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Sample records for boundary element model

  1. Numerical modelling of solidification process using interval boundary element method

    OpenAIRE

    A. Piasecka Belkhayat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an application of the interval boundary element method for solving problems with interval thermal parameters and interval source function in a system casting-mould is presented. The task is treated as a boundary-initial problem in which the crystallization model proposed by Mehl-Johnson-Avrami-Kolmogorov has been applied. The numerical solution of the problem discussed has been obtained on the basis of the interval boundary element method (IBEM). The interval Gauss elimination m...

  2. Numerical modelling of solidification process using interval boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piasecka Belkhayat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an application of the interval boundary element method for solving problems with interval thermal parameters and interval source function in a system casting-mould is presented. The task is treated as a boundary-initial problem in which the crystallization model proposed by Mehl-Johnson-Avrami-Kolmogorov has been applied. The numerical solution of the problem discussed has been obtained on the basis of the interval boundary element method (IBEM. The interval Gauss elimination method with the decomposition procedure has been applied to solve the obtained interval system of equations. In the final part of the paper, results of numerical computations are shown.

  3. (Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.J.

    1990-11-09

    Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Modeling Method Based on Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study an improved dynamic modeling method based on a Boundary Element Method (BEM. The dynamic model was composed of the elements such as the beam element, plate element, joint element, lumped mass and spring element by the BEM. An improved dynamic model of a machine structure was established based on plate-beam element system mainly. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure were analyzed and the comparison of computational results and experimental’s showed the modeling method was effective. The analyses indicate that the introduced method inaugurates a good way for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a machine structure efficiently.

  5. Boundary element model for uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1998-01-01

    A BEM model covering the frequency range up to dimensionless frequency 40 but restricted to axial symmetry has been developed. A brief account of the theory is given, and various test cases for validation are described.......A BEM model covering the frequency range up to dimensionless frequency 40 but restricted to axial symmetry has been developed. A brief account of the theory is given, and various test cases for validation are described....

  6. Boundary element modeling of nondissipative and dissipative waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Genmeng [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.; Zhou, Huawei [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    1994-01-01

    A boundary element (BE) algorithm is developed to compute acoustic or SH-waves in models consisting of limited or unlimited volumes and irregular interfaces. The authors solve the BE system in the frequency domain so that anelasticity can be easily represented by different viscoelastic models, such as the Kelvin-Voigt type. Three illustrative computations are shown. The waveform given by the BE method for a circular inclusion model agrees well with that given by the finite-difference (FD) method. Dissipation of waves at high frequency caused by the presence of multi-cracks in an elastic medium resembles the masking effect of anelasticity. The waveforms for nondissipative and dissipative models containing hexagonal inclusions illustrate some interesting characteristics of the composite media.

  7. The representation of boundary currents in a finite element shallow water model

    CERN Document Server

    Düben, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of local resolution, eddy viscosity, coastline structure, and boundary conditions on the numerical representation of boundary currents in a finite element shallow-water model. The use of finite element discretization methods offers a higher flexibility compared to finite difference and finite volume methods, that are mainly used in previous publications. This is true for the geometry of the coast lines and for the realization of boundary conditions. For our investigations we simulate steady separation of western boundary currents from idealized and realistic coast lines. The use of grid refinement allows a detailed investigation of boundary separation at reasonable numerical cost.

  8. Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore

    2009-01-01

    element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering......A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...

  9. An integral equation formulation for the boundary-finite element model in eccentrically stiffened plate bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, H.R. [Jackson State Univ., MS (United States); Duffield, R.C.; Lin, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    An integral equation formulation and a numerical procedure for a boundary-finite element technique are developed for the static analysis of a stiffened plate with eccentric stiffeners. This formulation employs the fundamental solution associated with unstiffened plate bending and plane stress problems. With this approach, the resulting integral equation not only contained integrals along the perimeter of the stiffened but additional integrals along the stiffeners and the interface between the plate and its stiffeners. Thus the domain of the plate has to be divided into zones between the stiffeners. Each zone is modeled by boundary elements and stiffeners by finite elements. In this paper, the boundary element solution procedures for plate bending and in-plane problems are presented. The zone technique which permits coupling of unstiffened plate boundary element with stiffener finite elements is presented as well. Numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  10. Mathematical model of complex technical asymmetric system based on numerical-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Lazareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of asymmetric support structure frame type is built on the basis of numerical-analytical boundary elements method (BEM. To describe the design scheme used is the graph theory. Building the model taken into account is the effect of frame members restrained torsion, which presence is due to the fact that these elements are thin-walled. The built model represents a real object as a two-axle semi-trailer platform. To implement the BEM algorithm obtained are analytical expressions of the fundamental functions and vector load components. The effected calculations are based on the semi-trailer two different models, using finite elements and boundary elements methods. The analysis showed that the error between the results obtained on the basis of two numerical methods and experimental data is about 4%, that indicates the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

  11. Ducted propeller performance analysis using a boundary element model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Francesco; Calcagni, Danilo; Greco, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the computational analysis of the unviscid flow around a ducted propeller using a BEM model. The activity is performed in the framework of a research program co-funded by the European Union under the "SUPERPROP" Project TST4-CT-2005-516219. The theoretical and computational methodology is described and results of a validation excercise on several test cases is presented and discussed. In particular, the proposed formulation is applied to the analysis of ducted propellers...

  12. Modelling of pressurized water reactor fuel, rod time dependent radial heat flow with boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of the boundary element method numerical treatment of the radial flow heat diffusion equation are presented. The algorithm copes the time dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, temperature dependent material properties and regions from different materials in thermal contact. It is verified on the several analytically obtained test cases. The developed method is used for the modelling of unsteady radial heat flow in pressurized water reactor fuel rod. (author)

  13. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  14. A boundary element model for lined circular ducts with uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1996-01-01

    A boundary element method has been developed for predicting the acoustics in a circular duct in which a uniform flow propagates. Such a model may be used to predict the performance of different liner designs for inlets of turbo fan engines, which is important for the aeronautics industry. For thi......A boundary element method has been developed for predicting the acoustics in a circular duct in which a uniform flow propagates. Such a model may be used to predict the performance of different liner designs for inlets of turbo fan engines, which is important for the aeronautics industry....... For this application the prediction of attenuation at very high frequencies (up to ka=30) is important. However, it was found that the computational costs of a three-dimensional model would by far exceed the performance of a normal workstation. Therefore, an axisymmetric model with significantly reduced calculation...

  15. Quantum corrected model for plasmonic nanoparticles: A boundary element method implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    We present a variant of the recently developed quantum corrected model (QCM) for plasmonic nanoparticles [Nat. Commun. 3, 825 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms1806] using nonlocal boundary conditions. The QCM accounts for electron tunneling in narrow gap regions of coupled metallic nanoparticles, leading to the appearance of new charge-transfer plasmons. Our approach has the advantages that it emphasizes the nonlocal nature of tunneling and introduces only contact resistance, but not ohmic losses through tunneling. Additionally, it can be implemented much more easily in boundary element method (BEM) approaches. We develop the methodology for the QCM using nonlocal boundary conditions and present simulation results of our BEM implementation, which are in good agreement with those of the original QCM.

  16. Modeling the 3D Terrain Effect on MT by the Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Baiyao; Xu Shizhe; Xu Zhifeng

    2006-01-01

    A numerical method is put forward in this paper, using the boundary element method(BEM) to model 3D terrain effects on magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Using vector integral theory and electromagnetic field boundary conditions, the boundary problem of two electromagnetic fields in the upper half space (air) and lower half space (earth medium) was transformed into two vector integral equations just related to the topography: one magnetic equation for computing the magnetic field and the other electrical equation for computing the electrical field. The topography integral is decomposed into a series of integrals in a triangle element. For the integral in a triangle element, we suppose that the electromagnetic field in it is the stack of the electromagnetic field in the homogeneous earth and the topography response which is a constant; so the computation becomes simple, convenient and highly accurate. By decomposition and computation, each vector integral equation can be calculated by solving three linear equations that are related to the three Cartesian directions. The matrix of these linear equations is diagonally dominant and can be solved using the Symmetric Successive Over-Relaxation (SSOR) method. The apparent resistivity curve of MT on two 3D terrains calculated by BEM is shown in this paper.

  17. A finite element model updating technique for adjustment of parameters near boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Allen Fort, Jr.

    Even though there have been many advances in research related to methods of updating finite element models based on measured normal mode vibration characteristics, there is yet to be a widely accepted method that works reliably with a wide range of problems. This dissertation focuses on the specific class of problems having to do with changes in stiffness near the clamped boundary of plate structures. This class of problems is especially important as it relates to the performance of turbine engine blades, where a change in stiffness at the base of the blade can be indicative of structural damage. The method that is presented herein is a new technique for resolving the differences between the physical structure and the finite element model. It is a semi-iterative technique that incorporates a "physical expansion" of the measured eigenvectors along with appropriate scaling of these expanded eigenvectors into an iterative loop that uses the Engel's model modification method to then calculate adjusted stiffness parameters for the finite element model. Three example problems are presented that use eigenvalues and mass normalized eigenvectors that have been calculated from experimentally obtained accelerometer readings. The test articles that were used were all thin plates with one edge fully clamped. They each had a cantilevered length of 8.5 inches and a width of 4 inches. The three plates differed from one another in thickness from 0.100 inches to 0.188 inches. These dimensions were selected in order to approximate a gas turbine engine blade. The semi-iterative modification technique is shown to do an excellent job of calculating the necessary adjustments to the finite element model so that the analytically determined eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the adjusted model match the corresponding values from the experimental data with good agreement. Furthermore, the semi-iterative method is quite robust. For the examples presented here, the method consistently converged

  18. Hybrid Finite Element-Fast Spectral Domain Multilayer Boundary Integral Modeling of Doubly Periodic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Eibert; J.L. Volakis; Y.E. Erdemli

    2002-03-03

    Hybrid finite element (FE)--boundary integral (BI) analysis of infinite periodic arrays is extended to include planar multilayered Green's functions. In this manner, a portion of the volumetric dielectric region can be modeled via the finite element method whereas uniform multilayered regions can be modeled using a multilayered Green's function. As such, thick uniform substrates can be modeled without loss of efficiency and accuracy. The multilayered Green's function is analytically computed in the spectral domain and the resulting BI matrix-vector products are evaluated via the fast spectral domain algorithm (FSDA). As a result, the computational cost of the matrix-vector products is kept at O(N). Furthermore, the number of Floquet modes in the expansion are kept very few by placing the BI surfaces within the computational unit cell. Examples of frequency selective surface (FSS) arrays are analyzed with this method to demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the approach. One example involves complicated multilayered substrates above and below an inhomogeneous filter element and the other is an optical ring-slot array on a substrate several hundred wavelengths in thickness. Comparisons with measurements are included.

  19. A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Sanne

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Homma`s island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)

  20. Immersed boundary-finite element model of fluid-structure interaction in the aortic root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Vittoria; DeAnda, Abe; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2016-04-01

    It has long been recognized that aortic root elasticity helps to ensure efficient aortic valve closure, but our understanding of the functional importance of the elasticity and geometry of the aortic root continues to evolve as increasingly detailed in vivo imaging data become available. Herein, we describe a fluid-structure interaction model of the aortic root, including the aortic valve leaflets, the sinuses of Valsalva, the aortic annulus, and the sinotubular junction, that employs a version of Peskin's immersed boundary (IB) method with a finite element description of the structural elasticity. As in earlier work, we use a fiber-based model of the valve leaflets, but this study extends earlier IB models of the aortic root by employing an incompressible hyperelastic model of the mechanics of the sinuses and ascending aorta using a constitutive law fit to experimental data from human aortic root tissue. In vivo pressure loading is accounted for by a backward displacement method that determines the unloaded configuration of the root model. Our model yields realistic cardiac output at physiological pressures, with low transvalvular pressure differences during forward flow, minimal regurgitation during valve closure, and realistic pressure loads when the valve is closed during diastole. Further, results from high-resolution computations indicate that although the detailed leaflet and root kinematics show some grid sensitivity, our IB model of the aortic root nonetheless produces essentially grid-converged flow rates and pressures at practical grid spacings for the high Reynolds number flows of the aortic root. These results thereby clarify minimum grid resolutions required by such models when used as stand-alone models of the aortic valve as well as when used to provide models of the outflow valves in models of left-ventricular fluid dynamics.

  1. Stress Wave Propagation in Soils Modelled by the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. M.

    This thesis deals with different aspects of the boundary element method (BEM) applied to stress wave propagation problems in soils. Among other things BEM formulations for coupled FEM and BEM, moving loads, direct BEM and indirect BEM are presented. For all the formulations both analytical expres...

  2. Wavelet formulation of the polarizable continuum model. II. Use of piecewise bilinear boundary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeanu, Monica; Di Remigio, Roberto; Mozgawa, Krzysztof; Reine, Simen Sommerfelt; Harbrecht, Helmut; Frediani, Luca

    2015-12-21

    The simplicity of dielectric continuum models has made them a standard tool in almost any Quantum Chemistry (QC) package. Despite being intuitive from a physical point of view, the actual electrostatic problem at the cavity boundary is challenging: the underlying boundary integral equations depend on singular, long-range operators. The parametrization of the cavity boundary should be molecular-shaped, smooth and differentiable. Even the most advanced implementations, based on the integral equation formulation (IEF) of the polarizable continuum model (PCM), generally lead to working equations which do not guarantee convergence to the exact solution and/or might become numerically unstable in the limit of large refinement of the molecular cavity (small tesserae). This is because they generally make use of a surface parametrization with cusps (interlocking spheres) and employ collocation methods for the discretization (point charges). Wavelets on a smooth cavity are an attractive alternative to consider: for the operators involved, they lead to highly sparse matrices and precise error control. Moreover, by making use of a bilinear basis for the representation of operators and functions on the cavity boundary, all equations can be differentiated to enable the computation of geometrical derivatives. In this contribution, we present our implementation of the IEFPCM with bilinear wavelets on a smooth cavity boundary. The implementation has been carried out in our module PCMSolver and interfaced with LSDalton, demonstrating the accuracy of the method both for the electrostatic solvation energy and for linear response properties. In addition, the implementation in a module makes our framework readily available to any QC software with minimal effort. PMID:26256401

  3. Dynamic interaction numerical models in the time domain based on the high performance scaled boundary finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao

    2013-12-01

    Consideration of structure-foundation-soil dynamic interaction is a basic requirement in the evaluation of the seismic safety of nuclear power facilities. An efficient and accurate dynamic interaction numerical model in the time domain has become an important topic of current research. In this study, the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is improved for use as an effective numerical approach with good application prospects. This method has several advantages, including dimensionality reduction, accuracy of the radial analytical solution, and unlike other boundary element methods, it does not require a fundamental solution. This study focuses on establishing a high performance scaled boundary finite element interaction analysis model in the time domain based on the acceleration unit-impulse response matrix, in which several new solution techniques, such as a dimensionless method to solve the interaction force, are applied to improve the numerical stability of the actual soil parameters and reduce the amount of calculation. Finally, the feasibility of the time domain methods are illustrated by the response of the nuclear power structure and the accuracy of the algorithms are dynamically verified by comparison with the refinement of a large-scale viscoelastic soil model.

  4. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-11-01

    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  5. A new magneto-cardiogram study using a vector model with a virtual heart and the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Shou, Guo-Fa; Lu, Hong; Hua, Ning; Tang, Xue-Zheng; Xia, Ling; Ma, Ping; Tang, Fa-Kuan

    2013-09-01

    A cardiac vector model is presented and verified, and then the forward problem for cardiac magnetic fields and electric potential are discussed based on this model and the realistic human torso volume conductor model, including lungs. A torso—cardiac vector model is used for a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) and magneto-cardiogram (MCG) simulation study by using the boundary element method (BEM). Also, we obtain the MCG wave picture using a compound four-channel HTc·SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. By comparing the simulated results and experimental results, we verify the cardiac vector model and then do a preliminary study of the forward problem of MCG and ECG. Therefore, the results show that the vector model is reasonable in cardiac electrophysiology.

  6. Modelling magnetic anomalies of solid and fractal bodies with defined boundaries using the finite cube elements method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mostafa E.

    2009-04-01

    The finite cube elements method (FCEM) is a numerical tool designed for modelling gravity anomalies and estimating structural index (SI) of solid and fractal bodies with defined boundaries, tilted or in normal position and with variable density contrast. In this work, we apply FCEM to modelling magnetic anomalies and estimating SI of bodies with non-uniform magnetization having variable magnitude and direction. In magnetics as in gravity, FCEM allows us to study the spatial distribution of SI of the modelled bodies on contour maps and profiles. We believe that this will impact the forward and inverse modelling of potential field data, especially Euler deconvolution. As far as the author knows, this is the first time that gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as SI, of self similar fractal bodies such as Menger sponges and Sierpinsky triangles are calculated using FCEM. The SI patterns derived from different order sponges and triangles are perfectly overlapped. This is true for bodies having variable property distributions (susceptibility or density contrast) under different field conditions (in case of magnetics) regardless of their orientation and depth of burial. We therefore propose SI as a new universal fractal-order-invariant measure which can be used in addition to the fractal dimensions for formulating potential field theory of fractal objects.

  7. Modelling of microstructured waveguides using a finite-element-based vectorial mode solver with transparent boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element-based vectorial optical mode solver is used to analyze microstructured optical waveguides. By employing 1st-order Bayliss-Gunzburger-Turkel-like transparent boundary conditions, both the real and imaginary part of the modal indices can be calculated in a relatively small computation

  8. Recent advances in boundary element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, GD

    2009-01-01

    Addresses the needs of the computational mechanics research community in terms of information on boundary integral equation-based methods and techniques applied to a variety of fields. This book collects both original and review articles on contemporary Boundary Element Methods (BEM) as well as on the Mesh Reduction Methods (MRM).

  9. Analysis of 3-D Frictional Contact Mechanics Problems by a Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEUM Bangyong; LIU Yijun

    2005-01-01

    The development of two boundary element algorithms for solving 3-D, frictional, and linear elastostatic contact problems is reported in this paper. The algorithms employ nonconforming discretizations for solving 3-D boundary element models, which provide much needed flexibility in the boundary element modeling for 3-D contact problems. These algorithms are implemented in a new 3-D boundary element code and verified using several examples. For the numerical examples studied, the results using the new boundary element algorithms match very well with the results using a commercial finite element code, and clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the new boundary element approach for 3-D contact analysis.

  10. Analysis of random structure-acoustic interaction problems using coupled boundary element and finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III

    1994-01-01

    A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.

  11. Stress interaction at the Lazufre volcanic region, as constrained by InSAR, seismic tomography and boundary element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Paul; Spica, Zack; Legrand, Denis

    2016-04-01

    The Azufre-Lastarria volcanic complex in the central Andes has been recognized as a major region of magma intrusion. Both deep and shallow inflating reservoirs inferred through InSAR time series inversions, are the main sources of a multi-scale deformation accompanied by pronounced fumarolic activity. The possible interactions between these reservoirs, as well as the path of propagating fluids and the development of their pathways, however, have not been investigated. Results from recent seismic noise tomography in the area show localized zones of shear wave velocity anomalies, with a low shear wave velocity region at 1 km depth and another one at 4 km depth beneath Lastarria. Although the inferred shallow zone is in a good agreement with the location of the shallow deformation source, the deep zone does not correspond to any deformation source in the area. Here, using the boundary element method (BEM), we have performed an in-depth continuum mechanical investigation of the available ascending and descending InSAR data. We modelled the deep source, taking into account the effect of topography and complex source geometry on the inversion. After calculating the stress field induced by this source, we apply Paul's criterion (a variation on Mohr-Coulomb failure) to recognize locations that are liable for failure. We show that the locations of tensile and shear failure almost perfectly coincide with the shallow and deep anomalies as identified by shear wave velocity, respectively. Based on the stress-change models we conjecture that the deep reservoir controls the development of shallower hydrothermal fluids; a hypothesis that can be tested and applied to other volcanoes.

  12. On the roles of minimization and linearization in least-squares finite element models of nonlinear boundary-value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, G. S.; Reddy, J. N.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we examine the roles of minimization and linearization in the least-squares finite element formulations of nonlinear boundary-values problems. The least-squares principle is based upon the minimization of the least-squares functional constructed via the sum of the squares of appropriate norms of the residuals of the partial differential equations (in the present case we consider L2 norms). Since the least-squares method is independent of the discretization procedure and the solution scheme, the least-squares principle suggests that minimization should be performed prior to linearization, where linearization is employed in the context of either the Picard or Newton iterative solution procedures. However, in the least-squares finite element analysis of nonlinear boundary-value problems, it has become common practice in the literature to exchange the sequence of application of the minimization and linearization operations. The main purpose of this study is to provide a detailed assessment on how the finite element solution is affected when the order of application of these operators is interchanged. The assessment is performed mathematically, through an examination of the variational setting for the least-squares formulation of an abstract nonlinear boundary-value problem, and also computationally, through the numerical simulation of the least-squares finite element solutions of both a nonlinear form of the Poisson equation and also the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The assessment suggests that although the least-squares principle indicates that minimization should be performed prior to linearization, such an approach is often impractical and not necessary.

  13. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution......The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...

  14. A Kind of Boundary Element Methods for Boundary Value Problem of Helmholtz Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张然; 姜正义; 马富明

    2004-01-01

    Problems for electromagnetic scattering are of significant importance in many areas of technology. In this paper we discuss the scattering problem of electromagnetic wave incident by using boundary element method associated with splines. The problem is modelled by a boundary value problem for the Helmholtz eouation

  15. Highly Efficient Boundary Element Analysis of Whispering Gallery Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Leyuan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of the boundary element whispering gallery microcavity analysis can be improved by orders of magnitude with the inclusion of Fresnel approximation. Using this formulation, simulation of a microdisk with wave-number-radius product as large as $kR\\approx8,000$ was demonstrated in contrast to a previous record of $kR\\approx100$. In addition to its high accuracy on computing the modal field distribution and resonance wavelength, this method yields a relative error of $10%$ in calculating the quality factor as high as $10^{11}$ through a direct root searching method where the conventional boundary element method failed to achieve. Finally, quadrupole shaped cavities and double disks as large as $100 {\\mu}m$ in diameter were modeled by employing as few as $512$ boundary elements whilst the simulation of such large cavities using conventional boundary element method were not reported previously.

  16. An inverse problem by boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran-Cong, T.; Nguyen-Thien, T. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD (Australia); Graham, A.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Boundary Element Methods (BEM) have been established as useful and powerful tools in a wide range of engineering applications, e.g. Brebbia et al. In this paper, we report a particular three dimensional implementation of a direct boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation and its application to numerical simulations of practical polymer processing operations. In particular, we will focus on the application of the present boundary element technology to simulate an inverse problem in plastics processing.by extrusion. The task is to design profile extrusion dies for plastics. The problem is highly non-linear due to material viscoelastic behaviours as well as unknown free surface conditions. As an example, the technique is shown to be effective in obtaining the die profiles corresponding to a square viscoelastic extrudate under different processing conditions. To further illustrate the capability of the method, examples of other non-trivial extrudate profiles and processing conditions are also given.

  17. Introducing the Boundary Element Method with MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Keng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The boundary element method provides an excellent platform for learning and teaching a computational method for solving problems in physical and engineering science. However, it is often left out in many undergraduate courses as its implementation is deemed to be difficult. This is partly due to the perception that coding the method requires…

  18. Automatic generation of 2D micromechanical finite element model of silicon–carbide/aluminum metal matrix composites: Effects of the boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai

    2013-01-01

    for the automatic generation of 2D micromechanical FE-models with randomly distributed SiC particles. In order to simulate the damage process in aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles, a damage parameter based on the stress triaxial indicator and the maximum principal stress criterion based elastic brittle damage...... are performed to study the influence of boundary condition, particle number and volume fraction of the representative volume element (RVE) on composite stiffness and strength properties....

  19. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  20. BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONTACT PROBLEMS USING ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY NODE APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahattin KANBER; Ibrahim H. GUZELBEY; Ahmet ERKLI

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the regular boundary element method, the artificial boundary node approach, is derived. A simple contact algorithm is designed and implemented into the direct boundary element, regular boundary element and artificial boundary node approaches. The exisiting and derived approaches are tested using some case studies. The results of the artificial boundary node approach are compared with those of the existing boundary element program, the regular element approach, ANSYS and analytical solution whenever possible. The results show the effectiveness of the artificial boundary node approach for a wider range of boundary offsets.

  1. A Curved, Elastostatic Boundary Element for Plane Anisotropic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Klang, Eric C.

    2001-01-01

    The plane-stress equations of linear elasticity are used in conjunction with those of the boundary element method to develop a novel curved, quadratic boundary element applicable to structures composed of anisotropic materials in a state of plane stress or plane strain. The curved boundary element is developed to solve two-dimensional, elastostatic problems of arbitrary shape, connectivity, and material type. As a result of the anisotropy, complex variables are employed in the fundamental solution derivations for a concentrated unit-magnitude force in an infinite elastic anisotropic medium. Once known, the fundamental solutions are evaluated numerically by using the known displacement and traction boundary values in an integral formulation with Gaussian quadrature. All the integral equations of the boundary element method are evaluated using one of two methods: either regular Gaussian quadrature or a combination of regular and logarithmic Gaussian quadrature. The regular Gaussian quadrature is used to evaluate most of the integrals along the boundary, and the combined scheme is employed for integrals that are singular. Individual element contributions are assembled into the global matrices of the standard boundary element method, manipulated to form a system of linear equations, and the resulting system is solved. The interior displacements and stresses are found through a separate set of auxiliary equations that are derived using an Airy-type stress function in terms of complex variables. The capabilities and accuracy of this method are demonstrated for a laminated-composite plate with a central, elliptical cutout that is subjected to uniform tension along one of the straight edges of the plate. Comparison of the boundary element results for this problem with corresponding results from an analytical model show a difference of less than 1%.

  2. 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Wendland, W; Kuhn, G

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the edited versions of most of the papers presented at the 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements held at the University of Stuttgart, Germany from August 31st to September 4th, 1987, which was organized in co-operation with the Computational Mechanics Institute and GAMM (Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). This Conference, as the previous ones, aimed to review the latest developments in technique and theory and point out new advanced future trends. The emphasis of the meeting was on the engineering advances versus mathematical formulations, in an effort to consolidate the basis of many new applications. Recently engineers have proposed different techniques to solve non-linear and time dependent problems and many of these formulations needed a better mathematical understanding. Furthermore, new approximate formulations have been proposed for boundary elements which appeared to work in engineering practice, but did not have a proper theoretical background. The Conferen...

  3. Complex variable boundary elements for fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method is a numerical method for solving two-dimensional problems of Laplace or Poisson type. It is based on the theory of analytic functions. This paper resumes the basic facts about the method. Application of the method to the stationary incompressible irrotational flow is carried out after that. At the end, a sample problem of flow through an abrupt area change channel is shown. (author)

  4. A 2.5D boundary element formulation for modeling damped waves in arbitrary cross-section waveguides and cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Dispersive properties of viscoelastic waveguides and cavities are computed using a regularized 2.5D BEM. •Linear viscoelasticity is introduced at the constitutive level by means of frequency dependent complex moduli. •A contour integral algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. •The Sommerfeld radiation condition is used to select the permissible Riemann sheets. •Attenuation of surface waves in cavities approaches the attenuation of Rayleigh waves. -- Abstract: A regularized 2.5D boundary element method (BEM) is proposed to predict the dispersion properties of damped stress guided waves in waveguides and cavities of arbitrary cross-section. The wave attenuation, induced by material damping, is introduced using linear viscoelastic constitutive relations and described in a spatial manner by the imaginary component of the axial wavenumber. The discretized dispersive wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is solved obtaining complex axial wavenumbers for a fixed frequency using a contour integral algorithm. Due to the singular characteristics and the multivalued feature of the wave equation, the requirement of holomorphicity inside the contour region over the complex wavenumber plane is fulfilled by the introduction of the Sommerfeld branch cuts and by the choice of the permissible Riemann sheets. A post processing analysis is developed for the extraction of the energy velocity of propagative guided waves. The reliability of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained for a rail and a bar with square cross-section with those obtained from a 2.5D Finite Element formulation also known in literature as Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method. Next, to show the potential of the proposed numerical framework, dispersion properties are predicted for surface waves propagating along cylindrical cavities of arbitrary cross-section. It is demonstrated that the attenuation of surface waves

  5. A DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHM WITH FINITE ELEMENT-BOUNDARY ELEMENT COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A domain decomposition algorithm coupling the finite element and the boundary element was presented. It essentially involves subdivision of the analyzed domain into sub-regions being independently modeled by two methods, i.e., the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). The original problem was restored with continuity and equilibrium conditions being satisfied on the interface of the two sub-regions using an iterative algorithm. To speed up the convergence rate of the iterative algorithm, a dynamically changing relaxation parameter during iteration was introduced. An advantage of the proposed algorithm is that the locations of the nodes on the interface of the two sub-domains can be inconsistent. The validity of the algorithm is demonstrated by the consistence of the results of a numerical example obtained by the proposed method and those by the FEM, the BEM and a present finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) coupling method.

  6. Evaluation of hyperelastic models for unidirectional short fibre reinforced materials using a representative volume element with refined boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, N.; Donner, H.; Ihlemann, J.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of a short fibre reinforced structure by means of the FEM requires the knowledge of the material behaviour at every Gauss point. In order to obtain such information, a representative volume element (RVE) containing unidirectional short fibres is analysed in the presented work. The findings are used to assess the applicability of several hyperelastic models describing transversal isotropic materials under consideration of large deformations. As the RVE's average response represe...

  7. Boundary element methods for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    POLJAK, D

    2005-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become a well-established technique that is widely used for solving various problems in electrical engineering and electromagnetics. Although there are many excellent research papers published in the relevant literature that describe various BEM applications in electrical engineering and electromagnetics, there has been a lack of suitable textbooks and monographs on the subject. This book presents BEM in a simple fashion in order to help the beginner to understand the very basic principles of the method. It initially derives B

  8. Wet Friction-Elements Boundary Friction Mechanism and Friction Coefficient Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanzhong; Wu, Xiangyu; Wei, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The friction mechanism for the boundary friction course of friction elements engagement was explicitly expressed. The boundary friction model was built up by the surface topography. The model contained the effect of boundary film, adhesion, plough and lubrication. Based on the model, a coefficient for weakening plough for the lubrication was proposed. The modified model could fit for the working condition of wet friction elements. The friction coefficient as a function curve of rotating speed...

  9. Comparison of boundary element and finite element methods in two-dimensional inelastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite element method has been commonly used to solve boundary value problems in inelastic deformation of metallic structures. Recently, Mukherjee and his coworkers applied the boundary element method to such problems. Planar time-dependent inelasticity problems were considered and a constitutive model with state variables was used to describe material behavior. The accuracy and computational efficiency of these two methods are compared for certain selected planar problems. In order to make the comparison as meaningful as possible, in house computer codes developed by the same group at Cornell, are used

  10. Modelling of microstructured waveguides using a finite-element-based vectorial mode solver with transparent boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Groesen, van E.

    2004-01-01

    Finite element vectorial optical mode solver is used to analyze microstructured waveguides in a relatively small computational domain. The presentation will consider the computational method, as well as the applications of it on a number of waveguides with 2-D cross section where microstructures are

  11. Modelling of microstructured waveguides using a finite-element-based vectorial mode solver with transparent boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Groesen, van, M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite element vectorial optical mode solver is used to analyze microstructured waveguides in a relatively small computational domain. The presentation will consider the computational method, as well as the applications of it on a number of waveguides with 2-D cross section where microstructures are employed.

  12. Finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)

  13. Foundations of the complex variable boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hromadka, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and examines the theoretical underpinnings of the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) as applied to higher dimensions, providing the reader with the tools for extending and using the CVBEM in various applications. Relevant mathematics and principles are assembled and the reader is guided through the key topics necessary for an understanding of the development of the CVBEM in both the usual two- as well as three- or higher dimensions. In addition to this, problems are provided that build upon the material presented. The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) is an approximation method useful for solving problems involving the Laplace equation in two dimensions. It has been shown to be a useful modelling technique for solving two-dimensional problems involving the Laplace or Poisson equations on arbitrary domains. The CVBEM has recently been extended to 3 or higher spatial dimensions, which enables the precision of the CVBEM in solving the Laplace equation to be now ava...

  14. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  15. Comparison of boundary element and finite element methods in spur gear root stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Mavriplis, D.; Huston, R. L.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is used to compute fillet stress concentration in spur gear teeth. The results are shown to compare favorably with analogous results obtained using the finite element method (FEM). A partially supported thin rim gear is studied. The loading is applied at the pitch point. A three-dimensional analysis is conducted using both the BEM and FEM (NASTRAN). The results are also compared with those of a two-dimensional finite element model. An advantage of the BEM over the FEM is that fewer elements are needed with the BEM. Indeed, in the current study the BEM used 92 elements and 270 nodes whereas the FEM used 320 elements and 2037 nodes. Moreover, since the BEM is especially useful in problems with high stress gradients it is potentially a very useful tool for fillet stress analyses.

  16. Conductivity interface modelling with dipoles by means of optimal control and boundary element methods in impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, P M; Mounié, G; Granié, M; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Optimal control techniques have been combined with Alessandrini's singular perturbation method and Wexler's algorithm to reconstruct images in impedance imaging. We have also considered an integral formulation of the potential problem, which has led us to introduce an array of dipoles whose position, orientation and length can be optimised to model the conductivity discontinuities.

  17. Modeling the urban boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

  18. Submarine Magnetic Field Extrapolation Based on Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-ji; LIU Da-ming; YAO Qiong-hui; ZHOU Guo-hua; YAN Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the magnetic field distribution of submarines in the air completely and exactly and study the magnetic stealthy performance of submarine, a mathematic model of submarine magnetic field extrapolation is built based on the boundary element method (BEM). An experiment is designed to measure three components of magnetic field on the envelope surface surrounding a model submarine. The data in differentheights above the model submarine are obtained by use of tri-axial magnetometers. The results show that this extrapolation model has good stabilities and high accuracies compared the measured data with the extrapolated data. Moreover, the model can reflect the submarine magnetic field distribution in the air exactly, and is valuable in practical engineering.

  19. Equivariant preconditioners for boundary element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausch, J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author proposes and discusses two preconditioners for boundary integral equations on domains which are nearly symmetric. The preconditioners under consideration are equivariant, that is, they commute with a group of permutation matrices. Numerical experiments demonstrate their efficiency for the GMRES method.

  20. Space-dependent core/reflector boundary conditions generated by the boundary element method for pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Nuclear Ship Engineering, Aza-Kitasekine, Oaza-Sekine, Mutsu, Aomori 035 (JP)); Brebbia, C.A. (Computational Mechanics Inst., Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton SO4 2AA (GB))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on the boundary element method used to generate energy-dependent matrix-type boundary conditions along core/reflector interfaces and along baffle-plate surfaces of pressurized water reactors. This method enables one to deal with all types of boundary geometries including convex and concave corners. The method is applicable to neutron diffusion problems with more than two energy groups and also can be used to model a reflector with or without a baffle plate. Excellent eigenvalue and flux shape results can be obtained when the boundary conditions generated by this technique are coupled with core-only finite difference calculations.

  1. Stochastic Boundary Element Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 吴清高

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic boundary integral equations for analyzing large structures are obtained from the partial derivatives of basic random variables. A stochastic boundary element method based on the equations is developed to solve engineering problems of gravity dams using random factors including material parameters of the dam body and the foundation, the water level in the upper reaches, the anti-slide friction coefficient of the dam base, etc. A numerical example shows that the stochastic boundary element method presented in this paper to calculate the reliability index of large construction projects such as a large concrete gravity dam has the advantages of less input data and more precise computational results.

  2. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  3. Investigation of the stability of blocks around underground openings by using the boundary element method

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Ünal

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional software was developed by using the boundary element method, in order to model and solve the rock mechanics problems encountered in surface and underground excavations. Stability of rock wedges formed at the roof of underground excavations were investigated in detail by using this software. The behaviour of the symmetric wedge on different joint stiffnesses was studied using a modified boundary element software. Then the results obtained were discussed and com...

  4. Treatment of domain integrals in boundary element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A systematic and rigorous technique to calculate domain integrals without a volume-fitted mesh has been developed and validated in the context of a boundary element approximation. In the proposed approach, a domain integral involving a continuous or weakly-singular integrand is first converted into a surface integral by means of straight-path integrals that intersect the underlying domain. Then, the resulting surface integral is carried out either via analytic integration over boundary elements or by use of standard quadrature rules. This domain-to-boundary integral transformation is derived from an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimension, and the divergence theorem. In establishing the method, it is shown that the higher-dimensional version of the first fundamental theorem of calculus corresponds to the well-known Poincare lemma. The proposed technique can be employed to evaluate integrals defined over simply- or multiply-connected domains with Lipschitz boundaries which are embedded in an Euclidean space of arbitrary but finite dimension. Combined with the singular treatment of surface integrals that is widely available in the literature, this approach can also be utilized to effectively deal with boundary-value problems involving non-homogeneous source terms by way of a collocation or a Galerkin boundary integral equation method using only the prescribed surface discretization. Sample problems associated with the three-dimensional Poisson equation and featuring the Newton potential are successfully solved by a constant element collocation method to validate this study.

  5. A new simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-09-01

    A simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for solving potential problems is presented in this paper, which can be applied to solve a true multidomain problem or a large-scale single domain problem using the domain decomposition technique. In this multidomain BEM, the coefficient matrix is formed simply by assembling the coefficient matrices of each subdomain and the interface conditions between subdomains without eliminating any unknown variables on the interfaces. Compared with other conventional multidomain BEM approaches, this new approach is more efficient with the fast multipole method, regardless how the subdomains are connected. Instead of solving the linear system of equations directly, the entire coefficient matrix is partitioned and decomposed using Schur complement in this new approach. Numerical results show that the new multidomain fast multipole BEM uses fewer iterations in most cases with the iterative equation solver and less CPU time than the traditional fast multipole BEM in solving large-scale BEM models. A large-scale fuel cell model with more than 6 million elements was solved successfully on a cluster within 3 h using the new multidomain fast multipole BEM.

  6. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo;

    2003-01-01

    for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularization is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors., In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov regularization......Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim in this work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form suited...

  7. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo;

    2001-01-01

    suited for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularisation is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors. In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov......Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim of the present work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form...

  8. Coupled Finite Element/Boundary Element Analysis of a Vehicle Moving Along a Railway Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2004-01-01

    . In this work, analyses are carried out with the aim of investigating the influence of the track design and properties on the level of ground vibration due to a vehicle moving with subsonic speed. A coupled finite element and boundary element model of the track and subsoil is employed, adopting a formulation......Trains running in build-up areas are a source to ground-borne noise. A careful design of the track structure may be one way of minimizing the vibrations in the surroundings. For example, open or in-filled trenches may be constructed along the track, or the soil underneath the track may be improved...... stiffening?even at low frequencies. However, for high-speed vehicles rubber chip barriers may be a promising means of vibration screening...

  9. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods sol...

  10. Effective and neutral stresses in soils using boundary element methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique; García-Suárez, C.; Reverter, A.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of neutral pressures in soil mechanics problems is a fundamental step to evaluate deformations in soils. In this paper, we present some results obtained by using the boundary element method for plane problems, describing the undrained situation as well as the consolidation problem.

  11. Experimental validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.

    1994-01-01

    This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.

  12. An axisymmetric boundary element formulation of sound wave propagation in fluids including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2013-01-01

    The formulation presented in this paper is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff’s decomposition into viscous, thermal and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses...... are solved using extended boundary conditions that account for: i) negligible temperature fluctuations at the boundary, and ii) normal and tangential matching of the boundary’s particle velocity. The proposed model does not require constructing a special mesh for the viscous and thermal boundary layers...... as is the case with the existing Finite Element Method (FEM) implementations with losses. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated using an axisymmetrical BEM and two test cases where the numerical results are compared with analytical solutions....

  13. THE COUPLING OF NATURAL BOUNDARY ELEMENT AND FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR 2D HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-hao Yu; Qi-kui Du

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coupling of natural boundary element and finite ele-ment methods of exterior initial boundary value problems for hyperbolic equations. Thegoverning equation is first discretized in time, leading to a time-step scheme, where anexterior elliptic problem has to be solved in each time step. Second, a circular artifi-in an unbounded domain is transformed into the nonlocal boundary value problem in abounded subdomain. And the natural integral equation and the Poisson integral formulaare obtained in the infinite domain Ω2 outside circle of radius R. The coupled variationalformulation is given. Only the function itself, not its normal derivative at artificial bound-and the boundary element stiffness matrix has a few different elements. Such a coupledmethod is superior to the one based on direct boundary element method. This paper dis-cusses finite element discretization for variational problem and its corresponding numericaltechnique, and the convergence for the numerical solutions. Finally, the numerical exampleis presented to illustrate feasibility and efficiency of this method.

  14. COUPLING OF ASSUMED STRESS FINITE ELEMENT AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS WITH STRESS-TRACTION EQUILIBRIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUZELBEY Ibrahim H.; KANBER Bahattin; AKPOLAT Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the stress based finite element method is coupled with the boundary element method in two different ways. In the first one, the ordinary distribution matrix is used for coupling. In the second one, the stress traction equilibrium is used at the interface line of both regions as a new coupling process. This new coupling procedure is presented without a distribution matrix. Several case studies are solved for the validation of the developed coupling procedure. The results of case studies are compared with the distribution matrix coupling, displacement based finite element method, assumed stress finite element method, boundary element method, ANSYS and analytical results whenever possible. It is shown that the coupling of the stress traction equilibrium with assumed stress finite elements gives as accurate results as those by the distribution matrix coupling.

  15. 8th International Conference on Boundary Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Brebbia, C

    1986-01-01

    The International Conference on Boundary Element Methods in Engineering was started in 1978 with the following objectives: i) To act as a focus for BE research at a time when the technique wasjust emerging as a powerful tool for engineering analysis. ii) To attract new as weIl as established researchers on Boundary Elements, in order to maintain its vitality and originality. iii) To try to relate the Boundary Element Method to other engineering techniques in an effort to help unify the field of engineering analysis, rather than to contribute to its fragmentation. These objectives were achieved during the last 7 conferences and this meeting - the eighth - has continued to be as innovative and dynamic as any ofthe previous conferences. Another important aim ofthe conference is to encourage the participation of researchers from as many different countries as possible and in this regard it is a policy of the organizers to hold the conference in different locations. It is easy to forget when working on scientific ...

  16. A finite element-boundary integral method for cavities in a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. However, due to a lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, antenna designers resort to measurement and planar antenna concepts for designing non-planar conformal antennas. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We extend this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this report, we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the shape functions, the resulting finite elements and the boundary integral equations, and the solution of the conformal finite element-boundary integral system. Some validation results are presented and we further show how this formulation can be applied with minimal computational and memory resources.

  17. A study on boundary separation in an idealized ocean model

    CERN Document Server

    Düben, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    In numerical ocean models coast lines change the direction from one grid cell to its neighbor and the value for viscosity is set to be as small as possible. Therefore, model simulations are not converged with resolution and boundary separation points differ in essential properties from flow separation in continuous flow fields. In this paper, we investigate the quality of the representation of boundary separation points in global ocean models. To this end, we apply well established criteria for boundary separation within an idealized ocean model setup. We investigate an eddy-resolving as well as a steady test case with idealized and unstructured coast lines in a shallow water model that is based on a finite element discretization method. The results show that well established criteria for separation fail to detect boundary separation points due to an insufficient representation of ocean flows along free-slip boundaries. Along no-slip boundaries, most separation criteria provide adequate results. However, a ve...

  18. Wet Friction-Elements Boundary Friction Mechanism and Friction Coefficient Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yanzhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction mechanism for the boundary friction course of friction elements engagement was explicitly expressed. The boundary friction model was built up by the surface topography. The model contained the effect of boundary film, adhesion, plough and lubrication. Based on the model, a coefficient for weakening plough for the lubrication was proposed. The modified model could fit for the working condition of wet friction elements. The friction coefficient as a function curve of rotating speed could be finally obtained by the data k and s/sm. The method provides a well interpretation of friction condition and friction coefficient prediction and the agreement between theoretical and experimental friction coefficients is reasonably good.

  19. Boundary element simulation of surface waves on a deformed half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinchuk, S. Yu.; Belov, A. A.; Markov, I. P.; Ipatov, A. A.; Petrov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Homogeneous and two-layer half-spaces consisting of an anisotropic elastic, isotropic viscoelastic, or poroelastic material are considered. The Kelvin-Voigt model and the model with the Abel kernel are used as models of the viscoelastic material; the poroelastic material is studied within the framework of the model of the compressible Biot material. The case where the half-space contains a cavity is also considered. Propagation of surface waves is studied by the boundary element method. The numerical solution involves the method of collocations for a regularized boundary integral equation.

  20. A new conformal absorbing boundary condition for finite element meshes and parallelization of FEMATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, J. L.; Nguyen, J.; Nurnberger, M.; Ross, D.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the progress toward the development and parallelization of an improved version of the finite element code FEMATS is described. This is a finite element code for computing the scattering by arbitrarily shaped three dimensional surfaces composite scatterers. The following tasks were worked on during the report period: (1) new absorbing boundary conditions (ABC's) for truncating the finite element mesh; (2) mixed mesh termination schemes; (3) hierarchical elements and multigridding; (4) parallelization; and (5) various modeling enhancements (antenna feeds, anisotropy, and higher order GIBC).

  1. Practical application of inverse boundary element method to sound field studies of tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    An approach based on boundary element modelling of sound sources and regularisation techniques was compared with Near-field Acoustical Holography in a study of vibration patterns on a rolling tyre [1]. In the present paper, a further investigation of this Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM) is......) is done. Emphasis is put on the regularisation process and how to choose an appropriate regularisation parameter in conjunction with the Tikhonov regularisation. This choice is of vital importance when solving a discrete ill-posed problem and a useful solution is sought. Another aspect...... of the reconstruction process is to feed our model of the problem with as much a priori knowledge as possible, e.g. in the sense of known velocity data on some surfaces. In the modelling of the tyre this can be done by imposing a boundary condition to the nodes belonging to the rim structure, where the normal surface...

  2. CALCULATION OF MILL RIGIDITY BY THREE DIMENSION CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vertical rigidity of the space self-adaptive 530 high rigidity mill is calculated by applying the boundary element method (BEM) of three-dimension elastic contact problem,which can update the existed deforming separation calculating theory and corresponding methods of material mechanics,elastic mechanics and finite element method.The method has less hypotheses and stronger synthesis in contact-type calculating model.The advantages of the method are high calculating rate,high calculating accuracy,etc..

  3. A boundary element regularised Stokeslet method applied to cilia and flagella-driven flow

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    A boundary element implementation of the regularised Stokeslet method of Cortez is applied to cilia and flagella-driven flows in biology. Previously-published approaches implicitly combine the force discretisation and the numerical quadrature used to evaluate boundary integrals. By contrast, a boundary element method can be implemented by discretising the force using basis functions, and calculating integrals using accurate numerical or analytic integration. This substantially weakens the coupling of the mesh size for the force and the regularisation parameter, and greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom required. When modelling a cilium or flagellum as a one-dimensional filament, the regularisation parameter can be considered a proxy for the body radius, as opposed to being a parameter used to minimise numerical errors. Modelling a patch of cilia, it is found that: (1) For a fixed number of cilia, reducing cilia spacing reduces transport. (2) For fixed patch dimension, increasing cilia number increa...

  4. Adaptive Boundary Elements and Error Estimation for Elastic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingguo Qu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In traditional thinking, when the elastic problems are solved, we need to repeatedly plot element grids and analyze computing results according to diverse precision requirement. Against the malpractice exists in the above process, a new method of error estimation was suggested on H-R adaptive boundary element method in this paper. Based on the discrete meshes that are generated for the process of H-R adaptive refinement, the solution error was estimated by the interpolation residue. In addition, this method is easy to programming, which is carried out in the program by automatically creating new adaptive data files. Then a great deal of fore-disposal and post-disposal can be saved. Its validity and effectiveness have been confirmed by numerical example

  5. An element by element spectral element method for elastic wave modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WANG Xiuming; ZHANG Hailan

    2006-01-01

    The spectral element method which combines the advantages of spectral method with those of finite element method,provides an efficient tool in simulating elastic wave equation in complex medium. Based on weak form of elastodynamic equations, mathematical formulations for Legendre spectral element method are presented. The wave field on an element is discretized using high-order Lagrange interpolation, and integration over the element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. This results in a diagonal mass matrix which leads to a greatly simplified algorithm. In addition, the element by element technique is introduced in our method to reduce the memory sizes and improve the computation efficiency. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy and the efficiency. Because of combinations of the finite element scheme and spectral algorithms, this method can be used for complex models, including free surface boundaries and strong heterogeneity.

  6. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  7. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Hansen, Per Christian

    2003-01-01

    Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim in this work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form suited for solution by means of an inverse boundary element method. Since the numerical treatment of the inverse source reconstruction results in a discrete ill-posed problem, regularization is imposed to avoid unstable solutions dominated by errors. In the present work the emphasis is on Tikhonov regularization and parameter-choice methods not requiring an error-norm estimate for choosing the right amount of regularization. Several parameter-choice strategies have been presented lately, but it still remains to be seen how well these can handle industrial applications with real measurement data. In the present work it is demonstrated that the L-curve criterion is robust with respect to the errors in a real measurement situation. In particular, it is shown that the L-curve criterion is superior to the more conventional generalized cross-validation (GCV) approach for the present tire noise studies.

  8. A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This was due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays. As a result, the design of conformal arrays was primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We are extending this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In doing so, we will develop a mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation. It is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements.

  9. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  10. Logarithmic minimal models with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Pearce, Paul A.; Tartaglia, Elena

    2016-06-01

    We consider general logarithmic minimal models LM≤ft( p,{{p}\\prime}\\right) , with p,{{p}\\prime} coprime, on a strip of N columns with the (r, s) Robin boundary conditions introduced by Pearce, Rasmussen and Tipunin. On the lattice, these models are Yang–Baxter integrable loop models that are described algebraically by the one-boundary Temperley–Lieb algebra. The (r, s) Robin boundary conditions are a class of integrable boundary conditions satisfying the boundary Yang–Baxter equations which allow loop segments to either reflect or terminate on the boundary. The associated conformal boundary conditions are organized into infinitely extended Kac tables labelled by the Kac labels r\\in {Z} and s\\in {N} . The Robin vacuum boundary condition, labelled by ≤ft(r,s-\\frac{1}{2}\\right)=≤ft(0,\\frac{1}{2}\\right) , is given as a linear combination of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The general (r, s) Robin boundary conditions are constructed, using fusion, by acting on the Robin vacuum boundary with an (r, s)-type seam consisting of an r-type seam of width w columns and an s-type seam of width d  =  s  ‑  1 columns. The r-type seam admits an arbitrary boundary field which we fix to the special value ξ =-\\fracλ{2} where λ =\\frac≤ft( {{p}\\prime}-p\\right)π{{{p}\\prime}} is the crossing parameter. The s-type boundary introduces d defects into the bulk. We consider the commuting double-row transfer matrices and their associated quantum Hamiltonians and calculate analytically the boundary free energies of the (r, s) Robin boundary conditions. Using finite-size corrections and sequence extrapolation out to system sizes N+w+d≤slant 26 , the conformal spectrum of boundary operators is accessible by numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonians. Fixing the parity of N for r\

  11. Boundary element method approach to magnetostatic wave problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, K.; Ohkawa, S.; Miyazaki, M.

    1985-03-01

    In this paper, the technique for application of the boundary element method (BEM) to analysis of magnetostatic waves (MSWs) is established. To show the availability of the technique, two types of waveguides for the MSW are studied; one is a waveguide constituting a YIG slab shielded with metal plates and the other is a waveguide consisting of an unshielded YIG slab. With the former structure the results obtained by the present technique are compared with the analytical solutions, and with the latter the BEM is compared with Marcatili's approximate method since there is no analytical solution in this case. Those comparisons are performed successfully for both cases. The paper concludes that the BEM is useful and effective for analysis of a wide range of MSW problems.

  12. Three dimensional boundary element solutions for eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Jiming; Nakagawa, Norio

    2014-02-01

    The boundary integral equations (BIE) method is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations. It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromagnetics, and fracture mechanics. The eddy current problem is formulated by the BIE and discretized into matrix equations by the method of moments (MoM) or the boundary element method (BEM). The three dimensional arbitrarily shaped objects are described by a number of triangular patches. The Stratton-Chu formulation is specialized for the conductive medium. The equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents are expanded in terms of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) vector basis function while the normal component of magnetic field is expanded in terms of the pulse basis function. Also, a low frequency approximation is applied in the external medium. Additionally, we introduce Auld's impedance formulas to calculate impedance variation. There are very good agreements between numerical results and those from theory and/or experiments for a finite cross-section above a wedge.

  13. Numerical Improvement of The Three-dimensional Boundary Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Gil-Zepeda, A.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Luzon-Martinez, F.

    2001-12-01

    Boundary element methods have been applied to calculate the seismic response of various types of geological structures. Dimensionality reduction and a relatively easy fulfillment of radiation conditions at infinity are recognized advantages over domain approaches. Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) formulations give rise to large systems of equations, and the considerable amount of operations required for solving them suggest the possibility of getting some benefit from exploitation of sparsity patterns. In this article, a brief study on the structure of the linear systems derived from the IBEM method is carried out. Applicability of a matrix static condensation algorithm to the inversion of the IBEM coefficient matrix is explored, in order to optimize the numerical burden of such method. Seismic response of a 3-D alluvial valley of irregular shape, as originally proposed by Sánchez-Sesma and Luzon (1995), was computed and comparisons on time consumption and memory allocation are established. An alternative way to deal with those linear systems is the use of threshold criteria for the truncation of the coefficient matrix, which implies the solution of sparse approximations instead of the original full IBEM systems (Ortiz-Aleman et al., 1998). Performance of this optimized approach is evaluated on its application to the case of a three-dimensional alluvial basin with irregular shape. Transfer functions were calculated for the frequency range from 0 to 1.25 Hz. Inversion of linear systems by using this algorithm lead to significant saving on computer time and memory allocation relative to the original IBEM formulation. Results represent an extension in the range of application of the IBEM method.

  14. Boundary correlators in supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V.

    2008-04-15

    We investigate correlation functions for maximally symmetric boundary conditions in the WZNW model on GL(11). Special attention is payed to volume filling branes. Generalizing earlier ideas for the bulk sector, we set up a Kac-Wakimotolike formalism for the boundary model. This first order formalism is then used to calculate bulk-boundary 2-point functions and the boundary 3-point functions of the model. The note ends with a few comments on correlation functions of atypical fields, point-like branes and generalizations to other supergroups. (orig.)

  15. Coupling finite and boundary element methods for 2-D elasticity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.; Sistla, R.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) coupling method for two-dimensional elasticity problems is developed based on a weighted residual variational method in which a portion of the domain of interest is modeled by FEs and the remainder of the region by BEs. The performance of the FE-BE coupling method is demonstrated via applications to a simple 'patch test' problem and three-crack problems. The method passed the patch tests for various modeling configurations and yielded accurate strain energy release rates for the crack problems studied.

  16. Substantive provisions of Numeral-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Orobey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantive propositions of the new method of design calculation, that got the name "Numeral-analytical of boundary elements method", offered by authors, are brought. A method consists of development of the fundamental system of decisions (analytically and Green functions (also analytically for every examined task.For the account of certain border terms, or terms of contact between the separate modules (the separate element of the system is so named the small system of linear algebraic equalizations, that must be decided numeral, is made.Discretisation only of border of the area occupied by an object, sharply diminishes the order of the system of resolvent equalizations; there is possibility of decline of regularity of the decided task. A method is strictly reasonable mathematically, as uses the fundamental decisions of differential equalizations, and, means, within the framework of the accepted hypotheses allows to get the exact meaning of parameters of task (efforts, moving, tensions, currents, frequencies of eigentones, critical forces of loss of stability et cetera into an area.Simplicity of logic of algorithm, good convergence of decision, high stability and small accumulation of errors at numeral operations, are marked also.

  17. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL BOUNDARY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guangle; WANG Huanchen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the problems of modeling and analyzing the system with change able boundary are researched. First, a kind of expanding system is set up, in which the changeable boundary is dealt with as a regional boundary. Then some relative models are developed to describe the regional boundary system. Next, the transition or the driftage of bifurcation points in the system is discussed. A fascinating case is studied in which two or more than two classes of chaotic attractive points coexist together or exist alternatively in the same system. Lastly, an effective new method of chaos avoidance for the system is put forward.

  18. An Improved Method of Capturing the Surface Boundary of a Ti-6Al-4V Fusion Weld Bead for Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. P.; Villa, M.; Sovani, Y.; Panwisawas, C.; Perumal, B.; Ward, R. M.; Brooks, J. W.; Basoalto, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    Weld simulation methods have often employed mathematical functions to describe the size and shape of the molten pool of material transiently present in a weld. However, while these functions can sometimes accurately capture the fusion boundary for certain welding parameters in certain materials, they do not necessarily offer a robust methodology for the more intricate weld pool shapes that can be produced in materials with a very low thermal conductivity, such as the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Cross-sections of steady-state welds can be observed which contain a dramatic narrowing of the pool width at roughly half way in to the depth of the plate of material, and a significant widening again at the base. These effects on the weld pool are likely to do with beam focusing height. However, the resultant intricacy of the pool means that standard formulaic methods to capture the shape may prove relatively unsuccessful. Given how critical the accuracy of pool shape is in determining the mechanical response to the heating, an alternative method is presented. By entering weld pool width measurements for a series of depths in a Cartesian co-ordinate system using FE weld simulation software Sysweld, a more representative weld pool size and shape can be predicted, compared to the standard double ellipsoid method. Results have demonstrated that significant variations in the mid-depth thermal profile are observed between the two, even though the same values for top and bottom pool-widths are entered. Finally, once the benefits of the Cartesian co-ordinate method are demonstrated, the robustness of this approach to predict a variety of weld pool shapes has been demonstrated upon a series of nine weld simulations, where the two key process parameters (welding laser power and travel speed) are explored over a design space ranging from 1.5 to 3 kW and 50 to 200 mm/s. Results suggest that for the faster travel speeds, the more detailed Cartesian co-ordinate method is better, whereas

  19. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUPLING ANALYSIS OF MEMS STRUCTURES BY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kai; Cui Yunjun; Xiong Chunyang; Wang Congshun; Fang Jing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of Boundary Element Method (BEM)to simulate the electro-mechanical coupling responses of Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems (MEMS).The algorithm is programmed in our research group based on BEM modeling for electrostatics and elastostatics. Good agreement is shown while the simulation results of the pull-in voltages are compared with the theoretical/experimental ones for some examples.

  20. Boundary scattering in the phi^4 model

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, Patrick; Mercer, James; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz; Shnir, Yasha

    2015-01-01

    We study boundary scattering in the phi^4 model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state.

  1. Development of classical boundary element analysis of fracture mechanics in gradient materials

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, HT; Yue, QZQ

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the authors have extended the classical boundary element methods (BEM) for analysis of the fracture mechanics in functionally gradient materials. This paper introduces the dual boundary element method associated with the generalized Kelvin fundamental solutions of multilayered elastic solids (or Yue’s solution). This dual BEM uses a pair of the displacement and traction boundary integral equations. The former is collocated exclusively on the uncracked boundary, and the l...

  2. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re

  3. A Matlab library for solving quasi-static volume conduction problems using the boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, M; Mäntynen, V; Nenonen, J

    2007-12-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is commonly used in the modeling of bioelectromagnetic phenomena. The Matlab language is increasingly popular among students and researchers, but there is no free, easy-to-use Matlab library for boundary element computations. We present a hands-on, freely available Matlab BEM source code for solving bioelectromagnetic volume conduction problems and any (quasi-)static potential problems that obey the Laplace equation. The basic principle of the BEM is presented and discretization of the surface integral equation for electric potential is worked through in detail. Contents and design of the library are described, and results of example computations in spherical volume conductors are validated against analytical solutions. Three application examples are also presented. Further information, source code for application examples, and information on obtaining the library are available in the WWW-page of the library: (http://biomed.tkk.fi/BEM).

  4. Application of scaled boundary finite element method in static and dynamic fracture problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang

    2006-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a recently developed numerical method combining advantages of both finite element methods (FEM)and boundary element methods (BEM) and with its own special features as well. One of the most prominent advantages is its capability of calculating stress intensity factors (SIFs) directly from the stress solutions whose singularities at crack tips are analytically represented. This advantage is taken in this study to model static and dynamic fracture problems. For static problems, a remeshing algorithm as simple as used in the BEM is developed while retaining the generality and flexibility of the FEM. Fully-automatic modelling of the mixed-mode crack propagation is then realised by combining the remeshing algorithm with a propagation criterion.F0r dynamic fracture problems, a newly developed series-increasing solution to the SBFEM governing equations in the frequency domain is applied to calculate dynamic SIFs. Three plane problems are modelled. The numerical results show that the SBFEM can accurately predict static and dynamic SIFs, cracking paths and load-displacement curves, using only a fraction of degrees of freedom generally needed by the traditional finite element methods.

  5. Acoustic analysis of lightweight auto-body based on finite element method and boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xinhua; ZHU Ping; LIN Zhongqin; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A lightweight automotive prototype using alter- native materials and gauge thickness is studied by a numeri- cal method. The noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance is the main target of this study. In the range of 1-150 Hz, the frequency response function (FRF) of the body structure is calculated by a finite element method (FEM) to get the dynamic behavior of the auto-body structure. The pressure response of the interior acoustic domain is solved by a boundary element method (BEM). To find the most contrib- uting panel to the inner sound pressure, the panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is performed. Finally, the most contributing panel is located and the resulting structural optimization is found to be more efficient.

  6. Noise source localization on tyres using an inverse boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Saemann, E-U; Hald, J

    1998-01-01

    A dominating part of tyre noise is radiated from a region close to the tyre/road contact patch, where it is very difficult to measure both the tyre vibration and the acoustic near field. The approach taken in the present paper is to model the tyre and road surfaces with a Boundary Element Model...... (BEM), with unknown node vibration data on the tyre surface. The BEM model is used to calculate a set of transfer functions from the node vibrations to the sound pressure at a set of microphone positions around the tyre. By approximate inversion of the matrix of transfer functions, the surface...

  7. A combined application of boundary-element and Runge-Kutta methods in three-dimensional elasticity and poroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumnov, Leonid; Ipatov, Aleksandr; Belov, Aleksandr; Petrov, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary) and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.

  8. A combined application of boundary-element and Runge-Kutta methods in three-dimensional elasticity and poroelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igumnov Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.

  9. Coupling finite and boundary element methods for two-dimensional potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) coupling method based on a weighted residual variational method is presented for potential problems, governed by either the Laplace or the Poisson equations. In this method, a portion of the domain of interest is modeled by finite elements (FE) and the remainder of the region by boundary elements (BE). Because the BE fundamental solutions are valid for infinite domains, a procedure that limits the effects of the BE fundamental solution to a small region adjacent to the FE region, called the transition region (TR), is developed. This procedure involves a judicious choice of functions called the transition (T) functions that have unit values on the BE-TR interface and zero values on the FE-TR interface. The present FE-BE coupling algorithm is shown to be independent of the extent of the transition region and the choice of the transition functions. Therefore, transition regions that extend to only one layer of elements between FE and BE regions and the use of simple linear transition functions work well.

  10. A single heterochromatin boundary element imposes position-independent antisilencing activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae minichromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita A Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Chromatin boundary elements serve as cis-acting regulatory DNA signals required to protect genes from the effects of the neighboring heterochromatin. In the yeast genome, boundary elements act by establishing barriers for heterochromatin spreading and are sufficient to protect a reporter gene from transcriptional silencing when inserted between the silencer and the reporter gene. Here we dissected functional topography of silencers and boundary elements within circular minichromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that both HML-E and HML-I silencers can efficiently repress the URA3 reporter on a multi-copy yeast minichromosome and we further showed that two distinct heterochromatin boundary elements STAR and TEF2-UASrpg are able to limit the heterochromatin spreading in circular minichromosomes. In surprising contrast to what had been observed in the yeast genome, we found that in minichromosomes the heterochromatin boundary elements inhibit silencing of the reporter gene even when just one boundary element is positioned at the distal end of the URA3 reporter or upstream of the silencer elements. Thus the STAR and TEF2-UASrpg boundary elements inhibit chromatin silencing through an antisilencing activity independently of their position or orientation in S. cerevisiae minichromosomes rather than by creating a position-specific barrier as seen in the genome. We propose that the circular DNA topology facilitates interactions between the boundary and silencing elements in the minichromosomes.

  11. New Boundaries for the B-Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Witten couples the open topological B-model to a holomorphic vector bundle by adding to the boundary of the worldsheet a Wilson loop for an integrable connection on the bundle. Using the descent procedure for boundary vertex operators in this context, I generalize this construction to write a worldsheet coupling for a graded vector bundle with an integrable superconnection. I then compute the open string vertex operators between two such boundaries. A theorem of J. Block gives that this is equivalent to coupling the B-model to an arbitrary object in the derived category.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 2D FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-zhong; ZHENG Xiao-ping; YAO Zhen-han

    2005-01-01

    The boundary element method was improved for the 2D elastic composites with randomly distributed inclusions. This problem can be reduced to a boundary integral equation for a multi-connected domain. Further, considering the matrices of the tractions and displacements for each group of the identical inclusion were the same, an effective computational scheme was designed, since the orders of the resulting matrix equations can be greatly reduced. Numerical examples indicate that this boundary element method scheme is more effective than the conventional multi-domain boundary element method for such a problem. The present scheme can be used to investigate the effective mechanical properties of the fiber-reinforced composites.

  14. Logarithmic Minimal Models with Robin Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Tartaglia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We consider general logarithmic minimal models ${\\cal LM}(p,p')$, with $p,p'$ coprime, on a strip of $N$ columns with the $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions introduced by Pearce, Rasmussen and Tipunin. The associated conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the Kac labels $r\\in{\\Bbb Z}$ and $s\\in{\\Bbb N}$. The Robin vacuum boundary condition, labelled by $(r,s\\!-\\!\\frac{1}{2})=(0,\\mbox{$\\textstyle \\frac{1}{2}$})$, is given as a linear combination of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The general $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions are constructed, using fusion, by acting on the Robin vacuum boundary with an $(r,s)$-type seam consisting of an $r$-type seam of width $w$ columns and an $s$-type seam of width $d=s-1$ columns. The $r$-type seam admits an arbitrary boundary field which we fix to the special value $\\xi=-\\tfrac{\\lambda}{2}$ where $\\lambda=\\frac{(p'-p)\\pi}{2p'}$ is the crossing parameter. The $s$-type boundary introduces $d$ defects into the bulk. We consider the associated quantum Hamiltoni...

  15. 2-D Numerical Wave Tank by Boundary Element Method Using Different Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Habashi Aliabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, numerical modeling of a 2-D wave tank has been investigated by applying completely nonlinear condition for water surface elevation. This has been accomplished based on potential theory, the combined Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme for time marching and using boundary element method. Other physical and numerical attributes of the current work are: physical modeling in time domain, time integration by 4th order Runge-Kutta method, implementation of appropriate condition at the entrance boundary for wave generation, application of artificial dampers at the exit part of the wave tank, and ultimately numerical smoothing of the resulting free surface by using interpolation through spline functions. At the end, effective parameters on the generated wave have been analyzed and the generated wave has also been validated against the result of the linear wave theory.

  16. A practical guide to boundary element methods with the software library BEMLIB

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2002-01-01

    LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN ONE DIMENSIONGreen's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal Relation Green's FunctionsBoundary-Value Representation Boundary-Value EquationLAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONS Green's First and Second Identities and the Reciprocal RelationGreen's Functions Integral Representation Integral Equations Hypersingular Integrals Irrotational FlowGeneralized Single- and Double-Layer Representations BOUNDARY-ELEMENT METHODS FOR LAPLACE'S EQUATION IN TWO DIMENSIONSBoundary Element Discretization .Discretization of

  17. Acoustic boundary element method formulation with treatment of nearly singular integrands by element subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in its standard version cannot readily handle situations where the calculation point is very close to a surface. These problems are found: i) when two boundary surfaces are very close together, such as in narrow gaps and thin bodies, and ii)...

  18. Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jones, C.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    body vibration (about 4 to 80 Hz). A coupled finite element and boundary element scheme is applied in both two and three dimensions. Two tunnel designs are considered: a cut-and-cover tunnel for a double track and a single-track tunnel dug with the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM).......The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore...... axis, it is useful to evaluate the potential uses of two-dimensional models before committing to much more costly three-dimensional approaches. The vibration forces in the track due to the passage of a train are by nature three-dimensional and a complete analysis undoubtedly requires a model of three...

  19. Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jones, C. J. C.

    2004-01-01

    body vibration (about 4 to 80 Hz). A coupled finite element and boundary element scheme is applied in both two and three dimensions. Two tunnel designs are considered: a cut-and-cover tunnel for a double track and a single-track tunnel dug with the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM).......The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore...... axis, it is useful to evaluate the potential uses of two-dimensional models before committing to much more costly three-dimensional approaches. The vibration forces in the track due to the passage of a train are by nature three-dimensional and a complete analysis undoubtedly requires a model of three...

  20. A rigid surface boundary element for soil-structure interaction analysis in the direct time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, D. C.

    Many soil-structure interaction problems involve studies of single or multiple rigid bodies of arbitrary shape and soil media. The commonly used boundary element methods implement the equations of the rigid body in a form that depends on the particulars of the geometry and requires partitioning and condensation of the associated algebraic system of equations. The present work employs the direct time domain B-Spline BEM for 3D elastodynamic analysis and presents an efficient implementation of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape in contact with, or embedded in, elastic media. The formulation of a rigid surface boundary element introduced herein is suitable for direct superposition in the BEM system of algebraic equations. Consequently, solutions are computed in a single analysis step, eliminating, thus, the need for partitioning of the system of equations. Computational efficiency is also achieved due to the extremely sparse form of the associated coefficient matrices. The proposed element can be used for the modeling of single or multiple rigid bodies of arbitrary shape within the framework of the BEM method. The efficiency and general nature of the proposed element is demonstrated through applications related to the dynamic analysis of rigid surface and embedded foundations and their interaction with embedded rigid bodies of arbitrary shape.

  1. A time-domain finite element boundary integration method for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Choi, Wonjae; Skelton, Elizabeth A; Lowe, Michael J S; Craster, Richard V

    2014-12-01

    A 2-D and 3-D numerical modeling approach for calculating the elastic wave scattering signals from complex stress-free defects is evaluated. In this method, efficient boundary integration across the complex boundary of the defect is coupled with a time-domain finite element (FE) solver. The model is designed to simulate time-domain ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation in bulk media. This approach makes use of the hybrid concept of linking a local numerical model to compute the near-field scattering behavior and theoretical mathematical formulas for postprocessing to calculate the received signals. It minimizes the number of monitoring signals from the FE calculation so that the computation effort in postprocessing decreases significantly. In addition, by neglecting the conventional regular monitoring box, the region for FE calculation can be made smaller. In this paper, the boundary integral method is implemented in a commercial FE code, and it is validated by comparing the scattering signals with results from corresponding full FE models. The coupled method is then implemented in real inspection scenarios in both 2-D and 3-D, and the accuracy and the efficiency are demonstrated. The limitations of the proposed model and future works are also discussed. PMID:25474780

  2. A direct mixed-body boundary element method for packed silencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T W; Cheng, C Y R; Zhang, P

    2002-06-01

    Bulk-reacting sound absorbing materials are often used in packed silencers to reduce broadband noise. A bulk-reacting material is characterized by a complex mean density and a complex speed of sound. These two material properties can be measured by the two-cavity method or calculated by empirical formulas. Modeling the entire silencer domain with a bulk-reacting lining will involve two different acoustic media, air and the bulk-reacting material. Traditionally, the interior silencer domain is divided into different zones and a multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) may be applied to solve the problem. However, defining different zones and matching the elements along each interface is tedious, especially when the zones are intricately connected. In this paper, a direct mixed-body boundary element method is used to model a packed silencer without subdividing it into different zones. This is achieved by summing up all the integral equations in different zones and then adding the hypersingular integral equations at interfaces. Several test cases, including a packed expansion chamber with and without an absorbing center bullet, and a parallel baffle silencer, are studied. Numerical results for the prediction of transmission loss (TL) are compared to experimental data.

  3. A study of applicability of soil-structure interaction analysis method using boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. K. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In this study, a numerical method for Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis using FE-BE coupling method is developed. The total system is divided into two parts so called far field and near field. The far field is modeled by boundary element formulation using the multi-layered dynamic fundamental solution and coupled with near field modeled by finite elements. In order to verify the seismic response analysis, the results are compared with those of other commercial code. Finally, several SSI analyses which induced seismic loading are performed to examine the dynamic behavior of the system. As a result, it is shown that the developed method can be an efficient numerical method for solving the SSI analysis.

  4. Automatic processing of an orientation map into a finite element mesh that conforms to grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancette, S.; Browet, A.; Martin, G.; Willemet, M.; Delannay, L.

    2016-06-01

    A new procedure for microstructure-based finite element modeling of polycrystalline aggregates is presented. The proposed method relies (i) on an efficient graph-based community detection algorithm for crystallographic data segmentation and feature contour extraction and (ii) on the generation of selectively refined meshes conforming to grain boundaries. It constitutes a versatile and close to automatic environment for meshing complex microstructures. The procedure is illustrated with polycrystal microstructures characterized by orientation imaging microscopy. Hot deformation of a Duplex stainless steel is investigated based on ex-situ EBSD measurements performed on the same region of interest before and after deformation. A finite element mesh representing the initial microstructure is generated and then used in a crystal plasticity simulation of the plane strain compression. Simulation results and experiments are in relatively good agreement, confirming a large potential for such directly coupled experimental and modeling analyses, which is facilitated by the present image-based meshing procedure.

  5. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  6. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  7. Application of hybrid boundary element method: Example of semishperical ground inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Nenad N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One new, so-called hybrid boundary element method (HBEM is presented in this paper. It is a recently proposed numerical method for stationary and quasi-stationary EM field analysis. The method application is illustrated on the example of solving the problem of modelling hemispherical ground inhomogeneity influence on grounding system. The applied procedure also includes using of quasi-stationary image-theory. The obtained results are compared with those ones based on using the Green’s function for the point source inside semi-spherical inhomogeneities as well as with the results obtained by applying COMSOL program package. [TR 33008

  8. Elements of modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is burgeoning interest in modeling-based accelerator control. With more and more stringent requirements on the performance, the importance of knowing, controlling, predicting the behavior of the accelerator system is growing. Modeling means two things: (1) the development of programs and data which predict the outcome of a measurement, and (2) devising and performing measurements to find the machine physics parameter and their behavior under different conditions. These two sides should be tied together in an iterative process. With knowledge gained on the real system, the model will be modified, calibrated, and fine-tuned. The model of a system consists of data and the modeling program. The Modeling Based Control Programs (MBC) should in the on-line mode control, optimize, and correct the machine. In the off-line mode, the MBC is used to simulate the machine as well as explore and study its behavior and responses under a wide variety of circumstances. 15 refs., 3 figs

  9. Electronic Theoretical Study of the Interaction between Rare Earth Elements and Impurities at Grain Boundaries in Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵立; 张国英; 李荣德

    2003-01-01

    The model of dislocations was used to construct the model of grain boundary (GB) with pure rare earths, and rare earth elements and impurities. The influence of the interaction between rare earth elements and impurities on the cohesive properties of 5.3° low angle GB of Fe was investigated by the recursion method. The calculated results of environment sensitive embeding energy(EESE) show that the preferential segregation of rare earth elements towards GBs exists. Calculations of bond order integrals (BOI) show that rare earth elements increase the cohesive strength of low angle GB, and impurities such as S, P weaken the intergranular cohesion of the GB. So rare earth element of proper quantity added in steel not only cleanses other harmful impurities off the GBs, but also enhances the intergranular cohesion. This elucidates the action mechanism of rare earth elements in steel from electronic level and offers theoretical evidence for applications of rare earth elements in steels.

  10. Two simple finite element methods for Reissner--Mindlin plates with clamped boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnu P. Lamichhane

    2013-01-01

    We present two simple finite element methods for the discretization of Reissner--Mindlin plate equations with {\\em clamped} boundary condition. These finite element methods are based on discrete Lagrange multiplier spaces from mortar finite element techniques. We prove optimal a priori error estimates for both methods.

  11. Crack propagation analysis of welded thin-walled joints using boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiri, F. R.; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Grundy, P.

    Tube-to-plate nodal joints under cyclic bending are widely used in the road transport and agricultural industry. The square hollow sections (SHS) used in these constructions are thin-walled and cold formed, and they have thicknesses of less than 4mm. Some fatigue failures have been observed. The weld undercut may affect the fatigue life of welded tubular joints especially for thin-walled sections. The undercut dimensions were measured using the silicon imprint technique. Modelling of thin-walled cruciform joints, as a simplification of welded tubular joints, is described in this paper to determine the effect of weld undercut on fatigue propagation life. The Boundary Element Analysis System Software (BEASY) is used. The results of the effect of weld toe undercut from this analysis are compared with results from previous research to determine the comparative reduction in fatigue life between thin-walled joints (T=3mm) and those made of thicker sections (T=20mm). The loss in fatigue strength of the thin-walled joints is found to be relatively more than that for thicker walled joints. A 3D model of a tube to plate T-joint is also modelled using the boundary element software, BEASY. The nodal joint consists of a square hollow section, 50×50×3 SHS, fillet welded to a 10-mm thick plate, and subjected to cyclic bending stress. Fatigue analyses are carried out and the results are compared with the only available S-N design curve.

  12. COUPLING OF FINITE ELEMENT AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS FOR THE SCATTERING BY PERIODIC CHIRAL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habib Ammari; Gang Bao

    2008-01-01

    Consider a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on a biperiodic structure in R3. The periodic structure separates two homogeneous regions. The medium inside the structure is chiral and nonhomogeneous. In this paper, variational formulations coupling finite element methods in the chiral medium with a method of integral equations on the periodic interfaces are studied. The well-posedness of the continuous and discretized problems is established. Uniform convergence for the coupling variational approximations of the model problem is obtained.

  13. A Boundary Element Method for Steady Infiltration from Periodic Channels.

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Moh. Ivan; Clements, D. L.; Lobo, M

    2003-01-01

    The matric flux potential and horizontal and vertical flux distributions are obtained for periodic irrigation channels by using boundary integral equation techniques. Numerical results are given for the special cases of semicircular and rectangular channels and the results compared with those of Batu [Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42:545??? 549, 1978] and Warrick and Lomen [Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40:639???643, 1976] for a flat strip. The re...

  14. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and “delivering” remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development.

  15. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and "delivering" remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:27621770

  16. An adaptive scaled boundary finite element method by subdividing subdomains for elastodynamic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method(SBFEM) is a semi-analytical numerical method,which models an analysis domain by a small number of large-sized subdomains and discretises subdomain boundaries only.In a subdomain,all fields of state variables including displacement,stress,velocity and acceleration are semi-analytical,and the kinetic energy,strain energy and energy error are all integrated semi-analytically.These advantages are taken in this study to develop a posteriori h-hierarchical adaptive SBFEM for transient elastodynamic problems using a mesh refinement procedure which subdivides subdomains.Because only a small number of subdomains are subdivided,mesh refinement is very simple and efficient,and mesh mapping to transfer state variables from an old mesh to a new one is also very simple but accurate.Two 2D examples with stress wave propagation were modelled.The results show that the developed method is capable of capturing propagation of steep stress regions and calculating accurate dynamic responses,using only a fraction of degrees of freedom required by adaptive finite element method.

  17. Nonlinear nonuniform torsional vibrations of bars by the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper a boundary element method is developed for the nonuniform torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross-section taking into account the effect of geometrical nonlinearity. The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated conservative dynamic twisting and warping moments along its length, while its edges are supported by the most general torsional boundary conditions. The transverse displacement components are expressed so as to be valid for large twisting rotations (finite displacement-small strain theory), thus the arising governing differential equations and boundary conditions are in general nonlinear. The resulting coupling effect between twisting and axial displacement components is considered and torsional vibration analysis is performed in both the torsional pre- or post-buckled state. A distributed mass model system is employed, taking into account the warping, rotatory and axial inertia, leading to the formulation of a coupled nonlinear initial boundary value problem with respect to the variable along the bar angle of twist and to an "average" axial displacement of the cross-section of the bar. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed using the analog equation method, a BEM based method, leading to a system of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations (DAE), which is solved using an efficient time discretization scheme. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated with respect to the fundamental mode shape at the points of reversal of motion after ignoring the axial inertia to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The problem is solved using the direct iteration technique (DIT), with a geometrically linear fundamental mode shape as a starting vector. The validity of negligible axial inertia assumption is examined for the problem at hand.

  18. The interaction between membrane structure and wind based on the discontinuous boundary element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Small disturbance potential theory is widely used in solving aerodynamic problems with low Mach numbers, and it plays an important role in engineering design. Concerning structure wind engineering, the body of the structure is in a low velocity wind field, with a low viscosity of air and thin boundary layer, therefore, the tiny shear stress caused by the boundary layer can be ignored, only wind pressure being considered. In this paper, based on small disturbance potential theory, the fluid-structure interaction between the wind and membrane structure is analyzed by joint utilization of the boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) through a loose-coupling procedure. However, the boundary of flow field to be calculated is not fully smooth, corners and edges still exist, so the discontinuous boundary element is introduced. Furthermore, because a large scale boundary element equation set with a nonsymmetrical coefficient matrix must be solved, this paper imports a preconditioning GMRES (the generalized minimum residual) iterative algorithm, which takes full advantage of the boundary element method. Several calculation examples have verified the correctness and soundness of the treatments mentioned above.

  19. Explicit boundary form factors: The scaling Lee–Yang model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollo, L. [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary); Laczko, Z.B. [Roland Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Bajnok, Z. [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary)

    2014-09-15

    We provide explicit expressions for boundary form factors in the boundary scaling Lee–Yang model for operators with the mildest ultraviolet behavior for all integrable boundary conditions. The form factors of the boundary stress tensor take a determinant form, while the form factors of the boundary primary field contain additional explicit polynomials.

  20. Three-dimensional shape optimization using the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1994-06-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity in a cube and a connecting rod.

  1. Three-dimensional shape optimization using boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1993-04-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then, the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity shape in a cube and a connecting rod.

  2. Scaled Boundary Finite Element Analysis of Wave Passing A Submerged Breakwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a novel semi-analytical technique combining the advantage of the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM) with its unique properties. In this paper, the SBFEM is used for computing wave passing submerged breakwaters, and the reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient are given for the case of wave passing by a rectangular submerged breakwater, a rigid submerged barrier breakwater and a trapezium submerged breakwater in a constant water depth. The results are compared with the analytical solution and experimental results. Good agreement is obtained. Through comparison with the results using the dual boundary element method (DBEM), it is found that the SBFEM can obtain higher accuracy with fewer elements. Many submerged breakwaters with different dimensions are computed by the SBFEM, and the changing character of the reflection coefficient and the transmission coefficient are given in the current study.

  3. BOUNDARY ELEMENT APPROXIMATION OF THE SEMI-DISCRETE PARABOLIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES OF THE SECOND KIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Rui; Jiang Meiqun; Peng Daping

    2005-01-01

    The boundary element approximation of the parabolic variational inequalities of the second kind is discussed. First, the parabolic variational inequalities of the second kind can be reduced to an elliptic variational inequality by using semidiscretization and implicit method in time; then the existence and uniqueness for the solution of nonlinear non-differentiable mixed variational inequality is discussed. Its corresponding mixed boundary variational inequality and the existence and uniqueness of its solution are yielded. This provides the theoretical basis for using boundary element method to solve the mixed variational inequality.

  4. A boundary element approach to estimate the free surface in stratified two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-phase flows widely exist in many industries. Measuring the phase distribution in two-phase flow is important for the optimization and control of some industrial processes. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising non-intrusive visualization technique for monitoring the two-phase flow. However, due to its nonlinear and ill-posed character, high-quality image reconstruction is difficult and some iterative approach is time consuming. In this paper, a boundary element approach is presented for directly estimating the free-surface in two-phase flow using ERT. The unknown free surface is parameterized by a Bézier curve. Coefficients of its control points are estimated by minimizing a residual function using the iterative Levenberg–Marquardt method. To speed up the estimation process, the physical model of ERT is formulated using a boundary element method. Based on this formulation, the forward problem is fast solved through a small size system matrix and the Jacobian matrix is efficiently calculated using an analytic method. After several numerical experiments, this approach is proved fast and precise and several factors influencing the estimation quality are analyzed based on these simulations. (paper)

  5. Mathematical modeling of gas turbine cooled elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashayev, A.; Askerov, D.; Sadiqov, R.; Samedov, A. [Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan). Dept. of Mathematical Modeling and Design of Gas Turbine Engines

    2007-07-01

    The profile section of a gas turbine blade with convective cooling was modelled. Converging quadrature processes were used to determine the stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of the profile part of the blade. Profiles were visualized using the least squares method along with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment, and neural nets. Heat exchange boundary conditions were characterized using the finite difference method; finite element analysis (FEA); the Monte Carlo method; and the boundary integral equations method (BIEM). Boundary conditions included the heat quantity assigned by convection of the cooler transmitted by heat conduction of the blade material to the surface of cooling channels. Errors were investigated using a quadratures method and Tikhonov regularization. A Kirchhoff permutation was used to linearize tasks. The developed equation was then transformed into a Laplace equation. The model was then compared with experimental investigations to validate heat and hydraulic characteristics, as well as the temperature field of the blade cross section. It was concluded that the model can be used to assess the reliability of gas turbine engine designs. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  6. OCTG Premium Threaded Connection 3D Parametric Finite Element Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    Full 360 degree 3D finite element models are the most complete representation of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) premium threaded connections. Full 3D models can represent helical threads and boundary conditions required to simulate make-up and service loading. A methodology is developed to create a 360 degree full 3D parametric finite element model with helical threads as an effective design and analysis tool. The approach is demonstrated with the creation of a metal-to-metal seal integral ...

  7. Boundary Element Method with Non—overlapping Domain Decomposition for Diffusion Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJialin; ZHANGTaiping

    2002-01-01

    A boundary element method based on non-overlapping domain decomposition method to solve the time-dependent diffusion equations is presented.The time-dependent fundamental solution is used in the formulation of boundary integrals and the time integratioin process always restarts from the initial time condition.The process of replacing the interface values,which needs a summation of boundary integrals related to the boundary values at previous time steps can be treated in parallel parallel iterative procedure,Numerical experiments demonstrate that the implementation of the present alogrithm is efficient.

  8. Conforming Discretizations of Boundary Element Solutions of the Electroencephalography Forward Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmouni, Lyes; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new discretization strategy for the boundary element formulation of the Electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem. Boundary integral formulations, classically solved with the Boundary Element Method (BEM), are widely used in high resolution EEG imaging because of their recognized advantages in several real case scenarios. Unfortunately however, it is widely reported that the accuracy of standard BEM schemes is limited, especially when the current source density is dipolar and its location approaches one of the brain boundary surfaces. This is a particularly limiting problem given that during an high-resolution EEG imaging procedure, several EEG forward problem solutions are required for which the source currents are near or on top of a boundary surface. This work will first present an analysis of standardly discretized EEG forward problems, reporting on a theoretical issue of some of the formulations that have been used so far in the community. We report on the fact that several ...

  9. An interpolating boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for elasticity problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper begins by discussing the interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) method. Then the formulae of the IMLS method obtained by Lancaster are revised. On the basis of the boundary element-free method (BEFM), combining the boundary integral equation method with the IMLS method improved in this paper, the interpolating boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for two-dimensional elasticity problems is presented, and the corresponding formulae of the IBEFM for two-dimensional elasticity problems are obtained. In the IMLS method in this paper, the shape function satisfies the property of Kronecker δ function, and then in the IBEFM the boundary conditions can be applied directly and easily. The IBEFM is a direct meshless boundary integral equation method in which the basic unknown quantity is the real solution to the nodal variables. Thus it gives a greater computational precision. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method.

  10. Plasma boundary identification in HL-2A by means of the finite current element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tian-Xue; Yuan Bao-Shan; Liu Li; Li Fang-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the finite current element(FCE)method used in HL-2A is described. The calculation and test results show that the error of the reconsturcted boundary given by the FCE method(<3mm)is smaller than that obtained by the current filament medthod used before(<6mm).Even if some current elements are Iocated out of the plasma boundary,the FCE method can also identify the plasma boundary successfully.If the location of the finite current elements is changed is a certain area, the error of the reconstructed boundary is always very small. By employing a conventional PC(Pentium 4 2.4 GHz),the calculation time of one set of plasma discharge parameters does nto exceed 1ms. Thus, the FCM method can identify the diverted plamma configuration quickly and accurately.This is essential and important for real-time shape control in IIL-2A.

  11. Stability analysis of shallow tunnels subjected to eccentric loads by a boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Panji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, stress behavior of shallow tunnels under simultaneous non-uniform surface traction and symmetric gravity loading was studied using a direct boundary element method (BEM. The existing full-plane elastostatic fundamental solutions to displacement and stress fields were used and implemented in a developed algorithm. The cross-section of the tunnel was considered in circular, square, and horseshoe shapes and the lateral coefficient of the domain was assumed as unit quantity. Double-node procedure of the BEM was applied at the corners to improve the model including sudden traction changes. The results showed that the method used was a powerful tool for modeling underground openings under various external as well as internal loads. Eccentric loads significantly influenced the stress pattern of the surrounding tunnel. The achievements can be practically used in completing and modifying regulations for stability investigation of shallow tunnels.

  12. Noise simulation of aircraft engine fans by the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, K. R.; Arkharova, N. V.; Remizov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation results of the civil aircraft engine fan stage noise in the far field are presented. Non-steady-state rotor-stator interaction is calculated the commercial software that solves the Navier-Stokes equations using differentturbulence models. Noise propagation to the far acoustic field is calculated by the boundary element method using acoustic Lighthill analogies without taking into account the mean current in the air inlet duct. The calculated sound pressure levels at points 50 m from the engine are presented, and the directional patterns of the acoustic radiation are shown. The use of the eddy resolving turbulence model to calculate rotor-stator interaction increases the accuracy in predicting fan stage noise.

  13. On the numerical accuracy of the boundary element method [EEG application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, Jan W.H.; Weier, Onno W.; Peters, Maria J.; Oosterom, van Adriaan

    1989-01-01

    The numerical accuracy of the boundary element (BE) method used to solve the volume conduction problem of nested compartments, each having a homogeneous conductivity, is studied. The following techniques for improving this accuracy are discussed: the handling of the auto solid angle element ¿ii, the

  14. Boundary Element Method Solution in the Time Domain For a Moving Time-Dependent Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rasmussen, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of a moving time dependent concentrated force on the surface of an elastic halfspace is of interest in the analysis of traffic generated noise. The Boundary element method (BEM) is superior to the finite element method (FEM) in solving such problems due to its inherent ability so...

  15. A coupled boundary element-finite difference solution of the elliptic modified mild slope equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naserizadeh, R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Noorzad, A.

    2011-01-01

    The modified mild slope equation of [5] is solved using a combination of the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). The exterior domain of constant depth and infinite horizontal extent is solved by a BEM using linear or quadratic elements. The interior domain...

  16. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...

  17. A Regularized Galerkin Boundary Element Method (RGBEM) for Simulating Potential Flow About Zero Thickness Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GHARAKHANI,ADRIN; WOLFE,WALTER P.

    1999-10-01

    The prediction of potential flow about zero thickness membranes by the boundary element method constitutes an integral component of the Lagrangian vortex-boundary element simulation of flow about parachutes. To this end, the vortex loop (or the panel) method has been used, for some time now, in the aerospace industry with relative success [1, 2]. Vortex loops (with constant circulation) are equivalent to boundary elements with piecewise constant variation of the potential jump. In this case, extending the analysis in [3], the near field potential velocity evaluations can be shown to be {Omicron}(1). The accurate evaluation of the potential velocity field very near the parachute surface is particularly critical to the overall accuracy and stability of the vortex-boundary element simulations. As we will demonstrate in Section 3, the boundary integral singularities, which arise due to the application of low order boundary elements, may lead to severely spiked potential velocities at vortex element centers that are near the boundary. The spikes in turn cause the erratic motion of the vortex elements, and the eventual loss of smoothness of the vorticity field and possible numerical blow up. In light of the arguments above, the application of boundary elements with (at least) a linear variation of the potential jump--or, equivalently, piecewise constant vortex sheets--would appear to be more appropriate for vortex-boundary element simulations. For this case, two strategies are possible for obtaining the potential flow field. The first option is to solve the integral equations for the (unknown) strengths of the surface vortex sheets. As we will discuss in Section 2.1, the challenge in this case is to devise a consistent system of equations that imposes the solenoidality of the locally 2-D vortex sheets. The second approach is to solve for the unknown potential jump distribution. In this case, for commonly used C{sup o} shape functions, the boundary integral is singular at

  18. Boundary element method applied to a gas-fired pin-fin-enhanced heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Drewien, C.A.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal conduction of a portion of an enhanced surface heat exchanger for a gas fired heat pipe solar receiver was modeled using the boundary element and finite element methods (BEM and FEM) to determine the effect of weld fillet size on performance of a stud welded pin fin. A process that could be utilized by others for designing the surface mesh on an object of interest, performing a conversion from the mesh into the input format utilized by the BEM code, obtaining output on the surface of the object, and displaying visual results was developed. It was determined that the weld fillet on the pin fin significantly enhanced the heat performance, improving the operating margin of the heat exchanger. The performance of the BEM program on the pin fin was measured (as computational time) and used as a performance comparison with the FEM model. Given similar surface element densities, the BEM method took longer to get a solution than the FEM method. The FEM method creates a sparse matrix that scales in storage and computation as the number of nodes (N), whereas the BEM method scales as N{sup 2} in storage and N{sup 3} in computation.

  19. A fast boundary element method for the scattering analysis of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Elwin; Gélat, Pierre; Betcke, Timo; Arridge, Simon

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) techniques are promising modalities for the non-invasive treatment of cancer. For HIFU therapies of, e.g., liver cancer, one of the main challenges is the accurate focusing of the acoustic field inside a ribcage. Computational methods can play an important role in the patient-specific planning of these transcostal HIFU treatments. This requires the accurate modeling of acoustic scattering at ribcages. The use of a boundary element method (BEM) is an effective approach for this purpose because only the boundaries of the ribs have to be discretized instead of the standard approach to model the entire volume around the ribcage. This paper combines fast algorithms that improve the efficiency of BEM specifically for the high-frequency range necessary for transcostal HIFU applications. That is, a Galerkin discretized Burton-Miller formulation is used in combination with preconditioning and matrix compression techniques. In particular, quick convergence is achieved with the operator preconditioner that has been designed with on-surface radiation conditions for the high-frequency approximation of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Realistic computations of acoustic scattering at 1 MHz on a human ribcage model demonstrate the effectiveness of this dedicated BEM algorithm for HIFU scattering analysis. PMID:26627749

  20. Exterior statistics based boundary conditions for representative volume elements of elastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Kubair, Dhirendra V.

    2016-10-01

    Statistically equivalent representative volume elements or SERVEs are representations of the microstructure that are used for micromechanical simulations to generate homogenized material constitutive responses and properties (Swaminathan et al., 2006a; Ghosh, 2011). Typically, a SERVE is generated from the parent microstructure as a statistically equivalent region, whose size is determined from the requirements of convergence of macroscopic properties. Standard boundary conditions, such as affine transformation-based displacement boundary conditions (ATDBCs), uniform traction boundary conditions (UTBCs) or periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) are conventionally applied on the SERVE boundary for micromechanical simulations. However, when the microstructure is characterized by arbitrary, nonuniform distributions of heterogeneities, these simple boundary conditions do not represent the effect of regions exterior to the SERVE. Improper boundary conditions can result in significantly larger than optimal SERVE domains, needed for converged properties. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the conventional boundary conditions on the SERVE, this paper explores the effect of boundary conditions that incorporate the statistics of the exterior region on the SERVE of elastic composites. Using Green's function based interaction kernels, coupled with statistical functions of the microstructural characteristics like one-point and two-point correlation functions, a novel exterior statistics-based boundary condition or ESBC is derived for the SERVE. The advantages of the ESBC are established by comparing with results of simulations using conventional boundary conditions. Results of the SERVE simulations subjected to ESBCs are also compared with those from other popular methods like statistical volume element (SVE) and weighted statistical volume element (WSVE). The proposed ESBCs offer significant advantages over other methods in the SERVE-based analysis of heterogeneous

  1. An introductory study of the convergence of the direct boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1997-01-01

    Although boundary element methods have been used for three decades for the numerical solution of acoustic problems, the issue of convergence is not well known among acoustic engineers. In this paper the concept of convergence is introduced in an intuitive and empirical style. The convergence...... of an axisymmetric boundary element formulation is studied using linear, quadratic or superparametric elements. It is demonstrated that the rate of convergence of these formulations is reduced for calculations involving bodies with edges (geometric singularities). Two methods for improving the rate of convergence...

  2. Boundary element analysis for elastic and elastoplastic problems of 2D orthotropic media with stress concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiushan Sun; Lixin Huang; Yinghua Liu; Zhangzhi Cen; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    Both the orthotropy and the stress concentration are common issues in modern structural engineering. This paper introduces the boundary element method (BEM) into the elastic and elastoplastic analyses for 2D orthotropic media with stress concentration. The discretized boundary element formulations are established, and the stress formulae as well as the fundamental solutions are derived in matrix notations. The numerical procedures are proposed to analyze both elastic and elastoplastic problems of2D orthotropic media with stress concentration. To obtain more precise stress values with fewer elements, the quadratic isoparametric element formulation is adopted in the boundary discretization and numerical procedures. Numerical examples show that there are significant stress concentrations and different elastoplastic behaviors in some orthotropic media, and some of the computational results are compared with other solutions.Good agreements are also observed, which demonstrates the efficiency and reliability of the present BEM in the stress concentration analysis for orthotropic media.

  3. AN EFFECTIVE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF CRACK PROBLEMS IN A PLANE ELASTIC PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-qiao

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective boundary element method for stress intensity factor calculation for crack problems in a plane elastic plate is presented. The boundary element method consists of the constant displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfield and the crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by YAN Xiangqiao. In the boundary element implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element was placed locally at the corresponding left or right each crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. Test examples ( i. e. , a center crack in an infinite plate under tension, a circular hole and a crack in an infinite plate under tension) are included to illustrate that the numerical approach is very simple and accurate for stress intensity factor calculation of plane elasticity crack problems. In addition, specifically, the stress intensity factors of branching cracks emanating from a square hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads were analysed. These numerical results indicate the present numerical approach is very effective for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a 2-D finite body, and are used to reveal the effect of the biaxial loads and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  4. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in three ways, including comparison to finite element method (FEM). In a two-compartment split-sphere model with two spaced monopoles, the results obtained with high-resolution FEM and the BEMs were almost identical (relative difference < 0.003).

  5. Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.

  6. A simulation method of combinding boundary element method with generalized Langevin dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new simulation approach to incorporate hydration force into generalized Langevin dynamics (GLD) is developed in this note. The hydration force determined by the boundary element method (BEM) is taken into account as the mean force terms of solvent including Coulombic interactions with the induced surface charge and the surface pressure of solvent. The exponential model is taken for the friction kernel. A simulation study has been performed on the cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A (CPA). The results obtained from the new method (GLDBEM) have been analyzed and compared with that obtained from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and the conventional stochastic dynamics (SD) simulation. We have found that the results obtained from GLDBEM show the obvious improvement over the SD simulation technique in the study of molecular structure and dynamic properties.

  7. Automatic Recognition of Element Classes and Boundaries in the Birdsong with Variable Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Koumura

    Full Text Available Researches on sequential vocalization often require analysis of vocalizations in long continuous sounds. In such studies as developmental ones or studies across generations in which days or months of vocalizations must be analyzed, methods for automatic recognition would be strongly desired. Although methods for automatic speech recognition for application purposes have been intensively studied, blindly applying them for biological purposes may not be an optimal solution. This is because, unlike human speech recognition, analysis of sequential vocalizations often requires accurate extraction of timing information. In the present study we propose automated systems suitable for recognizing birdsong, one of the most intensively investigated sequential vocalizations, focusing on the three properties of the birdsong. First, a song is a sequence of vocal elements, called notes, which can be grouped into categories. Second, temporal structure of birdsong is precisely controlled, meaning that temporal information is important in song analysis. Finally, notes are produced according to certain probabilistic rules, which may facilitate the accurate song recognition. We divided the procedure of song recognition into three sub-steps: local classification, boundary detection, and global sequencing, each of which corresponds to each of the three properties of birdsong. We compared the performances of several different ways to arrange these three steps. As results, we demonstrated a hybrid model of a deep convolutional neural network and a hidden Markov model was effective. We propose suitable arrangements of methods according to whether accurate boundary detection is needed. Also we designed the new measure to jointly evaluate the accuracy of note classification and boundary detection. Our methods should be applicable, with small modification and tuning, to the songs in other species that hold the three properties of the sequential vocalization.

  8. Automatic Recognition of Element Classes and Boundaries in the Birdsong with Variable Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Researches on sequential vocalization often require analysis of vocalizations in long continuous sounds. In such studies as developmental ones or studies across generations in which days or months of vocalizations must be analyzed, methods for automatic recognition would be strongly desired. Although methods for automatic speech recognition for application purposes have been intensively studied, blindly applying them for biological purposes may not be an optimal solution. This is because, unlike human speech recognition, analysis of sequential vocalizations often requires accurate extraction of timing information. In the present study we propose automated systems suitable for recognizing birdsong, one of the most intensively investigated sequential vocalizations, focusing on the three properties of the birdsong. First, a song is a sequence of vocal elements, called notes, which can be grouped into categories. Second, temporal structure of birdsong is precisely controlled, meaning that temporal information is important in song analysis. Finally, notes are produced according to certain probabilistic rules, which may facilitate the accurate song recognition. We divided the procedure of song recognition into three sub-steps: local classification, boundary detection, and global sequencing, each of which corresponds to each of the three properties of birdsong. We compared the performances of several different ways to arrange these three steps. As results, we demonstrated a hybrid model of a deep convolutional neural network and a hidden Markov model was effective. We propose suitable arrangements of methods according to whether accurate boundary detection is needed. Also we designed the new measure to jointly evaluate the accuracy of note classification and boundary detection. Our methods should be applicable, with small modification and tuning, to the songs in other species that hold the three properties of the sequential vocalization. PMID:27442240

  9. Automatic Recognition of Element Classes and Boundaries in the Birdsong with Variable Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumura, Takuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Researches on sequential vocalization often require analysis of vocalizations in long continuous sounds. In such studies as developmental ones or studies across generations in which days or months of vocalizations must be analyzed, methods for automatic recognition would be strongly desired. Although methods for automatic speech recognition for application purposes have been intensively studied, blindly applying them for biological purposes may not be an optimal solution. This is because, unlike human speech recognition, analysis of sequential vocalizations often requires accurate extraction of timing information. In the present study we propose automated systems suitable for recognizing birdsong, one of the most intensively investigated sequential vocalizations, focusing on the three properties of the birdsong. First, a song is a sequence of vocal elements, called notes, which can be grouped into categories. Second, temporal structure of birdsong is precisely controlled, meaning that temporal information is important in song analysis. Finally, notes are produced according to certain probabilistic rules, which may facilitate the accurate song recognition. We divided the procedure of song recognition into three sub-steps: local classification, boundary detection, and global sequencing, each of which corresponds to each of the three properties of birdsong. We compared the performances of several different ways to arrange these three steps. As results, we demonstrated a hybrid model of a deep convolutional neural network and a hidden Markov model was effective. We propose suitable arrangements of methods according to whether accurate boundary detection is needed. Also we designed the new measure to jointly evaluate the accuracy of note classification and boundary detection. Our methods should be applicable, with small modification and tuning, to the songs in other species that hold the three properties of the sequential vocalization. PMID:27442240

  10. DYNAMIC SURFACE BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS - A SIMPLE BOUNDARY MODEL FOR MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUFFER, AH; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the treatment of boundaries in molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method involves the positioning of boundary atoms on a surface that surrounds a system of interest. The boundary atoms interact with the inner region and represent the effect of atoms outside the surfa

  11. Extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation and boundary element method for cracks in thermo-magneto-electro-elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Dang, HuaYang; Xu, GuangTao; Fan, CuiYing; Zhao, MingHao

    2016-08-01

    The extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation (EDDBIE) and boundary element method is developed for the analysis of planar cracks of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of three-dimensional (3D) transversely isotropic thermo-magneto-electro-elastic (TMEE) media. The extended displacement discontinuities (EDDs) include conventional displacement discontinuity, electric potential discontinuity, magnetic potential discontinuity, as well as temperature discontinuity across crack faces; correspondingly, the extended stresses represent conventional stress, electric displacement, magnetic induction and heat flux. Employing a Hankel transformation, the fundamental solutions for unit point EDDs in 3D transversely isotropic TMEE media are derived. The EDDBIEs for a planar crack of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of a 3D transversely isotropic TMEE medium are then established. Using the boundary integral equation method, the singularities of near-crack border fields are obtained and the extended stress field intensity factors are expressed in terms of the EDDs on crack faces. According to the analogy between the EDDBIEs for an isotropic thermoelastic material and TMEE medium, an analogical solution method for crack problems of a TMEE medium is proposed for coupled multi-field loadings. Employing constant triangular elements, the EDDBIEs are discretized and numerically solved. As an application, the problems of an elliptical crack subjected to combined mechanical-electric-magnetic-thermal loadings are investigated.

  12. BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN AN ELASTIC RECTANGULAR INCLUSION AND A CRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银邦

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between an elastic rectangular inclusion and a kinked crack in an infinite elastic body was considered by using boundary element method. The new complex boundary integral equations were derived. By introducing a complex unknown function H(t)related to the interface displacement density and traction and applying integration by parts,the traction continuous condition was satisfied automatically. Only one complex boundary integral equation was obtained on interface and involves only singularity of order l/ r. To verify the validity and effectiveness of the present boundary element method, some typical examples were calculated. The obtained results show that the crack stress intensity factors decrease as the shear modulus of inclusion increases. Thus, the crack propagation is easier near a softer inclusion and the harder inclusion is helpful for crack arrest.

  13. Calculation of compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils by a finite element/finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.

  14. E-coil: an inverse boundary element method for a quasi-static problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Clemente Cobos; Garcia, Salvador Gonzalez [Depto. Electromagnetismo y F. de la Materia Facultad de Ciencias University of Granada Avda. Fuentenueva E-18071 (Spain); Power, Henry, E-mail: ccobos@ugr.e [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    Boundary element methods represent a valuable approach for designing gradient coils; these methods are based on meshing the current carrying surface into an array of boundary elements. The temporally varying magnetic fields produced by gradient coils induce electric currents in conducting tissues and so the exposure of human subjects to these magnetic fields has become a safety concern, especially with the increase in the strength of the field gradients used in magnetic resonance imaging. Here we present a boundary element method for the design of coils that minimize the electric field induced in prescribed conducting systems. This work also details some numerical examples of the application of this coil design method. The reduction of the electric field induced in a prescribed region inside the coils is also evaluated.

  15. A finite element algorithm for high-lying eigenvalues with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a finite element algorithm that computes eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator for two-dimensional problems with homogeneous Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions, or combinations of either for different parts of the boundary. We use an inverse power plus Gauss-Seidel algorithm to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem. For Neumann boundary conditions the method is much more efficient than the equivalent finite difference algorithm. We checked the algorithm by comparing the cumulative level density of the spectrum obtained numerically with the theoretical prediction given by the Weyl formula. We found a systematic deviation due to the discretization, not to the algorithm itself.

  16. BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR MOVING AND ROLLING CONTACT OF 2D ELASTIC BODIES WITH DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚振汉; 蒲军平; 金哲植

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of boundary element method for moving contact of two dimensional elastic bodies using conforming discretization is presented. Both the displacement and the traction boundary conditions are satisfied on the contacting region in the sense of discretization. An algorithm to deal with the moving of the contact boundary on a larger possible contact region is presented. The algorithm is generalized to rolling contact problem as well. Some numerical examples of moving and rolling contact of 2D elastic bodies with or without friction, including the bodies with a hole-type defect, are given to show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the presented schemes.

  17. Contact position controlling for two-dimensional motion bodies by the boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for controlling two-dimensional motion contact bodies with conforming discretization. Since a kind of special boundary element is utilized in the algorithm, the displacement compatibility and traction equilibrium conditions at nodes can be satisfied simultaneously in arbitrary locations of the contact interface. In addition, a method is also proposed in which the contact boundary location can be moved flexibly on the possible contact boundary. This method is effective to deal with moving and rolling contact problems on a possible larger moving or rolling contact region. Numerical examples show effectiveness of the presented scheme.

  18. Simulation of the Ill-Posed Problem of Reinforced Concrete Corrosion Detection Using Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarizal Fonna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have suggested that the corrosion detection of reinforced concrete (RC based on electrical potential on concrete surface was an ill-posed problem, and thus it may present an inaccurate interpretation of corrosion. However, it is difficult to prove the ill-posed problem of the RC corrosion detection by experiment. One promising technique is using a numerical method. The objective of this study is to simulate the ill-posed problem of RC corrosion detection based on electrical potential on a concrete surface using the Boundary Element Method (BEM. BEM simulates electrical potential within a concrete domain. In order to simulate the electrical potential, the domain is assumed to be governed by Laplace’s equation. The boundary conditions for the corrosion area and the noncorrosion area of rebar were selected from its polarization curve. A rectangular reinforced concrete model with a single rebar was chosen to be simulated using BEM. The numerical simulation results using BEM showed that the same electrical potential distribution on the concrete surface could be generated from different combinations of parameters. Corresponding to such a phenomenon, this problem can be categorized as an ill-posed problem since it has many solutions. Therefore, BEM successfully simulates the ill-posed problem of reinforced concrete corrosion detection.

  19. Seismic site effects in a deep alluvial basin: numerical analysis by the boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François; Dangla, Patrick; 10.1016/S0266-352X(02)00017-4

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is the numerical analysis of seismic site effects in Caracas (Venezuela). The analysis is performed considering the boundary element method in the frequency domain. A numerical model including a part of the local topography is considered, it involves a deep alluvial deposit on an elastic bedrock. The amplification of seismic motion (SH-waves, weak motion) is analyzed in terms of level, occurring frequency and location. In this specific site of Caracas, the amplification factor is found to reach a maximum value of 25. Site effects occur in the thickest part of the basin for low frequencies (below 1.0 Hz) and in two intermediate thinner areas for frequencies above 1.0 Hz. The influence of both incidence and shear wave velocities is also investigated. A comparison with microtremor recordings is presented afterwards. The results of both numerical and experimental approaches are in good agreement in terms of fundamental frequencies in the deepest part of the basin. The boundary elemen...

  20. A Boundary Element Investigation of Liquid Sloshing in Coupled Horizontal and Vertical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Zhi Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sloshing flows in a two-dimensional rigid rectangular tank under specified excitations in the coupled horizontal and vertical modes are simulated by using a higher-order boundary element method (BEM. The liquid sloshing is formulated as an initial-boundary-value problem based on the fully nonlinear potential flow theory. And a semi-mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian technique combined with the 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme is employed to advance the solutions in the time marching process. A smoothing technique is applied to the free surface at every several time steps to avoid the possible numerical instabilities. Numerical results obtained are compared with the available solutions to validate the developed model. The parametric studies are carried out to show the liquid sloshing effects in terms of the slosh frequencies and excitation amplitudes in horizontal and vertical modes, the second-order resonance frequency, a bottom-mounted vertical rigid baffle, free surface displacement, and hydrodynamic forces acting on the tank.

  1. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  2. Modelling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbjan, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) is tested for self-similar properties of the flow and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is diagnostic, based on the K-theory approach, with a semi-empirical form of the mixing length, and empirical stability functions of the Richardson number. The model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions, satisfied in the entire SBL. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum allowable turbulent heat flux in the SBL. Numerical experiments show that the development of "horse-shoe" shaped, fixed-elevation hodographs in the interior of the SBL around sunrise is controlled by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing.

  3. A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C.-M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2009-04-01

    Engineering methods for modelling the generation of railway rolling noise are well established. However, these necessarily involve some simplifying assumptions to calculate the sound powers radiated by the wheel and the track. For the rail, this involves using an average vibration together with a radiation efficiency determined for a two-dimensional (2D) problem. In this paper, the sound radiation from a rail is calculated using a method based on a combination of waveguide finite elements and wavenumber boundary elements. This new method allows a number of the simplifying assumptions in the established methods to be avoided. It takes advantage of the 2D geometry of a rail to provide an efficient numerical approach but nevertheless takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the vibration and sound field and the infinite extent of the rail. The approach is used to study a conventional 'open' rail as well as an embedded tram rail of the type used for street running. In the former case it is shown that the conventional approach gives correct results and the complexity of the new method is mostly not necessary. However, for the embedded rail it is found that it is important to take into account the radiation from several wave types in the rail and embedding material. The damping effect of the embedding material on the rail vibration is directly taken into account and, for the example shown, causes the embedded rail to radiate less sound than the open rail above about 600 Hz. The free surface of the embedding material amplifies the sound radiation at some frequencies, while at other frequencies it moves out of phase with the rail and reduces the radiation efficiency. At low frequencies the radiation from the embedded rail resembles a line monopole source which produces greater power than the 'open' rail which forms a line dipole.

  4. MULTIGRID ALGORITHM FOR THE COUPLING SYSTEM OF NATURAL BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD AND FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR UNBOUNDED DOMAIN PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Zhang; Dehao Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some V-cycle multigrid algorithms are presented for the coupling system arising from the discretization of the Dirichlet exterior problem by coupling the natural boundary element method and finite element method. The convergence of these multigrid algorithms is obtained even with only one smoothing on all levels. The rate of convergence is found uniformly bounded independent of the number of levels and the mesh sizes of all levels, which indicates that these multigrid algorithms are optimal. Some numerical results are also reported.

  5. Boundary spectra in superspace σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we compute exact boundary spectra for D-instantons in σ-models on the supergroup PSL(22). Our results are obtained through an explicit summation of the perturbative expansion for conformal dimensions to all orders in the curvature radius. The analysis exploits several remarkable properties of the perturbation series that arises from rescalings of the metric on PSL(22) relative to a fixed Wess- Zumino term. According to Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the models are relevant in the context of string theory on AdS3 with non-vanishing RR-flux. The note concludes with a number of comments on various possible generalizations to other supergroups and higher dimensional supercoset theories. (orig.)

  6. The boundary element method in the determination of the hydrodynamic field from the bladed zones of turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, I.; Carte, I. N.; Ludescher, H.; Iosif, A.

    1990-04-01

    The application of the boundary element method to the analysis of axisymmetric motions is examined with particular reference to turbomachines. A procedure for determining the hydrodynamic field in the meridian plane of turbomachine blading using the boundary element method is presented. The method is applied to a Francis turbine impeller with lateral boundaries of the Bovet type. The results obtained are compared with calculations by the finite element method.

  7. A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface...

  8. A MATLAB Code for Three Dimensional Linear Elastostatics using Constant Boundary Elements

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Present work presents a code written in the very simple programming language MATLAB, for three dimensional linear elastostatics, using constant boundary elements. The code, in full or in part, is not a translation or a copy of any of the existing codes. Present paper explains how the code is written, and lists all the formulae used. Code is verified by using the code to solve a simple problem which has the well known approximate analytical solution. Of course, present work does not make any contribution to research on boundary elements, in terms of theory. But the work is justified by the fact that, to the best of author's knowledge, as of now, one cannot find an open access MATLAB code for three dimensional linear elastostatics using constant boundary elements. Author hopes this paper to be of help to beginners who wish to understand how a simple but complete boundary element code works, so that they can build upon and modify the present open access code to solve complex engineering problems quickly and easi...

  9. OpenBEM - An open source Boundary Element Method software in Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2010-01-01

    OpenBEM is a collection of open source programs for solving the Helmholtz Equation using the Boundary Element Method. The collection is written in Matlab by the authors and contains codes for dealing with exterior and interior problems in two or three dimensions as well as implementation of axi...

  10. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  11. Elimination of boundary effect for laminated overburden model in pillar stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; K. A. Heasley

    2016-01-01

    The laminated overburden model (LaModel) has been widely used for pillar design and stability analysis. As a boundary element program, the LaModel program is sensitive to the boundary condition, which should be considered before creating the model. To eliminate the boundary effect in a LaModel pillar stability analysis, a suitable boundary buffer zone is needed around the model edge. The radius of influence (R) and the abutment load extent (D) are two major factors that affect the stresses and displacements calculated in LaModel. To determine the optimum buffer zone extent, a database of case histories was analyzed using the LaModel program. Values for R and D were varied until a buffer zone having negligible influence on the pillar stability factor (SF) of the active mining zone (AMZ) was determined.

  12. Analytical model for intergrain expansion and cleavage: random grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of rigid-body grain boundary relaxation and cleavage in tungsten is performed using a pair-wise Morse interatomic potential in real and reciprocal spaces. Cleavage energies and grain boundary dilatation of random grain boundaries were formulated and computed using atomic layer interaction energies. These values were determined using a model for a relaxed random grain boundary that consists of rigid grains on either side of the boundary plane that are allowed to float to reach the equilibrium position. Expressions are given that describe in real space the energy of interatomic interaction on random grain boundaries with twist orientation. It was shown that grain-boundary expansion and cleavage energies of the most widespread random grain boundaries are mainly determined by grain boundary atomic density

  13. Boundary states and finite size effects in sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Bajnok, Z.; Palla, L.; Takacs, G.

    2001-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition is investigated. Using the bootstrap principle the spectrum of boundary bound states is established. Somewhat surprisingly it is found that Coleman-Thun diagrams and bound state creation may coexist. A framework to describe finite size effects in boundary integrable theories is developed and used together with the truncated conformal space approach to confirm the bound states and reflection factors derived by bootstrap.

  14. Fast multipole boundary element analysis of 2D viscoelastic composites with imperfect interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A fast multipole boundary element method(FMBEM)is developed for the analysis of 2D linear viscoelastic composites with imperfect viscoelastic interfaces.The transformed fast multipole formulations are established using the time domain method. To simulate the viscoelastic behavior of imperfect interfaces that are frequently encountered in practice,the Kelvin type model is introduced.The FMBEM is further improved by incorporating naturally the interaction among inclusions as well as eliminating the phenomenon of material penetration.Since all the integrals are evaluated analytically,high accuracy and fast convergence of the numerical scheme are obtained.Several numerical examples,including planar viscoelastic composites with a single inclusion or randomly distributed multi-inclusions are presented.The numerical results are compared with the developed analytical solutions,which illustrates that the proposed FMBEM is very efficient in determining the macroscopic viscoelastic behavior of the particle-reinforced composites with the presence of imperfect interfaces.The laboratory measurements of the mixture creep compliance of asphalt concrete are also compared with the prediction by the developed model.

  15. Multi-reflection boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models

    OpenAIRE

    d´Humiéres, D.; Ginzburg, I

    2002-01-01

    We present a unified approach of several boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models. Its general framework is a generalization of previously introduced schemes such as the bounce-back rule, linear or quadratic interpolations, etc. The objectives are two fold: first to give theoretical tools to study the existing boundary conditions and their corresponding accuracy; secondly to design formally third- order accurate boundary conditions for general flows. Using these boundary conditions, C...

  16. Boundary Relations, Unitary Colligations, and Functional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new notion, the so-called boundary relation, has been introduced involving an analytic object, the so-called Weyl family. Weyl families and boundary relations establish a link between the class of Nevanlinna families and unitary relations acting from one Krein in space, a basic (state) sp

  17. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) for Seismic Response of Topographical Irregularities in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Sánchez-Alvaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic hazard assessment of extended developments, such as a dam, a bridge or a pipeline, needs the strong ground motion simulation taking into account the effects of surface geology. In many cases the incoming wave field can be obtained from attenuation relations or simulations for layered media using Discrete Wave Number (DWN). Sometimes there is a need to include in simulations the seismic source as well. A number of methods to solve these problems have been developed. Among them the Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods (FEM and FDM) are generally preferred because of the facility of use. Nevertheless, the analysis of realistic dynamic loading induced by earthquakes requires a thinner mesh of the entire domain to consider high frequencies. Consequently this may imply a high computational cost. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) can also be employed. Here it is used to study the response of a site to historical seismic activity. This method is particularly suited to model wave propagation through wide areas as it requires only the meshing of boundaries. Moreover, it is well suited to represent finely the diffraction that can occur on a fault. However, the IBEM has been applied mainly to simple geometrical configurations. In this communication significant refinements of the formulation are presented. Using IBEM we can simulate wave propagation in complex geometrical configurations such as a stratified medium crossed by thin faults or having a complex topography. Two main developments are here described; one integrates the DWN method inside the IBEM in order to represent the Green's functions of stratified media with relatively low computational cost but assuming unbounded parallel flat layers, and the other is the extension of IBEM to deal with multi-regions in contact which allows more versatility with a higher computational cost compared to the first one but still minor to an equivalent FEM formulation. The two approaches are fully

  18. Boundary Element Method (BEM) Analysis for Galvanic Corrosion of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Immersed in Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Tang; Yuzhi Zhanga; Meng Liu; Yan Li

    2009-01-01

    A numerical analysis of galvanic corrosion of hot-dip galvanized steel immersed in seawater was presented.The analysis was based on the boundary element methods (BEMs) coupled with Newton-Raphson iterative technique to treat the nonlinear boundary conditions, which were determined by the experimental polarization curves. Results showed that galvanic current density concentrates on the boundary of steel substrate and zinc coating, and the sacrificial protection of zinc coating to steel substrate results in overprotection of steel cathode. Not only oxygen reduction but also hydrogen reduction could occur as cathode reactions, which probably led up to the adsorption and absorption of hydrogen atoms. Flat galvanized steel tensile sample shows a brittle behavior similar to hydrogen embrittlement according to the SSRT (show strain rate test) in seawater.

  19. Multiphysics Finite Element Methods for a Poroelasticity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaobing; Ge, Zhihao; Li, Yukun

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns with finite element approximations of a quasi-static poroelasticity model in displacement-pressure formulation which describes the dynamics of poro-elastic materials under an applied mechanical force on the boundary. To better describe the multiphysics process of deformation and diffusion for poro-elastic materials, we first present a reformulation of the original model by introducing two pseudo-pressures, one of them is shown to satisfy a diffusion equation, we then propo...

  20. Analysis of the role of diffraction in topographic site effects using boundary element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan; Restrepo, Doriam; Jaramillo, Juan; Valencia, Camilo

    2013-10-01

    The role played by the diffraction field on the problem of seismic site effects is studied. For that purpose we solve and analyze simple scattering problems under P and SV in-plane wave assumptions, using two well known direct boundary-element-based numerical methods. After establishing the difference between scattered and diffracted motions, and introducing the concept of artificious and physically based incoming fields, we obtain the amplitude of the Fourier spectra for the diffracted part of the response: this is achieved after establishing the connection between the spatial distribution of the transfer function over the studied simple topographies and the diffracted field. From the numerical simulations it is observed that this diffracted part of the response is responsible for the amplification of the surface ground motions due to the geometric effect. Furthermore, it is also found that the diffraction field sets in a fingerprint of the topographic effect in the total ground motions. These conclusions are further supported by observations in the time-domain in terms of snapshots of the propagation patterns over the complete computational model. In this sense the geometric singularities are clearly identified as sources of diffraction and for the considered range of dimensionless frequencies it is evident that larger amplifications are obtained for the geometries containing a larger number of diffraction sources thus resulting in a stronger topographic effect. The need for closed-form solutions of canonical problems to construct a robust analysis method based on the diffraction field is identified.

  1. Numerical improvement of the three-dimensional indirect boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Gil-Zepeda, S. A.; Luzon, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, several numerical techniques for the estimation of the seismic response in complex geologic configurations have been developed. The flexibility and versatility of these techniques have increased along with the improvement of computational systems, and they altogether have allowed the study of 3D geometries to model several sedimentary basins around the world. In this article we study the structure of the linear systems derived from the Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM). We apply a LU-sparse decomposition solver to the inversion of the IBEM coefficient matrix in order to optimise the numerical burden of such method. As pointed out before, special emphasis is given to understanding the main features of ground motion in sedimentary basins. We compute the seismic response of a 3D alluvial valley of irregular shape, as originally proposed by Sánchez-Sesma and Luzón (1995), and we establish comparisons on time consumption and memory allocation. Inversion of linear systems by using this new algorithm lead us to a significant saving on CPU time and memory allocation relative to the original IBEM formulation. Results represent an extension in the range of application of the IBEM method.

  2. Forensic Seismology and Boundary Element Method Application vis-à-vis ROKS Cheonan Underwater Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    So Gu Kim

    2013-01-01

    On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6−9 m from a DPRK “CHT-02D” torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral “land control” mine (LCM).

  3. Seamless Integration of Global Dirichlet-to-Neumann Boundary Condition and Spectral Elements for Transformation Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhiguo; Rong, Zhijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-element method (SEM) for solving general two-dimensional Helmholtz equations in anisotropic media, with particular applications in accurate simulation of polygonal invisibility cloaks, concentrators and circular rotators arisen from the field of transformation electromagnetics (TE). In practice, we adopt a transparent boundary condition (TBC) characterized by the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map to reduce wave propagation in an unbounded domain to a bounded domain. We then introduce a semi-analytic technique to integrate the global TBC with local curvilinear elements seamlessly, which is accomplished by using a novel elemental mapping and analytic formulas for evaluating global Fourier coefficients on spectral-element grids exactly. From the perspective of TE, an invisibility cloak is devised by a singular coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations that leads to anisotropic materials coating the cloaked region to render any object inside invisible to observe...

  4. Boundary element numerical method for the electric field generated by oblique multi-needle electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the electric potential of oblique multi-needle electrodes (OMNE) in biological tissue, the discrete equations based on the indetermination linear current density were established by the boundary element integral equations (BEIE). The non-uniform distribution of the current flowing from multi-needle electrodes to conductive biological tissues was imaged by solving a set of linear equa- tions. Then, the electric field and potential generated by OMNE in biological tissues at any point may be determined through the boundary element method (BEM). The time of program running and stability of computing method are examined by an example. It demonstrates that the algorithm possesses a quick speed and the steady computed results. It means that this method has an important referenced sig- nificance for computing the field and the potential generated by OMNE in bio-tissue, which is a fast, effective and accurate computing method.

  5. International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Kadin

    1990-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary­ wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto­ dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas­ sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...

  6. General and efficient parallel approach of finite element-boundary integral-multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaomin; Sheng Xinqing

    2008-01-01

    A general and efficient parallel approach is proposed for the first time to parallelize the hybrid finite-element-boundary-integral-multi-level fast multipole algorithm (FE-BI-MLFMA). Among many algorithms of FE-BI-MLFMA, the decomposition algorithm (DA) is chosen as a basis for the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA because of its distinct numerical characteristics suitable for parallelization. On the basis of the DA, the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA is carried out by employing the parallelized multi-frontal method for the matrix from the finite-element method and the parallelized MLFMA for the matrix from the boundary integral method respectively. The programming and numerical experiments of the proposed parallel approach are carried out in the high perfor-mance computing platform CEMS-Liuhui. Numerical experiments demonstrate that FE-BI-MLFMA is efficiently parallelized and its computational capacity is greatly improved without losing accuracy, efficiency, and generality.

  7. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  8. A wideband fast multipole boundary element method for half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Jun Zheng; Hai-Bo Chen; Lei-Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/planesymmetric acoustic wave problems.The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only.Moreover,a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived,and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating,translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain.The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems.As for exterior acoustic problems,the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method.Details on the implementation of the present method are described,and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.

  9. Boundary element method for the solution of the diffusion equation in cylindrical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations for the solution of the diffusion equation in plane Cartesian geometry with the Boundary Element method was derived. The equation for the axi-symmetric case were set and included in the computer program. The results were compared to those obtained by the Finite Difference method. Comparing the results some advantages of the proposed method can be observed, with implications on the multidimensional problems. (author)

  10. THREE DIMENSIONAL ELASTO-PLASTIC CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING WITH CONSIDERATION OF FRICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The boundary element method in framework is given to evaluate three dimensional frictional contact problems. Elasto-plastic material behavior is taken into account by mean of an initial stress formulation and Von Mises yield criterion. The amount of tangential traction at contact surface is limited by Coulomb's friction law and constant shear rule. From some numerical results of a plate rolling problem, it is demonstrated here that the BEM can be used to efficiently and accurately analyze this class of forming problems.

  11. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids in...... with mesh definition, geometrical singularities and treatment of closed cavities. These issues are specific of the BEM with losses. Using examples, some strategies are presented that can alleviate shortcomings and improve performance....

  12. Calculation of wave resistance and elevation of arbitrarily shaped bodies using the boundary integral element method

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Ravindra

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed for computing the steady state flow about arbitrary shaped three dimensional bodies on or below the free surface using a Boundary Integral Element Method ( Panel Method). The method uses a singularity distribution over the body surface and the free surface. The method can solve for the potential distribution as well as the source density distribution. In this study a constant source distribution is assumed on each panel. The free surface bo...

  13. FLUID BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD AND ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORM OF DOUBLE COMPLEX VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗义银

    2003-01-01

    A concept of orthogonal double function and its complex variables space was putforward. Its corresponding operation rules, the concept of analytic function and conformaltransform are established. And using this concept discussed its foreground for application offluid boundary element method. In results, this concept and special marks may be toenlarge the plane complex into three-dimensional space, and then extensive application maybe obtained in physics and mathematics.

  14. Finite Element Simulation of Photoacoustic Pressure in a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell Using Lossy Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lopes, Natasha; Willatzen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) is used to simulate the photoacoustic signal in a cylindrical resonant photoacoustic cell. Simulations include loss effects near the cell walls that appear in the boundary conditions for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation governing the acoustic pressure. Reasonably...... the photoacoustic signal was demonstrated and good agreement with experiments for the actual resonance frequency and the quality factor of the cell was obtained despite its complicated geometry....

  15. Inexact Krylov iterations and relaxation strategies with fast-multipole boundary element method

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Simon K.; Barba, Lorena A.

    2015-01-01

    Boundary element methods produce dense linear systems that can be accelerated via multipole expansions. Solved with Krylov methods, this implies computing the matrix-vector products within each iteration with some error, at an accuracy controlled by the order of the expansion, $p$. We take advantage of a unique property of Krylov iterations that allow lower accuracy of the matrix-vector products as convergence proceeds, and propose a relaxation strategy based on progressively decreasing $p$. ...

  16. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr2O3. This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl2O4. Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3–10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr2O3 has a plate-like structure with 1.2–1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl2O4 has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular direction providing an additional pathway for

  17. Optimal Boundary Conditions for ORCA-2 Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A 4D-Var data assimilation technique is applied to a ORCA-2 configuration of the NEMO in order to identify the optimal parametrization of the boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries as well as on the bottom and on the surface of the ocean. The influence of the boundary conditions on the solution is analyzed as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. It is shown that optimal conditions for vertical operators allows to get stronger and finer jet streams (Gulf Stream, Kuroshio) in the solution. Analyzing the reasons of the jets reinforcement, we see that the major impact of the data assimilation is made on the parametrization of the bottom boundary conditions for lateral velocities u and v. Automatic generation of the tangent and adjoint codes is also discussed. Tapenade software is shown to be able to produce the adjoint code that can be used after a memory usage optimization.

  18. Indirect boundary element method to simulate elastic wave propagation in piecewise irregular and flat regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, Mathieu; Contreras-Zazueta, Marcial A.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2016-06-01

    A new implementation of indirect boundary element method allows simulating the elastic wave propagation in complex configurations made of embedded regions that are homogeneous with irregular boundaries or flat layers. In an older implementation, each layer of a flat layered region would have been treated as a separated homogeneous region without taking into account the flat boundary information. For both types of regions, the scattered field results from fictitious sources positioned along their boundaries. For the homogeneous regions, the fictitious sources emit as in a full-space and the wave field is given by analytical Green's functions. For flat layered regions, fictitious sources emit as in an unbounded flat layered region and the wave field is given by Green's functions obtained from the discrete wavenumber (DWN) method. The new implementation allows then reducing the length of the discretized boundaries but DWN Green's functions require much more computation time than the full-space Green's functions. Several optimization steps are then implemented and commented. Validations are presented for 2-D and 3-D problems. Higher efficiency is achieved in 3-D.

  19. Improving a complex finite-difference ground water flow model through the use of an analytic element screening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.; Kelson, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that analytic element models have potential as powerful screening tools that can facilitate or improve calibration of more complicated finite-difference and finite-element models. We demonstrate how a two-dimensional analytic element model was used to identify errors in a complex three-dimensional finite-difference model caused by incorrect specification of boundary conditions. An improved finite-difference model was developed using boundary conditions developed from a far-field analytic element model. Calibration of a revised finite-difference model was achieved using fewer zones of hydraulic conductivity and lake bed conductance than the original finite-difference model. Calibration statistics were also improved in that simulated base-flows were much closer to measured values. The improved calibration is due mainly to improved specification of the boundary conditions made possible by first solving the far-field problem with an analytic element model.This paper demonstrates that analytic element models have potential as powerful screening tools that can facilitate or improve calibration of more complicated finite-difference and finite-element models. We demonstrate how a two-dimensional analytic element model was used to identify errors in a complex three-dimensional finite-difference model caused by incorrect specification of boundary conditions. An improved finite-difference model was developed using boundary conditions developed from a far-field analytic element model. Calibration of a revised finite-difference model was achieved using fewer zones of hydraulic conductivity and lake bed conductance than the original finite-difference model. Calibration statistics were also improved in that simulated base-flows were much closer to measured values. The improved calibration is due mainly to improved specification of the boundary conditions made possible by first solving the far-field problem with an analytic element model.

  20. Discrete holomorphicity and integrability in loop models with open boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Gier, Jan; Rasmussen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    We consider boundary conditions compatible with discrete holomorphicity for the dilute O(n) and C_2^(1) loop models. In each model, for a general set of boundary plaquettes, multiple types of loops can appear. A generalisation of Smirnov's parafermionic observable is therefore required in order to maintain the discrete holomorphicity property in the bulk. We show that there exist natural boundary conditions for this observable which are consistent with integrability, that is to say that, by imposing certain boundary conditions, we obtain a set of linear equations whose solutions also satisfy the corresponding reflection equation. In both loop models, several new sets of integrable weights are found using this approach.

  1. Duality and conformal twisted boundaries in the Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, U

    2002-01-01

    There has been recent interest in conformal twisted boundary conditions and their realisations in solvable lattice models. For the Ising and Potts quantum chains, these amount to boundary terms that are related to duality, which is a proper symmetry of the model at criticality. Thus, at criticality, the duality-twisted Ising model is translationally invariant, similar to the more familiar cases of periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. The complete finite-size spectrum of the Ising quantum chain with this peculiar boundary condition is obtained.

  2. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables

  3. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Poynting Flux-Conserving Boundary Conditions for Global MHD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O.; Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux-conserving boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the low-altitude (or inner) boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. This method involves the mapping of both the potential from the ionosphere and the perpendicular magnetic field from the inner magnetosphere to the ghost cells of the computational domain. The single fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method. The comparisons of simulations using the standard hardwall boundary conditions of the LFM model and the flux-conserving boundary conditions show that the method reported here improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is very nearly equal to the ionospheric Joule heating, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved.

  5. Numerical solutions of multi-dimensional solidification/melting problems by the dual reciprocity boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  6. Subsidence modelling with analytic elements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Orlic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The method of Analytic Elements has been extended to enable elasticity calculations, to evaluate subsidence at the surface as resulting from extraction of oil or gas. Validation has been achieved by comparison with more limited analytical methods and with a comprehensive finite-element simulator. Th

  7. Dynamic-stiffness matrix of embedded and pile foundations by indirect boundary-element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.P.; Darbre, G.R. (Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland))

    1984-08-01

    The boundary-integral equation method is well suited for the calculation of the dynamic-stiffness matrix of foundations embedded in a layered visco-elastic halfspace (or a transmitting boundary of arbitrary shape), which represents an unbounded domain. It also allows pile groups to be analyzed, taking pile-soil-pile interaction into account. The discretization of this boundary-element method is restricted to the structure-soil interface. All trial functions satisfy exactly the field equations and the radiation condition at infinity. In the indirect boundary-element method distributed source loads of initially unknown intensities act on a source line located in the excavated part of the soil and are determined such that the prescribed boundary conditions on the structure-soil interface are satisfied in an average sense. In the two-dimensional case the variables are expanded in a Fourier integral in the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and Bessel functions of the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and Bessel functions of the wave number in the radial direction are selected. Accurate results arise with a small number of parameters of the loads acting on a source line which should coincide with the structure-soil interface. In a parametric study the dynamic-stiffness matrices of rectangular foundations of various aspect ratios embedded in a halfplane and in a layer built-in at its base are calculated. For the halfplane, the spring coefficients for the translational directions hardly depend on the embedment, while the corresponding damping coefficients increase for larger embedments, this tendency being more pronounced in the horizontal direction.

  8. Variational Data Assimilation for Optimizing Boundary Conditions in Ocean Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Christine; Tolstykh, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The review describes the development of ideas Gury Ivanovich Marchuk in the field of variational data assimilation for ocean models applied in particular in coupled models for long-range weather forecasts. Particular attention is paid to the optimization of boundary conditions on rigid boundaries. As idealized and realistic model configurations are considered. It is shown that the optimization allows us to determine the most sensitive model operators and bring the model solution closer to the assimilated data.

  9. Stress analysis of 3D complex geometries using the scaled boundary polyhedral finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Hossein; Saputra, Albert; Song, Chongmin

    2016-08-01

    While dominating the numerical stress analysis of solids, the finite element method requires a mesh to conform to the surface of the geometry. Thus the mesh generation of three dimensional complex structures often require tedious human interventions. In this paper, we present a formulation for arbitrary polyhedral elements based on the scaled boundary finite element method, which reduces the difficulties in automatic mesh generation. We also propose a simple method to generate polyhedral meshes with local refinements. The mesh generation method is based on combining an octree mesh with surfaces defined using signed distance functions. Through several numerical examples, we verify the results, study the convergence behaviour and depict the many advantages and capabilities of the presented method. This contribution is intended to assist us to eventually frame a set of numerical methods and associated tools for the full automation of the engineering analysis where minimal human interaction is needed.

  10. Boundary Extraction Using Region-Based GVF Snake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangguang Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional GVF snake model has enlarged capture range and improved the convergence capability for boundary concavities, but it cannot efficiently solve the convergence problem for an image with deep boundary concavities and high noise. In this paper, by integrating the region force derived from the region information of interested object in an image into the force balance equation, a novel snake model was proposed to guide the evolvement of contour curve. Compared with traditional GVF snake model, our model further effectively improves capability of reducing noise sensitivity and converging into deeply boundary concavities. Experimental results with synthetic images and real images demonstrated the feasibility and robustness of our model.

  11. A finite-element numerical approach for modeling tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piatanesi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical scheme suitable for modeling tsunamis is developed and tested against available analytical solutions. The governing equations are the shallow water nonlinear nondispersive equations that are known to be appropriate for tsunami generation and propagation in coastal waters. The integration scheme is based on a finite-element space discretization, where the basic elements are triangles and the shape functions are linear. The time integration is a double step algorithm that is accurate to the second order in the time step ?t. The boundary conditions are pure reflectivity and complete transmissivity on the solid and open boundaries respectively and are implemented by modifying the time integration scheme in a suitable way. The model performance is evaluated by comparing the results with the analytical solutions in selected cases and is quite satisfactory, even when the grid has a coarse spatial resolution.

  12. SSI-FEBEM: A computer program for dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis using finite element and boundary element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.; Wang, S.; Chouw, N.

    1991-04-01

    SSI-FEBEM is a computer program for dynamic soil-structure (or structure-soil-structure) interaction analysis in the frequency domain. The program SAP IV (FEM) and the program SSI 2D/3D (BEM) have been integrated into a new program, which allows a coupling of finite and boundary elements. It is applicable to two- and three-dimensional problems. In this manual, the theoretical concept for both FEM and BEM, as used in the program, are briefly introduced. Details of the coupling of FE and BE, are also discussed. However, emphasis is directed towards the use of the computer program concerning data input and output. Finally, several examples on soil-structure interaction (SSI) and structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI), together with their data are presented. (orig.). [Deutsch] SSI-FEBEM ist ein Programm zur Berechnung der dynamischen Antwort eines Systems Bauwerk-Boden (oder Bauwerk-Boden-Bauwerk) im Frequenzbereich. Das Programm besteht aus dem Programm SAP IV (FEM) und dem Programm SSI 2D/3D (BEM) und koppelt Finite Elemente und Randelemente. Zwei- und dreidimensionale Probleme koennen damit behandelt werden. In dem vorliegenden Bericht werden die theoretischen Grundlagen der angewendeten Methode der Finiten Elemente und der Randelemente kurz vorgestellt und deren Kopplung beschrieben. Der Bericht ist als Benutzerhandbuch anzusehen. Er beinhaltet auch Beispiele der Wechselwirkung zwischen Bauwerk und Baugrund (SSI) und zwischen Bauwerk-Boden-Bauwerk (SSSI). (orig.).

  13. Isogeometric Boundary Element Analysis with elasto-plastic inclusions. Part 1: Plane problems

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Gernot; Zechner, Jürgen; Dünser, Christian; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel approach is presented for the isogeometric Boundary Element analysis of domains that contain inclusions with different elastic properties than the ones used for computing the fundamental solutions. In addition the inclusion may exhibit inelastic material behavior. In this paper only plane stress/strain problems are considered. In our approach the geometry of the inclusion is described using NURBS basis functions. The advantage over currently used methods is that no discretization into cells is required in order to evaluate the arising volume integrals. The other difference to current approaches is that Kernels of lower singularity are used in the domain term. The implementation is verified on simple finite and infinite domain examples with various boundary conditions. Finally a practical application in geomechanics is presented.

  14. The characteristic mixed finite element method and analysis for three-dimensional moving boundary value problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁益让

    1996-01-01

    The software for oil-gas transport and accumulation is to describe the history of oil-gas transport and accumulation in basin evolution. It is of great value in rational evaluation of prospecting and exploiting oil-gas resources. This thesis, from actual conditions such as the effects of gravitation, buoyancy and capillary pressure, puts forward for the two class boundary value problem a kind of characteristic mixed finite element scheme by making use of the change of region, time step modified techniques of handling boundary value condition, negative norm estimate and the theory of prior estimates. Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived for the error in approximate solutions. Thus the well-known theoretical problem proposed by J. Douglas, Jr has been thoroughly and completely solved.

  15. An iterative Rankine boundary element method for wave diffraction of a ship with forward speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广华

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D time-domain seakeeping analysis tool has been newly developed by using a higher-order boundary element method with the Rankine source as the kernel function. An iterative time-marching scheme for updating both kinematic and dynamic free-surface boundary conditions is adopted for achieving numerical accuracy and stability. A rectangular computational domain moving with the mean speed of ship is introduced. A damping beach at the outer portion of the truncated free surface is installed for satisfying the radiation condition. After numerical convergence checked, the diffraction unsteady problem of a Wigley hull traveling with a constant forward speed in waves is studied. Extensive results including wave exciting forces, wave patterns and pressure distributions on the hull are presented to validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed 3-D time-domain iterative Rankine BEM approach. Computed results are compared to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and other published numerical solutions.

  16. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2016-02-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

  17. A biomolecular electrostatics solver using Python, GPUs and boundary elements that can handle solvent-filled cavities and Stern layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Christopher D; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    The continuum theory applied to bimolecular electrostatics leads to an implicit-solvent model governed by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Solvers relying on a boundary integral representation typically do not consider features like solvent-filled cavities or ion-exclusion (Stern) layers, due to the added difficulty of treating multiple boundary surfaces. This has hindered meaningful comparisons with volume-based methods, and the effects on accuracy of including these features has remained unknown. This work presents a solver called PyGBe that uses a boundary-element formulation and can handle multiple interacting surfaces. It was used to study the effects of solvent-filled cavities and Stern layers on the accuracy of calculating solvation energy and binding energy of proteins, using the well-known APBS finite-difference code for comparison. The results suggest that if required accuracy for an application allows errors larger than about 2%, then the simpler, single-surface model can be used. When calculating b...

  18. LES model intercomparisons for the stable atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, A.F.; Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Model intercomparisons are one possible method to gain confidence in Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) as a viable tool to study turbulence in the atmospheric boundary-layer. This paper discusses the setup and some results of two intercomparison cases focussing on the stably stratified nocturnal boundary-

  19. A study on scattered fields analysis of ultrasonic SH-wave by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the SH-wave scattering by multi-defects and inclusion using Boundary Element Method is studied. The effects of shape and distance of defects on transmitted and reflected fields are considered. The interaction of multi-defects in SH-wave scattering is also investigated. Numerical calculations by the BEM have been carried out to predict near field solution of scattered fields of ultrasonic SH-wave. The presented results can be used to improve the detection sensitivity and pursue quantitative nondestructive evaluation for inverse problem.

  20. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Ideally, the walls of a loudspeaker cabinet are rigid. However, in reality, the cabinet is excited by the vibration of the loudspeaker units and by the acoustic pressure inside the cabinet. The radiation of sound caused by such vibration can influence the overall performance of the loudspeaker...... had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response...

  1. Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 梁利华; GlaucioH.Paulino

    2000-01-01

    An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of vis-coplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.

  2. Elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based implicit boundary element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) concept-based implicit algorithm for nonlinear boundary element methods is presented. Both kinematic and isotropic strain hardening are considered. The elasto-viscoplastic radial return algorithm (RRA) and the elasto-viscoplastic CTO and its related scheme are developed. In addition, the limit cases (e.g. elastoplastic problem) of viscoplastic RRA and CTO are discussed. Finally, numerical examples, which are compared with the latest FEM results of Ibrahimbegovic et al. and ABAQUS results, are provided.

  3. A fast multipole boundary element method for three dimensional potential flow problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Bin; NING Dezhi; GOU Ying

    2004-01-01

    A fast multipole methodology (FMM) is developed as a numerical approach to reduce the computational cost and memory requirements in solving large-scale problems. It is applied to the boundary element method (BEM) for threedimensional potential flow problems. The algorithm based on mixed multipole expansion and numerical integration is implemented in combination with an iterative solver. Numerical examinations, on Dirichlet and Neumann problems,are carried out to demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the present method. It has been shown that the method has evident advantages in saving memory and computing time when used to solve huge-scale problems which may be prohibitive for the traditional BEM implementation.

  4. ON?THE?ERROR?ESTIMATE?OF?LINEAR?FINITE?ELEMENT?APPROXIMATION?TO?THE?ELASTIC?CONTACT?PROBLEM? WITH?CURVED?CONTACT?BOUNDARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie-heng Wang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the linear finite element approximation to the elastic contact problem with curved contact boundary is considered. The error bound O(h1-2) is obtained with requirements of two times continuously differentiable for contact boundary and the usual regular triangulation, while I.Hlavacek et. al. obtained the error bound O(h ) with requirements of three times continuously differentiable for contact boundary and extra regularities of triangulation (c.f. [2]).

  5. Finite Element Models and Properties of a Stiffened Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2010-01-01

    Finite element models were developed of a floor-equipped, frame and stringer stiffened composite cylinder including a coarse finite element model of the structural components, a coarse finite element model of the acoustic cavities above and below the beam-supported plywood floor, and two dense models consisting of only the structural components. The report summarizes the geometry, the element properties, the material and mechanical properties, the beam cross-section characteristics, the beam element representations and the boundary conditions of the composite cylinder models. The expressions used to calculate the group speeds for the cylinder components are presented.

  6. Research related to improved computer aided design software package. [comparative efficiency of finite, boundary, and hybrid element methods in elastostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, W. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The comparative computational efficiencies of the finite element (FEM), boundary element (BEM), and hybrid boundary element-finite element (HVFEM) analysis techniques are evaluated for representative bounded domain interior and unbounded domain exterior problems in elastostatics. Computational efficiency is carefully defined in this study as the computer time required to attain a specified level of solution accuracy. The study found the FEM superior to the BEM for the interior problem, while the reverse was true for the exterior problem. The hybrid analysis technique was found to be comparable or superior to both the FEM and BEM for both the interior and exterior problems.

  7. Shakedown Analysis of 3-D Structures Using the Boundary Element Method Based on the Static Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰; 刘应华; 岑章志

    2003-01-01

    The static shakedown theorem was reformulated for the boundary element method (BEM) rather than the finite element method with Melan's theorem, then used to develop a numerical solution procedure for shakedown analysis. The self-equilibrium stress field was constructed by a linear combination of several basis self-equilibrium stress fields with undetermined parameters. These basis self-equilibrium stress fields were expressed as elastic responses of the body to imposed permanent strains obtained using a 3-D BEM elastic-plastic incremental analysis. The lower bound for the shakedown load was obtained from a series of nonlinear mathematical programming problems solved using the Complex method. Numerical examples verified the precision of the present method.

  8. Computational Acoustics of Noise Propagation in Fluids - Finite and Boundary Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marburg, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Among numerical methods applied in acoustics, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is normally favored for interior problems whereas the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is quite popular for exterior ones. That is why this valuable reference provides a complete survey of methods for computational acoustics, namely FEM and BEM. It demonstrates that both methods can be effectively used in the complementary cases. The chapters by well-known authors are evenly balanced: 10 chapters on FEM and 10 on BEM. An initial conceptual chapter describes the derivation of the wave equation and supplies a unified approach to FEM and BEM for the harmonic case. A categorization of the remaining chapters and a personal outlook complete this introduction. In what follows, both FEM and BEM are discussed in the context of very different problems. Firstly, this comprises numerical issues, e.g. convergence, multi-frequency solutions and highly efficient methods; and secondly, solutions techniques for the particular difficulties that arise wi...

  9. Micromechanical Modeling of Grain Boundaries Damage in a Copper Alloy Under Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to include the processes on the scale of the grain structure into the description of the creep behaviour of polycrystalline materials, the damage development of a single grain boundary has been initially investigated in the present work. For this purpose, a special simulationmethod has been used, whose resolution procedure based on holomorphic functions. The mechanisms taken into account for the simulations include nucleation, growth by grain boundary diffusion, coalescence and shrinkage until complete sintering of grain boundary cavities. These studies have then been used to develop a simplified cavitation model, which describes the grain boundary damage by two state variables and the time-dependent development by a mechanism-oriented rate formulation. To include the influence of grain boundaries within continuum mechanical considerations of polycrystals, an interface model has been developed, that incorporates both damage according to the simplified cavitation model and grain boundary sliding in dependence of a phenomenological grain boundary viscosity. Furthermore a micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been developed that allows to include a material's grain structure into the simulation of the creep behaviour by means of finite element simulations. Thereby, the deformations of individual grains are expressed by a viscoplastic single crystal model and the grain boundaries are described by the proposed interface model. The grain structure is represented by a finite element model, in which the grain boundaries are modelled by cohesive elements. From the evaluation of experimental creep data, the micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been calibrated for a copper-antimony alloy at a temperature of 823 K. Thereby, the adjustment of the single crystal model has been carried out on the basis of creep rates of pure copper single crystal specimens. The experimental determination of grain boundary sliding and grain boundary porosity for coarse

  10. Model-size reduction for the analysis of symmetric structures with asymmetric boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis model for a symmetric structure with asymmetric boundary conditions to that of the corresponding structure with symmetric boundary conditions. The procedure is based on approximating the asymmetric response of the structure by a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). The key elements of the procedure are (1) restructuring the governing finite-element equations to delineate the contributions to the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the asymmetric response, (2) successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate a few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by means of numerical examples of linear static problems of shells, and its potential for solving nonlinear problems is discussed.

  11. Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Transtrum, Mark K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...

  12. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.

    1995-11-01

    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.

  13. Mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcelli, S.A.; Kress, J.D.; Pratt, L.R.

    1995-08-07

    This paper develops and characterizes mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models. We give an example, the Ca{sup ++}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sup {minus}} pair potential of mean force in aqueous solution, for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is difficult and, thus for which mixed direct-iterative methods seem necessary to obtain the required high resolution. For the simplest such formulations, Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the non-symmetric iteration matrix. This establishes that those divergences are due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations used in evaluation of the matrix elements corresponding to accidental close encounters of boundary elements on different atomic spheres. The spectral radii are then greater than one for those diverging cases. This problem is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those cases performing an ``in-line`` Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. These difficulties are not expected and have not been observed for the thoroughly coarsened equations obtained when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of hybrid quantum-classical methods to deprotonation of orthosilicic acid in water.

  14. Inexact Krylov iterations and relaxation strategies with fast-multipole boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Boundary element methods produce dense linear systems that can be accelerated via multipole expansions. Solved with Krylov methods, this implies computing the matrix-vector products within each iteration with some error, at an accuracy controlled by the order of the expansion, $p$. We take advantage of a unique property of Krylov iterations that allow lower accuracy of the matrix-vector products as convergence proceeds, and propose a relaxation strategy based on progressively decreasing $p$. Via extensive numerical tests, we show that the relaxed Krylov iterations converge with speed-ups of between 2x and 4x for Laplace problems and between 3.5x and 4.5x for Stokes problems. We include an application to Stokes flow around red blood cells, computing with up to 64 cells and problem size up to 131k boundary elements and nearly 400k unknowns. The study was done with an in-house multi-threaded C++ code, on a quad-core CPU.

  15. Boundary elements method for microfluidic two-phase flows in shallow channels

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    In the following work we apply the boundary element method to two-phase flows in shallow microchannels, where one phase is dispersed and does not wet the channel walls. These kinds of flows are often encountered in microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip devices and characterized by low Reynolds and low capillary numbers. Assuming that these channels are homogeneous in height and have a large aspect ratio, we use depth-averaged equations to describe these two-phase flows using the Brinkman equation, which constitutes a refinement of Darcy's law. These partial differential equations are discretized and solved numerically using the boundary element method, where a stabilization scheme is applied to the surface tension terms, allowing for a less restrictive time step at low capillary numbers. The convergence of the numerical algorithm is checked against a static analytical solution and on a dynamic test case. Finally the algorithm is applied to the non-linear development of the Saffman-Taylor instability and compared to expe...

  16. Finite-element models of continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.

  17. A Note on Boundary Conditions for the LWR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the boundary conditions for the standard LWR model describing the traffic flow. The notion of the BLN (Bardos, Leroux and Nédélec) condition is described. In the context of traffic flow the BLN conditions have some natural interpretation. The conditions on the density and on the flow and their meaning in real-life situations are discussed. KEY WORDS: LWR model, traffic flow, hyperbolic conservation law, boundary conditions

  18. An improved optimal elemental method for updating finite element models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Zhongdong(段忠东); Spencer B.F.; Yan Guirong(闫桂荣); Ou Jinping(欧进萍)

    2004-01-01

    The optimal matrix method and optimal elemental method used to update finite element models may not provide accurate results. This situation occurs when the test modal model is incomplete, as is often the case in practice. An improved optimal elemental method is presented that defines a new objective function, and as a byproduct, circumvents the need for mass normalized modal shapes, which are also not readily available in practice. To solve the group of nonlinear equations created by the improved optimal method, the Lagrange multiplier method and Matlab function fmincon are employed. To deal with actual complex structures,the float-encoding genetic algorithm (FGA) is introduced to enhance the capability of the improved method. Two examples, a 7-degree of freedom (DOF) mass-spring system and a 53-DOF planar frame, respectively, are updated using the improved method.Thc example results demonstrate the advantages of the improved method over existing optimal methods, and show that the genetic algorithm is an effective way to update the models used for actual complex structures.

  19. Discrete Element Modeling of Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuannian; Tonon, Fulvio

    2012-09-01

    A discrete element code with impact model has been developed and calibrated to simulate the dynamic behavior of rock materials, with special regard to rock fragmentation upon impact during rock-fall analysis. The paper summarizes the discrete element code, the calibration algorithms developed to identify the model microparameters, and the impact model. Experimental work on drop tests is then used to validate the code on modeling impact fragmentation. It has been found that the developed discrete element code and impact model can reasonably simulate rock fragmentation in drop tests. The use of the discrete element code and impact model can provide good reference results in evaluating impact fragmentation in rock-fall analysis.

  20. Variational approximation of flux in conforming finite element methods for elliptic partial differential equations: a model problem

    OpenAIRE

    Brezzi, Franco; Hughes, T.J.R.; Suli, Endre

    2001-01-01

    We consider the approximation of elliptic boundary value problems by conforming finite element methods. A model problem, the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions, is used to examine the convergence behavior of flux defined on an internal boundary which splits the domain in two. A variational definition of flux, designed to satisfy local conservation laws, is shown to lead to improved rates of convergence.

  1. A frequency domain boundary element formulation for dynamic interaction problems in poroviscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argeso, Hakan; Mengi, Yalcin

    2014-02-01

    A unified formulation is presented, based on the boundary element method, to perform the interaction analysis for the problems involving poroviscoelastic media. The proposed formulation permits the evaluation of all the elements of impedance and input motion matrices at a single step in terms of system matrices of boundary element method without solving any special problem, such as, unit displacement or load problem, as required by conventional methods. It further eliminates the complicated procedure and the need for using scattering analysis in the evaluation of input motion functions. The formulation is explained by considering a simple interaction problem involving an inclusion embedded in an infinite poroviscoelastic medium, which is under the influence of a dynamic excitation induced by seismic waves. In the formulation, an impedance relation is established for this interaction problem, suitable for performing the interaction analysis by substructure method, which permits carrying out the analysis for inclusion and its surrounding medium separately. The inclusion is first treated as poroviscoelastic, then viscoelastic and finally rigid, where the formulation in each of these cases is obtained consecutively as a special case of the previous one. It is remarkable to note that, a cavity problem where there is a hole in place of inclusion can be also considered within the framework of the present formulation. The formulation is assessed by applying it to some sample problems. The extension of the formulation to other types of interaction problems, such as, multi-inclusion problems, the analyses of foundations supported by a poroviscoelastic medium, etc., will be the subject of a separate study.

  2. A boundary element method for the simulation of non-spherical bubbles and their interactions near a free surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Rui Li; Lei Sun; Zhi Zong; Jing Dong

    2012-01-01

    The basic principle and numerical technique for simulating two three-dimensional bubbles near a free surface are studied in detail by using boundary element method.The singularities of influence coefficient matrix are eliminated using coordinate transformation and so-called 4π rule.The solid angle for the open surface is treated in direct method based on its definition.Several kinds of configurations for the bubbles and free surface have been investigated.The pressure contours during the evolution of bubbles are obtained in our model and can better illuminate the mechanism underlying the motions of bubbles and free surface.The bubble dynamics and their interactions have close relation with the standoff distances,buoyancy parameters and initial sizes of bubbles.Completely different bubble shapes,free surface motions,jetting patterns and pressure distributions under different parameters can be observed in our model,as demonstrated in our calculation results.

  3. Identification of topographic elements composition based on landform boundaries from radar interferometry segmentation (preliminary study on digital landform mapping)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmanti, Wirastuti; Wicaksono, Ikhsan; Dinta Rahma Syam, Prima

    2016-06-01

    Dense vegetation that covers most landscapes in Indonesia becomes a common limitation in mapping the landforms in tropical region. This paper aims to examine the use of radar interferometry for landform mapping in tropical region; to examine the application of segmentation method to develop landform type boundaries; and to identify the topographic elements composition for each type of landform. Using Idrisi® and “eCognition ®” softwares, toposhape analysis, segmentation and multi-spectral classification were applied to identify the composition of topographic elements i.e. the types of land-cover from Landsat 8, elevation, slope, relief intensity and curvatures from SRTM (DEM). Visual interpretation on DEM and land-cover fusion imagery was conducted to derive basic control maps of landform and land-cover. The result shows that in segmentation method, shape and compactness levels are essential in obtaining land-cover, elevation, and slope class units to determine the most accurate class borders of each element. Despite a complex procedure applied in determining landform classification, the combination of topographic elements segmentation result presents a distinct border of each landform class. The comparison between landform maps derived from segmentation process and visual interpretation method demonstrates slight dissimilarities, meaning that multi-stage segmentation approach can improve and provide more effective digital landform mapping method in tropical region. Topographic elements on each type of landforms show distinctive composition key containing the percentage of each curvature elements per area unit. Supported by GIS programming and modeling in the future, this finding is significant in reducing effort in landform mapping using visual interpretation method for a very large coverage but in detail scale level.

  4. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...

  5. Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences

  6. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  7. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  8. Modeling Charge-Sign Asymmetric Solvation Free Energies With Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2014-01-01

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory but replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [J. Phys. Chem. B, v. 112:2408, 2008]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.

  9. Developing Models for the DIII-D Boundary Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Stangeby, P C; Wolf, N S

    2005-05-25

    Development of the comprehensive codes used to study the boundary region of the DIII-D tokamak has been done in parallel with improvement of the diagnostics of this important region of the plasma. These codes have been used to interpret the diagnostic data and assist in design of improved divertor configurations. The development of codes used for analysis on DIII-D is described briefly. Model validation by comparing with the extensive DIII-D boundary region diagnostic data is also discussed.

  10. Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus

    Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.

  11. Indirect boundary element method for three dimensional problems. Analytical solution for contribution to wave field by triangular element; Sanjigen kansetsu kyokai yosoho. Sankakukei yoso no kiyo no kaisekikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T. [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F. [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria

    1997-05-27

    Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.

  12. Research on the cyclostationary nearfield acoustic holography based on boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibin; WAN Quan; JIANG Weikang

    2009-01-01

    Cyclostationary sound field is a special kind of nonstationary sound field, in which the pressure signal is modulated seriously and sidebands exist in its spectrum. The reconstructed sound field can't figure the cyclostationary features in conventional Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) procedure. On the basis of planar cyclostationary NAH, the cyclostationary NAH based on boundary element method is proposed which can be utilized to analyze radiators with complicated surface. Replacing the Fourier's transform with the second-order cyclic statistics, the Cyclic Spectral Density (CSD) functions is used as the reconstructed physical quantity in the proposed NAH technique, instead of the spectrum or power spectral density of pressure signal. By virtue of the demodulation ability of CSD function, the reconstructed CSD can effectively express the information of modulating and carrier wave respectively. The simulation and experiment illustrate that the validity and accuracy of this cyclostationary NAH technique satisfy the request of engineering.

  13. A Regularized Boundary Element Formulation for Contactless SAR Evaluations within Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Head Phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Mitharwal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a Boundary Element Method (BEM) formulation for contactless electromagnetic field assessments. The new scheme is based on a regularized BEM approach that requires the use of electric measurements only. The regularization is obtained by leveraging on an extension of Calderon techniques to rectangular systems leading to well-conditioned problems independent of the discretization density. This enables the use of highly discretized Huygens surfaces that can be consequently placed very near to the radiating source. In addition, the new regularized scheme is hybridized with both surfacic homogeneous and volumetric inhomogeneous forward BEM solvers accelerated with fast matrix-vector multiplication schemes. This allows for rapid and effective dosimetric assessments and permits the use of inhomogeneous and realistic head phantoms. Numerical results corroborate the theory and confirms the practical effectiveness of all newly proposed formulations.

  14. Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently.

  15. Boundary element simulation of size effect in quasi-brittle aggregate materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear multi-zone boundary element method is applied to simulate the size effect of a series of geome trically similar three-point-bend specimens. The material in which particles are randomly dispersed in a relatively hard matrix can bo applicable to various aggregate materials as well as unidirectionally reinforced fiber composites in the transverse plane. A single edge macrocrack and interfacial microcracks randomly distributed between particles and ma trix are prescribed as initial defects. The shape, size and location of the fracture process zone (FPZ) are realistically simulated and described. The nominal strength of the material is in agreement with the Bazant size effect law. In addi tion, the results show that microcracking is one of the most important micromechanisms for the size effect in aggregate materials.

  16. Accurate computation of Galerkin double surface integrals in the 3-D boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, Ross; Duraiswami, Ramani

    2015-01-01

    Many boundary element integral equation kernels are based on the Green's functions of the Laplace and Helmholtz equations in three dimensions. These include, for example, the Laplace, Helmholtz, elasticity, Stokes, and Maxwell's equations. Integral equation formulations lead to more compact, but dense linear systems. These dense systems are often solved iteratively via Krylov subspace methods, which may be accelerated via the fast multipole method. There are advantages to Galerkin formulations for such integral equations, as they treat problems associated with kernel singularity, and lead to symmetric and better conditioned matrices. However, the Galerkin method requires each entry in the system matrix to be created via the computation of a double surface integral over one or more pairs of triangles. There are a number of semi-analytical methods to treat these integrals, which all have some issues, and are discussed in this paper. We present novel methods to compute all the integrals that arise in Galerkin fo...

  17. A simple boundary element formulation for shape optimization of 2D continuous structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the design of nuclear equipment like pressure vessels, steam generators, and pipelines, among others, it is very important to optimize the shape of the structural systems to withstand prescribed loads such as internal pressures and prescribed or limiting referential values such as stress or strain. In the literature, shape optimization of frame structural systems is commonly found but the same is not true for continuous structural systems. In this work, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is applied to simple problems of shape optimization of 2D continuous structural systems. The proposed formulation is based on the BEM and on deterministic optimization methods of zero and first order such as Powell's, Conjugate Gradient, and BFGS methods. Optimal characterization for the geometric configuration of 2D structure is obtained with the minimization of an objective function. Such function is written in terms of referential values (such as loads, stresses, strains or deformations) prescribed at few points inside or at the boundary of the structure. The use of the BEM for shape optimization of continuous structures is attractive compared to other methods that discretized the whole continuous. Several numerical examples of the application of the proposed formulation to simple engineering problems are presented. (authors)

  18. The boundary element method for the solution of the multidimensional inverse heat conduction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), which consists in the determination of boundary conditions from a given set of internal temperature measurements. This problem is difficult to solve due to its ill-posedness and high sensitivity to measurement error. As a consequence, numerical regularization procedures are required to solve this problem. However, most of these methods depend on the dimension and the nature, stationary or transient, of the problem. Furthermore, these methods introduce parameters, called hyper-parameters, which have to be chosen optimally, but can not be determined a priori. So, a new general method is proposed for solving the IHCP. This method is based on a Boundary Element Method formulation, and the use of the Singular Values Decomposition as a regularization procedure. Thanks to this method, it's possible to identify and eliminate the directions of the solution where the measurement error plays the major role. This algorithm is first validated on two-dimensional stationary and one-dimensional transient problems. Some criteria are presented in order to choose the hyper-parameters. Then, the methodology is applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional, theoretical or experimental, problems. The results are compared with those obtained by a standard method and show the accuracy of the method, its generality, and the validity of the proposed criteria. (author)

  19. A coupled finite-element, boundary-integral method for simulating ultrasonic flowmeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdĕk, Michal; Landes, Hermann; Rieder, Alfred; Lerch, Reinhard

    2007-03-01

    Today's most popular technology of ultrasonic flow measurement is based on the transit-time principle. In this paper, a numerical simulation technique applicable to the analysis of transit-time flowmeters is presented. A flowmeter represents a large simulation problem that also requires computation of acoustic fields in moving media. For this purpose, a novel boundary integral method, the Helmholtz integral-ray tracing method (HIRM), is derived and validated. HIRM is applicable to acoustic radiation problems in arbitrary mean flows at low Mach numbers and significantly reduces the memory demands in comparison with the finite-element method (FEM). It relies on an approximate free-space Green's function which makes use of the ray tracing technique. For simulation of practical acoustic devices, a hybrid simulation scheme consisting of FEM and HIRM is proposed. The coupling of FEM and HIRM is facilitated by means of absorbing boundaries in combination with a new, reflection-free, acoustic-source formulation. Using the coupled FEM-HIRM scheme, a full three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of a complete transit-time flowmeter is performed for the first time. The obtained simulation results are in good agreement with measurements both at zero flow and under flow conditions. PMID:17375833

  20. The boundary element method for light scattering by ice crystals and its implementation in BEM++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, S. P.; Baran, A. J.; Betcke, T.; Havemann, S.; Śmigaj, W.

    2015-12-01

    A number of methods exist for solving the problem of electromagnetic scattering by atmospheric ice crystals. Amongst these methods, only a few are used to generate "benchmark" results in the atmospheric science community. Most notably, the T-matrix method, Discrete Dipole Approximation, and the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The Boundary Element Method (BEM), however, has received considerably less attention in this community despite its extensive use and development in other areas of applied mathematics and engineering. Recently the group of Betcke et al. (2015 [1]) at University College London has released a high performance open source boundary element library called BEM++. In this paper, we employ BEM++ to calculate the scattering properties of hexagonal ice columns of fixed orientation, as well as more complicated particles such as hollow columns and bullet-rosettes. The results for hexagonal columns are compared to those obtained using a highly accurate and well-established T-matrix method (Baran et al., 2001 [2]) for a range of different wavelengths and size parameters. It is shown that the results are in excellent agreement and that BEM++ is a fast alternative to the T-matrix method and others for generating benchmark results. However, the large memory requirements of BEM++ cause it to be limited to size parameters ~15 on a standard desktop PC if an accuracy of roughly 1% is required. The main advantages of BEM++ over many other methods are its flexibility to be applied to homogeneous dielectric particles of arbitrarily complex shape, and its open availability. This flexibility is illustrated by the application of BEM++ to scattering by hollow columns with different cavity types, as well as bullet-rosettes with 2-6 branches.

  1. Modeling and computation of boundary-layer flows laminar, turbulent and transitional boundary layers in incompressible and compressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.

  2. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology...... adoption theories, such as Diffusion of Innovations, Technology Acceptance Model, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Further on, at research model for identification of Cloud Computing Adoption factors from a business model perspective is presented. The following business model building...

  3. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  4. The 8-vertex model with quasi-periodic boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Niccoli, G.; Terras, V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the inhomogeneous 8-vertex model (or equivalently the XYZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain) with all kinds of integrable quasi-periodic boundary conditions: periodic, $\\sigma^x$-twisted, $\\sigma^y$-twisted or $\\sigma^z$-twisted. We show that in all these cases but the periodic one with an even number of sites $\\mathsf{N}$, the transfer matrix of the model is related, by the vertex-IRF transformation, to the transfer matrix of the dynamical 6-vertex model with antiperiodic boundary condition...

  5. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude x longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  6. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs are useful tools for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of past climates. Understanding of past climates contributes significantly to our overall understanding of Earth's climate system. One of the most time consuming, and often daunting, tasks facing the paleoclimate modeler, particularly those without a geological background, is the production of surface boundary conditions for past time periods. These boundary conditions consist of, at a minimum, continental configurations derived from plate tectonic modeling, topography, bathymetry, and a vegetation distribution. Typically, each researcher develops a unique set of boundary conditions for use in their simulations. Thus, unlike simulations of modern climate, basic assumptions in paleo surface boundary conditions can vary from researcher to researcher. This makes comparisons between results from multiple researchers difficult and, thus, hinders the integration of studies across the broader community. Unless special changes to surface conditions are warranted, researcher dependent boundary conditions are not the most efficient way to proceed in paleoclimate investigations. Here we present surface boundary conditions (land-sea distribution, paleotopography, paleobathymetry, and paleovegetation distribution for four Cretaceous time slices (120 Ma, 110 Ma, 90 Ma, and 70 Ma. These boundary conditions are modified from base datasets to be appropriate for incorporation into numerical studies of Earth's climate and are available in NetCDF format upon request from the lead author. The land-sea distribution, bathymetry, and topography are based on the 1°×1° (latitude × longitude paleo Digital Elevation Models (paleoDEMs of Christopher Scotese. Those paleoDEMs were adjusted using the paleogeographical reconstructions of Ronald Blakey (Northern Arizona University and published literature and were then modified for use in GCMs. The paleovegetation

  7. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2014-01-01

    both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations...... measures which are important for evaluation of the acoustics in classrooms....

  8. Mathematical modeling of moving boundary problems in thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The capability for predicting the performance of thermal energy storage (RES) subsystems and components using PCM's based on mathematical and physical models is developed. Mathematical models of the dynamic thermal behavior of (TES) subsystems using PCM's based on solutions of the moving boundary thermal conduction problem and on heat and mass transfer engineering correlations are also discussed.

  9. A combined application of boundary-element and Runge-Kutta methods in three-dimensional elasticity and poroelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Igumnov Leonid; Ipatov Aleksandr; Belov Aleksandr; Petrov Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach bound...

  10. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corato, M.; Slot, J. J. M.; Hütter, M.; D'Avino, G.; Maffettone, P. L.; Hulsen, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation-dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  11. Active transposable elements recover species boundaries and geographic structure in Madagascan coffee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa; Guyot, Romain; Hamon, Perla; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Konan, Olivier N'Guessan; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Nowak, Michael D; Davis, Aaron P; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    The completion of the genome assembly for the economically important coffee plant Coffea canephora (Rubiaceae) has allowed the use of bioinformatic tools to identify and characterize a diverse array of transposable elements (TEs), which can be used in evolutionary studies of the genus. An overview of the copy number and location within the C. canephora genome of four TEs is presented. These are tested for their use as molecular markers to unravel the evolutionary history of the Millotii Complex, a group of six wild coffee (Coffea) species native to Madagascar. Two TEs from the Gypsy superfamily successfully recovered some species boundaries and geographic structure among samples, whereas a TE from the Copia superfamily did not. Notably, species occurring in evergreen moist forests of eastern and southeastern Madagascar were divergent with respect to species in other habitats and regions. Our results suggest that the peak of transpositional activity of the Gypsy and Copia TEs occurred, respectively, before and after the speciation events of the tested Madagascan species. We conclude that the utilization of active TEs has considerable potential to unravel the evolutionary history and delimitation of closely related Coffea species. However, the selection of TE needs to be experimentally tested, since each element has its own evolutionary history. Different TEs with similar copy number in a given species can render different dendrograms; thus copy number is not a good selection criterion to attain phylogenetic resolution. PMID:26231981

  12. Free boson formulation of boundary states in W_3 minimal models and the critical Potts model

    CERN Document Server

    Caldeira, A F; Wheater, J F; Caldeira, Alexandre F.; Kawai, Shinsuke; Wheater, John F.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a Coulomb gas formalism for boundary conformal field theory having a $W$ symmetry and illustrate its operation using the three state Potts model. We find that there are free-field representations for six $W$ conserving boundary states, which yield the fixed and mixed physical boundary conditions, and two $W$ violating boundary states which yield the free and new boundary conditions. Other $W$ violating boundary states can be constructed but they decouple from the rest of the theory. Thus we have a complete free-field realization of the known boundary states of the three state Potts model. We then use the formalism to calculate boundary correlation functions in various cases. We find that the conformal blocks arising when the two point function of $\\phi_{2,3}$ is calculated in the presence of free and new boundary conditions are indeed the last two solutions of the sixth order differential equation generated by the singular vector.

  13. Numerical Modeling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbjan, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer is tested for the consistency of turbulence parameterization, self-similar properties of the flow, and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is based on the K-theory approach, with stability functions based on empirical data, and a semi-empirical form of the mixing length. The model has one internal, governing stability parameter, the Richardson number Ri, which dynamically adjusts to the boundary conditions and to external forcing. Model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions of the Richardson number, i.e. they are satisfied in the entire stable boundary layer, for all instants of time, and all kinds of external forcing. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum turbulent heat flux in the stable boundary layer. Numerical experiments show that the development of 'horse-shoe' shaped, 'fixed-elevation' wind hodographs in the interior of the stable boundary layer are solely caused by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing, and are not related to the inertial oscillation mechanism.

  14. A comparison of finite element and atomistic modelling of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are the cohesive laws of interfaces sufficient for modelling fracture in polycrystals using the cohesive zone model? We examine this question by comparing a fully atomistic simulation of a silicon polycrystal with a finite element simulation with a similar overall geometry. The cohesive laws used in the finite element simulation are measured atomistically. We describe in detail how to convert the output of atomistic grain boundary fracture simulations into the piecewise linear form needed by a cohesive zone model. We discuss the effects of grain boundary microparameters (the choice of section of the interface, the translations of the grains relative to one another and the cutting plane of each lattice orientation) on the cohesive laws and polycrystal fracture. We find that the atomistic simulations fracture at lower levels of external stress, indicating that the initiation of fracture in the atomistic simulations is likely dominated by irregular atomic structures at external faces, internal edges, corners and junctions of grains. Thus, the cohesive properties of interfaces alone are not likely to be sufficient for modelling the fracture of polycrystals using continuum methods

  15. DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF PLANE WAVES WITH A UNILATERALLY FRICTIONALLY CONSTRAINED INCLUSION-TIME DOMAIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengYangde; WangYuesheng; ZhangZimao; CuiJunzhi

    2003-01-01

    A 2D time domain boundary element method (BEM) is developed to solve the transient scattering of plane waves by a unilaterally frictionally constrained inclusion. Coulomb friction is assumed along the contact interface. The incident wave is assumed strong enough so that localized slip and separation take place along the interface. The present problem is in effect a nonlinear boundary value problem since the mixed boundary conditions involve unknown intervals (slip, separation and stick regions). In order to determine the unknown intervals, an iterative technique is developed. As an example, we consider the scattering of a circular cylinder embeddedin an infinite solid.

  16. An Immersed Boundary Finite-Element Solver for Flow-Induced Deformation of Soft Structures with Application in Cardiac Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-11-01

    The modeling of complex biological phenomena such as cardiac mechanics is challenging. It involves complex three dimensional geometries, moving structure boundaries inside the fluid domain and large flow-induced deformations of the structure. We present a fluid-structure interaction solver (FSI) which couples a sharp-interface immersed boundary method for flow simulation with a powerful finite-element based structure dynamics solver. An implicit partitioned (or segregated) approach is implemented to ensure the stability of the solver. We validate the FSI solver with published benchmark for a configuration which involves a thin elastic plate attached to a rigid cylinder. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations of the plate are in good agreement with published results and non-linear dynamics of the plate and its coupling with the flow field are discussed. The FSI solver is used to understand left-ventricular hemodynamics and flow-induced dynamics of mitral leaflets during early diastolic filling and results from this study are presented.

  17. Finite element solution of double-diffusive boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluids over a stretching sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Bhargava, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the double-diffusive boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching sheet. In this model, where binary nanofluid is used, the Brownian motion and thermophoresis are classified as the main mechanisms which are responsible for the enhancement of the convection features of the nanofluid. The boundary layer equations governed by the partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. The variational finite element method (FEM) is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. We have examined the effects of different controlling parameters, namely, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, modified Dufour number, viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, regular Lewis number, Dufour Lewis number, and nanofluid Lewis number on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics. Graphical display of the numerical examine are performed to illustrate the influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration, reduced Nusselt, reduced Sherwood and reduced nanofluid Sherwood number distributions. The present study has many applications in coating and suspensions, movement of biological fluids, cooling of metallic plate, melt-spinning, heat exchangers technology, and oceanography.

  18. Exact Solution for Perk-Schultz Model with Boundary Impurities *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Liang; YUE Rui-Hong; SHI Kang-Jie; HOU Bo-Yu

    2001-01-01

    The Perk-Schultz model with SUq(m|n) spin boundary impurities is constructed by dressing the c-number reflecting K-matrix with the local L-matrix which acts non-trivially on an impurity Hilbert space. The eigenvalue of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations with different c-number reflecting K-matrices are obtained by using the nested Bethe ansatz method (m ≠ n). When m = 1,n = 2, our results come back to that of supersymmetric t - J model with SUq(1|2) spin boundary impurities.

  19. A model of anelastic relaxation associated with polygonization boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of anelastic relaxation associated with polygonization boundary is proposed in order to explain internal friction peaks and other experimental phenomena observed recently. The model, which is referred to as vacancy-thermal jog model, shows that under conditions of high temperature and low applied stress with lower frequencies of vibration, thermal jog pairs are generated on dislocation segments of the boundaries. These jogs are in saturation with vacancies in the vicinity of them, and the vacancy current due to the concentration gradient of vacancy drifts among the boundaries. As a result, a diffusional creep is produced and a part of energy is dissipated. For vacancy drift, it is required that the thermal jogs emit (absorb) vacancies, which brings climbing bow of segments into operation, and another part of energy is dissipated so that there are two parts of energy dissipated in the strain process connected with polygonization boundary. Based on this point of view, the mathematical expressions of internal friction and modulus defect associated with polygonization boundary were subsequently derived and found to be in satisfactory agreement with experiments. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs

  20. Calogero-Sutherland Model with Anti-periodic Boundary Conditions: Eigenvalues and Eigenstates

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Ray, Subhankar; Shamanna, J.

    2005-01-01

    The U(1) Calogero Sutherland Model with anti-periodic boundary condition is studied. The Hamiltonian is reduced to a convenient form by similarity transformation. The matrix representation of the Hamiltonian acting on a partially ordered state space is obtained in an upper triangular form. Consequently the diagonal elements become the energy eigenvalues. The eigenstates are constructed using Young diagram and represented in terms of Jack symmetric polynomials. The eigenstates so obtained are ...

  1. Modelling Scalar Skewness in Cloudy Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Dmitrii; Machulskaya, Ekaterina; Naumann, Ann Kristin; Seifert, Axel; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Following the pioneering work of Sommeria and Deardorff (1977), statistical cloud schemes are widely used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models to parameterize the effect of shallow clouds on turbulent mixing and radiation fluxes. Statistical cloud schemes compute the cloud fraction, the amount of cloud condensate and the effect clouds on the buoyancy flux in a given atmospheric-model grid box. This is done with due regard for the sub-grid scale (SGS) fluctuations of temperature and humidity (and possibly the vertical velocity), thus providing an important coupling between cloudiness and the SGS mixing processes. The shape of the PDF of fluctuating fields is assumed, whereas the PDF moments should be provided to the cloud scheme as an input. For non-precipitation clouds, the mixing schemes are usually formulated in terms of quasi-conservative variable, e.g. the liquid (total) water potential temperature and the total water specific humidity. Then, the cloud schemes are conveniently cast in terms of the linearized saturation deficit, referred to as the "s" variable (Mellor 1977), that accounts for the combined effect of the two scalars. If a simple two-parameter single-Gaussian PDF is used, the only "turbulence" parameter to be provided to the cloud scheme is the variance of s. The single-Gaussian PDF ignores the skewed nature of SGS motions and fails to describe many important regimes, e.g. shallow cumuli. A number of more flexible skewed PDFs have been proposed to date. A three-parameter PDF, based on a double-Gaussian distribution and diagnostic relations between some PDF parameters derived from LES and observational data (Naumann et al. 2013), appears to be a good compromise between physical realism and computational economy. A crucial point is that the cloud schemes using non-Gaussian PDFs require the scalar skewness as an input. Using rather mild non-restrictive assumptions, we develop a transport equation for the s-variable triple

  2. Nanoscale finite element models for vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes:atomistic versus continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R ANSARI; S ROUHI; M ARYAYI

    2013-01-01

    By the atomistic and continuum finite element models, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied. In the atomistic finite element model, the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively. The molecular mechanics is linked to structural mechanics to determine the elastic properties of the mentioned beam elements. In the continuum finite element approach, by neglecting the discrete nature of the atomic structure of the nanotubes, they are modeled with shell elements. By both models, the natural frequencies of SWCNTs are computed, and the effects of the geometrical parameters, the atomic structure, and the boundary conditions are investigated. The accuracy of the utilized methods is verified in comparison with molecular dynamic simulations. The molecular structural model leads to more reliable results, especially for lower aspect ratios. The present analysis provides valuable information about application of continuum models in the investigation of the mechanical behaviors of nanotubes.

  3. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

  4. Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in

  5. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  6. Displacement based finite element formulations over polygons: a comparison between Laplace interpolants, strain smoothing and scaled boundary polygon formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ooi, Ean Tat; Chiong, Irene; Song, Chongmin

    2013-01-01

    Three different displacement based finite element formulations over arbitrary polygons are studied in this paper. The formulations considered are: the conventional polygonal finite element method (FEM) with Laplace interpolants, the cell-based smoothed polygonal FEM with simple averaging technique and the scaled boundary polygon formulation. For the purpose of numerical integration, we employ the sub-traingulation for the polygonal FEM and classical Gaussian quadrature for the smoothed FEM an...

  7. Hydraulic modelling of the CARA Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARA fuel element is been developing by the National Atomic Energy Commission for both Argentinean PHWRs. In order to keep the hydraulic restriction in their fuel channels, one of CARA's goals is to keep its similarity with both present fuel elements. In this paper is presented pressure drop test performed at a low-pressure facility (Reynolds numbers between 5x104 and 1,5x105) and rational base models for their spacer grid and rod assembly. Using these models, we could estimate the CARA hydraulic performance in reactor conditions that have shown to be satisfactory. (author)

  8. MODELING A SOLID BOUNDARY AS A FLUID OF INFINITE VISCOSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new approach to model viscosity in the conservation of momentum equations is presented and discussed. Coefficient of viscosity is modeled in such a way that it reaches asymptotically to infinity at the solid boundary but still yields a finite value for the shear stress at the solid wall. Basic objective of this research is to show that certain combinations of higher order normal velocity gradients become zero at the solid boundary.Modified solutions for the Couette flow and Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates are obtained by modeling the coefficient of viscosity in a novel way. Also,viscous drag computed by our model is expected to yield higher values than the values predicted by the existing models, which matches closely to the experimental data.

  9. Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    -number estimates based on output from the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (a version of SMHI with a grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20 km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary...

  10. One-dimensional inhomogeneous Ising model with periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percus, J.K.; Zhang, M.Q.

    1988-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on the essential difference between the inhomogeneous one-dimensional Ising model with open and periodic boundary conditions. We show that, although the profile equation in the periodic case becomes highly nonlocal, due to a topological collective mode, there exists a local free-energy functional in an extended space and one can solve the inhomogeneous problem exactly.

  11. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...

  12. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above

  13. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

  14. Modeling magnetized star-planet interactions: boundary conditions effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strugarek, Antoine; Matt, Sean P; Reville, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We model the magnetized interaction between a star and a close-in planet (SPMIs), using global, magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. In this proceedings, we study the effects of the numerical boundary conditions at the stellar surface, where the stellar wind is driven, and in the planetary interior. We show that is it possible to design boundary conditions that are adequate to obtain physically realistic, steady-state solutions for cases with both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. This encourages further development of numerical studies, in order to better constrain and understand SPMIs, as well as their effects on the star-planet rotational evolution.

  15. Multiscale modelling as a tool to prescribe realistic boundary conditions for the study of surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, K; Dubini, G; Migliavacca, F; Pietrabissa, R; Pennati, G; Veneziani, A; Quarteroni, A

    2002-01-01

    This work was motivated by the problems of analysing detailed 3D models of vascular districts with complex anatomy. It suggests an approach to prescribing realistic boundary conditions to use in order to obtain information on local as well as global haemodynamics. A method was developed which simultaneously solves Navier-Stokes equations for local information and a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations for global information. This is based on the principle that an anatomically detailed 3D model of a cardiovascular district can be achieved by using the finite element method. In turn the finite element method requires a specific boundary condition set. The approach outlined in this work is to include the system of ordinary differential equations in the boundary condition set. Such a multiscale approach was first applied to two controls: (i) a 3D model of a straight tube in a simple hydraulic network and (ii) a 3D model of a straight coronary vessel in a lumped-parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The results obtained are very close to the solutions available for the pipe geometry. This paper also presents preliminary results from the application of the methodology to a particular haemodynamic problem: namely the fluid dynamics of a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in paediatric cardiac surgery.

  16. Design sensitivity analysis of three-dimensional body by boundary element method and its application to shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1993-02-01

    A design sensitivity calculation technique based on the implicit differentiation method is formulated for isoparametric boundary elements for three-dimensional (3D) shape optimization problems. The practical sensitivity equations for boundary displacements and stresses are derived, and the efficiency and accuracy of the technique are compared with the semi-analytic method by implementing the sensitivity analysis of typical and basic shape design problems numerically. The sensitivity calculation technique is then applied to the minimum weight design problems of 3D bodies under stress constraints, such as the shape optimization of the ellipsoidal cavity in a cube and the connecting rod, where the Taylor series approximation, based on the boundary element sensitivity analysis at current design point, is adopted for the efficient implementation of the optimization.

  17. Linear Algebra Aspects in the Equilibrium-Based Implementation of Finite/Boundary Element Methods for FGMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ney Augusto

    2008-02-01

    The paper briefly outlines the conventional and three variational implementations of the boundary element method, pointing out the conceptual imbrications of their constituent matrices. The nature of fundamental solutions is investigated in terms of the resulting matrix spectral properties, as applied to multiply-connected domains, reentering corners and FGMs.

  18. HIGH ACCURACY FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同科

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  19. Two-Dimensional Fracture Mechanics Analysis Using a Single-Domain Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Ke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work calculates the stress intensity factors (SIFs at the crack tips, predicts the crack initiation angles, and simulates the crack propagation path in the two-dimensional cracked anisotropic materials using the single-domain boundary element method (BEM combined with maximum circumferential stress criterion. The BEM formulation, based on the relative displacements of the crack tip, is used to determine the mixed-mode SIFs and simulate the crack propagation behavior. Numerical examples of the application of the formulation for different crack inclination angles, crack lengths, degree of material anisotropy, and crack types are presented. Furthermore, the propagation path in Cracked Straight Through Brazilian Disc (CSTBD specimen is numerically predicted and the results of numerical and experimental data compared with the actual laboratory observations. Good agreement is found between the two approaches. The proposed BEM formulation is therefore suitable to simulate the process of crack propagation. Additionally, the anisotropic rock slope failure initiated by the tensile crack can also be analyzed by the proposed crack propagation simulation technique.

  20. A boundary element approach to optimization of active noise control sources on three-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunefare, K. A.; Koopmann, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of an approach to active noise control (ANC) applicable to three-dimensional radiators. The active noise control technique, termed ANC Optimization Analysis, is based on minimizing the total radiated power by adding secondary acoustic sources on the primary noise source. ANC Optimization Analysis determines the optimum magnitude and phase at which to drive the secondary control sources in order to achieve the best possible reduction in the total radiated power from the noise source/control source combination. For example, ANC Optimization Analysis predicts a 20 dB reduction in the total power radiated from a sphere of radius at a dimensionless wavenumber ka of 0.125, for a single control source representing 2.5 percent of the total area of the sphere. ANC Optimization Analysis is based on a boundary element formulation of the Helmholtz Integral Equation, and thus, the optimization analysis applies to a single frequency, while multiple frequencies can be treated through repeated analyses.

  1. Segregation of solute elements at grain boundaries in an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) of an ultrafine grained (UFG) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 oC was characterised using three-dimensional atom probe. Mg and Cu segregate strongly to the grain boundaries. In contrast, Zn does not always show clear segregation and may even show depletion near the grain boundaries. Trace element Si selectively segregates at some GBs. An increase in the number of ECAP passes leads to a decrease in the grain size but an increase in solute segregation at the boundaries. The significant segregation of alloying elements at the boundaries of ultrafine-grained alloys implies that less solutes will be available in the matrix for precipitation with a decrease in the average grain size. -- Research Highlights: → Atom probe tomography has been employed successfully to reveal unique segregation of solutes at ultrafine grained material. → Mg and Cu elements segregated strongly at the grain boundary of an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by 4-pass and 8-pass ECAP at 200 oC. Zn frequently depleted at GBs with a Zn depletion region of 7-15 nm in width on one or both sides of the GBs. Only a small fraction (3/13) of GBs were observed with a low level of Zn segregation where the combined Mg and Cu excess is over 3.1 atom/nm2. Si appeared selectively segregated at some of the GBs. → The increase in number of ECAP passes from 4 to 8 correlated with the increase in mean level segregation of Mg and Cu for both solute excess and peak concentration. → The change of plane normal of a grain boundary within 30o only leads to a slight change in the solute segregation level.

  2. THE EFFECT OF BOUNDARY SHAPE ON BOUNDARY LAYER OF P-MODEL PLATEPROBLEMS WITH HARD SIMPLY SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILIKANG; CHENJIUHUA

    1996-01-01

    The paper shows that: for a unit circular plate: Reissner-Mindlin plate model with hardsimply support does not capture the boundary, layer behaviour for the bending moment whenthe load is independent of θ, where (r,θ) is the polar coordinates in plane. In contrast p-modelshows this boundary layer, which is proved theoretically and numerically. But for the case whenthe boundary is a straight line, the boundary layer for p-model is weak and disappears as thePlate thickness tends to zero.

  3. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D L P

    2006-01-01

    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  4. The XXZ model with anti-periodic twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekamp, Soenke; Wirth, Tobias; Frahm, Holger [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We derive functional equations for the eigenvalues of the XXZ model subject to anti-diagonal twisted boundary conditions by means of fusion of transfer matrices and by Sklyanin's method of separation of variables. Our findings coincide with those obtained using Baxter's method and are compared to the recent solution of Galleas. As an application we study the finite size scaling of the ground-state energy of the model in the critical regime.

  5. The XXZ model with anti-periodic twisted boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Niekamp, Sönke; Wirth, Tobias; Frahm, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We derive functional equations for the eigenvalues of the XXZ model subject to anti-diagonal twisted boundary conditions by means of fusion of transfer matrices and by Sklyanin's method of separation of variables. Our findings coincide with those obtained using Baxter's method and are compared to the recent solution of Galleas. As an application we study the finite size scaling of the ground state energy of the model in the critical regime.

  6. Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.

    2010-04-01

    We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.

  7. Finite element methods for sea ice modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Lietaer, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    In order to study and understand the behavior of sea ice, numerical sea ice models have been developed since the early seventies and have traditionally been based on structured grids and finite difference schemes. This doctoral research is part of the Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model (SLIM) project whose objective is to bring to oceanography modern numerical techniques. The motivation for this thesis is therefore to investigate the potential of finite element methods and uns...

  8. Analysis of vibroacoustic properties of dimpled beams using a boundary value model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kyle R.

    Attention has been given recently to the use of dimples as a means of passively altering the vibroacoustic properties of structures. Because of their geometric complexity, previous studies have modeled dimpled structures using the finite element method. However, the dynamics of dimpled structures are not completely understood. The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of these structures through the development of a boundary value model (BVM) using Hamilton's Variational Principle. The focus of this study is on dimpled beams, which represent the simplest form of a dimpled structure. A general model of a beam with N dimples in free vibration is developed. Since dimples formed via a stamping process do not change the mass of the beam, the dimple thickness is less than that of the straight segments. Differential equations of motion that describe the normal and axial motion of the dimpled beams are derived. Their numerical solution yields the natural frequencies and analytical mode shapes of a dimpled beam. The accuracy of this model is checked against those obtained using the finite element method, as well as the analytical studies on the vibrations of arches, and shown to be accurate. The effect of dimple placement, dimple angle, its chord length, its thickness, as well as beam boundary conditions on beam natural frequencies and mode shapes are investigated. For beams with axially restrictive boundary conditions, the results.

  9. Modelling the oxidation of defected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim dry storage of used fuel is an economical alternative to storage in water pools. The fuel must remain intact during the dry-storage period, otherwise future handling of the fuel will be expensive. Oxidation of defected fuel elements can lead to fuel disintegration. Thus it is important to be able to predict the extent of oxidation of defected fuel elements in a dry-storage facility. In this report, a model is developed for predicting the extent or rate of oxidation of defected fuel elements stored at temperatures up to 170 C. The model employs equivalent porous medium representation of the fuel and described the oxygen concentration in the fuel element using a reaction-diffusion equation. The one- and two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations are solved on the assumption that the oxygen-fuel reaction is either zeroth or first order in the oxygen concentration. Dimensional analysis of the model equations shows that the solution depends explicitly on a single parameter p. The value of p can be calculated using data from the literature, or it can be estimated from the results of the CEX-1 experiments being carried out at Whiteshell Laboratories. The value of p, estimated from the CEX-1 results, is more than two orders of magnitude larger than the value of p calculated from literature data. Although some reasons for this large difference are suggested, further work is needed to resolve this discrepancy. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Boundary States of the Potts Model on Random Planar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, Max; Wheater, John

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the 3-states Potts model on random planar triangulations as a Hermitian matrix model. As a novelty, we obtain an algebraic curve which encodes the partition function on the disc with both fixed and mixed spin boundary conditions. We investigate the critical behaviour of this model and find scaling exponents consistent with previous literature. We argue that the conformal field theory that describes the double scaling limit is Liouville quantum gravity coupled to the $(A_4,D_4)$ minimal model with extended $\\mathcal{W}_3$-symmetry.

  11. Speech Repairs, Intonational Boundaries and Discourse Markers Modeling Speakers' Utterances in Spoken Dialog

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a statistical language model for resolving speech repairs, intonational boundaries and discourse markers. Rather than finding the best word interpretation for an acoustic signal, we redefine the speech recognition problem to so that it also identifies the POS tags, discourse markers, speech repairs and intonational phrase endings (a major cue in determining utterance units). Adding these extra elements to the speech recognition problem actually allows it to better predict the words involved, since we are able to make use of the predictions of boundary tones, discourse markers and speech repairs to better account for what word will occur next. Furthermore, we can take advantage of acoustic information, such as silence information, which tends to co-occur with speech repairs and intonational phrase endings, that current language models can only regard as noise in the acoustic signal. The output of this language model is a much fuller account of the speaker's turn, with part-of-speech ...

  12. The finite element modeling of spiral ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Accurate understanding the behavior of spiral rope is complicated due to their complex geometry and complex contact conditions between the wires. This study proposed the finite element models of spiral ropes subjected to tensile loads. The parametric equations developed in this paper were implemented for geometric modeling of ropes. The 3D geometric models with different twisting manner, equal diameters of wires were generated in details by using Pro/ENGINEER software. The results of the present finite element analysis were on an acceptable level of accuracy as compared with those of theoretical and experimental data. Further development is ongoing to analysis the equivalent stresses induced by twisting manner of cables. The twisting manner of wires was important to spiral ropes in the three wire layers and the outer twisting manner of wires should be contrary to that of the second layer, no matter what is the first twisting manner of wires.

  13. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Turbulent Boundary Layer over Hypothetical Urban Roughness Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y. K.; Liu, C. H.

    2012-04-01

    Urban morphology affects the near-ground atmospheric boundary layer that in turn modifies the wind flows and pollutant dispersion over urban areas. A number of numerical models (large-eddy simulation, LES and k-ɛ turbulence models) have been developed to elucidate the transport processes in and above urban street canyons. To complement the modelling results, we initiated a wind tunnel study to examine the influence of idealized urban roughness on the flow characteristics and pollutant dispersion mechanism over 2D idealized street canyons placed in cross flows. Hot-wire anemometry (HWA) was employed in this study to measure the flows over 2D street canyons in the wind tunnel in our university. Particular focus in the beginning stage was on the fabrication of hot-wire probes, data acquisition system, and signal processing technique. Employing the commonly adopted hot-wire universal function, we investigated the relationship in between and developed a scaling factor which could generalize the output of our hot-wire probes to the standardized one as each hot-wire probes has its unique behaviour. Preliminary experiments were performed to measure the wind flows over street canyons of unity aspect ratio. Vertical profiles of the ensemble average velocity and fluctuations at three different segments over the street canyons were collected. The results were then compared with our LES that show a good argument with each other. Additional experiments are undertaken to collect more data in order to formulate the pollutant dispersion mechanism of street canyons and urban areas.

  14. Application of dual reciprocity boundary element method to predict acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhen-lin; WANG Xue-ren

    2008-01-01

    In marine engine exhaust silencing systems,the presence of exhaust gas flow influences the sound propagation inside the systems and the acoustic attenuation performance of silencers.In order to investigate the effects of three-dimensional gas flow and acoustic damping on the acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers,a dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM)was developed.The acoustic governing equation in three-dimensional potential flow was derived first,and then the DRBEM numerical procedure is given.Compared to the conventional boundary elementmethod (CBEM),the DRBEM considers the second order terms of flow Mach number in the acoustic governing equation,so it is suitable for the cases with higher Mach number subsonic flow.For complex exhaust silencers,it is difficult to apply the single-domain boundary element method,so a substructure approach based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method is presented.The experiments for measuring transmission loss of silencers are conducted,and the experimental setup and measurements are explained.The transmission loss of a single expansion chamber silencer with extended inlet and outlet were predicted by DRBEM and compared with the measurements.The good agreements between predictions and measurements are observed,which demonstrated that the derived acoustic governing equation and the DRBEM numerical procedure in the present study are correct.

  15. Final Report for Time Domain Boundary Element and Hybrid Finite Element Simulation for Maxwell's Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingenot, J; Jandhyala, V

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the University of Washington between September 2004 and May 2006. This project studied fast solvers and stability for time domain integral equations (TDIE), especially as applied to radiating boundary for a massively parallel FEM solver.

  16. A Advanced Boundary Element Formulation for Acoustic Radiation and Scattering in Three Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenarko, Benjamin

    A computational method is presented for determining acoustic fields produced by arbitrary shaped three-dimensional bodies. The formulation includes both radiation and scattering problems. In particular an isoparametric element formulation is introduced in which both the surface geometry and the acoustic variables on the surface of the body are represented by second order shape functions within the local coordinate system. A general result for the surface velocity potential and the exterior field is derived. This result is applicable to non-smooth bodies, i.e. it includes the case where the surface may have a non-unique normal (e.g. at the edge of a cube). Test cases are shown involving spherical, cylindrical and cubical geometry for both radiation and scattering problems. The present formulation is also extended to include half-space problems in which the effect of the reflected wave from an infinite plane is taken into account. By selecting an appropriate Green's function, the surface integral over the plane is nullified; thus all the computational efforts can be performed only on the radiating or scattering body at issue and thereby greatly simplify the solution. A special formulation involving axisymmetric bodies and boundary conditions is also presented. For this special case, the surface integrals are reduced to line integrals and an integral over the angle of revolution. The integration over the angle is performed partly analytically in terms of elliptic integrals and partly numerically using simple Gaussian quadrature formula. Since the rest of the integrals involve only line integrals along the generator of the body, any discretization scheme can be easily obtained to achieve a desired degree of accuracy in evaluating these integrals.

  17. Slarti: A boundary condition editor for a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, S. A.; Jacob, R. L.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2006-12-01

    One of the largest barriers to making climate models more flexible is the difficulty in creating new boundary conditions, especially for "deep time" paleoclimate cases where continents are in different positions. Climate models consist of several mutually-interacting component models and the boundary conditions must be consistent between them. We have developed a program called Slarti which uses a Graphical User Interface and a set of consistency rules to aid researchers in creating new, consistent, boundary condition files for the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM). Users can start from existing mask, topography, or bathymetry data or can build a "world" entirely from scratch (e.g. a single island continent). Once a case has been started, users can modify mask, vegetation, bathymetry, topography, and river flow fields by drawing new data through a "paint" interface. Users activate a synchronization button which goes through the fields to eliminate inconsistencies. When the changes are complete and save is selected, Slarti creates all the necessary files for an initial run of FOAM. The data is edited at the highest resolution (the ocean-land surface in FOAM) and then interpolated to the atmosphere resolution. Slarti was implemented in Java to maintain portability across platforms. We also relied heavily on Java Swing components to create the interface. This allowed us to create an object-oriented interface that could be used on many different systems. Since Slarti allows users to visualize their changes, they are able to see areas that may cause problems when the model is ran. Some examples would be lakes from the river flow field and narrow trenches within the bathymetry. Through different checks and options available through its interface, Slarti makes the process of creating new boundary conditions for FOAM easier and faster while reducing the chance for user errors.

  18. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  19. A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn

    2013-01-01

    The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...

  20. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. A data model for regions with indeterminate boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NHAN Vu-thi-hong; CHI Jeong-hee; RYU Keun-ho

    2004-01-01

    Most of spatial phenomena like natural vegetation units and land use areas constantly change over time and have uncertainty spatial extents. Till now, a considerable number of data models have been proposed for spatial objects with sharp boundaries as well as with indeterminate boundaries. However, they mainly concern space and time or space and fuzziness and not yet integrate them into a single unified framework. This paper introduces a formal definition of the conceptual fuzzy spatiotemporal data model, called FSTDM for fuzzy regions based on fuzzy set theory. We also contribute a method of manipulating queries with the presence of both temporal predicate and fuzzy spatial predicate in the condition clause efficiently. We then implement a prototype system.Through the experimental results, we prove that our work can be used to build a specialized system such as GIS, spatial database, and so on.

  3. A wavenumber-frequency spectral model for atmospheric boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the need to characterize power fluctuations in wind farms, we study spatio-temporal correlations of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer in terms of the joint wavenumber-frequency spectrum of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. To this end, we perform a theoretical analysis of a simple advection model featuring the advection of small- scale velocity fluctuations by the mean flow and large-scale velocity fluctuations. The model is compared to data from large-eddy simulations (LES). We find that the model captures the trends observed in LES, specifically a Doppler shift of frequencies due to the mean flow as well as a Doppler broadening due to random sweeping effects

  4. An Extended Finite Element Method Formulation for Modeling the Response of Polycrystalline Materials to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.

    2007-12-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite-element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static meso-scale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Vitali and Benson [2] and Song et al. [3] to model dynamic loading of a polycrystalline material. We use demonstration problems to examine the method's efficacy for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline materials at the meso-scale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries.

  5. Reduction of XXZ model with generalized periodic boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Belavin, A. A.; Gubanov, S. Yu.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the XXZ model with generalized periodic boundary conditions and identify conditions for the truncation of the functional fusion relations of the transfer matrix fusion. After the truncation, the fusion relations become a closed system of functional equations. The energy spectrum can be obtained by solving these equations. We obtain the explicit form of the Hamiltonian eigenvalues for the special case where the anisotropy parameter $q^4=-1.

  6. Multiphase Transformer Modelling using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Mohd Yusoff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 1970 saw the starting invention of the five-phase motor as the milestone in advanced electric motor. Through the years, there are many researchers, which passionately worked towards developing for multiphase drive system. They developed a static transformation system to obtain a multiphase supply from the available three-phase supply. This idea gives an influence for further development in electric machines as an example; an efficient solution for bulk power transfer. This paper highlighted the detail descriptions that lead to five-phase supply with fixed voltage and frequency by using Finite-Element Method (FEM. Identifying of specification on a real transformer had been done before applied into software modeling. Therefore, Finite-Element Method provides clearly understandable in terms of visualize the geometry modeling, connection scheme and output waveform.

  7. An outgoing energy flux boundary condition for finite difference ICRP antenna models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For antennas at the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) modeling in vacuum can now be carried out to a high level of detail such that shaping of the current straps, isolating septa, and discrete Faraday shield structures can be included. An efficient approach would be to solve for the fields in the vacuum region near the antenna in three dimensions by finite methods and to match this solution at the plasma-vacuum interface to a solution obtained in the plasma region in one dimension by Fourier methods. This approach has been difficult to carry out because boundary conditions must be imposed at the edge of the finite difference grid on a point-by-point basis, whereas the condition for outgoing energy flux into the plasma is known only in terms of the Fourier transform of the plasma fields. A technique is presented by which a boundary condition can be imposed on the computational grid of a three-dimensional finite difference, or finite element, code by constraining the discrete Fourier transform of the fields at the boundary points to satisfy an outgoing energy flux condition appropriate for the plasma. The boundary condition at a specific grid point appears as a coupling to other grid points on the boundary, with weighting determined by a kemel calctdated from the plasma surface impedance matrix for the various plasma Fourier modes. This boundary condition has been implemented in a finite difference solution of a simple problem in two dimensions, which can also be solved directly by Fourier transformation. Results are presented, and it is shown that the proposed boundary condition does enforce outgoing energy flux and yields the same solution as is obtained by Fourier methods

  8. Finite Element/Boundary Element Simulation of 3 D Rail Gun with Coupling Method Based on Symmetry Condition%对称边界条件下轨道炮有限元/边界元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志朋; 刘振祥; 杨栋; 欧阳建明; 杨丽佳

    2016-01-01

    基于deal.ii编写了电磁轨道炮有限元仿真程序,建立了拉格朗日运动坐标下电磁轨道炮的有限元仿真模型;通过使用有限元边界元耦合方法可以对电磁轨道炮的边界条件进行计算,而无需对轨道炮周边的空气划分网格,是一种处理电磁场边界问题的有效方法;但是,由于边界元方法,使用的是满秩矩阵,在三维情况下计算量大,利用轨道炮的对称性,使用对称边界条件,减少了参与计算的网格数目,从而减少计算量。%This article created finite element program and model for rail launch based on deal.ii in La-grange coordinate frame.By using coupling finite element/boundary element coupling method,we can cal-culate boundary condition without air grid surround rail gun.It is a valid method to handle boundary prob-lems of electromagnetic without the perimeter of the rail gun air mesh.But for boundary element method u-sing full matrix which will cost a lot of calculation in 3D situation,we would better using symmetry condi-tions for rail gun to reduce the grid number and calculation.

  9. Mean-field models and superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P G; Maruhn, J A

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the performance of two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF) and the non-relativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach (SHF), with particular emphasis on the description of superheavy elements (SHE). We provide a short introduction to the SHF and RMF, the relations between these two approaches and the relations to other nuclear structure models, briefly review the basic properties with respect to normal nuclear observables, and finally present and discuss recent results on the binding properties of SHE computed with a broad selection of SHF and RMF parametrisations.

  10. Mean-field models and superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the performance of two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF) and the non-relativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach (SHF), with particular emphasis on the description of superheavy elements (SHE). We provide a short introduction to the SHF and RMF, the relations between these two approaches and the relations to other nuclear structure models, briefly review the basic properties with respect to normal nuclear observables, and finally present and discuss recent results on the binding properties of SHE computed with a broad selection of SHF and RMF parametrisations. (orig.)

  11. Towards Automatic and Topologically Consistent 3D Regional Geological Modeling from Boundaries and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data. This method could also be used in other fields of study, including mining geology and urban geotechnical investigations.

  12. Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelmann, N.; Wang, K.; Fortney, J. J.; Hamel, S.; Yellamilli, S.; Bethkenhagen, M.; Redmer, R.

    2016-09-01

    The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ≃ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2-3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of 1 × solar. Finally, we allow for an equilibrium evolution (Teff ≃ Teq) that begun prior to the present day, which would therefore no longer require the current era to be a "special time" in Uranus' evolution. In this scenario, the thermal boundary leads to more rapid cooling of the outer envelope. When Teff ≃ Teq is reached, a shallow, subadiabatic zone in the atmosphere begins to develop. Its depth is adjusted to meet the luminosity constraint. This work provides a simple foundation for future Ice Giant structure and evolution models, that can be improved by properly treating the heat and particle fluxes in the diffusive zones.

  13. Hydrodynamic ram modeling with the immersed boundary method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.W.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Rauenzahn, R.M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have modeled a hydrodynamic ram experiment conducted at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. In the experiment, a projectile traveling at 200 ft/sec impacted and penetrated a simulated airplane wing containing water. The structure consisted of composite panels with stiffeners and rivets, and an aluminum panel. The test included instrumentation to measure strains, accelerations, and pressures. The technique used for modeling this experiment was a multifluid compressible finite volume approach. The solid fields, namely the projectile and the plates which comprised the structure, were represented by a set of discrete, Lagrangian-frame, mass points. These mass points were followed throughout the computation. The contribution of the stress state at each mass point was applied on the grid to determine the stress divergence contribution to the equations of motion and resulting grid based accelerations. This approach has been defined as the immersed boundary method. The immersed boundary method allows the modeling of fluid-structure interaction problems involving material failure. The authors implemented a plate theory to allow the representation of each plate by a surface of mass points. This theory includes bending terms and transverse shear. Arbitrary constitutive models may be used for each plate. Here they describe the immersed boundary method as they have implemented. They then describe the plate theory and its implementation. They discuss the hydrodynamic ram experiment and describe how they modeled it. They compare computed results with test data. They finally conclude with a discussion of benefits and difficulties associated with this modeling approach and possible improvement to it.

  14. The boundary RSOS \\mathcal{M}(3,5) model

    CERN Document Server

    Deeb, Omar El

    2015-01-01

    We consider the critical non-unitary minimal model {\\cal M}(3,5) with integrable boundaries. We analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory through the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) equations. We derive these equations for all excitations by solving, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A_{4} RSOS lattice model of Forrester and Baxter in Regime III, then determine their corresponding energies. The excitations are classified in terms of (m,n) systems.

  15. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  16. Boundary algebras and Kac modules for logarithmic minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Ridout, David

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro Kac modules were initially introduced indirectly as representations whose characters arise in the continuum scaling limits of certain transfer matrices in logarithmic minimal models, described using Temperley-Lieb algebras. The lattice transfer operators include seams on the boundary that use Wenzl-Jones projectors. If the projectors are singular, the original prescription is to select a subspace of the Temperley-Lieb modules on which the action of the transfer operators is non-singular. However, this prescription does not, in general, yield representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebras and the Virasoro Kac modules have remained largely unidentified. Here, we introduce the appropriate algebraic framework for the lattice analysis as a quotient of the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. The corresponding standard modules are introduced and examined using invariant bilinear forms and their Gram determinants. The structures of the Virasoro Kac modules are inferred from these results and are found to be...

  17. First principles modeling of grain boundaries in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sen, Fatih; Buurma, Christopher; Paulauskas, Tadas; Sun, Ce; Kim, Moon; Klie, Robert

    The role of extended defects is of significant interest for semiconductors, especially photovoltaics since energy conversion efficiencies are often affected by such defects. In particular, grain boundaries in CdTe photovoltaics are enigmatic since the achievable efficiencies of CdTe photovoltaics are higher in polycrystalline devices as compared to single crystalline devices. Yet, despite recent advances, the efficiency of poly-CdTe devices are still substantially below the theoretical maximum. We carry out an atomistic-level study using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), together with first principles density functional theory (DFT) modeling, in order to understand the properties of specific bicrystals, i.e. artificial grain boundaries, constructed using wafer bonding. We discuss examples of bicrystals, including some involving large scale DFT calculations, and trends in defect and electronic properties. This work was funded by DOE SunShot BRIDGE program.

  18. Topological phase boundary in a generalized Kitaev model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Ping, Liu

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects of the next-nearest-neighbor hopping and nearest-neighbor interactions on topological phases in a one-dimensional generalized Kitaev model. In the noninteracting case, we define a topological number and calculate exactly the phase diagram of the system. With addition of the next-nearest-neighbor hopping, the change of phase boundary between the topological and trivial regions can be described by an effective shift of the chemical potential. In the interacting case, we obtain the entanglement spectrum, the degeneracies of which correspond to the topological edge modes, by using the infinite time-evolving block decimation method. The results show that the interactions change the phase boundary as adding an effective chemical potential which can be explained by the change of the average number of particles. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921704).

  19. Invariant TAD Boundaries Constrain Cell-Type-Specific Looping Interactions between Promoters and Distal Elements around the CFTR Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily M; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Dekker, Job

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional genome structure plays an important role in gene regulation. Globally, chromosomes are organized into active and inactive compartments while, at the gene level, looping interactions connect promoters to regulatory elements. Topologically associating domains (TADs), typically several hundred kilobases in size, form an intermediate level of organization. Major questions include how TADs are formed and how they are related to looping interactions between genes and regulatory elements. Here we performed a focused 5C analysis of a 2.8 Mb chromosome 7 region surrounding CFTR in a panel of cell types. We find that the same TAD boundaries are present in all cell types, indicating that TADs represent a universal chromosome architecture. Furthermore, we find that these TAD boundaries are present irrespective of the expression and looping of genes located between them. In contrast, looping interactions between promoters and regulatory elements are cell-type specific and occur mostly within TADs. This is exemplified by the CFTR promoter that in different cell types interacts with distinct sets of distal cell-type-specific regulatory elements that are all located within the same TAD. Finally, we find that long-range associations between loci located in different TADs are also detected, but these display much lower interaction frequencies than looping interactions within TADs. Interestingly, interactions between TADs are also highly cell-type-specific and often involve loci clustered around TAD boundaries. These data point to key roles of invariant TAD boundaries in constraining as well as mediating cell-type-specific long-range interactions and gene regulation. PMID:26748519

  20. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers; Novas formulacoes de elementos finitos para problemas de valor de contorno com camadas limite interna/externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins

    1998-06-15

    New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)

  1. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.;

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...... of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real...... arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle...

  2. CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman

    For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface-layer. Physical processes like the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, that are important to the atmo......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface-layer. Physical processes like the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, that are important...... to the atmospheric boundary-layer, are mostly ignored so far. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include atmospheric stability and the Coriolis effect. Within the present work a RANS model framework is developed and implemented...

  3. A finite element model for ultrasonic cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Margaret; MacBeath, Alan; McCulloch, Euan; Cardoni, Andrea

    2006-12-22

    Using a single-blade ultrasonic cutting device, a study of ultrasonic cutting of three very different materials is conducted using specimens of cheese, polyurethane foam and epoxy resin. Initial finite element models are created, based on the assumption that the ultrasonic blade causes a crack to propagate in a controlled mode 1 opening, and these are validated against experimental data from three point bend fracture tests and ultrasonic cutting experiments on the materials. Subsequently, the finite element model is developed to represent ultrasonic cutting of a multi-layered material. Materials are chosen whose properties allow a model to be developed that could represent a multi-layer food product or biological structure, to enable ultrasonic cutting systems to be designed for applications both in the field of food processing and surgical procedures. The model incorporates an estimation of the friction condition between the cutting blade and the material to be cut and allows adjustment of the frequency, cutting amplitude and cutting speed. PMID:16814351

  4. Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Nettelmann, N; Fortney, J J; Hamel, S; Yellamilli, S; Bethkenhagen, M; Redmer, R

    2016-01-01

    The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ~ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal boundary, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2--3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of $1\\tim...

  5. Numerical solutions of two moving boundary problems by both finite difference and finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependent heat conduction equation that is solved in different coordinate systems is solved subject to various boundary conditions. Boundary conditions include surface heat flux, energy to vaporization of target materials, radiation from surface to surrounding, and possible phase change of material. This system of equations is subject to two moving boundaries. One moving boundary being the melt-solid interface because the surface heat flux may result in melting the surface of the exposed material. Another moving boundary is the receding surface as a result of evaporation of the wall material due to the continuous heating of the melted surface. Finite difference and the finite element methods are used and compared in such solution to these problems. Physical applications to these problems include high energy deposition from electron or ion beams interaction with materials for space and weapons applications, plasma disruption and energy dump on the walls or components of a fusion reactor, and high energy laser welding and annealing of materials. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Continuum Damage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Tworzydlo, W. W.; Xiques, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an application of adaptive finite element methods to the modeling of low-cycle continuum damage and life prediction of high-temperature components. The major objective is to provide automated and accurate modeling of damaged zones through adaptive mesh refinement and adaptive time-stepping methods. The damage modeling methodology is implemented in an usual way by embedding damage evolution in the transient nonlinear solution of elasto-viscoplastic deformation problems. This nonlinear boundary-value problem is discretized by adaptive finite element methods. The automated h-adaptive mesh refinements are driven by error indicators, based on selected principal variables in the problem (stresses, non-elastic strains, damage, etc.). In the time domain, adaptive time-stepping is used, combined with a predictor-corrector time marching algorithm. The time selection is controlled by required time accuracy. In order to take into account strong temperature dependency of material parameters, the nonlinear structural solution a coupled with thermal analyses (one-way coupling). Several test examples illustrate the importance and benefits of adaptive mesh refinements in accurate prediction of damage levels and failure time.

  7. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-23

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  8. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...... thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acquire the thermal distribution in critical points. Meanwhile the boundary conditions including...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results....

  9. A moving boundary U-tube steam generator - UTSG dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Borges, Eduardo Madeira [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados]. E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br; eduardo@ieav.cta.br; Oliveira Junior, Nilton da Silva [Universidade Braz Cubas (UBC), Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nnjunior@ig.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This work is a continuation of the presentation of some dynamic simulation models part of a library called SIMODIS - SImulation MODeling Integrated System ('SIstema MODular Integrado de Simulacao'). Some of these models have been presented elsewhere. Previously, it was presented a 9 node U-Tube Steam Generator -UTSG model. In the new version briefly presented here a moving boundary that exists between the subcooled and boiling regions is taken into account. This increases the number of nodes to 16, and also increases the number of equations. This model was developed as test bed to build a complete power plant simulator and to test advanced control strategies. A proportional-integral three element controller was coupled with the UTSG model. Some transient analysis results are presented. The simulation program was developed in MATLAB. (author)

  10. Concentration Boundary Layer Model of Mortar Corrosion by Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhigang; ZHANG Xuesong; MIN Hongguang

    2011-01-01

    A long time immersion experiment of mortar specimens is carried out to investigate their degradation mechanism by sulfuric acid. Water-cement ratios of mortar are ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and the pH value of sulfuric acid is 3.5 and 4.0 respectively. The pH meter is used to monitor the soak solution and the titration sulfuric acid with given concentration is added to maintain original pH value, through which the acid consumption of mortar is recorded. A theoretical reaction rate model is also proposed based on concentration boundary layer model. The results show that theoretical model fits the experimental results well and the corrosion mechanism can be modeled by a diffusion process accompanied with an irreversible chemical reaction when pH value of soak solution is no less than 3.5.

  11. Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Flash flooding is characterised by high velocity flows which impact vulnerable catchments with little warning time and as such, result in complex flow dynamics which are difficult to replicate through modelling. The impacts of flash flooding can be made yet more severe by the transport of both natural and anthropogenic debris, ranging from tree trunks to vehicles, wheelie bins and even storage containers, the effects of which have been clearly evident during recent UK flooding. This cargo of debris can have wide reaching effects and result in actual flood impacts which diverge from those predicted. A build-up of debris may lead to partial channel blockage and potential flow rerouting through urban centres. Build-up at bridges and river structures also leads to increased hydraulic loading which may result in damage and possible structural failure. Predicting the impacts of debris transport; however, is difficult as conventional hydrodynamic modelling schemes do not intrinsically include floating debris within their calculations. Subsequently a new tool has been developed using an emerging approach, which incorporates debris transport through the coupling of two existing modelling techniques. A 1D hydrodynamic modelling scheme has here been coupled with a 2D discrete element scheme to form a new modelling tool which predicts the motion and flow-interaction of floating debris. Hydraulic forces arising from flow around the object are applied to instigate its motion. Likewise, an equivalent opposing force is applied to fluid cells, enabling backwater effects to be simulated. Shock capturing capabilities make the tool applicable to predicting the complex flow dynamics associated with flash flooding. The modelling scheme has been applied to experimental case studies where cylindrical wooden dowels are transported by a dam-break wave. These case studies enable validation of the tool's shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied between the two numerical

  12. Flow Modeling Based Wall Element Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Tamimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of flow where examined, pressure and combination of pressure and Coquette flow of confined turbulent flow with a one equation model used to depict the turbulent viscosity of confined flow in a smooth straight channel when a finite element technique based on a zone close to a solid wall has been adopted for predicting the distribution of the pertinent variables in this zone and examined even with case when the near wall zone was extended away from the wall. The validation of imposed technique has been tested and well compared with other techniques.

  13. Finite element modeling methods for photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, B M Azizur

    2013-01-01

    The term photonics can be used loosely to refer to a vast array of components, devices, and technologies that in some way involve manipulation of light. One of the most powerful numerical approaches available to engineers developing photonic components and devices is the Finite Element Method (FEM), which can be used to model and simulate such components/devices and analyze how they will behave in response to various outside influences. This resource provides a comprehensive description of the formulation and applications of FEM in photonics applications ranging from telecommunications, astron

  14. A numerical study of the second-order wave excitation of ship springing by a higher-order boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.

  15. A finite element parametric modeling technique of aircraft wing structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jiapeng; Xi Ping; Zhang Baoyuan; Hu Bifu

    2013-01-01

    A finite element parametric modeling method of aircraft wing structures is proposed in this paper because of time-consuming characteristics of finite element analysis pre-processing. The main research is positioned during the preliminary design phase of aircraft structures. A knowledge-driven system of fast finite element modeling is built. Based on this method, employing a template parametric technique, knowledge including design methods, rules, and expert experience in the process of modeling is encapsulated and a finite element model is established automatically, which greatly improves the speed, accuracy, and standardization degree of modeling. Skeleton model, geometric mesh model, and finite element model including finite element mesh and property data are established on parametric description and automatic update. The outcomes of research show that the method settles a series of problems of parameter association and model update in the pro-cess of finite element modeling which establishes a key technical basis for finite element parametric analysis and optimization design.

  16. Wind tunnel experiment of drag of isolated tree models in surface boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For very sparse tree land individual tree was the basic element of interaction between atmosphere and the surface. Drag of isolated tree was preliminary aerodynamic index for analyzing the atmospheric boundary layer of this kind of surface. A simple pendulum method was designed and carried out in wind tunnel to measure drag of isolated tree models according to balance law of moment of force. The method was easy to conduct and with small error. The results showed that the drag and drag coefficient of isolated tree increased with decreasing of its permeability or porosity. Relationship between drag coefficient and permeability of isolated tree empirically was expressed by quadric curve.

  17. On the trigonometric Felderhof model with domain wall boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Caradoc, A; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M; 10.1088/1742-5468/2007/03/P03010

    2008-01-01

    We consider the trigonometric Felderhof model, of free fermions in an external field, on a finite lattice with domain wall boundary conditions. The vertex weights are functions of rapidities and external fields. We obtain a determinant expression for the partition function in the special case where the dependence on the rapidities is eliminated, but for general external field variables. This determinant can be evaluated in product form. In the homogeneous limit, it is proportional to a 2-Toda tau function. Next, we use the algebraic Bethe ansatz factorized basis to obtain a product expression for the partition function in the general case with dependence on all variables.

  18. Endogenizing geopolitical boundaries with agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2002-05-14

    Agent-based modeling promises to overcome the reification of actors. Whereas this common, but limiting, assumption makes a lot of sense during periods characterized by stable actor boundaries, other historical junctures, such as the end of the Cold War, exhibit far-reaching and swift transformations of actors' spatial and organizational existence. Moreover, because actors cannot be assumed to remain constant in the long run, analysis of macrohistorical processes virtually always requires "sociational" endogenization. This paper presents a series of computational models, implemented with the software package REPAST, which trace complex macrohistorical transformations of actors be they hierarchically organized as relational networks or as collections of symbolic categories. With respect to the former, dynamic networks featuring emergent compound actors with agent compartments represented in a spatial grid capture organizational domination of the territorial state. In addition, models of "tagged" social processes allows the analyst to show how democratic states predicate their behavior on categorical traits. Finally, categorical schemata that select out politically relevant cultural traits in ethnic landscapes formalize a constructivist notion of national identity in conformance with the qualitative literature on nationalism. This "finite-agent method", representing both states and nations as higher-level structures superimposed on a lower-level grid of primitive agents or cultural traits, avoids reification of agency. Furthermore, it opens the door to explicit analysis of entity processes, such as the integration and disintegration of actors as well as boundary transformations. PMID:12011409

  19. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  20. Numerical modelling for lubrication of the rolling process line contact by hard EHL theory using boundary elebent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.E.SADIQUE; S.; RAMAKRISHNA; S.BASRI; S.M.SAPUAN; M.M.HMEGATAHMED

    2001-01-01

    The contact characteristics of rigid cylinders lubricated by Newtonian liquids are inves-tigated in this paper using hard elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory. Numerical modelingis formulated for the coupled set of generalized pressure and plane strain elasticity equations for afinite plane model and a circular representation of the junction under a pure hard rolling line con-tact using boundary element method (BEM). Also a numerical routine is developed to compute filmthickness and pressure profiles and the results are evaluated for a range of possible dimen-sionless parameters such as speed and load. The hydrodynamic equation is also transformed intoa form of boundary integral equation, which is solved by Simpson’s rule. The elasticity equationwith boundary conditions was solved by constant and quadratic elements based on an iterativeprocedure by assuming an initial film thickness. From the comparative study between the presentNewtonian model and the previously published results proved to be very effective and efficient andhigh precision is easily achieved for such rolling elements as well. The computed results areshown to be amenable to standard boundary element formulation of EHL problem in the contactregion and show that speed and load have influential effects on the lubricating film shape.

  1. Finite-Element Modelling of Biotransistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaganapathy PR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current research efforts in biosensor design attempt to integrate biochemical assays with semiconductor substrates and microfluidic assemblies to realize fully integrated lab-on-chip devices. The DNA biotransistor (BioFET is an example of such a device. The process of chemical modification of the FET and attachment of linker and probe molecules is a statistical process that can result in variations in the sensed signal between different BioFET cells in an array. In order to quantify these and other variations and assess their importance in the design, complete physical simulation of the device is necessary. Here, we perform a mean-field finite-element modelling of a short channel, two-dimensional BioFET device. We compare the results of this model with one-dimensional calculation results to show important differences, illustrating the importance of the molecular structure, placement and conformation of DNA in determining the output signal.

  2. Soil-structure interaction analysis of HTTR building by a finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the applicability of the simplified model (sway-rocking model with the embedment effect) for dynamic response evaluation of the embedded HTTR structure is examined by comparing the results with those by a detailed model using finite element method (FEM). In the FEM modelling, the structure is modeled into the beams with lumped masses, and the soil is modeled as two dimensional finite elements. This model has the wave transmitting boundary for the side and the viscous boundaries for the bottom and the surfaces of out-of-plane. Earthquake response of the structure obtained by the finite element model is compared with that by the simplified model. As a result, the maximum response values and the floor response spectra by the finite element model are nearly equal to or a little smaller than those by the simplified model. It may be concluded that the simplified model is applicable to the dynamic response analysis of the embedded HTTR structure for the evaluation of the design seismic forces. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. Supersymmetric extension of the reflection equation algebra and integrable boundary conditions in doped spin-1 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflection equation algebra of Sklyanin is extended to the supersymmetric case. A graded reflection equation algebra is proposed and the corresponding graded (supersymmetric) boundary quantum inverse scattering method (QISM) is formulated. As an application, integrable open-boundary conditions for the doped spin-1 chain of the supersymmetric t-J model are studied in the framework of the boundary QISM. Diagonal boundary K-matrices are found and four classes of integrable boundary terms are determined. (author)

  4. Analysis of sedimentary rocks from the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary: INAA and RNAA of platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a geophysical and paleontological project aimed at a detailed and precise correlation of the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary interval in the Tethyan and Boreal region, detailed magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic profiles with a well-defined J/K boundary were selected from several sites for a detailed geochemical characterization. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed in the characterization of a vertical profile around the assumed J/K boundary in the Boreal Realm situated on the Nordvik peninsula, North of Middle Siberia, Russia, for which a platinum group element (PGE) anomaly has been reported in literature. Multimode INAA included short-time and long-time modes of irradiation either with reactor-pile neutrons or with epithermal/fast neutrons (ENAA) under a Cd shielding. The analyses encompassed about 40 major and trace elements. A radiochemical separation procedure for PGE determination consisting in sample decomposition by alkaline-oxidative fusion, reduction of PGE, and precipitation of their sulfides was tested. Despite difficulties, elevated levels of Pt and Ir were determined in selected samples at ppb and sub-ppb levels, respectively

  5. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dommergue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements and modeling studies showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were suspected. Unexpectedly high Hg0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to snow photochemistry. We suggest that a daily cycling of reemission/oxidation occurs during summer within the mixing layer at Dome Concordia. Hg0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. Unlike previous Antarctic studies, we think that atmospheric Hg0 removal may not be the result of advection processes. The daily and dramatic Hg0 losses could be a consequence of surface or snow induced oxidation pathways. It remains however unclear whether halogens are involved. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg species in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic plateau.

  6. Modeling boundary conditions for balanced proliferation in metastatic latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald P; Wells, Jakob Z; Savol, Andrej; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Wells, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Nearly half of cancer metastases become clinically evident five or more years after primary tumor treatment; thus metastatic cells survived without emerging for extended periods. This dormancy has been explained by at least two countervailing scenarios: cellular quiescence and balanced proliferation; these entail dichotomous mechanistic etiologies. To examine the boundary parameters for balanced proliferation, we performed in silico modeling. Experimental Design To illuminate the balanced proliferation hypothesis, we explored the specific boundary probabilities under which proliferating micrometastases would remain dormant. A two-state Markov chain Monte Carlo model simulated micrometastatic proliferation and death according to stochastic survival probabilities. We varied these probabilities across 100 simulated patients each with 1,000 metastatic deposits and documented whether the micrometastases exceeded one million cells, died out, or remained dormant (survived 1,218 generations). Results The simulations revealed a narrow survival probability window (49.7 – 50.8 percent) that allowed for dormancy across a range of starting cell numbers, and even then for only a small fraction of micrometastases. The majority of micrometastases died out quickly even at survival probabilities that led to rapid emergence of a subset of micrometastases. Within dormant metastases, cell populations depended sensitively on small survival probability increments. Conclusions Metastatic dormancy as explained solely by balanced proliferation is bounded by very tight survival probabilities. Considering the far larger survival variability thought to attend fluxing microenvironments, it is more probable that these micrometastatic nodules undergo at least periods of quiescence rather than exclusively being controlled by balanced proliferation. PMID:23329811

  7. Parallel Semi-Implicit Spectral Element Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A.; Thomas, S.; Loft, R.

    2001-05-01

    The shallow-water equations (SWE) have long been used to test atmospheric-modeling numerical methods. The SWE contain essential wave-propagation and nonlinear effects of more complete models. We present a semi-implicit (SI) improvement of the Spectral Element Atmospheric Model to solve the SWE (SEAM, Taylor et al. 1997, Fournier et al. 2000, Thomas & Loft 2000). SE methods are h-p finite element methods combining the geometric flexibility of size-h finite elements with the accuracy of degree-p spectral methods. Our work suggests that exceptional parallel-computation performance is achievable by a General-Circulation-Model (GCM) dynamical core, even at modest climate-simulation resolutions (>1o). The code derivation involves weak variational formulation of the SWE, Gauss(-Lobatto) quadrature over the collocation points, and Legendre cardinal interpolators. Appropriate weak variation yields a symmetric positive-definite Helmholtz operator. To meet the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition and avoid spurious modes, we use a staggered grid. The SI scheme combines leapfrog and Crank-Nicholson schemes for the nonlinear and linear terms respectively. The localization of operations to elements ideally fits the method to cache-based microprocessor computer architectures --derivatives are computed as collections of small (8x8), naturally cache-blocked matrix-vector products. SEAM also has desirable boundary-exchange communication, like finite-difference models. Timings on on the IBM SP and Compaq ES40 supercomputers indicate that the SI code (20-min timestep) requires 1/3 the CPU time of the explicit code (2-min timestep) for T42 resolutions. Both codes scale nearly linearly out to 400 processors. We achieved single-processor performance up to 30% of peak for both codes on the 375-MHz IBM Power-3 processors. Fast computation and linear scaling lead to a useful climate-simulation dycore only if enough model time is computed per unit wall-clock time. An efficient SI

  8. A finite-element reciprocity solution for EEG forward modeling with realistic individual head models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Erik; Chellappa, Sarah L; Gaggioni, Giulia; Ly, Julien Q M; Vandewalle, Gilles; André, Elodie; Geuzaine, Christophe; Phillips, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    We present a finite element modeling (FEM) implementation for solving the forward problem in electroencephalography (EEG). The solution is based on Helmholtz's principle of reciprocity which allows for dramatically reduced computational time when constructing the leadfield matrix. The approach was validated using a 4-shell spherical model and shown to perform comparably with two current state-of-the-art alternatives (OpenMEEG for boundary element modeling and SimBio for finite element modeling). We applied the method to real human brain MRI data and created a model with five tissue types: white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, skull, and scalp. By calculating conductivity tensors from diffusion-weighted MR images, we also demonstrate one of the main benefits of FEM: the ability to include anisotropic conductivities within the head model. Root-mean square deviation between the standard leadfield and the leadfield including white-matter anisotropy showed that ignoring the directional conductivity of white matter fiber tracts leads to orientation-specific errors in the forward model. Realistic head models are necessary for precise source localization in individuals. Our approach is fast, accurate, open-source and freely available online. PMID:25204867

  9. Development of accurate contact force models for use with Discrete Element Method (DEM) modelling of bulk fruit handling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dintwa, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with the development of accurate, simplified and validated contact force models for the discrete element modelling (DEM) of fruit bulk handling systems. The DEM is essentially a numerical technique to model a system of particles interacting with one another and with the system boundaries through collisions. The specific area of application envisaged is in postharvest agriculture, where DEM could be used in simulation of many unit operations with bulk fruit,...

  10. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis --- a study of boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Nils Refstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and not at all for the acoustically soft PDMS systems.

  11. Advanced boundary electrode modeling for tES and parallel tES/EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Agsten, Britte; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Wolters, Carsten H

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. We focus on boundary condition based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g. sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance and normal current distribution. The CEM can be applied for both tES and EEG electrodes which is advantageous when a parallel system is used. In comparison to the CEM, we test two important reduced approaches: the gap model (GAP) and the point electrode model (PEM). We aim to find out the differences of these approaches for a realistic numerical setting based on the stimulation of the auditory cortex. The results obtained suggest, among other things, that GAP and GAP/PEM are sufficiently accurate for the practical appli...

  12. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchun Li

    2015-01-01

    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Modelling bacterial behaviour close to a no-slip plane boundary: the influence of bacterial geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Shum, H.

    2010-01-13

    We describe a boundary-element method used to model the hydrodynamics of a bacterium propelled by a single helical flagellum. Using this model, we optimize the power efficiency of swimming with respect to cell body and flagellum geometrical parameters, and find that optima for swimming in unbounded fluid and near a no-slip plane boundary are nearly indistinguishable. We also consider the novel optimization objective of torque efficiency and find a very different optimal shape. Excluding effects such as Brownian motion and electrostatic interactions, it is demonstrated that hydrodynamic forces may trap the bacterium in a stable, circular orbit near the boundary, leading to the empirically observable surface accumulation of bacteria. Furthermore, the details and even the existence of this stable orbit depend on geometrical parameters of the bacterium, as described in this article. These results shed some light on the phenomenon of surface accumulation of micro-organisms and offer hydrodynamic explanations as to why some bacteria may accumulate more readily than others based on morphology. © 2010 The Royal Society.

  14. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, Michiel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; von der Heydt, Anna S.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Sluijs, Appy; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bijl, Peter K.

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models frequently use reconstructions in which the latest state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions, palaeotopography and -bathymetry, or vegetation have not yet been incorporated. In this paper, we therefore provide a new method to efficiently generate a global geographical reconstruction for the middle-late Eocene. The generalised procedure is also reusable to create reconstructions for other time slices within the Cenozoic, suitable for palaeoclimate modelling. We use a plate-tectonic model to make global masks containing the distribution of land, continental shelves, shallow basins and deep ocean. The use of depth-age relationships for oceanic crust together with adjusted present-day topography gives a first estimate of the global geography at a chosen time frame. This estimate subsequently needs manual editing of areas where existing geological data indicate that the altimetry has changed significantly over time. Certain generic changes (e.g. lowering mountain ranges) can be made relatively easily by defining a set of masks while other features may require a more specific treatment. Since the discussion regarding many of these regions is still ongoing, it is crucial to make it easy for changes to be incorporated without having to redo the entire procedure. In this manner, a complete reconstruction can be made that suffices as a boundary condition for numerical models with a limited effort. This facilitates the interaction between experts in geology and palaeoclimate modelling, keeping reconstructions up to date and improving the consistency between different studies. Moreover, it facilitates model inter-comparison studies and sensitivity tests regarding certain

  15. Grain-boundary diffusion: structural effects, models and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, N L

    1979-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion phenomena were considered including: anisotropy, effect of orientation, crystallographic transformation, boundary type, dislocation dissociation, pressure, and isotope effects. Diffusivity is different for various boundaries. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain boundary diffusion. Results suggest a vacancy mechanism along the dislocation core, and involves atomic jumps away from the back towards the dislocation as well as jumps along the core. Measurements were made on nickel and silver. (FS)

  16. COMGEN: A computer program for generating finite element models of composite materials at the micro level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    1990-01-01

    COMGEN (Composite Model Generator) is an interactive FORTRAN program which can be used to create a wide variety of finite element models of continuous fiber composite materials at the micro level. It quickly generates batch or session files to be submitted to the finite element pre- and postprocessor PATRAN based on a few simple user inputs such as fiber diameter and percent fiber volume fraction of the composite to be analyzed. In addition, various mesh densities, boundary conditions, and loads can be assigned easily to the models within COMGEN. PATRAN uses a session file to generate finite element models and their associated loads which can then be translated to virtually any finite element analysis code such as NASTRAN or MARC.

  17. Shear beams in finite element modelling: software implementation and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, D.; Kikstra, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber models for beam and shell elements allow for relatively rapid finite element analysis of concrete structures and structural elements. This project aims at the development of the formulation of such elements and a pilot implementation. The reduction of calculation time and degrees of freedom

  18. Boundary algebras and Kac modules for logarithmic minimal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ridout, David

    2015-10-01

    Virasoro Kac modules were originally introduced indirectly as representations whose characters arise in the continuum scaling limits of certain transfer matrices in logarithmic minimal models, described using Temperley-Lieb algebras. The lattice transfer operators include seams on the boundary that use Wenzl-Jones projectors. If the projectors are singular, the original prescription is to select a subspace of the Temperley-Lieb modules on which the action of the transfer operators is non-singular. However, this prescription does not, in general, yield representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebras and the Virasoro Kac modules have remained largely unidentified. Here, we introduce the appropriate algebraic framework for the lattice analysis as a quotient of the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. The corresponding standard modules are introduced and examined using invariant bilinear forms and their Gram determinants. The structures of the Virasoro Kac modules are inferred from these results and are found to be given by finitely generated submodules of Feigin-Fuchs modules. Additional evidence for this identification is obtained by comparing the formalism of lattice fusion with the fusion rules of the Virasoro Kac modules. These are obtained, at the character level, in complete generality by applying a Verlinde-like formula and, at the module level, in many explicit examples by applying the Nahm-Gaberdiel-Kausch fusion algorithm.

  19. A simulation of fatigue crack propagation in a welded T-joint using 3D boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang Zhihai; Lie, S.T.; Wang Bo; Cen Zhangzhi

    2003-02-01

    A general procedure to investigate the fatigue propagation process of a 3D surface crack based on multi-region Boundary Element Method is detailed in this paper. The mesh can be automatically regenerated as the crack propagates. A new formula for estimating the effective stress intensity factor is used to calculate the crack extension. The maximum principal stress criterion is then employed to predict the crack growth direction. Comparison between numerical and experimental results of a welded T-joint shows that the proposed procedure is reliable.

  20. Difference equations for correlation functions of $A^{(1)}_{n-1}$-face model with boundary reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Quano, Y H

    2001-01-01

    The $A^{(1)}_{n-1}$-face model with boundary reflection is considered on the basis of the boundary CTM bootstrap. We construct the fused boundary Boltzmann weights to determine the normalization factor. We derive difference equations of the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type for correlation functions of the present model. The simplest difference equations are solved the in the case of the free boundary condition.

  1. Hydrogeological boundary settings in SR 97. Uncertainties in regional boundary settings and transfer of boundary conditions to site-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SR 97 project presents a performance assessment (PA) of the overall safety of a hypothetical deep repository at three sites in Sweden arbitrarily named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One component of this PA assesses the uncertainties in the hydrogeological modelling. This study focuses on uncertainties in boundary settings (size of model domain and boundary conditions) in the regional and site-scale hydrogeological modelling of the three sites used to simulating the possible transport of radionuclides from the emplacement waste packages through the host rock to the accessible environment. Model uncertainties associated with, for instance, parameter heterogeneity and structural interpretations are addressed in other studies. This study concludes that the regional modelling of the SR 97 project addresses uncertainties in the choice of boundary conditions and size of model domain differently at each site, although the overall handling is acceptable and in accordance with common modelling practice. For example, the treatment of uncertainties with regard to the ongoing post-glacial flushing of the Baltic Shield is creditably addressed although not exhaustive from a modelling point of view. A significant contribution of the performed modelling is the study of nested numerical models, i.e., the numerical interplay between regional and site-scale numerical models. In the site-scale modelling great efforts are made to address problems associated with (i) the telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) technique with regard to the stochastic continuum approach, and (ii) the transfer of boundary conditions between variable-density flow systems and flow systems that are constrained to treat uniform density flow. This study concludes that the efforts made to handle these problems are acceptable with regards to the objectives of the SR 97 project

  2. Uranus evolution models with simple thermal boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelmann, Nadine; Redmer, Ronald; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hamel, Sebastien; Bethkenhagen, Mandy

    2016-04-01

    The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus imposes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Similar to the Earth, Uranus appears to evolve in equilibrium with the solar incident flux (Teq). Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. We argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal boundary layer (TBL) and adjust it to reproduce the luminosity. Due to this TBL, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to a factor 3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks there with a possible I:R of 1 x solar. Furthermore, we also allow for an equilibrium evolution (Teff ~ Teq) that begun prior to the present day, which would therefore no longer constitute a "special time" in Uranus' evolution. Once Teff ~ Teq happens, a shallow, subadiabatic zone in the atmosphere begins to develop. Its depth is adjusted to meet the luminosity constraint. This work provides a simple foundation for future Ice Giant structure and evolution models, that can be improved by properly treating the heat and particle fluxes in the diffusive zones.

  3. Boundary modelling of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To justify the design of the divertor plates in W7-X the magnetic fields of finite-β HELIAS equilibria for the so-called high-mirror case have been computed for various average β-values up to left angle β right angle =0.04 with the NEMEC free-boundary equilibrium code [Hirshman (1986)] in combination with the newly developed MFBE (magnetic field solver for finite-beta equilibria) code. In a second study the unloading of the target plates by radiation was investigated. The B2 code [Braams, (1986)] was applied for the first time to stellarators to provide of a self-consistent modelling of the SOL including effects of neutrals and impurities. (orig.)

  4. An immersed boundary model of the cochlea with parametric forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, William

    2015-01-01

    The cochlea or inner ear has a remarkable ability to amplify sound signals. This is understood to derive at least in part from some active process that magnifies vibrations of the basilar membrane (BM) and the cochlear partition in which it is embedded, to the extent that it overcomes the effect of viscous damping from the surrounding cochlear fluid. Many authors have associated this amplification ability to some type of mechanical resonance within the cochlea, however there is still no consensus regarding the precise cause of amplification. Our work is inspired by experiments showing that the outer hair cells within the cochlear partition change their lengths when stimulated, which can in turn cause periodic distortions of the BM and other structures in the cochlea. This paper investigates a novel fluid-mechanical resonance mechanism that derives from hydrodynamic interactions between an oscillating BM and the surrounding cochlear fluid. We present a model of the cochlea based on the immersed boundary method...

  5. Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, B.; Andersson, P.; Dahl, J.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: (1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents about 50% of the Ir present in the bulk sample Fish clay. Strong organometallic complexes is the most probable carrier phase for this fraction of Ir. Kerogen separated from the K-T boundary clay at Caravaca, Spain, similarly exhibits enhanced Ir concentrations. (2) Sulfur isotope analyses of metal-rich pyrite spherules, which occur in extreme abundance (about 10% by weight) in the basal Fish Clay, give a delta/sup 34/S value of -32 per thousand. This very low value shows that sulfide formation by anaerobic bacteria was intensive in the Fish Clay during early diagenesis. Since the pyrite spherules are major carriers of elements such as Ni, Co, As, Sb and Zn, microbial activity may have played an important role for concentrating these elements. In the Fish Clay large amounts of rare earth elements have precipitated from sea water on fish scales. Analyses reveal that, compared with sea water, the Fish Clay is only about four times less enriched in sea-water derived lanthanides than in Ir. This shows that a sea-water origin is plausible for elements that are strongly enriched in the clay, but whose origin cannot be accounted for by a lithogenic precursor.

  6. Interaction of Linear Waves with Infinitely Long Horizontal Cylinders Studied by Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bo; ZHENG Yong-hong; YOU Ya-ge; HE Zai-ming

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional problems concerning the interaction of linear water waves with cylinders of arbitrary shape in two-layer deep water are investigated by use of the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM). Simpler new expressions for the Green functions are derived, and verified by comparison of results obtained by BIEM with those by an analytical method. Examined are the radiation and scattering of linear waves by two typical configurations of cylinders in two-layer deep water. Hydrodynamic behaviors including hydrodynamic coefficients, wave forces, reflection and transmission coefficients and energies are analyzed in detail, and some interesting physical phenomena are observed.

  7. An extended finite element formulation for modeling the response of polycrystalline materials to shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static mesoscale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Benson et al. [2] and Belytchko et al. [3] to model shock loading of polycrystalline material. Through several demonstration problems we evaluate the method for modeling the shock response of polycrystalline materials at the mesoscale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries. ([1] N. Moes, J. Dolbow, J and T. Belytschko, 1999,``A finite element method for crack growth without remeshing,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 46, 131-150. [2] E. Vitali, and D. J. Benson, 2006, ``An extended finite element formulation for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian calculations,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 1420-1444. [3] J-H Song, P. M. A. Areias and T. Belytschko, 2006, ``A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation with phantom nodes,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 868-893.)

  8. FEMWATER: a finite-element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.

    1980-10-01

    Upon examining the Water Movement Through Saturated-Unsaturated Porous Media: A Finite-Element Galerkin Model, it was felt that the model should be modified and expanded. The modification is made in calculating the flow field in a manner consistent with the finite element approach, in evaluating the moisture-content increasing rate within the region of interest, and in numerically computing the nonlinear terms. With these modifications, the flow field is continuous everywhere in the flow regime, including element boundaries and nodal points, and the mass loss through boundaries is much reduced. Expansion is made to include four additional numerical schemes which would be more appropriate for many situations. Also, to save computer storage, all arrays pertaining to the boundary condition information are compressed to smaller dimension, and to ease the treatment of different problems, all arrays are variably dimensioned in all subroutines. This report is intended to document these efforts. In addition, in the derivation of finite-element equations, matrix component representation is used, which is believed more readable than the matrix representation in its entirety. Two identical sample problems are simulated to show the difference between the original and revised models.

  9. FEMWATER: a finite-element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon examining the Water Movement Through Saturated-Unsaturated Porous Media: A Finite-Element Galerkin Model, it was felt that the model should be modified and expanded. The modification is made in calculating the flow field in a manner consistent with the finite element approach, in evaluating the moisture-content increasing rate within the region of interest, and in numerically computing the nonlinear terms. With these modifications, the flow field is continuous everywhere in the flow regime, including element boundaries and nodal points, and the mass loss through boundaries is much reduced. Expansion is made to include four additional numerical schemes which would be more appropriate for many situations. Also, to save computer storage, all arrays pertaining to the boundary condition information are compressed to smaller dimension, and to ease the treatment of different problems, all arrays are variably dimensioned in all subroutines. This report is intended to document these efforts. In addition, in the derivation of finite-element equations, matrix component representation is used, which is believed more readable than the matrix representation in its entirety. Two identical sample problems are simulated to show the difference between the original and revised models

  10. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions: The Neumann problem

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2011-01-01

    We discuss local and global existence and uniqueness for the price formation free boundary model with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. The results are based on a transformation of the problem to the heat equation with nonstandard boundary conditions. The free boundary becomes the zero level set of the solution of the heat equation. The transformation allows us to construct an explicit solution and discuss the behavior of the free boundary. Global existence can be verified under certain conditions on the free boundary and examples of non-existence are given.

  11. Discrete element modelling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A. D.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2012-04-01

    Soft, deformable sediments are often present under glaciers. Subglacial sediments deform under the differential load of the ice, and this causes the overlying glacier to accelerate its motion. Understanding the rheology of subglacial sediment is therefore important for models of glacial dynamics. Previous studies of the mechanical behaviour of subglacial sediments have primarily relied on analytical considerations and laboratory shearing experiments. As a novel approach, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed that is exposed to stress conditions comparable to subglacial environments. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the mechanical and rheological behaviour under a range of conditions. Of special interest is bed shear strength, strain distribution and -localization, mode of deformation, and role of effective normal pressure during shearing. As a calibration benchmark, results from laboratory ring-shear experiments on granular material are compared to similar numerical experiments. The continuously recorded stress dynamics in the laboratory shear experiments are compared to DEM experiments, and the micro-mechanical parameters in the contact model of the DEM code are calibrated to match the macroscopic Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria parameters, constrained from successive laboratory shear tests under a range of normal pressures. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia Cuda C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a soft-body contact model. Scene rendering is performed using a custom Cuda ray-tracing algorithm. Efforts on optimization of the particle algorithm are discussed, and future plans of expansion are presented.

  12. Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and

  13. Orbital and Maxillofacial Computer Aided Surgery: Patient-Specific Finite Element Models To Predict Surgical Outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Luboz, V; Swider, P; Payan, Y; Luboz, Vincent; Chabanas, Matthieu; Swider, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an important issue raised for the clinical relevance of Computer-Assisted Surgical applications, namely the methodology used to automatically build patient-specific Finite Element (FE) models of anatomical structures. From this perspective, a method is proposed, based on a technique called the Mesh-Matching method, followed by a process that corrects mesh irregularities. The Mesh-Matching algorithm generates patient-specific volume meshes from an existing generic model. The mesh regularization process is based on the Jacobian matrix transform related to the FE reference element and the current element. This method for generating patient-specific FE models is first applied to Computer-Assisted maxillofacial surgery, and more precisely to the FE elastic modelling of patient facial soft tissues. For each patient, the planned bone osteotomies (mandible, maxilla, chin) are used as boundary conditions to deform the FE face model, in order to predict the aesthetic outcome of the surgery. Seven F...

  14. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; Boer, de André; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controll

  15. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol

    2013-12-01

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.

  16. Modulus reconstruction from prostate ultrasound images using finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhennan; Zhang, Shaoting; Alam, S. Kaisar; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Garra, Brian S.; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2012-03-01

    In medical diagnosis, use of elastography is becoming increasingly more useful. However, treatments usually assume a planar compression applied to tissue surfaces and measure the deformation. The stress distribution is relatively uniform close to the surface when using a large, flat compressor but it diverges gradually along tissue depth. Generally in prostate elastography, the transrectal probes used for scanning and compression are cylindrical side-fire or rounded end-fire probes, and the force is applied through the rectal wall. These make it very difficult to detect cancer in prostate, since the rounded contact surfaces exaggerate the non-uniformity of the applied stress, especially for the distal, anterior prostate. We have developed a preliminary 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to simulate prostate deformation in elastography. The model includes a homogeneous prostate with a stiffer tumor in the proximal, posterior region of the gland. A force is applied to the rectal wall to deform the prostate, strain and stress distributions can be computed from the resultant displacements. Then, we assume the displacements as boundary condition and reconstruct the modulus distribution (inverse problem) using linear perturbation method. FEM simulation shows that strain and strain contrast (of the lesion) decrease very rapidly with increasing depth and lateral distance. Therefore, lesions would not be clearly visible if located far away from the probe. However, the reconstructed modulus image can better depict relatively stiff lesion wherever the lesion is located.

  17. Computation of the transient flow in zoned anisotropic porous media by the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, E.; Grilli, S.

    Results on the application of the BEM to transient two-dimensional flows in zoned anisotropic porous media are presented, including the iterative calculation of the free surface seepage position. The classical BEM equations are discretized by linear, quadratic, or cubic elements, employing special singular numerical quadrature rules. The method is improved by the incorporation of a subregion division. The present technique is shown to be very accurate and to avoid previously encountered oscillation problems.

  18. Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fotyga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

  19. Finite element modelling of perturbed stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Mir Abbas

    2010-01-01

    I formulate a general finite element method (FEM) for self-gravitating stellar systems. I split the configuration space to finite elements, and express the potential and density functions over each element in terms of their nodal values and suitable interpolating functions. General expressions are then introduced for the Hamiltonian and phase space distribution functions of the stars that visit a given element. Using the weighted residual form of Poisson's equation, I derive the Galerkin projection of the perturbed collisionless Boltzmann equation, and assemble the global evolutionary equations of nodal distribution functions. The FEM is highly adaptable to all kinds of potential and density profiles, and it can deal with density clumps and initially non-axisymmetric systems. I use ring elements of non-uniform widths, choose linear and quadratic interpolation functions in the radial direction, and apply the FEM to the stability analysis of the cutout Mestel disc. I also integrate the forced evolutionary equat...

  20. The direct and indirect measurement of boundary stress and drag on individual and complex arrays of elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Rafael O.; Cowen, Edwin A.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by the study of drag on plant canopies, a novel non-intrusive drag measurement device was developed—its design, calibration, and validation are presented. The device is based on isolating a region of a test facility, a section of the bed of an open channel flume in the present case, from the facility itself. The drag plate, sufficiently large to allow for spatial averaging over multiple elements, is constrained to move on essentially frictionless rails in the direction of flow, and the force applied to the plate by the interaction of objects on the plate with the flow is monitored. In contrast to force balances used in wind tunnels, our design allows for easy mounting of multiple elements on different configurations, it holds large vertical loads with negligible effect to the horizontal forces measured, does not require intrusive frames to hold the elements within the flow, all of its components are externally located at the bottom of the flume, providing immediate access for adjustments, and the mounted load cell is easily interchangeable to increase the measurement dynamic range without system modifications. The measurement of two canonical, well-studied cases is used to validate the drag plate approach: drag induced by a turbulent boundary layer and the drag on a rigid cylinder. A third series of experiments, flow through arrays of rigid cylinders, is presented to show the applicability of the drag plate on more complex flows. The experimental results confirm the drag plate approach to be suitable for the accurate direct measurement of drag on simple and complex arrays of objects, which makes it ideal for studies of vegetated flows, natural rough boundary layers, coastal structures, and urban canopies, just to name a few possibilities.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Fish-Like Swimming in a Straight-Line Swimming State Using Immersed Boundary Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wenquan Wang; Rui Yin; Dongwei Hao; Yan Yan

    2014-01-01

    A self-propelled swimming fish model is established, which can reflect the interaction between fish movement, internal force generated by muscle contraction, and the external force provided by fluid. Using finite element immersed boundary method combined with traditional feedback force method, the self-propelled swimming fish is numerically simulated. Firstly, a self-induced vibration of a cantilever beam immersed in a fluid is one of the benchmarks of fluid-structure interaction, which is us...

  2. Consideration on the applicability of the boundary element method to groundwater flow analysis for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide-area groundwater flow analysis for the geological disposal of nuclear waste is conducted in areas 10 to 100 km square at a depth of several kilometers. In Japan with complex topography and geological environment, numerical analyses by segmentation based on the region including FE analysis as a typical example involve difficulty in modeling. This study therefore aims at improving simplicity and preciseness of modeling using BEM through segmentation based on the boundary. Test analyses are conducted to organize data on precision and the characteristics of modeling. Then, this paper describes that the proposed method is fully applicable. (author)

  3. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; de Boer; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controller design. The reduced structural model is combined with an acoustic model which uses the radiation mode concept. For a test case consisting of a rectangular plate with one piezo patch the model re...

  4. Vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-02-01

    From experiments it is well known that the vibration response of a main structure with many attached substructures often shows more damping than structural losses in the components can account for. In practice, these substructures, which are not attached in an entirely rigid manner, behave like a multitude of different sprung masses each strongly resisting any motion of the main structure (master) at their base antiresonance. The "theory of structural fuzzy" is intended for modeling such high damping. In the present article the theory of fuzzy structures is briefly outlined and a method of modeling fuzzy substructures examined. This is done by new derivations and physical interpretations are provided. Further, the method is extended and simplified by introducing a simple deterministic approach to determine the boundary impedance of the structural fuzzy. By using this new approach, the damping effect of the fuzzy with spatial memory is demonstrated by numerical simulations of a main beam structure with fuzzy attachments. It is shown that the introduction of spatial memory reduces the damping effect of the fuzzy and in certain cases the damping effect may even be eliminated completely. PMID:18247876

  5. Multilevel Model of Planetary Boundary-layer Suitable for use with Mesoscale Dynamic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, N. E.; Chang, S. W.; Anthes, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper a simple model of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is proposed. The surface layer is modeled according to established similarity theory. Above the surface layer a prognostic equation for the mixing length is introduced. The time-dependent mixing length is a function of the PBL...

  6. Extended Finite Element Method with Simplified Spherical Harmonics Approximation for the Forward Model of Optical Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended finite element method (XFEM for the forward model of 3D optical molecular imaging is developed with simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN. In XFEM scheme of SPN equations, the signed distance function is employed to accurately represent the internal tissue boundary, and then it is used to construct the enriched basis function of the finite element scheme. Therefore, the finite element calculation can be carried out without the time-consuming internal boundary mesh generation. Moreover, the required overly fine mesh conforming to the complex tissue boundary which leads to excess time cost can be avoided. XFEM conveniences its application to tissues with complex internal structure and improves the computational efficiency. Phantom and digital mouse experiments were carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with standard finite element method and classical Monte Carlo (MC method, the validation results show the merits and potential of the XFEM for optical imaging.

  7. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  8. ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT MODEL OF THE PEARL RIVER DELTA AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shao-jia; WANG An-Yu; FAN Qi; LIU Ji; WANG Bao-min; TA Na

    2007-01-01

    Based on the geographical circumstance, climate and the boundary layer meteorology features of the Pearl River Delta, a boundary layer concept model of the Pearl River Delta was built. The concept model consists of four fundamental factors that affect the boundary layer meteorology of the Pearl River Delta and can convincingly explain the reason of the air quality change in the Pearl River Delta. The model can be used to the diffusion capability analysis, the air pollution potential forecasting or haze forecasting, etc.

  9. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  10. Misorientation Effects in an Anisotropic Plasticity Finite Element Model of a Polycrystalline under Tensile Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Shawish, Samir El; CIZELJ Leon; SIMONOVSKI IGOR

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose an anisotropic elasto-plastic finite element model to account for various observations in the tensile test experiments on stainless steel specimen. Using Voronoi construction for the grains, grain boundaries and anisotropic Hill’s plastic potential function, we find a clear correlation between the computed average misorientation angle, measuring the change of local crystal orientations, and the applied plastic strain, in agreement with the electron backscatter diffract...

  11. Simulation of wave-structure interaction by hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. S.; Young, D. L.; Chiu, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to develop a Cartesian-grid-based numerical model to study the interaction between free-surface flow and stationary or oscillating immersed obstacle in a viscous fluid. To incorporate the effect of the free surface motion, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme is employed to accurately capture the configuration of free surface. To deal with the complex submerged obstacle in the fluid, a hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary (HCIB) method is adopted, which allows easy implementation of the solid boundary conditions for a fixed structured grid. The two numerical techniques are combined to study the wave-structure interaction problems. The major merit of the proposed model is that the fluid grid is fixed throughout the computations during the transients, while the immersed body can move arbitrarily through the Cartesian grid. The meshes deform smoothly over the solid and free-surface boundaries, especially for representing sharp interface. There is no re-meshing process needed since this scheme only depends on the simple mesh generation to promote the efficiency of calculation. Some numerical examples are displayed respectively to validate the robustness and accuracy of the HCIB method, the ALE based finite-element scheme and their combinations. In addition, the other two numerical applications are carried out to simulate the wave-structure interaction with stationary and moving immersed body. In case studies some physical characteristics are also discussed for a range of amplitude of free-surface wave, Reynolds numbers and the proximity of structure under the liquid surface. The feasibility of the developed novel numerical model is shown through five numerical experiments.

  12. Modeling Plasmas with Strong Anisotropy, Neutral Fluid Effects, and Open Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Eric T.

    Three computational plasma science topics are addressed in this research: the challenge of modeling strongly anisotropic thermal conduction, capturing neutral fluid effects in collisional plasmas, and modeling open boundaries in dissipative plasmas. The research efforts on these three topics contribute to a common objective: the improvement and extension of existing magnetohydrodynamic modeling capability. Modeling magnetically confined fusion-related plasmas is the focus of the research, but broader relevance is recognized and discussed. Code development is central to this work, and has been carried out within the flexible physics framework of the highly parallel HiFi implicit spectral element code. In magnetic plasma confinement, heat conduction perpendicular to the magnetic field is extremely slow compared to conduction parallel to the field. The anisotropy in heat conduction can be many orders of magnitude, and the inaccuracy of low-order representations can allow parallel heat transport to "leak" into the perpendicular direction, resulting in numerical perpendicular transport. If the computational grid is aligned to the magnetic field, this numerical error can be eliminated, even for low-order representations. However, grid alignment is possible only in idealized problems. In realistic applications, magnetic topology is chaotic. A general approach for accurately modeling the extreme anisotropy of fusion plasmas is to use high-order representations which do not require grid alignment for sufficient resolution. This research provides a comprehensive assessment of spectral element representation of anisotropy, in terms of dependence of accuracy on grid alignment, polynomial degree, and grid cell size, and gives results for two- and three-dimensional cases. Truncating large physical domains to concentrate computational resources is often necessary or desirable in simulating natural and man-made plasmas. A novel open boundary condition (BC) treatment for such

  13. Role of land-surface temperature feedback on model performance for the stable boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.A.M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    At present a variety of boundary-layer schemes is in use in numerical models and often a large variation of model results is found. This is clear from model intercomparisons, such as organized within the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). In this paper we analyze how the specification o

  14. Fragility Modeling of Aging Containment Metallic Pressure Boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment in a nuclear power plant (NPP) provides a barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. Corrosion that has been observed in some steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments has raised questions about their ability to perform this function. The performance of corroded containments during events at or beyond the design basis is impacted by numerous sources of uncertainty. A fragility model of the containment provides a relatively simple depiction of the impact of uncertainties on structural performance and a basis for decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. Moreover, it is a necessary ingredient of any time-dependent structural reliability analysis. A nonlinear finite element analysis of containment response furnishes the necessary platform to perform numerical experiments to determine containment fragility. A statistically-based sampling plan minimizes the finite element computations required to develop the fragility curve. The -percentile (or other fractile) then gives a statistically based indication of the lower bound on containment capacity, and can be used as a screening tool to determine whether more refined further analysis or tests to support service life evaluations are warranted

  15. Benthic boundary layer. IOS observational and modelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near bottom currents, measured at three sites in the N.E. Atlantic, reveal the eddying characteristics of the flow. Eddies develop, migrate and decay in ways best revealed by numerical modelling simulations. Eddies control the thickness of the bottom mixed layer by accumulating and thickening or spreading and thinning the bottom waters. At the boundaries of eddies benthic fronts form providing a path for upward displacement of the bottom water. An experiment designed to estimate vertical diffusivity is performed. The flux of heat into the bottom of the Iberian basin through Discovery Gap is deduced from year long current measurements. The flux is supposed balanced by geothermal heating through the sea floor and diapycnal diffusion in the water. A diffusivity of 1.5 to 4 cm2 s-1 is derived for the bottom few hundred meters of the deep ocean. Experiments to estimate horizontal diffusivity are described. If a tracer is discharged from the sea bed the volume of sea water in which it is found increases with time and after 20 years will fill an ocean basin of side 1000 km to a depth of only 1 to 2 km. (author)

  16. DICOM structured reporting: an object model as an implementation boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, David A.

    2001-08-01

    DICOM Structured Reporting (SR) provides for encoding and interchanging structured information that may reference images, waveforms or other composite objects, in traditional reporting applications as well as for logs, measurements and CAD results. DICOM SR differs from generic content encoding approaches like XML, in that it supports coded entries, values that are strongly typed, and explicit relationships. DICOM structured reports (like images and waveforms) are composite objects that can be stored, transmitted and queried. The traditional DICOM binary encoding is used to encode structured reports. The structure and content of the SR tree should be accessible regardless of the internal or external representation. XML parsers and XSL-T tree transformation engines that can be used for data entry, presentation (display and printing) and trans-coding (to HL7 2.x and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)) need to be interfaced with DICOM tools that support encoding, transmission, storage and retrieval. Issues associated with establishing the appropriate boundaries between tools are discussed, as are how and when to internalize a DICOM SR in an actual or virtual XML representation, the characteristics of such a representation, and the use of SAX events or the Document Object Model (DOM) to drive style-sheet driven tree transformation engines.

  17. Adaptive finite element modeling of direct current resistivity in 2-D generally anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Li, Yuguo; Liu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptive finite element (FE) algorithm for direct current (DC) resistivity modeling in 2-D generally anisotropic conductivity structures. Our algorithm is implemented on an unstructured triangular mesh that readily accommodates complex structures such as topography and dipping layers and so on. We implement a self-adaptive, goal-oriented grid refinement algorithm in which the finite element analysis is performed on a sequence of refined grids. The grid refinement process is guided by an a posteriori error estimator. The problem is formulated in terms of total potentials where mixed boundary conditions are incorporated. This type of boundary condition is superior to the Dirichlet type of conditions and improves numerical accuracy considerably according to model calculations. We have verified the adaptive finite element algorithm using a two-layered earth with azimuthal anisotropy. The FE algorithm with incorporation of mixed boundary conditions achieves high accuracy. The relative error between the numerical and analytical solutions is less than 1% except in the vicinity of the current source location, where the relative error is up to 2.4%. A 2-D anisotropic model is used to demonstrate the effects of anisotropy upon the apparent resistivity in DC soundings.

  18. Ensemble averaged surface normal impedance of material using an in-situ technique: preliminary study using boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuru, Toru; Tomiku, Reiji; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Okamoto, Noriko; Murakami, Masahiko

    2009-06-01

    An in-situ measurement technique of a material surface normal impedance is proposed. It includes a concept of "ensemble averaged" surface normal impedance that extends the usage of obtained values to various applications such as architectural acoustics and computational simulations, especially those based on the wave theory. The measurement technique itself is a refinement of a method using a two-microphone technique and environmental anonymous noise, or diffused ambient noise, as proposed by Takahashi et al. [Appl. Acoust. 66, 845-865 (2005)]. Measured impedance can be regarded as time-space averaged normal impedance at the material surface. As a preliminary study using numerical simulations based on the boundary element method, normal incidence and random incidence measurements are compared numerically: results clarify that ensemble averaging is an effective mode of measuring sound absorption characteristics of materials with practical sizes in the lower frequency range of 100-1000 Hz, as confirmed by practical measurements. PMID:19507960

  19. Finite Element-Discrete Element Coupling Strategies for the Modelling of Ballast-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Taforel, Paul; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric; Voivret, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous modelling strategies have been used over the last decade to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of the railway track system thanks to numerical simulation. In this context, discrete element (DE) methods are traditionally used to describe the granular behaviour of the ballast layer of the railway track whereas finite element (FE) methods are used to model the whole track system (soil and ballast) in which ballast is modelled as a continuous me...

  20. Interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction in electrical capacitance tomography based on boundary and finite-elements coupling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangjie; Dong, Feng

    2016-06-28

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-destructive detection technique for imaging the permittivity distributions inside an observed domain from the capacitances measurements on its boundary. Owing to its advantages of non-contact, non-radiation, high speed and low cost, ECT is promising in the measurements of many industrial or biological processes. However, in the practical industrial or biological systems, a deposit is normally seen in the inner wall of its pipe or vessel. As the actual region of interest (ROI) of ECT is surrounded by the deposit layer, the capacitance measurements become weakly sensitive to the permittivity perturbation occurring at the ROI. When there is a major permittivity difference between the deposit and the ROI, this kind of shielding effect is significant, and the permittivity reconstruction becomes challenging. To deal with the issue, an interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction approach is proposed. Both the permittivity at the ROI and the geometry of the deposit layer are recovered using the block coordinate descent method. The boundary and finite-elements coupling method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with the simulation tests. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185960

  1. Dynamically- and chemically-induced grain boundary migration in quartz: microstructures, crystallographic fabrics, and trace element contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlas, Will; Thomas, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Grain boundary migration (GBM) is a common mechanism by which quartz recrystallizes in the Earth. In the most basic sense, GBM occurs as atoms exchange structural positions across a planar defect. Reconstitution of grains via GBM imparts a new crystallographic orientation, but its effect on the geochemistry of recrystallized grains remains uncertain and depends on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the moving grain boundary. Two of the dominant driving forces for GBM are lattice strain energy, controlled by the applied stress field, and chemical potential energy, controlled by differences in mineral stability. We present observations from static and dynamic recrystallization experiments showing evidence for GBM in response to both of these driving forces. In static recrystallization experiments, quartz recrystallized in response to local variations in trace-level Ti concentrations, whereas in dynamic recrystallization experiments, quartz recrystallized during dislocation creep in response to the imposed differential stress. Each case produced recrystallized quartz exhibiting diagnostic microstructures, crystallographic fabrics, and trace element contents that can be used to infer the mechanisms of quartz recrystallization and the pressure-temperature conditions at which recrystallization occurred.

  2. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I. N.; Baklanov, A.

    2005-03-01

    Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow). It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral) or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions) depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S were overlooked

  3. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  4. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    lightweight structures without noise and disturbing vibrations between storeys and rooms. The dynamic response of floor and wall structures may be investigated using finite element models with three-dimensional solid elements [1]. In order to analyse the global response of complete buildings, finite element...... of eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes and vibration transmission. The finite element model of a floor [1], created and validated by measurements on a full-scale experimental wooden floor-wall structure, that was used as a reference model in the model reduction studies. The studies were restricted to frequencies below 100....... The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms...

  5. Wall-drag measurements of smooth- and rough-wall turbulent boundary layers using a floating element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, W. J.; Squire, D. T.; Talluru, K. M.; Abbassi, M. R.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2016-05-01

    The mean wall shear stress, overline{τ }_w, is a fundamental variable for characterizing turbulent boundary layers. Ideally, overline{τ }_w is measured by a direct means and the use of floating elements has long been proposed. However, previous such devices have proven to be problematic due to low signal-to-noise ratios. In this paper, we present new direct measurements of overline{τ }_w where high signal-to-noise ratios are achieved using a new design of a large-scale floating element with a surface area of 3 m (streamwise) × 1 m (spanwise). These dimensions ensure a strong measurement signal, while any error associated with an integral measurement of overline{τ }_w is negligible in Melbourne's large-scale turbulent boundary layer facility. Wall-drag induced by both smooth- and rough-wall zero-pressure-gradient flows are considered. Results for the smooth-wall friction coefficient, C_f ≡ overline{τ }_w/q_{∞}, follow a Coles-Fernholz relation C_f = [ 1/κ ln ( Re_{θ }) + C] ^{-2} to within 3 % (κ = 0.38 and C = 3.7) for a momentum thickness-based Reynolds number, Re_{θ } > 15{,}000. The agreement improves for higher Reynolds numbers to 38{,}000. This smooth-wall benchmark verification of the experimental apparatus is critical before attempting any rough-wall studies. For a rough-wall configuration with P36 grit sandpaper, measurements were performed for 10{,}500< Re_{θ } < 88{,}500, for which the wall-drag indicates the anticipated trend from the transitionally to the fully rough regime.

  6. Modeling Simple Driving Tasks with a One-Boundary Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; Strayer, David

    2014-01-01

    A one-boundary diffusion model was applied to the data from two experiments in which subjects were performing a simple simulated driving task. In the first experiment, the same subjects were tested on two driving tasks using a PC-based driving simulator and the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The diffusion model fit the response time (RT) distributions for each task and individual subject well. Model parameters were found to correlate across tasks which suggests common component processes w...

  7. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Fang; ZHANG Chun-Min; YUE Rui-Hong; LI Run-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the generalboundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  8. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used.

  9. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  10. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dommergue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg(0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg(0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were observed leading to an enrichment of the upper snow layers in divalent Hg. Unexpectedly high Hg(0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to the reemission of Hg(0 by the snowpack via photochemical reactions. Hg(0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. It remains unclear whether halogens are involved in Hg(0 oxidation. We suggest that snow surfaces may play a role in promoting the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg(0. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic Plateau.

  11. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.;

    2013-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis...

  12. Calculation of Head Related Transfer Functions of bats using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...... including minute details of ears, mouth and nose are obtained through CT scans. The project involves, among other things, the use of numerical methods on such scanned models to study the role of their features in the bat sensorial performance. As the bats operate at very high frequencies and as their ears...

  13. Metal-core piezoelectric fiber-based smart layer for damage detection using sparse virtual element boundary measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cheng, Li; Qiu, Jinhao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metal-core Piezoelectric Fiber (MPF) was shown to have great potential to be a structurally integrated sensor for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Compared with the typical foil strain gauge, MPF is more suitable for high frequency strain measurement and can create direct conversion of mechanical energy into electric energy without the need for complex signal conditioners or gauge bridges. In this paper, a MPF-based smart layer is developed as an embedded network of distributed strain sensors that can be surface-mounted on a thin-walled structure. Each pair of the adjacent MPFs divides the entire structure into several "virtual elements (VEs)". By exciting the structure at the natural frequency of the VE, a "weak" formulation of the previously developed Pseudo-excitation (PE) approach based on sparse virtual element boundary measurement (VEBM) is proposed to detect the damage. To validate the effectiveness of the VEBM based approach, experiments are conducted to locate a small crack in a cantilever beam by using a MPF- based smart layer and a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Results demonstrate that the proposed VEBM approach not only inherits the enhanced noise immunity capability of the "weak" formulation of the PE approach, but also allows a significant reduction in the number of measurement points as compared to the original version of the PE approach.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF LINEAR ULTRASONIC MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHIVU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  15. Interaction-round-a-face models with fixed boundary conditions the ABF fusion hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Behrend, R E; O'Brien, D L; Behrend, Roger E; Pearce, Paul A; O'Brien, David L

    1995-01-01

    We use boundary weights and reflection equations to obtain families of commuting double-row transfer matrices for interaction-round-a-face models with fixed boundary conditions. In particular, we consider the fusion hierarchy of the Andrews-Baxter-Forrester models, for which we find that the double-row transfer matrices satisfy functional equations with an su(2) structure.

  16. ASYMPTOTICS OF INITIAL BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS OF BIPOLAR HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qiangchang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the solutions to the bipolar hydrodynamic model with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It is shown that the initial boundary problem of the model admits a global smooth solution which decays to the steady state exponentially fast.

  17. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  18. The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented concerns the way small particles attached to a surface are resuspended when exposed to a turbulent flow. Of particular concern to this work is the remobilization of radioactive particles as a consequence of potential nuclear accidents. In this particular case the focus is on small particles, < 5 microns in diameter, where the principal force holding such particles onto a surface arises from van der Waals inter-molecular forces. Given its suitable treatment of the microphysics of small particles, it was decided here to aim to develop improved versions of the Rock'n'Roll (R'n'R) model; the R'n'R model is based on a statistical approach to resuspension involving the rocking and rolling of a particle about surface asperities induced by the moments of the fluctuating drag forces acting on the particle close to the surface. Firstly, a force (moment) balance model has been modified by including the distribution of the aerodynamic force instead of considering only its mean value. The R'n'R model is significantly improved by using realistic statistical fluctuations of both the stream-wise fluid velocity and acceleration close to the wall obtained from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow; in the standard model a major assumption is that these obey a Gaussian distribution. The flow conditions are translated into the moments of the drag force acting on the particle attached to the surface. In so doing the influence of highly non-Gaussian forces on the resuspension rate has been examined along with the sensitivity of the fluctuation statistics to LES and DNS. As a result of the analysis of our DNS/LES data 3 distinct features of the modified R'n'R model have emerged as playing an important part in the resuspension. The first is the typical forcing frequency due to the turbulent aerodynamic drag forces acting on the particle attached to a surface. The second is the value of the ratio of the root

  19. Finite element modelling of solidification phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K N Seetharamu; R Paragasam; Ghulam A Quadir; Z A Zainal; B Sathya Prasad; T Sundararajan

    2001-02-01

    The process of solidification process is complex in nature and the simulation of such process is required in industry before it is actually undertaken. Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer process accompanying the solidification process. The metal and the mould along with the air gap formation is accounted in the heat transfer simulation. Distortion of the casting is caused due to non-uniform shrinkage associated with the process. Residual stresses are induced in the final castings. Simulation of the shrinkage and the thermal stresses are also carried out using finite element methods. The material behaviour is considered as visco-plastic. The simulations are compared with available experimental data and the comparison is found to be good. Special considerations regarding the simulation of solidification process are also brought out.

  20. The role of prosodic boundaries in word discovery: Evidence from a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludusan, Bogdan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to quantify the role of prosodic boundaries in early language acquisition using a computational modeling approach. A spoken term discovery system that models early word learning was used with and without a prosodic component on speech corpora of English, Spanish, and Japanese. The results showed that prosodic information induces a consistent improvement both in the alignment of the terms to actual word boundaries and in the phonemic homogeneity of the discovered clusters of terms. This benefit was found also when automatically discovered prosodic boundaries were used, boundaries which did not perfectly match the linguistically defined ones. PMID:27475196

  1. 2D BEM modeling of a singular thermal diffusion free boundary problem with phase change

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    We report a 2D Boundary Element Method (BEM) modeling of the thermal diffusion-controlled growth of a vapor bubble attached to a heating surface during saturated pool boiling. The transient heat conduction problem is solved in a liquid that surrounds a bubble with a free boundary and in a semi-infinite solid heater. The heat generated homogeneously in the heater causes evaporation, i. e. the bubble growth. A singularity exists at the point of the triple (liquid-vapor-solid) contact. At high system pressure the bubble is assumed to grow slowly, its shape being defined by the surface tension and the vapor recoil force, a force coming from the liquid evaporating into the bubble. It is shown that at some typical time the dry spot under the bubble begins to grow rapidly under the action of the vapor recoil. Such a bubble can eventually spread into a vapor film that can separate the liquid from the heater, thus triggering the boiling crisis (Critical Heat Flux phenomenon).

  2. A novel finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-robot assisted orthopedic surgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiheng; Du, Zhijiang; Wang, Monan

    2006-01-01

    To build a biomechanical human model can make much sense for surgical training and surgical rehearse. Especially, it will be more meaningful to develop a biomechanical model to guide the control strategy for the medical robots in HIT-Robot Assisted Orthopedic Surgery System (HIT-RAOS). In this paper, based the successful work of others, a novel reliable finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-RAOS was developed to simulate the force needed in reposition procedure. Geometrical model was obtained from 3D reconstruction from CT images of a just died man. Using this boundary information, the finite element model of the leg including part of femur, broken upper tibia, broken lower tibia, talus, calcaneus, Kirschner nail, muscles and other soft tissues was created in ANSYS. Furthermore, as it was too difficult to reconstruct the accurate geometry model from CT images, a new simplified muscle model was presented. The bony structures and tendons were defined as linearly elastic, while soft tissues and muscle fibers were assumed to be hyper elastic. To validate this model, the same dead man was involved to simulate the patient, and a set of data of the force needed to separate the two broken bones and the distance between them in reposition procedure was recorded. Then, another set of data was acquired from the finite element analysis. After comparison, the two sets of data matched well. The Finite Element model was proved to be acceptable. PMID:17959437

  3. ON A PARABOLIC FREE BOUNDARY EQUATION MODELING PRICE FORMATION

    KAUST Repository

    MARKOWICH, P. A.

    2009-10-01

    We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. SPH Modeling of Droplet Impact on Solid Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大鸣; 白玲; 李玲玲; 赵明宇

    2014-01-01

    A droplet undergoes spreading, rebounding or splashing when it impacts solid boundary, which is a typical phenomenon of free surface flow that exists widely in modern industry. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is applied to numerically study the dynamical behaviors of the droplet impacting solid boundary, and both the spreading and rebounding phenomena of the droplet are reproduced in the simulation. The droplet deformation, flow fields and pressure fields inside the droplet at different moments are analyzed. Two important factors, the initial veloc-ity and diameter, are discussed in determining the maximum spreading factor, revealing that the maximum spreading factor increases with the increase of the impact velocity and droplet diameter respectively.

  5. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  6. Numerical Calculation of Marine Propeller Hydrodynamic Characteristics in Unsteady Flow by Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,a low-order potential based on surface panel method is used for the analysis of marine propellers in unsteady flow.A linear propeller wake model is employed and its geometry is assumed to be independent of the time.The calculation in time domain is carried out from a moment when the rotation of the propeller becomes steady instead of from the moment when the rotation starts from stationary condition.At every time step a linear algebraic equation established on a key blade is solved numerically combined with the Kutta pressure condition.The calculated results by developed code indicate good convergency and effectiveness of present algorithm for conventional propellers and highly skewed propellers.

  7. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  8. Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. C. Akuetevi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents, subject to two different types of idealized wind forcing, Monsoon Wind and Trade Wind, is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and above, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical solutions of the Munk-layer and the inertial-layer, derived from quasigeostrophic theory. Modifications due to variations in the layer thickness (vortex stretching are only important close to the boundary. When the viscosity is reduced the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.

  9. Extension of FDTD absorbing boundary condition methods to lossy dielectrics for the modeling of microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, David Christian

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has become a main stream analysis tool for engineers solving complex electromagnetic wave interaction problems. Its first principles approach affords it a wide range of applications from radar cross section (RCS) predictions of electrically large structures to molecular scale analysis of complex materials. This wide area of application may be attributed to the coupling of auxiliary differential equations with Maxwell's equations to describe the physical properties of a given problem. Previous extensions have included sub-cell models for describing lumped circuit elements within a single Yee cell, transformation of near-field information to the far-field for the analysis of antenna problems, dispersive material models and mesh truncation techniques. A review of these extensions is presented. What has not been previously developed is the ability to truncate lossy dielectric materials at the boundary of the simulation domain. Such outer boundary conditions (OBCs) are required in simulations dealing with ground penetrating radar, integrated circuits and many microwave devices such as stripline and microstrip structures. We have developed such an OBC by surrounding the exterior of the simulation domain with a lossy dispersive material based on a two time-derivative Lorentz model (L2TDLM). We present the development of the material as an absorber and ultimately as a full 3D OBC. Examples of microstrip, structures are presented to re-enforce the importance of modeling losses in dielectric structures. Finally, validation of the FDTD simulator and demonstration of the L2TDLM OBC's effectiveness is achieved by comparison with measured results from these microwave devices.

  10. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. A finite element model of ultrasonic extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Daud, Y, E-mail: m.lucas@mech.gla.ac.u [College of Science and Technology, UTM City Campus, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1950's researchers have carried out investigations into the effects of applying ultrasonic excitation to metals undergoing elastic and plastic deformation. Experiments have been conducted where ultrasonic excitation is superimposed in complex metalworking operations such as wire drawing and extrusion, to identify the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations. This study presents a finite element analysis of ultrasonic excitation applied to the extrusion of a cylindrical aluminium bar. The effects of friction on the extrusion load are reported for the two excitation configurations of radially and axially applied ultrasonic vibrations and the results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature.

  12. DPL Model Analysis of Non-Fourier Heat Conduction Restricted by Continuous Boundary Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Fangming; Liu Dengying

    2001-01-01

    Dual-phase lag (DPL) model is used to describe the non-Fourier heat conduction in a finite medium where the boundary at x=-0 is heated by a rectangular pulsed energy source and the other boundary is tightly contacted with another medium and satisfies the continuous boundary condition. Numerical solution of this kind of. non-Fourier heat conduction is presented in this paper. The results are compared with those predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC) equation.

  13. Partitioning of Lipids at Domain Boundaries in Model Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, Lars V.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2010-01-01

    Line-active molecules ("linactants") that bind to the boundary interface between different fluid lipid domains in membranes have a strong potential as regulators of the lateral heterogeneity that is important for many biological processes. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in combination w

  14. Ab initio modelling of UN grain boundary interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotomin, E. A.; Zhukovkii, Yu F.; Bocharov, D.; Gryaznov, D.

    2012-08-01

    The uranium mononitride (UN) is a material considered as a promising candidate for Generation-IV nuclear reactor fuels. Unfortunately, oxygen in air affects UN fuel performance and stability. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of oxygen adsorption and further UN oxidation in the bulk and at surface. Recently, we performed a detailed study on oxygen interaction with UN surface using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We were able to identify an atomistic mechanism of UN surface oxidation consisting of several important steps, starting with the oxygen molecule dissociation and finishing with oxygen atom incorporation into vacancies on the surface. However, in reality most of processes occur at the interfaces and on UN grain boundaries. In this study, we present the results of first DFT calculations on O behaviour inside UN grain boundaries performed using GGA exchange-correlation functional PW91 as implemented into the VASP computer code. We consider a simple interface (310)[001](36.8°) tilt grain boundary. The N vacancy formation energies and energies of O incorporation into pre-existing vacancies in the grain boundaries as well as O solution energies were compared with those obtained for the UN (001) and (110) surfaces

  15. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...

  16. A broken-bond model for grain boundaries in face-centered cubic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, D. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The interrelation between the number of nearest-neighbor atomic bonds broken upon formation of a grain boundary in an fcc metal and the related zero-temperature boundary energy is investigated by atomistic simulation. Using both a Lennard--Jones and an embedded-atom-method potential, the structures and energies of symmetrical and asymmetrical tilt and twist boundaries are determined. As in free surfaces, a practically linear relationship between the nearest-neighbor miscoordination per unit area of the grain boundary and the related interface energy is obtained. The so-called random-boundary model, in which the interactions across the interface are assumed to be entirely randomized, is shown to provide a basis for understanding the role of broken bonds in both high-angle grain boundaries and free surfaces, thus naturally permitting the analysis of ideal cleavage-fracture energies. A detailed study of low-angle boundaries shows that only the dislocation cores---but not their strain fields---give rise to broken bonds. The complementarity between the dislocation model of Read and Shockley for low-angle boundaries and a broken-bond model for high-angle boundaries is thus elucidated.

  17. Setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, J.; Karlis, G.F.; Malinowski, L.J.; Beer, G

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, a methodology for setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models is proposed. The developed algorithm is applicable to discrete or coupled discrete/continuum modeling of underground excavation employing the discrete element method (DEM). Since the DEM works with contact forces rather than stresses there is a need for the conversion of pre-excavation stresses to contact forces for the DEM model. Different possibilities of setting up virgin stress conditions...

  18. ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME REACTION DIFFUSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.

  19. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR SEISMICITY INDUCED BY FAULT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenHuaran; LiYiqun; HeQiaoyun; ZhangJieqing; MaHongsheng; LiLi

    2003-01-01

    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the are a of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.

  20. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR SEISMICITY INDUCED BY FAULT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huaran; Li Yiqun; He Qiaoyun; Zhang Jieqing; Ma Hongsheng; Li Li

    2003-01-01

    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the area of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.

  1. Automatic procedure for realistic 3D finite element modelling of human brain for bioelectromagnetic computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristovich, K Y; Khan, S H, E-mail: kirill.aristovich.1@city.ac.u [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Realistic computer modelling of biological objects requires building of very accurate and realistic computer models based on geometric and material data, type, and accuracy of numerical analyses. This paper presents some of the automatic tools and algorithms that were used to build accurate and realistic 3D finite element (FE) model of whole-brain. These models were used to solve the forward problem in magnetic field tomography (MFT) based on Magnetoencephalography (MEG). The forward problem involves modelling and computation of magnetic fields produced by human brain during cognitive processing. The geometric parameters of the model were obtained from accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and the material properties - from those obtained from Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTMRI). The 3D FE models of the brain built using this approach has been shown to be very accurate in terms of both geometric and material properties. The model is stored on the computer in Computer-Aided Parametrical Design (CAD) format. This allows the model to be used in a wide a range of methods of analysis, such as finite element method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Monte-Carlo Simulations, etc. The generic model building approach presented here could be used for accurate and realistic modelling of human brain and many other biological objects.

  2. Discrete element modelling of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw

  3. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  4. Magnetic materials and 3D finite element modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, Joao Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Materials and 3D Finite Element Modeling explores material characterization and finite element modeling (FEM) applications. This book relates to electromagnetic analysis based on Maxwell’s equations and application of the finite element (FE) method to low frequency devices. A great source for senior undergraduate and graduate students in electromagnetics, it also supports industry professionals working in magnetics, electromagnetics, ferromagnetic materials science and electrical engineering. The authors present current concepts on ferromagnetic material characterizations and losses. They provide introductory material; highlight basic electromagnetics, present experimental and numerical modeling related to losses and focus on FEM applied to 3D applications. They also explain various formulations, and discuss numerical codes.

  5. Nonlinear finite element modeling of THUNDER piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-06-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  6. 3D finite element analysis of a metallic sphere scatterer comparison of first and second order vector absorbing boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, V. N.; Webb, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    A 3D vector analysis of plane wave scattering by a metallic sphere using finite elements and Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABCs) is presented. The ABCs are applied on the outer surface that truncates the infinitely extending domain. Mixed order curvilinear covariantprojection elements are used to avoid spurious corruptions. The second order ABC is superior to the first at no extra computational cost. The errors due to incomplete absorption decrease as the outer surface is moved further away from the scatterer. An error of about 1% in near-field values was obtained with the second order ABC, when the outer surface was less than half a wavelength from the scatterer. Une analyse tridimensionnelle vectorielle de la diffusion d'onde plane sur une sphère métallique utilisant des éléments finis et des Conditions aux Limites Absorbantes (CLA) est présentée. Les CLA sont appliquées sur la surface exteme tronquant le domaine s'étendant à l'infini. Des éléments curvilignes mixtes utilisant des projections covariantes sont utilisés pour éviter des solutions parasites. La CLA de second ordre est supérieure à celle de premier ordre sans effort de calcul additionnel. Les erreurs dues à l'absorption incomplète décroissent à mesure que l'on déplace la surface externe à une distance croissante du diffuseur. Un taux d'erreur d'environ 1 % dans les valeurs du champ proche a été obtenu avec les CLA de second ordre lorsque la surface externe était placée à une distance inférieure à une demi-longueur de la source de diffusion.

  7. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  8. Development and validation of a weight-bearing finite element model for total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiczinski, M; Steinbrück, A; Weber, P; Müller, P E; Jansson, V; Schröder, Ch

    2016-08-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure for osteoarthritis. However, some patients (19%) do have pain after surgery. A finite element model was developed based on boundary conditions of a knee rig. A 3D-model of an anatomical full leg was generated from magnetic resonance image data and a total knee prosthesis was implanted without patella resurfacing. In the finite element model, a restarting procedure was programmed in order to hold the ground reaction force constant with an adapted quadriceps muscle force during a squat from 20° to 105° of flexion. Knee rig experimental data were used to validate the numerical model in the patellofemoral and femorotibial joint. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses of Young's modulus of the patella cartilage, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) stiffness, and patella tendon origin were performed. Pearson's correlations for retropatellar contact area, pressure, patella flexion, and femorotibial ap-movement were near to 1. Lowest root mean square error for retropatellar pressure, patella flexion, and femorotibial ap-movement were found for the baseline model setup with Young's modulus of 5 MPa for patella cartilage, a downscaled PCL stiffness of 25% compared to the literature given value and an anatomical origin of the patella tendon. The results of the conducted finite element model are comparable with the experimental results. Therefore, the finite element model developed in this study can be used for further clinical investigations and will help to better understand the clinical aspects after TKA with an unresurfaced patella. PMID:26618541

  9. Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX-Pilot using NCMRWF model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swati Basu

    2000-06-01

    A global spectral model (T80L18) that is operational at NCMRWF is utilized to study the structure of the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot period. The vertical profiles of various meteorological parameters within the boundary layer are studied and verified against the available observations. The diurnal variation of various surface fields are also studied. The impact of non-local closure scheme for the boundary layer parameterisation is seen in simulation of the flow pattern as well as on the boundary layer structure over the oceanic region.

  10. Implementation of the Immersed Boundary Method in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, K A

    2006-12-07

    Accurate simulations of atmospheric boundary layer flow are vital for predicting dispersion of contaminant releases, particularly in densely populated urban regions where first responders must react within minutes and the consequences of forecast errors are potentially disastrous. Current mesoscale models do not account for urban effects, and conversely urban scale models do not account for mesoscale weather features or atmospheric physics. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop and implement an immersed boundary method (IBM) along with a surface roughness parameterization into the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. IBM will be used in WRF to represent the complex boundary conditions imposed by urban landscapes, while still including forcing from regional weather patterns and atmospheric physics. This document details preliminary results of this research, including the details of three distinct implementations of the immersed boundary method. Results for the three methods are presented for the case of a rotation influenced neutral atmospheric boundary layer over flat terrain.

  11. Conceptualizing professional development in mathematics: elements of a model

    OpenAIRE

    Sztajn, Paola; Campbell, Mathew; Yoon, Kwang Suk

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses the concept of models for mathematics professional development. After examining the related literature, we propose a definition of this concept that includes four elements: goals, theories, contexts, and structure. We present aspects of professional development that comprise each element.

  12. Key Elements of Effective Teaching in the Direct Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Roger H.

    Summaries and outlines are presented of key elements in effective teaching identified in research studies by Kounin (1970), Brophy (1973), Brophy and Evertson (1976), Stallings (1974; l975), Berliner (1979), and Good and Grouws (1979). These elements are synthesized in a direct teaching model that delineates the characteristics of effective…

  13. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory,

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  14. A new Planetary Boundary Layer model and its application to heavy rain modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; ZHOU Xiuji; ZHAO Ping

    2005-01-01

    A new Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) model (namely MY-4 in this paper) was developed with reference to Mellor-Yamada's Level 4 turbulent closure concept. Having been coupled with a meso-scale model MM5, MY-4 was utilized to simulate a heavy-rain process, which took place over South China during June 8-9, 1998. Its model outputs indicated that the rainfall process was well captured in terms of its intensity and geographical distribution. More importantly, in comparison with MM5's original boundary layer models, MY-4 made the following improvements: (1) MY-4 not only simulated the major weather systems like low vortexes and low-level jets more accurately, thus improving the general weather pattern of the rainfall process, but it was also capable of restraining the occurrence of false rainfall centers with maximum precipitation amounts exceeding 160 mm. (2) Having been compared with the wind profile observed at Hong Kong, it revealed that MY-4 could reproduce the wind speed fluctuations in a short time scale reasonably well, which was not yet achieved in the original PBL models in MM5. Furthermore, a more detailed comparative study was made on the results simulated by MY-4 and a PBL model (which is based on Mellor-Yamada's Level 2.5 concept) respectively. It showed that the contributions of turbulences generated by the two categories of PBL models to the wind fields at a lower atmosphere were increasingly different even in the first 1-2 hours of integrations. As the analysis demonstrated, under the nonlinear interactions within the meso-scale MM5 model, it was the turbulences in the boundary layer that had the most important impacts on the final model outputs and MY-4 seemed to better reflect this turbulent process, hence leading to the aforementioned improvements.

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Airflow During Phonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a mathematical model of airflow in human vocal folds is presented. The geometry of the glottal channel is based on measurements of excised human larynges. The airflow is modeled by nonstationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a 2D computational domain, which is deformed in time due to vocal fold vibration. The paper presents numerical results and focuses on flow separation in glottis. Quantitative data from numerical simulations are compared to results of measurements by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV, performed on a scaled self-oscillating physical model of vocal folds.

  16. Boundary Effects for One-Dimensional Bariev Model with Hard-Core Repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Jun; YUE Rui-Hong

    2004-01-01

    For the Bariey model for correlated hopping in one dimension under open boundary conditions, the Bethe ansatz equations are analyzed for both a repulsive and an attractive interaction in several limiting cases, i.e., the ground state, the weak and strong coupling limits. The contributions of the boundary fields to both the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are obtained.

  17. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gombor, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    The finite volume problem of O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries on a finite interval is investigated. The double row transfer matrix is diagonalized by Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. The boundary Bethe Yang equations for the particle rapidities and the accompanying Bethe Ansatz equations are derived.

  18. A PNJL Model for Adjoint Fermions with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on QCD-like theories has shown that the addition of adjoint fermions obeying periodic boundary conditions to gauge theories on $R^{3}\\times S^{1}$ can lead to a restoration of center symmetry and confinement for sufficiently small circumference $L$ of $S^{1}$. At small $L$, perturbation theory may be used reliably to compute the effective potential for the Polyakov loop $P$ in the compact direction. Periodic adjoint fermions act in opposition to the gauge fields, which by themselv...

  19. Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. C. Akuetevi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents crossing the equator is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and more, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.

  20. Poynting flux-conserving low-altitude boundary conditions for global magnetospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O. J.; Lyon, J. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for specifying low-altitude or inner boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. The single-fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method, with comparisons between simulations using LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions and the new flux-conserving boundary conditions. Identical idealized upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions and the same constant ionospheric conductance are used in both runs. The results show that, compared to LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions, the flux-conserving method improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the hemispheric integrated field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is close to the hemispheric total Joule heating of the ionosphere, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved. The MHD velocity and perpendicular currents are well-behaved near the inner boundary for the flux conserving boundary conditions.