner is constructed from a sparse approximation of the dense coefficient matrix, and the patterns both for the pre-conditioner and for the coefficient matrix are computed a priori using geometric information from the mesh. We describe the implementation of the approximate inverse in an out-of-core parallel code that uses multipole techniques for the matrix-vector products, and show results on the numerical scalability of our method on systems of size up to one million unknowns. We propose an embedded iterative scheme based on the GMRES method and combined with multipole techniques, aimed at improving the robustness of the approximate inverse for large problems. We prove by numerical experiments that the proposed scheme enables the solution of very large and difficult problems efficiently at reduced computational and memory cost. Finally we perform a preliminary study on a spectral two-level pre-conditioner to enhance the robustness of our method. This numerical technique exploits spectral information of the preconditioned systems to build a low rank-update of the pre-conditioner. (authors)

  14. Efficient Finite Element Modelling of Elastodynamic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    A robust and efficient technique for predicting the complete scattering behavior for an arbitrarily-shaped defect is presented that can be implemented in a commercial FE package. The spatial size of the modeling domain around the defect is as small as possible to minimize computational expense and a minimum number of models are executed. Example results for 2D and 3D scattering in isotropic material and guided wave scattering are presented.

  15. Partitioning of Lipids at Domain Boundaries in Model Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, Lars V.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2010-01-01

    Line-active molecules ("linactants") that bind to the boundary interface between different fluid lipid domains in membranes have a strong potential as regulators of the lateral heterogeneity that is important for many biological processes. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in combination w

  16. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...

  17. Ab initio modelling of UN grain boundary interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotomin, E. A.; Zhukovkii, Yu F.; Bocharov, D.; Gryaznov, D.

    2012-08-01

    The uranium mononitride (UN) is a material considered as a promising candidate for Generation-IV nuclear reactor fuels. Unfortunately, oxygen in air affects UN fuel performance and stability. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of oxygen adsorption and further UN oxidation in the bulk and at surface. Recently, we performed a detailed study on oxygen interaction with UN surface using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We were able to identify an atomistic mechanism of UN surface oxidation consisting of several important steps, starting with the oxygen molecule dissociation and finishing with oxygen atom incorporation into vacancies on the surface. However, in reality most of processes occur at the interfaces and on UN grain boundaries. In this study, we present the results of first DFT calculations on O behaviour inside UN grain boundaries performed using GGA exchange-correlation functional PW91 as implemented into the VASP computer code. We consider a simple interface (310)[001](36.8°) tilt grain boundary. The N vacancy formation energies and energies of O incorporation into pre-existing vacancies in the grain boundaries as well as O solution energies were compared with those obtained for the UN (001) and (110) surfaces

  18. On the Reciprocity of State Vectors in Boundary Value Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-22

    34 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 29, pp. 803-821, 1984. [31 A. Bagchi and H. Westdijk, "Smoothing and likelihood ratio for Gaussian...boundary value processes," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 34, pp. 954-962, 1989. [41 J.-P. Carmichael, J.-C. Massd, and R. Theodorescu

  19. A nozzle boundary layer model including the subsonic sublayer usable for determining boundary layer effects on plume flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the boundary layer at the exit plane of a rocket nozzle was developed which, unlike most previous models, includes the subsonic sublayer. The equations for the flow near the nozzle exit plane are presented and the method by which the subsonic sublayer transitions to supersonic flow in the plume is described. The resulting model describes the entire boundary layer and can be used to provide a startline for method-of-characteristics calculations of plume flowfields. The model was incorporated into a method of characteristics computer program and comparisons of computed results to experimental data show good agreement. The data used in the comparisons were obtained in tests in which mass fluxes from a 22.2-N (5 lbf) thrust engine were measured at angles off the nozzle centerline of up to 150 deg. Additional comparisons were made with data obtained during tests of a 0.89-N (0.2 lbr) monopropellant thruster and from the OH-64 space shuttle heating tests. The agreement with the data indicates that the model can be used for calculating plume backflow properties.

  20. Fast multipole boundary element method for Helmholtz equation problems%Helmholtz方程问题的快速多极边界元求解方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海源; 陈一鸣; 于春肖

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties of low computational efficiency and high memory requirement in the conventional boundary element method for solving large-scale Helmholtz equation problems, a fast multipole boundary element method for the problems of Helmholtz equation is presented. Two theorems are obtained based on the multipole expansion and the local expansion of the boundary element method fundamental solutions'Kernel function. What's more, the basic formulas and the main steps of the fast multipole boundary element method are described for 2D and 3D Helmholtz equation problems.%为了改善传统边界元在求解大规模Helmholtz方程的实际问题时计算效率低、存储量大的缺点,针对快速多极边界元法求解Helmholtz方程进行了理论分析.通过对二维和三维Helmholtz方程的基本解的核函数进行多极展开和局部展开,得到了相应的展开定理,并基于展开定理分别推导了二维和三维问题Helmholtz方程的快速多极边界元计算公式,给出了快速多极边界元法求解Helmholtz方程的主要计算步骤.

  1. The features of finite-element modeling of a structural element of flexible woven composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Kozhanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of finite-element modeling of both an element itself and its behavior under uniaxial tension have been demonstrated with a structural element of flexible woven composites. The main components of the material, such as reinforcing fabric and material's matrix were examined in modeling. The reinforcing fabric is a plain weave. These yarns were taken as an elastic material. The matrix of the material was considered to be a soft polymer with the possible occurrence of irreversible elastic-plastic deformations. Moreover, the possible occurrence of damages in the structure of the material under high loads was taken into account in modeling. The fields of stresses and strains were built; the zones of the material's internal damages under uniaxial tension were demonstrated. The risk zones of weave were revealed.

  2. RESEARCH ON VIRTUAL-PART-BASED CONNECTING ELEMENT MODELING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the inner character analysis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connecting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interpart feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presented, and virtual-part-based connecting element modeling is proposed. During the assembly modeling, base parts are modified by the Boolean subtraction between the virtual part and the part to be connected. Dynamic matching algorithm, which is based on list database, is designed for dynamic extension and off-line editing of connecting part and virtual part, and design rules of connecting element is encapsulated by the virtual part. A prototyped software module for rapid design of connecting elements is implemented under self-developed CAD/CAM platform-SuperMan.

  3. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research proposal offers to develop the most accurate, comprehensive and efficient finite element models to date for simulation of the...

  4. 2.5D Boundary element simulation of wave propagation in a vertical fluid-filled borehole with irregular shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengxi, Ge; Canyun, Wang; Ting, Lei; Xiaofei, Chen

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, a boundary element formulation in the wave-number space domain for solving the wave equation for a borehole with arbitrary shape in acoustic logging problems is presented. The problem is treated as a two-dimensional medium with the discrete wave-number method in the vertical direction. The method is validated by comparing the results obtained by this method with those obtained by the finite-difference method. The method is used to study the effect on wave propagation in a vertical borehole of a vertical fracture. For a monopole source, the dispersion curves for Stoneley waves yield three branches. For dipole and quadrupole sources, different orientations of the source yield different results. When the dipole source is orthogonal to the fracture, the dispersion curve is similar to that of the open hole, while the curves are quite different when the source is parallel to the fracture. These characteristics enable us to determine the orientation of the vertical fracture.

  5. Generalized Taylor-Duffy Method for Efficient Evaluation of Galerkin Integrals in Boundary-Element Method Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M T Homer; White, Jacob K

    2013-01-01

    We present a generic technique, automated by computer-algebra systems and available as open-source software \\cite{scuff-em}, for efficient numerical evaluation of a large family of singular and nonsingular 4-dimensional integrals over triangle-product domains, such as those arising in the boundary-element method (BEM) of computational electromagnetism. To date, practical implementation of BEM solvers has often required the aggregation of multiple disparate integral-evaluation schemes to treat all of the distinct types of integrals needed for a given BEM formulation; in contrast, our technique allows many different types of integrals to be handled by the \\emph{same} algorithm and the same code implementation. Our method is a significant generalization of the Taylor--Duffy approach \\cite{Taylor2003,Duffy1982}, which was originally presented for just a single type of integrand; in addition to generalizing this technique to a broad class of integrands, we also achieve a significant improvement in its efficiency b...

  6. A Hybrid Finite Element-Fourier Spectral Method for Vibration Analysis of Structures with Elastic Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid method, which simultaneously possesses the efficiency of Fourier spectral method (FSM and the applicability of the finite element method (FEM, is presented for the vibration analysis of structures with elastic boundary conditions. The FSM, as one type of analytical approaches with excellent convergence and accuracy, is mainly limited to problems with relatively regular geometry. The purpose of the current study is to extend the FSM to problems with irregular geometry via the FEM and attempt to take full advantage of the FSM and the conventional FEM for structural vibration problems. The computational domain of general shape is divided into several subdomains firstly, some of which are represented by the FSM while the rest by the FEM. Then, fictitious springs are introduced for connecting these subdomains. Sufficient details are given to describe the development of such a hybrid method. Numerical examples of a one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam and a two-dimensional rectangular plate show that the present method has good accuracy and efficiency. Further, one irregular-shaped plate which consists of one rectangular plate and one semi-circular plate also demonstrates the capability of the present method applied to irregular structures.

  7. Elements of matrix modeling and computing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    White, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    As discrete models and computing have become more common, there is a need to study matrix computation and numerical linear algebra. Encompassing a diverse mathematical core, Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB examines a variety of applications and their modeling processes, showing you how to develop matrix models and solve algebraic systems. Emphasizing practical skills, it creates a bridge from problems with two and three variables to more realistic problems that have additional variables. Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB focuses on seven basic applicat

  8. Research on Knowledge-based Connecting Elements Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Steps of manipulation is required to complete the m od eling of the connection elements such as bolt, pin and the like in commerce CAD system. It leads to low efficiency, difficulty to assure the relative position, impossibility to express rules and knowledge. Based on the inner character analy sis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connec ting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interp art feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presen...

  9. REDUCING DIMENSIONS OF DOMAIN INTEGRATION IN BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD%边界元法中区域积分的降维计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁政强; 祝家麟

    2002-01-01

    The main advantage of Boundary Element Method (BEM) is reducing the dimensions by one in performing calculation.When inhomogeneous term appears in the governing equation of the problem,the domain integral is inevitable excepting some special cases.The common way to perform the domain integral involves subdividing the domain into a series of subdomains over which a numberical integration formula or an analytical quadrature can be applied.This paper presents an alternative way to transform the domain integral over subdomains into equivalent boundary integrals on the boundary of each subdomain,so that all the integrals are performed on the boundary case.It makes the whole calculation of BEM reduced by one dimension really.

  10. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  11. Modeling rammed earth wall using discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T.-T.; Bui, Q.-B.; Limam, A.; Morel, J.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Rammed earth is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable development. Several research studies have thus recently been carried out to investigate this material. Some of them attempted to simulate the rammed earth's mechanical behavior by using analytical or numerical models. Most of these studies assumed that there was a perfect cohesion at the interface between earthen layers. This hypothesis proved to be acceptable for the case of vertical loading, but it could be questionable for horizontal loading. To address this problem, discrete element modeling seems to be relevant to simulate a rammed earth wall. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted thus far using discrete element modeling to study a rammed earth wall. This paper presents an assessment of the discrete element modeling's robustness for rammed earth walls. Firstly, a brief description of the discrete element modeling is presented. Then the parameters necessary for discrete element modeling of the material law of the earthen layers and their interfaces law following the Mohr-Coulomb model with a tension cut-off and post-peak softening were given. The relevance of the model and the material parameters were assessed by comparing them with experimental results from the literature. The results showed that, in the case of vertical loading, interfaces did not have an important effect. In the case of diagonal loading, model with interfaces produced better results. Interface characteristics can vary from 85 to 100% of the corresponding earthen layer's characteristics.

  12. Finite Element Model Updating Using Response Surface Method

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes the response surface method for finite element model updating. The response surface method is implemented by approximating the finite element model surface response equation by a multi-layer perceptron. The updated parameters of the finite element model were calculated using genetic algorithm by optimizing the surface response equation. The proposed method was compared to the existing methods that use simulated annealing or genetic algorithm together with a full finite element model for finite element model updating. The proposed method was tested on an unsymmetri-cal H-shaped structure. It was observed that the proposed method gave the updated natural frequen-cies and mode shapes that were of the same order of accuracy as those given by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, it was observed that the response surface method achieved these results at a computational speed that was more than 2.5 times as fast as the genetic algorithm and a full finite element model and 24 ti...

  13. Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX-Pilot using NCMRWF model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swati Basu

    2000-06-01

    A global spectral model (T80L18) that is operational at NCMRWF is utilized to study the structure of the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot period. The vertical profiles of various meteorological parameters within the boundary layer are studied and verified against the available observations. The diurnal variation of various surface fields are also studied. The impact of non-local closure scheme for the boundary layer parameterisation is seen in simulation of the flow pattern as well as on the boundary layer structure over the oceanic region.

  14. Implementation of the Immersed Boundary Method in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Katherine Ann [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Accurate simulations of atmospheric boundary layer flow are vital for predicting dispersion of contaminant releases, particularly in densely populated urban regions where first responders must react within minutes and the consequences of forecast errors are potentially disastrous. Current mesoscale models do not account for urban effects, and conversely urban scale models do not account for mesoscale weather features or atmospheric physics. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop and implement an immersed boundary method (IBM) along with a surface roughness parameterization into the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. IBM will be used in WRF to represent the complex boundary conditions imposed by urban landscapes, while still including forcing from regional weather patterns and atmospheric physics. This document details preliminary results of this research, including the details of three distinct implementations of the immersed boundary method. Results for the three methods are presented for the case of a rotation influenced neutral atmospheric boundary layer over flat terrain.

  15. Evaluation of Fabric Hand with Grey Element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-sheng; GAN Ying-jin; BAI Yue

    2004-01-01

    A premium composite grey element model is established and used for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Fabric hand is regarded as a grey system and the model is composed of fabric mechanical properties, which are primary hand attributes. Based on comparison with a standard model, fabric hand can be objectively evaluated.

  16. Finite Element Modeling for Ultrasonic Transducers (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-27

    virtual prototyping of transducers . Fig. 18 shows a 3D model of a Tonpilz device for low frequency sensing in air. This classical design is usually used...coupled Tonpilz transducer . A thick, flexible matching layer is bonded to the face of the conical head-mass. 7. CONCLUSIONS This paper was intended as a...This is a preprint of a paper published in Proc. SPIE Int. Symp. Medical Imaging 1998, San Diego, Feb 21-27, 1998 Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering

  17. Automatic terrain modeling using transfinite element analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathaniel O.

    2010-05-31

    An automatic procedure for modeling terrain is developed based on L2 projection-based interpolation of discrete terrain data onto transfinite function spaces. The function space is refined automatically by the use of image processing techniques to detect regions of high error and the flexibility of the transfinite interpolation to add degrees of freedom to these areas. Examples are shown of a section of the Palo Duro Canyon in northern Texas.

  18. Numerical simulation of Neumann boundary condition in the thermal lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, J. F.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a bilinear interpolation finite-difference scheme is proposed to handle the Neumann boundary condition with nonequilibrium extrapolation method in the thermal lattice Boltzmann model. The temperature value at the boundary point is obtained by the finite-difference approximation, and then used to determine the wall temperature via an extrapolation. Our method can deal with the boundaries with complex geometries, motions and gradient boundary conditions. Several simulations are performed to examine the capacity of this proposed boundary method. The numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions. When compared with a representative boundary method, an improved performance is observed. The results also show that the proposed scheme together with nonequilibrium extrapolation method has second-order accuracy.

  19. Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffi, E.N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fisher, R.E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H.A.; Williams, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (222Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 mo

  20. Boundary Effects for One-Dimensional Bariev Model with Hard-Core Repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiao-Jun; YUERui-Hong

    2004-01-01

    For the Bariev model for correlated hopping in one dimension under open boundary conditions, the Bethe ansatz equations are analyzed for both a repulsive and an attractive interaction in several limiting cases, i.e., the ground state, the weak and strong coupling limits. The contributions of the boundary fields to both the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are obtained.

  1. Boundary Effects for One-Dimensional Bariev Model with Hard-Core Repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Jun; YUE Rui-Hong

    2004-01-01

    For the Bariey model for correlated hopping in one dimension under open boundary conditions, the Bethe ansatz equations are analyzed for both a repulsive and an attractive interaction in several limiting cases, i.e., the ground state, the weak and strong coupling limits. The contributions of the boundary fields to both the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are obtained.

  2. Some semi-classical issues in boundary sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Kormos, M

    2002-01-01

    The semi-classical quantisation of the two lowest energy static solutions of boundary sine-Gordon model is considered. A relation between the Lagrangian and bootstrap parameters is established by comparing their quantum corrected energy difference and the exact one. This relation is also confirmed by studying the semi-classical limit of soliton reflections on the boundary.

  3. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gombor, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    The finite volume problem of O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries on a finite interval is investigated. The double row transfer matrix is diagonalized by Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. The boundary Bethe Yang equations for the particle rapidities and the accompanying Bethe Ansatz equations are derived.

  4. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory...

  5. 2D spectral element modeling of GPR wave propagation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sajad; Oskooi, Behrooz; Amini, Navid; Dalkhani, Amin Rahimi

    2016-10-01

    We present a spectral element method, for simulation of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in two dimensions. The technique is based upon a weak formulation of the equations of Maxwell and combines the flexibility of the elemental-based methods with the accuracy of the spectral based methods. The wave field on the elements is discretized using high-degree Lagrange interpolation and integration over an element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. As a result, the mass matrix and the damping matrix are always diagonal, which drastically reduces the computational cost. We first develop the formulation of 2D spectral element method (SEM) in the time-domain based on Maxwell's equations. The presented formulation is with matrix notation that simplifies the implementation of the relations in computer programs, especially in MATLAB application. We discuss the differences between spectral element method and finite-element method in the time-domain. Also, we show that the SEM numerical dispersion is much lower than FEM. To absorb waves at the edges of the modeling domain, we implement first order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary conditions (CE-ABC) introduced in numerical finite-difference modeling of seismic wave propagation. We used the SEM to simulate a complex model to show its abilities and limitations. As well as, one distinct advantage of SEM is that we can easily define our model features in nodal points, because the integration points and the interpolation points are similar that makes it very flexible in simulation of complex models.

  6. Poynting flux-conserving low-altitude boundary conditions for global magnetospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O. J.; Lyon, J. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for specifying low-altitude or inner boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. The single-fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method, with comparisons between simulations using LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions and the new flux-conserving boundary conditions. Identical idealized upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions and the same constant ionospheric conductance are used in both runs. The results show that, compared to LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions, the flux-conserving method improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the hemispheric integrated field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is close to the hemispheric total Joule heating of the ionosphere, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved. The MHD velocity and perpendicular currents are well-behaved near the inner boundary for the flux conserving boundary conditions.

  7. Dynamics of turbulent western-boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuetevi, C. Q. C.; Wirth, A.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western-boundary currents (WBCs) crossing the Equator are considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced-gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s-1 and greater, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in the form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer, VSL) and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the VSL, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity; the second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse-resolution numerical models is proposed.

  8. Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. C. Akuetevi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents crossing the equator is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and more, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.

  9. Analytical modeling of sandwich beam for piezoelectric bender elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric bender elements are widely used as electromechanical sensors and actuators. An analytical sandwich beam model for piezoelectric bender elements was developed based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which assumes a single rotation angle for the whole cross-section and a quadratic distribution function for coupled electric potential in piezoelectric layers, and corrects the effect of transverse shear strain on the electric displacement integration. Free vibration analysis of simplysupported bender elements was carried out and the numerical results showed that, solutions of the present model for various thickness-to-length ratios are compared well with the exact two-dimensional solutions, which presents an efficient and accurate model for analyzing dynamic electromechanical responses of bender elements.

  10. Finite element modeling and simulation with ANSYS workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionSome Basic ConceptsAn Example in FEA: Spring SystemOverview of ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBars and TrussesIntroductionReview of the 1-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of TrussesFormulation of the Bar ElementExamples with Bar ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBeams and FramesIntroductionReview of the Beam TheoryModeling of Beams and FramesFormulation of the Beam ElementExamples with Beam ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsTwo-Dimensional ElasticityIntroductionReview of 2-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of 2-D Elasticity ProblemsFormulation of the Pla

  11. Selection of finite-element mesh parameters in modeling the growth of hydraulic fracturing cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurguzov, V. D.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the mesh geometry on the accuracy of solutions obtained by the finite-element method for problems of linear fracture mechanics is investigated. The guidelines have been formulated for constructing an optimum mesh for several routine problems involving elements with linear and quadratic approximation of displacements. The accuracy of finite-element solutions is estimated based on the degree of the difference between the calculated stress-intensity factor (SIF) and its value obtained analytically. In problems of hydrofracturing of oil-bearing formation, the pump-in pressure of injected water produces a distributed load on crack flanks as opposed to standard fracture mechanics problems that have analytical solutions, where a load is applied to the external boundaries of the computational region and the cracks themselves are kept free from stresses. Some model pressure profiles, as well as pressure profiles taken from real hydrodynamic computations, have been considered. Computer models of cracks with allowance for the pre-stressed state, fracture toughness, and elastic properties of materials are developed in the MSC.Marc 2012 finite-element analysis software. The Irwin force criterion is used as a criterion of brittle fracture and the SIFs are computed using the Cherepanov-Rice invariant J-integral. The process of crack propagation in a linearly elastic isotropic body is described in terms of the elastic energy release rate G and modeled using the VCCT (Virtual Crack Closure Technique) approach. It has been found that the solution accuracy is sensitive to the mesh configuration. Several parameters that are decisive in constructing effective finite-element meshes, namely, the minimum element size, the distance between mesh nodes in the vicinity of a crack tip, and the ratio of the height of an element to its length, have been established. It has been shown that a mesh that consists of only small elements does not improve the accuracy of the solution.

  12. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    index. In the boundary layer, atmospheric temperature fluctuations are primarily responsible for the variations in refractive index at ultraviolet...parameterization of the atmospheric emissivity, in the early 1980s a parallel study of the SEB was conducted by the US Army Waterways Experiment Station...period of rotation of the atmosphere can be defined as TI = 2π/fc. At most mid- latitude locations this period is approximately 17 h. This quantity is

  13. Formulation of Subgrid Variability and Boundary-Layer Cloud Cover in Large-Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    soils have been specifically evaluated in terms of a van Genuchten formulation. The CAPS model was originally formulated for inclusion in large...terrestrial atmospheric boundary lay- ers, suitable for inclusion in large-scale models. The ABL mixing scheme (Troen and Mahrt, 1986) includes both...AFGL soil sodel (OSU-PL land-surface scheme) coupled to a boundary layer model developed by Jan Paegle, Univ. Utah. Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon 2

  14. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  15. Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N. A. S., E-mail: nadia.smith@npl.co.uk, E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk, E-mail: tatiana.correia@npl.co.uk; Correia, T. M., E-mail: nadia.smith@npl.co.uk, E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk, E-mail: tatiana.correia@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, TW11 0LW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Rokosz, M. K., E-mail: nadia.smith@npl.co.uk, E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk, E-mail: tatiana.correia@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, TW11 0LW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.

  16. New Discrete Element Models for Three-Dimensional Impact Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Li; CHENG Ming; LIU Kai-xin; LIU Wei-Fu; CHEN Shi-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Two 3-D numerical models of the discrete element method(DEM)for impact problems are proposed.The models can calculate not only the impact problems of continuum and non-continuum,but also the transient process from continuum to non-continuum.The stress wave propagation in a concrete block and a dynamic splitting process of a marble disc under impact loading are numerically simulated with the proposed models.By comparing the numerical results with the corresponding results obtained by the finite element method(FEM)and the experiments,it is proved that the models are reliable for three-dimensional impact problems.

  17. Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part I: Theory and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research that deal with the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. A new unsteady boundary layer transition model was developed based on a universal unsteady intermittency function. It accounts for the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow on the boundary layer transition. To establish the transition model, an inductive approach was implemented; the approach was based on the results of comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under a periodic unsteady wake flow, where the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.

  18. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mueller

    2017-01-01

    We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  19. A New Boundary Model for Simulating Complex and Flexible Wall Bounded Domain in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mokhtarian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive area of applications, simulation of complex wall bounded problems or any deformable boundary is still a challenge in a Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation. This limitation is rooted in the soft force nature of DPD and the fact that we need to use an antipenetration model for escaped particles. In the present paper, we propose a new model of antipenetration which preserves the conservation of linear momentum on the boundaries and enables us to simulate complex and flexible boundaries. Finally by performing numerical simulations, we demonstrate the validity of our new model.

  20. Micromechanical Modeling of Grain Boundaries Damage in a Copper Alloy Under Creep; Mikromechanische Modellierung der Korngrenzenschaedigung in einer Kupferlegierung unter Kriechbeanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voese, Markus

    2015-07-01

    In order to include the processes on the scale of the grain structure into the description of the creep behaviour of polycrystalline materials, the damage development of a single grain boundary has been initially investigated in the present work. For this purpose, a special simulationmethod has been used, whose resolution procedure based on holomorphic functions. The mechanisms taken into account for the simulations include nucleation, growth by grain boundary diffusion, coalescence and shrinkage until complete sintering of grain boundary cavities. These studies have then been used to develop a simplified cavitation model, which describes the grain boundary damage by two state variables and the time-dependent development by a mechanism-oriented rate formulation. To include the influence of grain boundaries within continuum mechanical considerations of polycrystals, an interface model has been developed, that incorporates both damage according to the simplified cavitation model and grain boundary sliding in dependence of a phenomenological grain boundary viscosity. Furthermore a micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been developed that allows to include a material's grain structure into the simulation of the creep behaviour by means of finite element simulations. Thereby, the deformations of individual grains are expressed by a viscoplastic single crystal model and the grain boundaries are described by the proposed interface model. The grain structure is represented by a finite element model, in which the grain boundaries are modelled by cohesive elements. From the evaluation of experimental creep data, the micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been calibrated for a copper-antimony alloy at a temperature of 823 K. Thereby, the adjustment of the single crystal model has been carried out on the basis of creep rates of pure copper single crystal specimens. The experimental determination of grain boundary sliding and grain boundary porosity for coarse