Introductory lectures on critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khajehpour, M.R.H.
1988-09-01
After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs
Renormalization group and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Qing
2004-01-01
The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)
Strings, fields and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-07-01
The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-09-01
Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction (ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. The competition between two interedge tunneling processes taking place inside the constriction, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole (qp-qh) symmetry, is accounted for by computing the boundary theories of the system. This competition is found to determine the strong coupling configuration of the system. A separatrix of qp-qh symmetric gapless critical states is found to lie between the relevant RG flows to a metallic and an insulating configuration of the constriction system. This constitutes an interesting generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model. The features of the RG phase diagram are also confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with many recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. We also discuss and make predictions for the case of a constriction system with ν 2 = 5/2. (author)
Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gundlach Carsten
1999-01-01
Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.
Plasma boundary phenomena in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stangeby, P.C.
1989-06-01
The focus of this review is on processes occurring at the edge, and on the connection between boundary plasma - the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the radiating layer - and central plasma processes. Techniques used for edge diagnosis are reviewed and basic experimental information (n e and T e ) is summarized. Simple models of the SOL are summarized, and the most important effects of the boundary plasma - the influence on the fuel particles, impurities, and energy - on tokamak operation dealt with. Methods of manipulating and controlling edge conditions in tokamaks and the experimental data base for the edge during auxiliary heating of tokamaks are reviewed. Fluctuations and asymmetries at the edge are also covered. (9 tabs., 134 figs., 879 refs.)
Conformal field theories and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Bowei
1993-01-01
In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Two-dimensional critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.
1987-09-01
Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, W.L.
1981-12-01
Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400 0 C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO 4 or Na/PO 4 , were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360 0 C for the potassium system and 279 0 C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360 0 C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs
Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Newell, P.T.; Kelly, J.D.
1990-01-01
Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally anti-sunward for several hours at a time. The vortices strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, the authors argue that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer
From critical phenomena to gauge gields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Bellac, M.
1988-01-01
In this book the author gives an introduction to the following questions: critical phenomena (Landau theory, renormalization group, two dimensional models); Perturbation theory and renormalization, scalar euclidian field (Feynman diagrams, Callan-Symanzik equations); Quantum theory of scalar fields (path integrals in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, green functions and S matrix, quantization of Klein-Gordon field); Gauge theories (quantization of Dirac field and electromagnetic field, quantum electrodynamics, non-abelian gauge theories) [fr
Critical Phenomena Associated with Boson Stars
Hawley, Scott H.; Choptuik, Matthew W.
2001-01-01
We present a brief synopsis of related work (gr-qc/0007039), describing a study of black hole threshold phenomena for a self-gravitating, massive complex scalar field in spherical symmetry. We construct Type I critical solutions dynamically by tuning a one-parameter family of initial data consisting of a boson star and a massless real scalar field, and numerically evolving this data. The resulting critical solutions appear to correspond to boson stars on the unstable branch, as we show via co...
Renormalization group theory of critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, S.V.G.
1995-01-01
Renormalization group theory is a framework for describing those phenomena that involve a multitude of scales of variations of microscopic quantities. Systems in the vicinity of continuous phase transitions have spatial correlations at all length scales. The renormalization group theory and the pertinent background material are introduced and applied to some important problems in this monograph. The monograph begins with a historical survey of thermal phase transitions. The background material leading to the renormalization group theory is covered in the first three chapters. Then, the basic techniques of the theory are introduced and applied to magnetic critical phenomena in the next four chapters. The momentum space approach as well as the real space techniques are, thus, discussed in detail. Finally, brief outlines of applications of the theory to some of the related areas are presented in the last chapter. (author)
Characterizing critical phenomena via the Purcell effect
Silva Neto, M. B.; Szilard, D.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Farina, C.; Pinheiro, F. A.
2017-12-01
We investigate the role of phase transitions into the spontaneous-emission rate of a single quantum emitter embedded in a critical medium. Using a Landau-Ginzburg approach, we find that in the broken symmetry phase, the emission rate is reduced, or even suppressed, due to the photon mass generated by the Higgs mechanism. Remarkably, its sensitivity to the critical exponents of the phase transition allows for an optical determination of universality classes. When applied to the cases of superconductivity and superfluidity, we show that the Purcell effect also provides valuable information on spectroscopic and thermodynamic quantities, such as the size of the superconducting gap and the discontinuity in the specific heat at the transition. By unveiling that a deeper connection between the Purcell effect and phase transitions exists, we demonstrate that the former is an efficient optical probe of distinct critical phenomena and their associated observables.
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha [Engineering Faculty, Başkent University, Bağlıca Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Marques, Glauber T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia ICIBE-LASIC, Av. Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, CEP 66077-901—Belém/PA (Brazil); Rodrigues, Manuel E., E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr, E-mail: gtadaiesky@hotmail.com, E-mail: esialg@gmail.com [Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus Universitário de Abaetetuba, CEP 68440-000, Abaetetuba, Pará (Brazil)
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Critical phenomena and renormalization group transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellani, C.; Castro, C. di
1980-01-01
Our main goal is to guide the reader to find out the common rational behind the various renormalization procedures which have been proposed in the last ten years. In the first part of these lectures old arguments on universality and scaling will be briefly recalled. To our opinion these introductory remarks allow one to stress the physical origin of the two majore renormalization procedures, which have been used in the theory of critical phenomena: the Wilson and the field theoretic approach. All the general properties of a ''good'' renormalization transformation will also come out quite naturally. (author)
Quantum field theory and critical phenomena
Zinn-Justin, Jean
1996-01-01
Over the last twenty years quantum field theory has become not only the framework for the discussion of all fundamental interactions except gravity, but also for the understanding of second-order phase transitions in statistical mechanics. This advanced text is based on graduate courses and summer schools given by the author over a number of years. It approaches the subject in terms of path and functional intergrals, adopting a Euclidean metric and using the language of partition and correlation functions. Renormalization and the renormalization group are examined, as are critical phenomena and the role of instantons. Changes for this edition 1. Extensive revision to eliminate a few bugs that had survived the second edition and (mainly) to improve the pedagogical presentation, as a result of experience gathered by lecturing. 2. Additional new topics; holomorphic or coherent state path integral; functional integral and representation of the field theory S-matrix in the holomorphic formalis; non-relativistic li...
Introduction to the critical and multicritical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salinas, S.R.A.
1982-09-01
The behavior of matter in the neighborhood of simple critical points is treated. The concepts of critical exponents and universality is introduced and the classical theories of the critical behavior and the phenomenological scaling theories of the thermodynamic functions and the critical correlations are described. Finally, a description of the theory of the renormalization group, which gives the microscopic bases of the scaling laws is ended . Four types of multicritical points which have already been detected in solid crystals tricritical, bicritical, tetracritical, and Lifshitz points are studied. Landa's theory and the formulation of the scaling laws in the neighborhood of these points is described. Also, the main features of some theoretical models which produce multicritical points-the Ising metamagnet and BEG model, which exhibit tricritical points, and the ANNNI model, which exhibits a Lifshitz point are described. The renormalization group approach in the Fourier space to the Ising metamagnet, and the new techniques of partial differential aproximants to analyze the scaling behavior in the neighborhood of the multicritical points are presented. (Author) [pt
Introduction to critical and multicritical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salinas, S.R.A.
1984-01-01
The behavior of matter in the neighborhood of simple critical points is treated. The concepts of critical exponents and universality are introduced, and the classical theories of the critical behavior and the phenomenological scaling theories of the thermodynamic functions and the critical correlations are described. Finally the first part is ended with a discription of the theory of the renormalization group, which gives the microscopic bases of the scaling laws. In the second part of these notes four types of multicritical points which have already been detected in solid crystals; tricritical, bicritical, tetracritical, and Lifshitz points are studied. Landau's theory and the formulation of the scaling laws in the neighborhood of these points is described. The main features of some theoretical models which produce multicritical points - the Ising metamagnet and the BEG model which exhibit tricritical points, and the ANNNI model, which exhibits a Lifshitz point are also described. The renormalization group approach in the Fourier space to the Ising metamagnet, and the new techniques of partial differential approximants to analyze the scaling behavior in the neighborhood of the multicritical points is presented. (Author) [pt
Developing Critical Thinking through the Study of Paranormal Phenomena.
Wesp, Richard; Montgomery, Kathleen
1998-01-01
Argues that accounts of paranormal phenomena can serve as an ideal medium in which to encourage students to develop critical-thinking skills. Describes a cooperative-learning approach used to teach critical thinking in a course on paranormal events. Reports that critical-thinking skills increased and that the course received favorable student…
Introductory note on phase transitions and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
The author briefly reviews the development of classical statistical mechanics, particularly the contributions of Gibbs. The author then turns to quantum mechanical formulations of phase transitions and critical phenomena, mentioning several seminal works
Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador
Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.
2014-02-01
Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).
Quantum critical phenomena and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhe Chang.
1995-05-01
We show that the Abelian bosonization of continuum limit of the 1D Hubbard model corresponds to the 2D explicitly conformal invariant Gaussian model at weak coupling limit. A universality argument is used to extend the equivalence to an entire segment of the critical line of the strongly correlated electron system. An integral equation satisfied by the mapping function between critical lines of the 1D Hubbard model and 2D Gaussian model is obtained and then solved in some limiting cases. By making use of the fact that the free Hubbard system reduces to four fermions and each of them is related to a c = 1/2 conformal field theory, we present exactly the partition function of the Hubbard model on a finite 1D lattice. (author). 16 refs
Critical phenomena in magnetic vortex formation probed by noise spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitoh, E.; Harii, K.; Miyajima, H.; Yamaoka, T.
2004-01-01
Transition between a vortex magnetic state and a uniform magnetic state in a Ni 81 Fe 19 mesoscopic ring has been investigated in terms of resistive-noise spectroscopy. The observed low-frequency noise exhibits critical enhancement around the magnetization saturation. This noise enhancement can be argued from the viewpoint of the critical phenomena due to the chiral-symmetry breakdown of mesoscopic magnetic-structure, which can present a typical mechanism of symmetry transition of magnetic structure in mesoscopic ferromagnets
The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olvera de la C, M.
1981-01-01
An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, W.L.
1982-01-01
Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400 0 C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO 4 or Na/PO 4 , were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360 0 C for the potassium system and 279 0 C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360 0 C did not produce solid phases or liquid-liquid immisibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators
Random walks, critical phenomena, and triviality in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, R.; Froehlich, J.; Sokal, A.D.
1992-01-01
The subject of this book is equilibrium statistical mechanics - in particular the theory of critical phenomena - and quantum field theory. A general review of the theory of critical phenomena in spin systems, field theories, and random-walk and random-surface models is presented. Among the more technical topics treated in this book, the central theme is the use of random-walk representations as a tool to derive correlation inequalities. The consequences of these inequalities for critical-exponent theory and the triviality question in quantum field theory are expounded in detail. The book contains some previously unpublished results. It addresses both the researcher and the graduate student in modern statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. (orig.)
Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.
1993-01-01
This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref
SUPERCOMPUTER SIMULATION OF CRITICAL PHENOMENA IN COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrus M.A. Sloot
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a problem of computer simulation of critical phenomena in complex social systems on a petascale computing systems in frames of complex networks approach. The three-layer system of nested models of complex networks is proposed including aggregated analytical model to identify critical phenomena, detailed model of individualized network dynamics and model to adjust a topological structure of a complex network. The scalable parallel algorithm covering all layers of complex networks simulation is proposed. Performance of the algorithm is studied on different supercomputing systems. The issues of software and information infrastructure of complex networks simulation are discussed including organization of distributed calculations, crawling the data in social networks and results visualization. The applications of developed methods and technologies are considered including simulation of criminal networks disruption, fast rumors spreading in social networks, evolution of financial networks and epidemics spreading.
Conformal field theory and 2D critical phenomena. Part 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1989-01-01
Review of the recent developments in the two-dimensional conformal field theory and especially its applications to the physics of 2D critical phenomena is given. It includes the Ising model, the Potts model. Minimal models, corresponding to theories invariant under higher symmetries, such as superconformal theories, parafermionic theories and theories with current and W-algebras are also discussed. Non-hamiltonian approach to two-dimensional field theory is formulated. 126 refs
Universal role of correlation entropy in critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Shijian; Sun Changpu; Lin Haiqing
2008-01-01
In statistical physics, if we divide successively an equilibrium system into two parts, we will face a situation that, to a certain length ξ, the physics of a subsystem is no longer the same as the original one. The extensive property of the thermal entropy S(A union B) = S(A) + S(B) is then violated. This observation motivates us to introduce a concept of correlation entropy between two points, as measured by the mutual information in information theory, to study the critical phenomena. A rigorous relation is established to display some drastic features of the non-vanishing correlation entropy of a subsystem formed by any two distant particles with long-range correlation. This relation actually indicates a universal role played by the correlation entropy for understanding the critical phenomena. We also verify these analytical studies in terms of two well-studied models for both the thermal and quantum phase transitions: the two-dimensional Ising model and the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model. Therefore, the correlation entropy provides us with a new physical intuition of the critical phenomena from the point of view of information theory
Enthalpy - entropy compensation effect in grain boundary phenomena
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lejček, Pavel
2005-01-01
Roč. 96, č. 10 (2005), s. 1129-1133 ISSN 0044-3093 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FF-P2/053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : compensation effect * enthalpy * entropy * thermodynamics * grain boundary Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2005
Critical phenomena in quasi-two-dimensional vibrated granular systems.
Guzmán, Marcelo; Soto, Rodrigo
2018-01-01
The critical phenomena associated to the liquid-to-solid transition of quasi-two-dimensional vibrated granular systems is studied using molecular dynamics simulations of the inelastic hard sphere model. The critical properties are associated to the fourfold bond-orientational order parameter χ_{4}, which measures the level of square crystallization of the system. Previous experimental results have shown that the transition of χ_{4}, when varying the vibration amplitude, can be either discontinuous or continuous, for two different values of the height of the box. Exploring the amplitude-height phase space, a transition line is found, which can be either discontinuous or continuous, merging at a tricritical point and the continuous branch ends in an upper critical point. In the continuous transition branch, the critical properties are studied. The exponent associated to the amplitude of the order parameter is β=1/2, for various system sizes, in complete agreement with the experimental results. However, the fluctuations of χ_{4} do not show any critical behavior, probably due to crossover effects by the close presence of the tricritical point. Finally, in quasi-one-dimensional systems, the transition is only discontinuous, limited by one critical point, indicating that two is the lower dimension for having a tricritical point.
Development of INCTAC code for analyzing criticality accident phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitake, Susumu; Hayashi, Yamato; Sakurai, Shungo
2003-01-01
Aiming at understanding nuclear transients and thermal- and hydraulic-phenomena of the criticality accident, a code named INCTAC has been newly developed at the Institute of Nuclear Safety. The code is applicable to the analysis of criticality accident transients of aqueous homogenous fuel solution system. Neutronic transient model is composed of equations for the kinetics and for the spatial distributions, which are deduced from the time dependent multi-group transport equations with the quasi steady state assumption. Thermal-hydraulic transient model is composed of a complete set of the mass, momentum and energy equations together with the two-phase flow assumptions. Validation tests of INCTAC were made using the data obtained at TRACY, a transient experiment criticality facility of JAERI. The calculated results with INCTAC showed a very good agreement with the experiment data, except a slight discrepancy of the time when the peak of reactor power was attained. But, the discrepancy was resolved with the use of an adequate model for movement and transfer of the void in the fuel solution mostly generated by radiolysis. With a simulation model for the transport of radioactive materials through ventilation systems to the environment, INCTAC will be used as an overall safety evaluation code of the criticality accident. (author)
Wilson's theory of critical phenomena. Higher order corrections to critical exponents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
1973-01-01
The Wilson's theory of critical phenomena is presented, in the context of renormalized field theory in d dimension and of the Callan-Symanzik equations. This theory allows in particular to compute critical exponents that govern the behavior of some correlation functions near the critical temperature, as power series in epsilon=4-d, using the standard perturbation theory. Owing to the large value of the expansion parameter epsilon, whose physical value is one, it is very important to perform higher order calculations [fr
Critical phenomena and polymer coil-to-globule transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, B.; Xu Renliang; Wang Zhulun; Zuo Ju
1988-01-01
Small-angle scattering techniques including laser light scattering (LLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) have been useful tools to measure the static and dynamic properties (in terms of critical fluctuations) of fluids, fluid mixtures, polymer and micellar solutions, polymer blends and metallic alloys. A brief review is given of recent results in critical-phenomena experiments using small-angle scattering techniques. Topics of current interest are pointed out, and a guide to the vast literature on critical opalescence is provided. Coil-to-globule transition in polymer solutions has been a classic experimental challenge over the past decade. In order to succeed in reaching the collapsed regime, it becomes important to realize that single coil contraction of a linear polymer molecule in solution takes place in the neighborhood of phase separations. By using the recent development of a small-angle light-scattering spectrometer and by taking advantage of a successful polymer fractionation experiment, the transition behavior of linear polystyrene in cyclohexane from the Θ state to the collapsed regime can be characterized based on both the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius. (orig.)
Recent developments in the theory of critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, B.
1974-01-01
The work of Kadanoff, Wilson and Wegner, in the language of Euclidian field theory, is revised. In addition to Wilson's renormalization group method, which is based on the idea of eliminating short range fluctuations, the renormalization method of quantum field theory is discussed, which, in the present context, is called reparametrization (in order to avoid confusion). A reparametrization which is of particular interest in the theory of critical phenomena is the one which leads to scaling equations. New scaling equations which remain free of infrared divergences in two and three dimensions, are derived. The method allows a rather compact and unified discussion of Kadanoff's scaling laws and the related concept of global scaling fields, as well as the scale invariant correlation functions [pt
Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Chalyi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the
Stokes phenomena and quantum integrability in non-critical string/M theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Irie, Hirotaka; Yeh, Chi-Hsien
2012-01-01
We study Stokes phenomena of the k×k isomonodromy systems with an arbitrary Poincaré index r, especially which correspond to the fractional-superstring (or parafermionic-string) multi-critical points (p-hat,q-hat)=(1,r-1) in the k-cut two-matrix models. Investigation of this system is important for the purpose of figuring out the non-critical version of M theory which was proposed to be the strong-coupling dual of fractional superstring theory as a two-matrix model with an infinite number of cuts. Surprisingly the multi-cut boundary-condition recursion equations have a universal form among the various multi-cut critical points, and this enables us to show explicit solutions of Stokes multipliers in quite wide classes of (k,r). Although these critical points almost break the intrinsic Z k symmetry of the multi-cut two-matrix models, this feature makes manifest a connection between the multi-cut boundary-condition recursion equations and the structures of quantum integrable systems. In particular, it is uncovered that the Stokes multipliers satisfy multiple Hirota equations (i.e. multiple T-systems). Therefore our result provides a large extension of the ODE/IM correspondence to the general isomonodromy ODE systems endowed with the multi-cut boundary conditions. We also comment about a possibility that N=2 QFT of Cecotti-Vafa would be “topological series” in non-critical M theory equipped with a single quantum integrability.
Study of two-phase boundary layer phenomena in boiling water by means of photographic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molen, S.B. van der
1976-01-01
The behaviour of bubbles in the boundary layer of a two-phase flow is important for the heat exchange between the heat production unit and the cooling medium. Theoretical knowledge of the forces on a bubble and the interaction between molecules of different kind are essential for understanding the phenomena. The photographic techniques are needed for the investigation of the bubble pattern which exists where we find Departure from Nucleate Boiling. (orig.) [de
Boundary layer phenomena for differential-delay equations with state-dependent time lags, I.
Mallet-Paret, John; Nussbaum, Roger D.
1992-11-01
In this paper we begin a study of the differential-delay equation \\varepsilon x'(t) = - x(t) + f(x(t - r)), r = r(x(t)) . We prove the existence of periodic solutions for 0equations. In a companion paper these results will be used to investigate the limiting profile and corresponding boundary layer phenomena for periodic solutions as ɛ approaches zero.
Critical boundary sine-Gordon revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasselfield, M.; Lee, Taejin; Semenoff, G.W.; Stamp, P.C.E.
2006-01-01
We revisit the exact solution of the two space-time dimensional quantum field theory of a free massless boson with a periodic boundary interaction and self-dual period. We analyze the model by using a mapping to free fermions with a boundary mass term originally suggested in Ref. [J. Polchinski, L. Thorlacius, Phys. Rev. D 50 (1994) 622]. We find that the entire SL (2, C) family of boundary states of a single boson are boundary sine-Gordon states and we derive a simple explicit expression for the boundary state in fermion variables and as a function of sine-Gordon coupling constants. We use this expression to compute the partition function. We observe that the solution of the model has a strong-weak coupling generalization of T-duality. We then examine a class of recently discovered conformal boundary states for compact bosons with radii which are rational numbers times the self-dual radius. These have simple expression in fermion variables. We postulate sine-Gordon-like field theories with discrete gauge symmetries for which they are the appropriate boundary states
Two-dimensional fractal geometry, critical phenomena and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplantier, B.
1988-01-01
The universal properties of critical geometrical systems in two-dimensions (2D) like the O (n) and Potts models, are described in the framework of Coulomb gas methods and conformal invariance. The conformal spectrum of geometrical critical systems obtained is made of a discrete infinite series of scaling dimensions. Specific applications involve the fractal properties of self-avoiding walks, percolation clusters, and also some non trivial critical exponents or fractal dimensions associated with subsets of the planar Brownian motion. The statistical mechanics of the same critical models on a random 2D lattice (namely in presence of a critically-fluctuating metric, in the so-called 2D quantum gravity) is also addressed, and the above critical geometrical systems are shown to be exactly solvable in this case. The new ''gravitational'' conformal spectrum so derived is found to satisfy the recent Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov quadratic relation which links it to the standard conformal spectrum in the plane
Dynamical critical phenomena in driven-dissipative systems.
Sieberer, L M; Huber, S D; Altman, E; Diehl, S
2013-05-10
We explore the nature of the Bose condensation transition in driven open quantum systems, such as exciton-polariton condensates. Using a functional renormalization group approach formulated in the Keldysh framework, we characterize the dynamical critical behavior that governs decoherence and an effective thermalization of the low frequency dynamics. We identify a critical exponent special to the driven system, showing that it defines a new dynamical universality class. Hence critical points in driven systems lie beyond the standard classification of equilibrium dynamical phase transitions. We show how the new critical exponent can be probed in experiments with driven cold atomic systems and exciton-polariton condensates.
Crossover phenomena in the critical range near magnetic ordering transition
Köbler, U.
2018-05-01
Among the most important issues of Renormalization Group (RG) theory are crossover events and relevant (or non-relevant) interactions. These terms are unknown to atomistic theories but they will be decisive for future field theories of magnetism. In this experimental study the importance of these terms for the critical dynamics above and below magnetic ordering transition is demonstrated on account of new analyses of published data. When crossover events are overlooked and critical data are fitted by a single power function of temperature over a temperature range including a crossover event, imprecise critical exponents result. The rather unsystematic and floating critical exponents reported in literature seem largely to be due to this problem. It is shown that for appropriate data analyses critical exponents are obtained that are to a good approximation rational numbers. In fact, rational critical exponents can be expected when spin dynamics is controlled by the bosons of the continuous magnetic medium (Goldstone bosons). The bosons are essentially magnetic dipole radiation generated by the precessing spins. As a result of the here performed data analyses, critical exponents for the magnetic order parameter of β = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 are obtained. For the critical paramagnetic susceptibility the exponents are γ = 1 and γ = 4/3.
Critical phenomena at perfect and non-perfect surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleimling, M
2004-01-01
In the past, perfect surfaces have been shown to yield local critical behaviour that differs from bulk critical behaviour. On the other hand, surface defects, whether they are of natural origin or created artificially, are known to modify local quantities. It is therefore important to clarify whether these defects are relevant or irrelevant for the surface critical behaviour. The purpose of this review is two-fold. In the first part we summarize some of the important results on surface criticality at perfect surfaces. Special attention is thereby paid to new developments such as for example the study of the surface critical behaviour in systems with competing interactions or of surface critical dynamics. In the second part the effect of surface defects (presence of edges, steps, quenched randomness, lines of adatoms, regular geometric patterns) on local critical behaviour in semi-infinite systems and in thin films is discussed in detail. Whereas most of the defects commonly encountered are shown to be irrelevant, some notable exceptions are highlighted. It is shown furthermore that under certain circumstances non-universal local critical behaviour may be observed at surfaces. (topical review)
Marginalism, quasi-marginalism and critical phenomena in micellar solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reatto, L.
1986-01-01
The observed nonuniversal critical behaviour of some micellar solutions is interpreted in terms of quasi-marginalism, i.e. the presence of a coupling which scales with an exponent very close to the spatial dimensionality. This can give rise to a preasymptotic region with varying effective critical exponents with a final crossover to the Ising ones. The reduced crossover temperature is estimated to be below 10 -6 . The exponents β and γ measured in C 12 e 5 are in good agreement with the scaling law expected to hold for the effective exponents. The model considered by Shnidman is found unable to explain the nonuniversal critical behaviour
SANS studies of critical phenomena in ternary mixtures
Bulavyn, L A; Hohryakov, A; Garamus, V; Avdeev, M; Almasy, L
2002-01-01
Critical behaviour of a quasi-binary liquid mixture is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the changes of the critical parameters, caused by addition of a small amount of electrolyte into the binary mixture 3-methylpyridine-heavy water, shows that the third component does not change the 3D Ising-type behaviour of the system; a crossover towards the mean-field behaviour is not observed. (orig.)
Critical Phenomena of the Disorder Driven Localization-Delocalization Transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marc Ruehlaender
2001-01-01
Metal-to-insulator transitions are generally linked to two phenomena: electron-electron correlations and disorder. Although real systems are usually responding to a mixture of both, they can be classified as undergoing a Mott-transition, if the former process dominates, or an Anderson-transition, if the latter dominates. High-T c superconductors, e.g., are a candidate for the first class. Materials in which disorder drives the metal-to-insulator transition include doped semiconductors and amorphous materials. After briefly reviewing the previous research on transport in disordered materials and the disorder-induced metal-to-insulator transition, a summary of the model and the methods used in subsequent chapters is given
Scattering of neutrons and critical phenomena in antiferromagnetic fermi liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, I.A.; Barannik, E.A.
1980-01-01
The scattering of slow neutrons in an antiferromagnetic with collectivized magnetic electrons is considered and it is shown to significantly differ from the neutron scattering in an antiferromagnetic with localized magnetic electrons. The behaviour of scattering cross sections and fluctuation correlators near the Neel point is studied. These magnitudes are shown to increase with the critical index r=-1 [ru
Type II critical phenomena of neutron star collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, Scott C.; Choptuik, Matthew W.
2008-01-01
We investigate spherically symmetric, general relativistic systems of collapsing perfect fluid distributions. We consider neutron star models that are driven to collapse by the addition of an initially 'ingoing' velocity profile to the nominally static star solution. The neutron star models we use are Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff solutions with an initially isentropic, gamma law equation of state. The initial values of (1) the amplitude of the velocity profile, and (2) the central density of the star, span a parameter space, and we focus only on that region that gives rise to type II critical behavior, wherein black holes of arbitrarily small mass can be formed. In contrast to previously published work, we find that--for a specific value of the adiabatic index (Γ=2)--the observed type II critical solution has approximately the same scaling exponent as that calculated for an ultrarelativistic fluid of the same index. Further, we find that the critical solution computed using the ideal-gas equations of state asymptotes to the ultrarelativistic critical solution.
Critical phenomena and chemical potential of a charged AdS black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liang, Bin; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2017-12-01
Inspired by the interpretation of the cosmological constant from the boundary gauge theory, we here treat it as the number of colors N and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential μ in the black hole side. Then the thermodynamics and the chemical potential for a five-dimensional charged AdS black hole are studied. It is found that there exists a small-large black hole phase transition of van der Waals type. The critical phenomena are investigated in the N2-μ chart. The result implies that the phase transition can occur for large number of colors N , while is forbidden for small number. This to some extent implies that the interaction of the system increases with the number. In particular, in the reduced parameter space, all the thermodynamic quantities can be rescaled with the black hole charge such that these reduced quantities are charge-independent. Then we obtain the coexistence curve and the phase diagram. The latent heat is also numerically calculated. Moreover, the heat capacity and the thermodynamic scalar are studied. The result indicates that the information of the first-order black hole phase transition is encoded in the heat capacity and scalar. However, the phase transition point cannot be directly calculated with them. Nevertheless, the critical point linked to a second-order phase transition can be determined by either the heat capacity or the scalar. In addition, we calculate the critical exponents of the heat capacity and the scalar for the saturated small and large black holes near the critical point.
Search for critical phenomena in Pb - Pb collisions
Kopytine, Mikhail L.; Boggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Conin, L.; Dodd, J.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C.W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D.E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Hansen, A.G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; Van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E.B.; Humanic, T.J.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B.V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaimi, K.; Kaneta, M.; Kohama, T.; Leltchouk, M.; Ljubicic, A., Jr.; Lorstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Martin, L.; Medvedev, A.; Murray, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S.U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Schmidt-Sorensen, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W.J.; Wolf, K.L.; Xu, N.; Zachary, D.S.; Kopytine, Mikhail
2001-01-01
NA44 uses a 512 channel Si pad array covering $1.5 <\\eta < 3.3$ to study charged hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a Discrete Wavelet Transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions event-by-event, by simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. Scanning a broad range of multiplicities, we look for a possible critical behaviour in the power spectra of local density fluctuations. The data are compared with detailed simulations of detector response, using heavy ion event generators, and with a reference sample created via event mixing.
Critical crossover phenomena in compatible polymer blends studied with SANS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwahn, D.; Janssen, S.; Willner, L.
1995-01-01
Polymer blends show a much larger 3d-Ising regime, e.g. a much larger Ginzburg number Gi than predicted by the Ginzburg criterion. This discrepancy is supposed to be explained by the compressibility or the free volume of the blend. In this paper we present and discuss the Gi number of polymer...... on monomeric microstructure and on pressure. This clearly shows that Gi is not a universal function. The observed strong decrease of Gi with pressure is a clear experimental proof that the critical crossover behaviour in polymer blends is indeed strongly influenced by the compressibility or free volume...
Geometrical critical phenomena on a random surface of arbitrary genus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplantier, B.; Kostov, I.K.
1990-01-01
The statistical mechanics of self-avoiding walks (SAW) or of the O(n)-loop model on a two-dimensional random surface are shown to be exactly solvable. The partition functions of SAW and surface configurations (possibly in the presence of vacuum loops) are calculated by planar diagram enumeration techniques. Two critical regimes are found: a dense phase where the infinite walks and loops fill the infinite surface, the non-filled part staying finite, and a dilute phase where the infinite surface singularity on the one hand, and walk and loop singularities on the other, merge together. The configuration critical exponents of self-avoiding networks of any fixed topology G, on a surface with arbitrary genus H, are calculated as universal functions of G and H. For self-avoiding walks, the exponents are built from an infinite set of basic conformal dimensions associated with central charges c = -2 (dense phase) and c = 0 (dilute phase). The conformal spectrum Δ L , L ≥ 1 associated with L-leg star polymers is calculated exactly, for c = -2 and c = 0. This is generalized to the set of L-line 'watermelon' exponents Δ L of the O(n) model on a random surface. The divergences of the partition functions of self-avoiding networks on the random surface, possibly in the presence of vacuum loops, are shown to satisfy a factorization theorem over the vertices of the network. This provides a proof, in the presence of a fluctuating metric, of a result conjectured earlier in the standard plane. From this, the value of the string susceptibility γ str (H,c) is extracted for a random surface of arbitrary genus H, bearing a field theory of central charge c, or equivalently, embedded in d=c dimensions. Lastly, by enumerating spanning trees on a random lattice, we solve the similar problem of hamiltonian walks on the (fluctuating) Manhattan covering lattice. We also obtain new results for dilute trees on a random surface. (orig./HSI)
Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown
Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.
The critical boundary RSOS M(3,5) model
El Deeb, O.
2017-12-01
We consider the critical nonunitary minimal model M(3, 5) with integrable boundaries and analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz ( TBA) equations. Solving the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A 4 restricted solid-on-solid Forrester-Baxter lattice model in regime III in the continuum scaling limit, we derive the integral TBA equations for all excitations in the ( r, s) = (1, 1) sector and then determine their corresponding energies. We classify the excitations in terms of ( m, n) systems.
Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer
Blay, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Faloona, I.; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O.K.
2012-01-01
Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Тетяна Андріївна Непокупна
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This article analyzes the global transformations and their impact on the main society life; the specifics of modern interpretations of events and phenomena, their destabilizing effects on behavior, health and life of humans; the role of economic sciences in the formation of critical thinking as a means of combating ignorance and propaganda, formation of an objective world view that grounded on knowledge
Connectivity: a primer in phase transitions and critical phenomena for students of particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanley, H.E.
1983-01-01
This introduction to the phase transitions and critical phenomena focuses on the theme of connectivity, and illustrates concepts with a paradigm of connectivity, such as the percolation problem. The phenomenon of bond percolation, where a finite section of ''fence'' has both conducting and insulating links, is described. Three approaches to the study of connectivity phenomena are described: exact enumeration procedures, Monte Carlo simulation, and renormalization groups. Exact enumeration probabilities are calculated. Lattice animals are discussed. Computer simulation is described as simple: assign random numbers, then design algorithms that recognize clusters. The Monte Carlo simulations have not lead to higher accuracy in predicting critical exponents, but have given a graphic illustration of what a million-site cluster looks like. The incipient infinite cluster can also be described. In this case, the magnetic correlations of a dilute magnetic system will spread along the ''backbone bonds'' rather than by ''dangling ends.'' Renormalization group approaches are also treated. Finally, relations between connectivity and models of critical thermal phenomena such as the Ising Model, the Potts model, and polychromatic generalization of the Potts Model, are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, N.; Katori, M.; Tsallis, C.; Suzuki, M.
1989-01-01
A general procedure to study critical phenomena of magnetic systems is discussed. It consists of systematic series of Landau-like approximations (Extended Variational Method) and the coherent-anomaly method (CAM). As for susceptibility, the present method is equivalent to the power-series CAM theory. On the other hand, the EVM gives a set of new approximants for other physical quantities. Applications to d-dimensional Ising ferromagnets are also described. The critical points and exponents are estimated with high accuracy. (author) [pt
Critical Phenomena in Higher Curvature Charged AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arindam Lala
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes. We have considered Lovelock-Born-Infeld-AdS black hole as an example. The thermodynamics of the black hole have been studied which reveals the onset of a higher-order phase transition in the black hole in the canonical ensemble (fixed charge ensemble framework. We have analytically derived the critical exponents associated with these thermodynamic quantities. We find that our results fit well with the thermodynamic scaling laws and consistent with the mean field theory approximation. The suggestive values of the other two critical exponents associated with the correlation function and correlation length on the critical surface have been derived.
Dynamic critical phenomena in two-dimensional fully frustrated Coulomb gas model with disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Wei; Luo Mengbo
2008-01-01
The dynamic critical phenomena near depinning transition in two-dimensional fully frustrated square lattice Coulomb gas model with disorders was studied using Monte Carlo technique. The ground state of the model system with disorder σ=0.3 is a disordered state. The dependence of charge current density J on electric field E was investigated at low temperatures. The nonlinear J-E behavior near critical depinning field can be described by a scaling function proposed for three-dimensional flux line system [M.B. Luo, X. Hu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 267002]. We evaluated critical exponents and found an Arrhenius creep motion for field region E c /2 c . The scaling law of the depinning transition is also obtained from the scaling function
Theory of critical phenomena in finite-size systems scaling and quantum effects
Brankov, Jordan G; Tonchev, Nicholai S
2000-01-01
The aim of this book is to familiarise the reader with the rich collection of ideas, methods and results available in the theory of critical phenomena in systems with confined geometry. The existence of universal features of the finite-size effects arising due to highly correlated classical or quantum fluctuations is explained by the finite-size scaling theory. This theory (1) offers an interpretation of experimental results on finite-size effects in real systems; (2) gives the most reliable tool for extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit of data obtained by computer simulations; (3) reveals
About Merging Threshold and Critical Flux Concepts into a Single One: The Boundary Flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Stoller
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the last decades much effort was put in understanding fouling phenomena on membranes. One successful approach to describe fouling issues on membranes is the critical flux theory. The possibility to measure a maximum value of the permeate flux for a given system without incurring in fouling issues was a breakthrough in membrane process design. However, in many cases critical fluxes were found to be very low, lower than the economic feasibility of the process. The knowledge of the critical flux value must be therefore considered as a good starting point for process design. In the last years, a new concept was introduced, the threshold flux, which defines the maximum permeate flow rate characterized by a low constant fouling rate regime. This concept, more than the critical flux, is a new practical tool for membrane process designers. In this paper a brief review on critical and threshold flux will be reported and analyzed. And since the concepts share many common aspects, merged into a new concept, called the boundary flux, the validation will occur by the analysis of previously collected data by the authors, during the treatment of olive vegetation wastewater by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes.
Costa, Antonio
2016-04-01
Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.
Direct observations of grain boundary phenomena during indentation of Al and Al-Mg thin films
Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM; Minor, AM; Stach, EA; Morris, Joan K.; Corcoran, SG; Joo, YC; Moody, NR; Suo, Z
2004-01-01
The deformation behaviour of Al and Al-Mg thin films has been studied with the unique experimental approach of in-situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope. This paper concentrates on the role of solute Mg additions in the transfer of plasticity across grain boundaries. The
Gaina, Alex
1996-08-01
Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.
An alternative perspective to observe the critical phenomena of dilaton black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mo, Jie-Xiong [Lingnan Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China)
2017-08-15
The critical phenomena of dilaton black holes are probed from a totally different perspective other than the P-v criticality and the q-U criticality discussed in former literature. We investigate not only the two point correlation function but also the entanglement entropy of dilaton black holes. For both the two point correlation function and the entanglement entropy we consider 4 x 2 x 2 = 16 cases due to different choices of parameters. The van der Waals-like behavior can be clearly witnessed from all the T -δL (T -δS) graphs for q < q{sub c}. Moreover, the effects of dilaton gravity and the spacetime dimensionality on the phase structure of dilaton black holes are disclosed. Furthermore, we discuss the stability of dilaton black holes by applying the analogous specific heat definition and remove the unstable branch by introducing a bar T = T{sub *}. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature T{sub *} is affected by both α and n. The analogous equal area laws for both the T -δL graph and the T -δS graph are examined numerically. The relative errors for all cases are small enough so that we can safely conclude that the analogous equal area laws hold for T -δL (T -δS) graph of dilaton black holes. (orig.)
Precise Measurements of the Density and Critical Phenomena Near Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium
Yeh, Nai-Chang
1997-01-01
The first-year progress for the project of precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena of helium near phase transitions is summarized below: (1) completion of a cryogenic sample probe for the proposed measurements, and the rehabilitation of a designated laboratory at Caltech for this project; (2) construction and testing of a superconducting niobium cavity; (3) acquisition of one phase-locked-loop system for high-resolution frequency control and read- out; (4) setting up high-resolution thermometry (HRT) for temperature readout and control; (5) developing new approaches for calibrating the coefficient between the resonant frequency shift (delta f) and the helium density (rho), as well as for measuring the effect of gravity on T(sub lambda) to a much better precision; (6) programming of the interface control of all instruments for automatic data acquisition; and (7) improving data analyses and fitting procedures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossetete, C.
1992-09-01
The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes
Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.
2015-02-01
Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic approach under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejlikhov, E.Z.; Farzetdinova, R.M.
1997-01-01
Critical current of inhomogeneous intergranular Josephson transition is calculated in the assumption concerning superconductivity suppression by local strains of boundary dislocations with random distribution
Critical phenomena of regular black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Zhong-Ying [Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2017-04-15
In General Relativity, addressing coupling to a non-linear electromagnetic field, together with a negative cosmological constant, we obtain the general static spherical symmetric black hole solution with magnetic charges, which is asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a degenerate case the solution becomes a Hayward-AdS black hole, which is regular everywhere in the full space-time. The existence of such a regular black hole solution preserves the weak energy condition, while the strong energy condition is violated. We then derive the first law and the Smarr formula of the black hole solution. We further discuss its thermodynamic properties and study the critical phenomena in the extended phase space where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic variable as well as the parameter associated with the non-linear electrodynamics. We obtain many interesting results such as: the Maxwell equal area law in the P-V (or S-T) diagram is violated and consequently the critical point (T{sub *},P{sub *}) of the first order small-large black hole transition does not coincide with the inflection point (T{sub c},P{sub c}) of the isotherms; the Clapeyron equation describing the coexistence curve of the Van der Waals (vdW) fluid is no longer valid; the heat capacity at constant pressure is finite at the critical point; the various exponents near the critical point are also different from those of the vdW fluid. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchibori, Akihiro; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
A numerical analysis method for melting/solidification phenomena has been developed to evaluate a feasibility of several candidate techniques in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our method is based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) which has been used for moving boundary problems. Key technique of the X-FEM is to incorporate signed distance function into finite element interpolation to represent a discontinuous gradient of the temperature at a moving solid-liquid interface. Construction of the finite element equation, the technique of quadrature and the method to solve the equation are reported here. The numerical solutions of the one-dimensional Stefan problem, solidification in a two-dimensional square corner and melting of pure gallium are compared to the exact solutions or to the experimental data. Through these analyses, validity of the newly developed numerical analysis method has been demonstrated. (author)
Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi
2015-01-01
We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.
Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability?
Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo
2015-03-01
The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous
Franz, S.
2004-10-01
Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare---and often catastrophic---events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franz, S
2004-01-01
Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare - and often catastrophic - events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D. J.
1998-01-01
We have used studies of single grain boundaries in YBCO thin films and bulk bicrystals to study the influence of vortex pinning along a grain boundary on dissipation. The critical current density for transport across grain boundaries in thin films is typically more than an order of magnitude larger than that measured for transport across grain boundaries in bulk samples. For low disorientation angles, the difference in critical current density within the grains that form the boundary can contribute to the substantial differences in current density measured across the boundary. However, substantial differences exist in the critical current density across boundaries in thin film compared to bulk bicrystals even in the higher angle regime in which grain boundary dissipation dominates. The differences in critical current density in this regime can be understood on the basis of vortex pinning along the boundary
Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Phenomena Observed at a Complex Site During the Perdigão Experiment
Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.; Smith, E.; Gebauer, J.; Turner, D. D.
2017-12-01
The Perdigão Field Experiment set out to study atmospheric flows in complex terrain and to collect a high-quality dataset for the validation of meso- and micro-scale models. An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted from May 1, 2017 through June 15, 2017 where a multitude of instruments were deployed in and around two nearly parallel ridges. The Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) was deployed and operated in the valley between the ridges. The CLAMPS facility, which was developed as a joint effort between the School of Meteorology at OU and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), takes advantage of a microwave radiometer (MWR), an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and a scanning doppler Lidar to profile the boundary layer with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Optimized Lidar scanning strategies and joint retrievals for the MWR and ARI data provide detailed information about the wind, turbulence and thermodynamic structure from the surface up to 1000 m AGL on most nights; sometimes the max height is even higher. Over the course of the IOP, CLAMPS observed many different phenomena. During some nights, when stronger background prevailed and was directed perpendicular to the valley, waves were observed at the ridges and in the valley. At the same time, radiational cooling led to drainage flows in the valley, particularly during nights when the mesoscale forcing was weak. At first, CLAMPS profile observations and data collected with radiosondes released at a near-by site are compared to assess the data quality. The radiosonde observations are also being used to document and classify the upper-level flow during the IOP. Additionally, CLAMPS data from a few selected nights will be presented and analyzed in terms of turbulence and its impact on mixing inside and above the valley. June 1-2 represents a good base-state case. Winds at ridge height were generally less than 5ms-1 after 0Z and valley flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishchenko, Yuriy
2004-01-01
MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishchenko, Yuriy [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2004-12-01
MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati
Sornette, Didier
2006-01-01
Concepts, methods and techniques of statistical physics in the study of correlated, as well as uncorrelated, phenomena are being applied ever increasingly in the natural sciences, biology and economics in an attempt to understand and model the large variability and risks of phenomena. This is the first textbook written by a well-known expert that provides a modern up-to-date introduction for workers outside statistical physics. The emphasis of the book is on a clear understanding of concepts and methods, while it also provides the tools that can be of immediate use in applications. Although this book evolved out of a course for graduate students, it will be of great interest to researchers and engineers, as well as to post-docs in geophysics and meteorology.
McDaniel, Jamie L
2013-12-01
This exploration of disability directly applies Campbell's understanding of "abledness" to the film Phenomena by Italian director Dario Argento. Phenomena (1985) explores, through the diegetic response to protagonist Jennifer Corvino's ability to communicate with insects, the shifting cultural association between disability and deviance. The film begins with the traditional response to disability, what education psychologist Kaoru Yamamoto considers the cultural importance of classifying and interpreting disabled bodies by fitting them into a narrative of deviance for surveillance and control. Throughout Argento's film, characters attempt to classify Jennifer; scientists seek to diagnose her "affliction" through the medical model of disability, while Jennifer's schoolmistresses interpret Jennifer's behavior as a disciplinary problem based in environmental factors. This represents the structural model of disability, but in each instance, the attempt to classify Jennifer fails to diagnose or discipline the supposed "deviant, disabled body." Through this failure, the film dramatizes contemporary critiques of traditional models that examine disability, moving beyond to explore what Fiona Kumari Campbell has called "the maintenance of abledness" in sexed, raced, and modified bodies. By normalizing Jennifer's ability, then, Phenomena offers a framework for examining the process through which elements of "abledness" become normalized, a concept which many theorists now argue should maintain the focus of disability studies.
Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sander
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight
Low-temperature approach to the renormalization-group study of critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suranyi, P.
1977-01-01
A new method of exploring the contents of the renormalization-group equations for discrete spins is introduced. The equations are expanded in low-temperature series and the truncated series are used to obtain the critical exponents and critical temperature of a system. The method is demonstrated on the planar triangular Ising lattice and the critical parameters are found to be within a few percent of the exactly known values in third nonvanishing order of approximation
Critical phenomena of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xu
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The extended thermodynamics of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity is analyzed. The P–V criticality of these black holes has some unusual features. There exists a single critical point with critical temperature Tc and critical pressure Pc. At fixed T>Tc (or at fixed P>Pc, there are two zeroth order phase transition points but no first order phase transition points. The systems favors large pressure states at constant T, or high temperature states at constant P.
Mill and Mental Phenomena: Critical Contributions to a Science of Cognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven L. Bistricky
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill’s life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. The present article briefly reviews Mill’s personal history and the times in which he lived, and it traces the evolution of ideas that have run through him to contemporary cognitive concepts. The article also highlights contemporary problems in defining cognition and supports specific criteria regarding what constitutes cognition.
Mill and mental phenomena: critical contributions to a science of cognition.
Bistricky, Steven L
2013-06-01
Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill's life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. The present article briefly reviews Mill's personal history and the times in which he lived, and it traces the evolution of ideas that have run through him to contemporary cognitive concepts. The article also highlights contemporary problems in defining cognition and supports specific criteria regarding what constitutes cognition.
Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: The case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potirakis, S. M. [Department of Electronics, Technological Education Institute (TEI) of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli, Aigaleo, Athens GR-12244 (Greece); Karadimitrakis, A. [Department of Physics, Section of Electronics, Computers, Telecommunications and Control, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens GR-15784 (Greece); Eftaxias, K. [Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens GR-15784 (Greece)
2013-06-15
Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well.
Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: the case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions.
Potirakis, S M; Karadimitrakis, A; Eftaxias, K
2013-06-01
Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well.
Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: The case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potirakis, S. M.; Karadimitrakis, A.; Eftaxias, K.
2013-01-01
Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well.
Static critical phenomena in Co-Ni-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sethi, Brahmananda; Sarma, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Santra, S. B.
2014-01-01
Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are smart materials because they exhibit temperature driven shape memory effect and magnetic field induced strain. Thus two types of energy, i.e. thermal and magnetic, are used to control their shape memory behaviour. Study of critical phenomenon in such materials has received increased experimental and theoretical attention for better understanding of the magnetic phase transition behavior as well as further development of ferromagnetic shape memory materials. In the present study we report the preparation and characterization of bulk Co 45 Ni 25 Ga 30 alloy, prepared by a sequence of arc melting technique followed by homogenization at 1150 °C for 24 hours and ice-water quenching. Structural and magnetic properties of the alloys were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied field range of ±18 kOe equipped with a high temperature oven. We have determined the critical temperature T C (∼375.5 K) and the critical exponents viz; β=0.40, γ=1.68 and δ=5.2. Asymptotic critical exponents β, γ, and δ obey Widom scaling relation, γ+β=βδ, and the magnetization data satisfy the scaling equation of state for second-order phase transition in the asymptotic critical region
Prudnikov, V. V.; Prudnikov, P. V.; Popov, I. S.
2018-03-01
A Monte Carlo numerical simulation of the specific features of nonequilibrium critical behavior is carried out for the two-dimensional structurally disordered XY model during its evolution from a low-temperature initial state. On the basis of the analysis of the two-time dependence of autocorrelation functions and dynamic susceptibility for systems with spin concentrations of p = 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6, aging phenomena characterized by a slowing down of the relaxation system with increasing waiting time and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) are revealed. The values of the universal limiting fluctuation-dissipation ratio (FDR) are obtained for the systems considered. As a result of the analysis of the two-time scaling dependence for spin-spin and connected spin autocorrelation functions, it is found that structural defects lead to subaging phenomena in the behavior of the spin-spin autocorrelation function and superaging phenomena in the behavior of the connected spin autocorrelation function.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milovanov, A.V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
2005-01-01
Equations built on fractional derivatives prove to be a powerful tool in the description of complex systems when the effects of singularity, fractal supports, and long-range dependence play a role. In this Letter, we advocate an application of the fractional derivative formalism to a fairly general...... class of critical phenomena when the organization of the system near the phase transition point is influenced by a competing nonlocal ordering. Fractional modifications of the free energy functional at criticality and of the widely known Ginzburg-Landau equation central to the classical Landau theory...... of second-type phase transitions are discussed in some detail. An implication of the fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation is a renormalization of the transition temperature owing to the nonlocality present. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.
2016-01-01
The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.
Phase equilibria and critical phenomena in the cesium nitrate-water-diethylamine ternary system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'in, K.K.; Kurskij, V.F.; Cherkasov, D.G.
2008-01-01
Phase equilibria and critical events in ternary cesium nitrate-water-diethylamine system, where border binary liquid system is characterized by aliquation with lower critical temperature of solution (LCTS), have been investigated by visual-polythermal method in the 60-150 Deg C range. Interaction of cesium nitrate in the water-diethylamine system leads to lowering of its LCTS from 146.1 to 69.3 Deg C and decrease of mutual solubility. Distribution ratios of diethylamine between water and organic phases of monotectic equilibrium are calculated at different temperatures. Diethylamine salting out from aqueous solutions by cesium nitrates becomes stronger with rising temperature. Plotted isotherms of phase confirms generalized scheme of topological transformations of ternary systems phase diagrams: salt-binary solvent with salting out
Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)
2016-04-01
The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.
Exact solutions and critical chaos in dilaton gravity with a boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fitkevich, Maxim [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Levkov, Dmitry [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, Yegor [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)
2017-04-19
We consider (1+1)-dimensional dilaton gravity with a reflecting dynamical boundary. The boundary cuts off the region of strong coupling and makes our model causally similar to the spherically-symmetric sector of multidimensional gravity. We demonstrate that this model is exactly solvable at the classical level and possesses an on-shell SL(2, ℝ) symmetry. After introducing general classical solution of the model, we study a large subset of soliton solutions. The latter describe reflection of matter waves off the boundary at low energies and formation of black holes at energies above critical. They can be related to the eigenstates of the auxiliary integrable system, the Gaudin spin chain. We argue that despite being exactly solvable, the model in the critical regime, i.e. at the verge of black hole formation, displays dynamical instabilities specific to chaotic systems. We believe that this model will be useful for studying black holes and gravitational scattering.
Cut-off scaling and multiplicative reformalization in the theory of critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forgacs, G.; Solyom, J.; Zawadowski, A.
1976-03-01
In the paper a new method to study the critical fluctuations in systems of 4-epsilon dimensions around the phase transition point is developed. This method unifies the Kadanoff scaling hypothesis as formulated by Wilson by help of his renormalization group technique and the simple mathematical structure of the Lie equations of the Gell-Mann-Low multiplicative renormalization. The basic idea of the new method is that a change in the physical cut-off can be compensated by an effective coupling in such a way that the Green's function and vertex in the original and transformed system differ only by a multiplicative factor. The critical indices, the anomalous dimensions and the critical exponent describing the correction to scaling are determined to second order in epsilon. The specific heat exponent is also calculated, in four dimensions the effect of fluctuations appears in the form of logarithmic corrections. In the last sections the new method is compared to other ones and the differences are discussed. (Sz.N.Z.)
Boundary conditions in Ginsburg Landau theory and critical temperature of high-T superconductors
Lykov, A. N.
2008-06-01
New mixed boundary conditions to the Ginsburg-Landau equations are found to limit the critical temperature ( T) of high- T superconductors. Moreover, the value of the pseudogap in these superconductors can be explained by using the method. As a result, the macroscopic approach is proposed to increase T of cuprate superconductors.
Boundary conditions in Ginsburg-Landau theory and critical temperature of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lykov, A.N.
2008-01-01
New mixed boundary conditions to the Ginsburg-Landau equations are found to limit the critical temperature (T c ) of high-T c superconductors. Moreover, the value of the pseudogap in these superconductors can be explained by using the method. As a result, the macroscopic approach is proposed to increase T c of cuprate superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pinto Coelho Muniz Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios
2017-01-01
of the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). We obtained new parameters for methanol and alkanes from n-hexane to n-decane. The comparison with the original parameters showed that this procedure is important for associating compounds, since for inert species the equation reduces to the Soave......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EoS. The application of the rescaled parameters improved the critical point representation of pure fluids at the expense of the saturated liquid phase volume description. In the case of binary mixtures containing methanol and n-alkanes, the association model with the new parameters satisfactorily...
The theory of critical phenomena an introduction to the renormalization group
Binney, J J; Fisher, A J; Newman, M E J
1993-01-01
The successful calculation of critical exponents for continuous phase transitions is one of the main achievements of theoretical physics over the last quarter-century. This was achieved through the use of scaling and field-theoretic techniques which have since become standard equipment in many areas of physics, especially quantum field theory. This book provides a thorough introduction to these techniques. Continuous phase transitions are introduced, then the necessary statistical mechanics is summarized, followed by standard models, some exact solutions and techniques for numerical simulation
A consistent and unified picture for critical phenomena of f(R) AdS black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mo, Jie-Xiong; Li, Gu-Qiang; Wu, Yu-Cheng
2016-01-01
A consistent and unified picture for critical phenomena of charged AdS black holes in f ( R ) gravity is drawn in this paper. Firstly, we investigate the phase transition in canonical ensemble. We derive the explicit solutions corresponding to the divergence of C Q . The two solutions merge into one when the condition Q c =√(−1/3 R 0 ) is satisfied. The curve of specific heat for Q < Q c has two divergent points and can be divided into three regions. Both the large radius region and the small radius region are thermodynamically stable with positive specific heat while the medium radius region is unstable with negative specific heat. However, when Q > Q c , the specific heat is always positive, implying the black holes are locally stable and no phase transition will take place. Secondly, both the T − r + curve and T − S curve f ( R ) AdS black holes are investigated and they exhibit Van der Vaals like behavior as the P − v curve in the former research. Critical physical quantities are obtained and they are consistent with those derived from the specific heat analysis. We carry out numerical check of Maxwell equal area law for the cases Q =0.2 Q c , 0.4 Q c , 0.6 Q c , 0.8 Q c . The relative errors are amazingly small and can be negligible. So the Maxwell equal area law holds for T − S curve of f ( R ) black holes. Thirdly, we establish geometrothermodynamics for f ( R ) AdS black hole to examine the phase structure. It is shown that the Legendre invariant scalar curvature R would diverge exactly where the specific heat diverges. To summarize, the above three perspectives are consistent with each other, thus providing a unified picture which deepens the understanding of critical phenomena of f ( R ) AdS black holes.
Critical phenomena and their effect on thermal energy storage in supercritical fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobold, Gustavo M.; Da Silva, Alexandre K.
2017-01-01
Highlights: •High power thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids. •Influence of property variation on energy and power density. •Multi-fluid analysis and generalization for several storage temperatures. •Cost, heat transfer and energy density evaluation for high temperature storage. -- Abstract: Large-scale implementation of concentrated solar power plants requires energy storage systems if fossil sources are to be fully replaced. While several candidates have appeared, most still face major issues such as cost, limited energy density and material compatibility. The present paper explores the influence of property variation in the proximity of the critical point on thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids (sTES) from thermodynamic and heat transfer standpoints. Influence of thermodynamic operational parameters on energy density of isobaric and isochoric sTES and their optima is discussed, showing that the energy density results from a competition between average specific heat and loaded density. Moreover, sTES is shown to be applicable to virtually any storage temperature, depending only on the fluid’s critical point. Finally, a heat transfer and energy density comparison to other existing storage mechanisms is presented and supercritical water is shown to be competitive for high temperature thermal energy storage.
Electron spin resonance and quantum critical phenomena in VOx multiwall nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demishev, S.V.; Chernobrovkin, A.L.; Glushkov, V.V.; Samarin, N.A.; Sluchanko, N.E.; Semeno, A.V.; Goodilin, E.A.; Grigorieva, A.V.; Tretyakov, Yu.D.
2008-01-01
Basing on the high frequency (60 GHz) electron spin resonance study of the VO x multiwall nanotubes (VO x -NTs) carried out in the temperature range 4.2-200 K we report: (i) the first direct experimental evidence of the presence of the antiferromagnetic dimers in VO x -NTs and (ii) the observation of an anomalous low temperature growth of the magnetic susceptibility for quasi-free spins, which obey the power law χ(T)∝1/T α with the exponent α∼0.6 in a wide temperature range 4.2-50 K. We argue that the observed departures from the Curie-Weiss behaviour manifest the onset of the quantum critical regime and formation of the Griffiths phase as a magnetic ground state of these spin species. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Multi-scaling in the critical phenomena in the quenched disordered systems
Wu, X. T.
2018-04-01
The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian with random temperature for the phase transition in disordered systems from the Griffiths phase to ordered phase is reexamined. From the saddle point solutions, especially the excited state solutions, it is shown that the system self-organizes into blocks coupled with their neighbors like superspins, which are emergent variables. Taking the fluctuation around these saddle point solutions into account, we get an effective Hamiltonian, including the emergent superspins of the blocks, the fluctuation around the saddle point solutions, and their couplings. Applying Stratonovich-Hubbard transformation to the part of superspins, we get a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian for the blocks. From the saddle point equations for the blocks, we can get the second generation blocks, of which sizes are much larger than the first generation blocks. Repeating this procedure again and again, we get many generations of blocks to describe the asymptotic behavior. If a field is applied, the effective field on the superspins is multiplied greatly and proportional to the block size. For a very small field, the effective field on the higher generation superspins can be so strong to cause the superspins polarized radically. This can explain the extra large critical isotherm exponent discovered in the experiments. The phase space of reduced temperature vs. field is divided into many layers , in which different generation blocks dominate the critical behavior. The sizes of the different generation emergent blocks are new relevant length scales. This can explain a lot of puzzles in the experiments and the Monte Carlo simulation.
Critical heat flux phenomena in flow boiling during step wise and ramp wise power transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celata, G.P.; Cumo, M.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Abou Said, S.
1987-01-01
The present paper deals with the results of an experimental investigation of the forced flow critical heat flux during power transients in a vertically heated channel. Experiments were carried out with a Refrigerant-12 1oop employing a circular test section which was electrically and uniformly heated. The power transients were performed with the step-wise and ramp-wise increase of the power to the test section. The test parameters included several values of the initial power (before the transient) and the final power (at the end of the transient) in the case of step-wise transients and the slope of the ramp in the case of ramp-wise transients. The pressure and specific mass flow rate, which were kept constant during the power transient,were varied from 1.2 to 2.7 MPa and 850 to 1500 Kg/sm 2 , respectively. Correlations of the experimental data for the time-to-crisis in terms of the independent parameters of the system are also proposed and verified for different values of pressure,mass flow rate, and inlet subcooling
Critical phenomena of liquid 4He in the vicinity of the upper lambda point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takada, T.; Watanabe, T.
1982-01-01
We determined C/sub p/ along six isobars near T/sub lambda/ in the vicinity of the upper superfluid transition point (upper lambda point) from measurements of C/sub v/ and (partialP/partialT)/sub v/ along six isochores. C/sub p/ was analyzed with the function C/sub p/ = (A/α)epsilon/sup -alpha/(1+Depsilon/sup -Delta/)+B for T>T/sub lambda/, and the same function with primed coefficients for T 4 He near T/sub lambda/, that is, the correction term due to the irrelevant variable increases with pressure even in the small range epsilon - 3 . This indicates that the pressure depresses the true critical region. The universality of the amplitude ratio A/A' was confirmed even in the vicinity of the upper lambda point by specific heat measurements. With constraints α = α' = -0.02, δ = δ' = -0.5, and B = B' the pressure-independent amplitude ratios A/A' = 1.088 +- 0.007 and D/D' = 0.85 +- 0.2 were obtained. AD/A'D' = 0.93 +- 0.2 implies that the pressure has a similar effect on C/sub p/ in the normal fluid and superfluid regions, within experimental errors
Hüfner, J.; Klevansky, S. P.; Rehberg, P.
1996-02-01
Critical phenomena associated with Mott transitions are investigated in the finite temperature SUf(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, that describes quarks u, d, s and bound mesons π, K. Critical exponents for the behavior close to the Mott temperature TM are determined for the static properties of a pion, such as mπ( T), gπqq( T), fπ( T), π, and the pion polarizabilities αC, N, as well as for the behavior of mK( T), gKqs( T) fK( T) in the strange sector. The effect of the Mott transitions on the q overlineq and ππ scattering lengths and for hadronization cross sections σ q overlineq→ππ (T) is discussed. Divergencies that occur in these quantities at TM indicate an intransparence with respect to hadronic and photonic probes, much like the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Physically, the Mott transition models the deconfinement transition expected of QCD since it corresponds to a delocalizayion of the bound states when the temperature is raised above TM.
Critical phenomena and exchange interactions of an amorphous ferromagnet: gadolinium--gold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poon, S.J.; Durand, J.
1976-07-01
Magnetization was measured between 4 and 290 0 K in fields up to 70 kOe on liquid-quenched Gd 80 Au 20 amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature and critical exponents β, γ and delta are found to be 149.45 0 K, 0.439, 1.294 and 3.948 respectively. These values are compared with the Heisenberg and molecular field values. The data are fitted to an equation of state previously derived for second order phase transition in fluid systems. The results illustrate clearly a second order phase transition in the amorphous state. A discussion in terms of the Heisenberg model is presented. The effective magnetic moment in the paramagnetic state has a value of 9.37 μ/sub B/ per gadolinium atom. The saturation moment extrapolated to 0 0 K is 7.0 μ/sub B/ per gadolinium atom. The low temperature saturation magnetization observes the T/sup 3 / 2 / law from 0.13 T/sub c/ to 0.80 T/sub c/. The effective exchange integrals J/sub n/ determined from the Rushbrooke--Wood formula and spin-wave theory are found to be 2.28 and 1.34 0 K respectively. The differences in J/sub n/ and that between the effective moment and saturation moment are attributed to the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic couplings below T/sub c/. Possible effects of structural disorder on the magnetic properties of Gd in the amorphous state are discussed
Xia, Wenjun; Mita, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadashi
2016-05-01
Aiming at efficient data condensation and improving accuracy, this paper presents a hardware-friendly template reduction (TR) method for the nearest neighbor (NN) classifiers by introducing the concept of critical boundary vectors. A hardware system is also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of using an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accelerate the proposed method. Initially, k -means centers are used as substitutes for the entire template set. Then, to enhance the classification performance, critical boundary vectors are selected by a novel learning algorithm, which is completed within a single iteration. Moreover, to remove noisy boundary vectors that can mislead the classification in a generalized manner, a global categorization scheme has been explored and applied to the algorithm. The global characterization automatically categorizes each classification problem and rapidly selects the boundary vectors according to the nature of the problem. Finally, only critical boundary vectors and k -means centers are used as the new template set for classification. Experimental results for 24 data sets show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the number of template vectors for classification with a high learning speed. At the same time, it improves the accuracy by an average of 2.17% compared with the traditional NN classifiers and also shows greater accuracy than seven other TR methods. We have shown the feasibility of using a proof-of-concept FPGA system of 256 64-D vectors to accelerate the proposed method on hardware. At a 50-MHz clock frequency, the proposed system achieves a 3.86 times higher learning speed than on a 3.4-GHz PC, while consuming only 1% of the power of that used by the PC.
Critical deflagration waves leading to detonation onset under different boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Wei; Zhou Jin; Lin Zhi-Yong; Fan Xiao-Hua
2015-01-01
High-speed turbulent critical deflagration waves before detonation onset in H 2 –air mixture propagated into a square cross section channel, which was assembled of optional rigid rough, rigid smooth, or flexible walls. The corresponding propagation characteristic and the influence of the wall boundaries on the propagation were investigated via high-speed shadowgraph and a high-frequency pressure sampling system. As a comprehensive supplement to the different walls effect investigation, the effect of porous absorbing walls on the detonation propagation was also investigated via smoke foils and the high-frequency pressure sampling system. Results are as follows. In the critical deflagration stage, the leading shock and the closely following turbulent flame front travel at a speed of nearly half the CJ detonation velocity. In the preheated zone, a zonary flame arises from the overlapping part of the boundary layer and the pressure waves, and then merges into the mainstream flame. Among these wall boundary conditions, the rigid rough wall plays a most positive role in the formation of the zonary flame and thus accelerates the transition of the deflagration to detonation (DDT), which is due to the boost of the boundary layer growth and the pressure wave reflection. Even though the flexible wall is not conducive to the pressure wave reflection, it brings out a faster boundary layer growth, which plays a more significant role in the zonary flame formation. Additionally, the porous absorbing wall absorbs the transverse wave and yields detonation decay and velocity deficit. After the absorbing wall, below some low initial pressure conditions, no re-initiation occurs and the deflagration propagates in critical deflagration for a relatively long distance. (paper)
Application of the HN method to the critical slab problem for reflecting boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuereci, R.G.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.
2004-01-01
The recently developed H N method is used to solve the critical slab problem for a slab which is surrounded by a reflector. In the special case for R=0 (the reflection coefficient) the problem reduces to the one under vacuum boundary conditions. It is shown that the method is concise and leads to fast converging numerical results. The presented numerical results are compared with the data available in literature
Pantazis, Alexandros; Papayannis, Alexandros; Georgoussis, Georgios
2018-04-01
In this paper we present a development of novel algorithms and techniques implemented within the Laser Remote Sensing Laboratory (LRSL) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), in collaboration with Raymetrics S.A., in order to incorporate them into a 3-Dimensional (3D) lidar. The lidar is transmitting at 355 nm in the eye safe region and the measurements then are transposed to the visual range at 550 nm, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) rules of daytime visibility. These algorithms are able to provide horizontal, slant and vertical visibility for tower aircraft controllers, meteorologists, but also from pilot's point of view. Other algorithms are also provided for detection of atmospheric layering in any given direction and vertical angle, along with the detection of the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Funakoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tomoyoshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi, E-mail: funakosi@miyazaki.mce.uec.ac.jp, E-mail: miyazaki@mce.uec.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)
2012-06-01
We investigate the statistical mechanics of quasi-geostrophic point vortices of mixed sign (bi-disperse system) numerically and theoretically. Direct numerical simulations under periodic boundary conditions are performed using a fast special-purpose computer for molecular dynamics (GRAPE-DR). Clustering of point vortices of like sign is observed and two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium states are formed. It is shown that they are the solutions of the 2D mean-field equation, i.e. the sinh-Poisson equation. The sinh-Poisson equation is generalized to study the 3D nature of the equilibrium states, and a new mean-field equation with the 3D Laplace operator is derived based on the maximum entropy theory. 3D solutions are obtained at very low energy level. These solution branches, however, cannot be traced up to the higher energy level at which the direct numerical simulations are performed, and transitions to 2D solution branches take place when the energy is increased. (paper)
Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.
Renne, Paul R; Deino, Alan L; Hilgen, Frederik J; Kuiper, Klaudia F; Mark, Darren F; Mitchell, William S; Morgan, Leah E; Mundil, Roland; Smit, Jan
2013-02-08
Mass extinctions manifest in Earth's geologic record were turning points in biotic evolution. We present (40)Ar/(39)Ar data that establish synchrony between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years. Perturbation of the atmospheric carbon cycle at the boundary likely lasted less than 5000 years, exhibiting a recovery time scale two to three orders of magnitude shorter than that of the major ocean basins. Low-diversity mammalian fauna in the western Williston Basin persisted for as little as 20,000 years after the impact. The Chicxulub impact likely triggered a state shift of ecosystems already under near-critical stress.
Serafin, S.; De Wekker, S.; Knievel, J. C.
2013-12-01
Granite Peak, located in the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) in western Utah, is an isolated mountain rising ~800 m above the surrounding terrain. It has an approximately ellipsoidal shape oriented in the NNW-SSE direction and its main axes are respectively ~10- and ~6-km long. A flat dry lake (playa) lies west and northwest of the peak, while a NW-sloping plain covered by herbaceous vegetation extends to the eastern part of DPG. Because of these topography and land-use features, a variety of different flow phenomena are expected to occur over and around Granite Peak. These include upslope and drainage winds, local breeze systems, gap flows, dynamically accelerated downslope winds and potentially boundary layer separation and the formation of wakes. Consequently, the area is an ideal location for studying the interaction between mountain flows and the atmospheric boundary layer. Since the 1990s, DPG has used a continuously operating meso-gamma-scale analysis and forecast system (4DWX) developed by the NCAR's Research Applications Laboratory (RAL). The system is based on WRF, runs with a grid spacing of 1.1-km in its innermost domain, applies observational nudging in a three-hour cycle, and provides weather analyses and forecasts at hourly intervals. In this study, model output from the 4DWX system is used to build a short-term climatography (2010-2012) of the prevailing boundary layer flow regimes in DPG. Measurements from the network of Surface Area Mesonet Stations (SAMS) operative at DPG are used to verify the quality of 4DWX simulations and their ability to reproduce the dominant flow patterns. The study then focuses on boundary-layer separation (BLS) events: near-surface wind, temperature and pressure fields from 4DWX are analysed in order to identify the most favorable regions for the onset of separation. A limited set of events, identified by means of an objective procedure, is then studied in detail in order to understand the preferred conditions for the
Critical β of a D-shaped toroidal plasma with sharp boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kito, M.
1981-01-01
Under the cap-cyclide coordinate system, the marginal stability of a sharp boundary toroidal plasma whose cross section is D shaped is examined using the energy principle. The analytical results are valid for arbitrary b, arbitrary aspect ratio, and arbitrary elongation of the plasma. There exists a maximum elongation for a given aspect ratio. The critical beta b/sub c/ is computed for several aspect ratios and elongations. For given aspect ratio, b/sub c/ increases as long as the elongation increases
Flow visualization and critical heat flux measurement of a boundary layer pool boiling process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.; Shiah, S.W.
1998-01-01
As part of the effort to evaluate the concept of external passive cooling of core melt by cavity flooding under severe accident conditions, a subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) facility, consisting of a pressurized water tank with a condenser unit, a heated hemispherical test vessel, and a data acquisition/photographic system, was developed to simulate the boiling process on the external bottom surface of a fully submerged reactor vessel. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the facility to measure the local critical heat flux (CHF) and observe the underlying mechanisms under well controlled saturated and subcooled conditions. Large elongated vapor slugs were observed in the bottom region of the vessel which gave rise to strong upstream influences in the resulting two-phase liquid-vapor boundary layer flow along the vessel outer surface. The local CHF values deduced from the transient quenching data appeared to be very close to those obtained in the steady-state boiling experiments. Comparison of the SBLB data was made with available 2-D full-scale data and the differences were found to be rather small except in a region near the bottom center of the vessel. The angular position of the vessel outer surface and the degree of subcooling of water had dominant effects on the local critical heat flux. They totally dwarfed the effect of the physical dimensions of the test vessels. (author)
Cellular Neural Network Method for Critical Slab with Albedo Boundary Condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirouzmanda, A.; Hadada, K.; Suh, K. Y.
2010-01-01
The neutron transport problems have been studied theoretically and numerically for years. A number of researchers have studied the criticality problems of one-speed neutrons in homogeneous slabs and spheres using various methods. The Chebyshev polynomial approximation method (T N method) has lately been developed and improved for the neutron transport equation in slab geometry. The one-speed time-dependent neutron transport equation using the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) for the vacuum boundary condition has previously been solved. In this paper, we demonstrate the capacity of CNN in calculating the critical slab thickness for different boundary conditions and its variation with moments N. The architecture of the CNN has already been dealt with thoroughly. Essentially, the CNN is used to model a first-order system of the partial differential equations (PDEs). The original equations in the T N approximation are also a set of PDEs. The CNN approach lends itself to analog VLSI implementation. In this study, the CNN model is implemented using the HSpice software package
Thin-film superconducting rings in the critical state: the mixed boundary value approach
Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco
2015-02-01
In this paper, we describe the critical state of a thin superconducting ring (and of a perfectly conducting ring as a limiting case) as a mixed boundary value problem. The disc is characterized by a three-part boundary division of the positive real axis, so this work is an extension of the procedure used in a previous work of ours for describing superconducting discs and strips, which are characterized by a two-part boundary division of the real axis. Here, we present the mathematical tools to solve this kind of problems—the Erdélyi-Kober operators—in a frame that can be immediately used. Contrary to the two-part problems considered in our previous work, three-part problems do not generally have analytical solutions and the numerical work takes on a significant heaviness. Nevertheless, this work is remunerated by three clear advantages: firstly, all the cases are afforded in the same way, without the necessity of any brilliant invention or ability; secondly, in the case of superconducting rings, the penetration of the magnetic field in the internal/external rims is a result of the method itself and does not have to be imposed, as it is commonly done with other methods presented in the literature; thirdly, the method can be extended to investigate even more complex cases (four-part problems). In this paper, we consider the cases of rings in uniform field and with transport current, with or without flux trapping in the hole and the case without net current, corresponding to a cut ring (washer), as used in some SQUID applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessica Dorsey
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This Research Paper is a detailed report from the two-day symposium entitled The Boundaries of the Battlefield: A Critical Look at the Legal Paradigms and Rules in Countering Terrorism, which was convened in The Hague in January 2013. The conference covered a range of issues that are relevant in debates about using force in counter-terrorism operations against non-state actors. Specifically, this Paper elaborates on a number of key questions raised during the conference; these relate to the temporal and geographical limitations of armed conflict, the interplay between international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as the use of drones, the law enforcement approach to counter-terrorism and the possible need for a new framework for countering terrorism. The authors, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen, supplement participants’ debates with detailed background information and theoretical discussions.
Where should the upper boundary of the earth's critical zone be?
Liu, W.; Zhang, X. J.
2017-12-01
Recently increasing attention has been paid to the study of the critical zone (CZ) of the earth. The upper boundary of the CZ is generally defined as the top of plant canopy, and the lower boundary at the bottom of deep groundwater. The question is whether the ecological, biogeochemical and hydrological processes that are the focuses of CZ research occur within the scope of such boundaries. The role of water is central in these processes as is shown by the current studies as follows. First, there exist water vapor transport strips or pathways with higher flux strength than the surrounding areas in the troposphere, known as "tropospheric rivers" or "atmospheric rivers" (Newell, et al, 1992; Zhu, et al, 1998), specially dubbed as "sky rivers" (Wang, et al, 2016). The sky rivers are connected with the surface and underground rivers by precipitation and evapotranspiration processes, forming a complete water cycle system of the earth. Second, changes in atmospheric composition, such as aerosol increases, the formation of smog, CO2 concentration rising, directly or indirectly affected solar radiation and plant growth, which to a large extent determine potential evapotranspiration and vegetation cover change. Based on the Budyko model, annual water balance at a catchment is closely related to these changes (Zhang, et al., 2001; Ning, et al., 2017). Third, the theory of evaporation complementarity holds that surface evapotranspiration can be completely determined and calculated by meteorological data. Based on the eddy covariance observation for water and heat flux in the Loess Plateau (Brutsaert, et al., 2017), the relationship between calculated and observed ET values becomes stronger from 2m to 32m, which may be related to the existence of a blending height at higher elevations above the ground. Therefore, we deem that the CZ upper boundary should be selected at the tropopause of the atmosphere. The troposphere, directly affected by the earth surface, contains 3/4 of
Alsop, Steve
2015-03-01
In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.
Introduction to wetting phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Indekeu, J.O.
1995-01-01
In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nold, A.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Kalliadasis, S.
2011-01-01
Roč. 197, č. 1 (2011), s. 185-191 ISSN 1951-6355 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) EP/E046029; FP7 ITN(XE) 214919; ERC(XE) 247301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wetting phenomena * curved substrates * theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2011
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng
2015-01-01
The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it, E-mail: ludovico.minati@ifj.edu [Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, 38123 Mattarello (Italy); Complex Systems Theory Department, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków (Poland); Candia, Antonio de [Department of Physics “E. Pancini,” University of Naples “Federico II,” Napoli (Italy); INFN Gr. Coll. Salerno, Unità di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Scarpetta, Silvia [INFN Gr. Coll. Salerno, Unità di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Department of Physics “E.R.Caianiello,” University of Salerno, Napoli (Italy)
2016-07-15
Networks of non-linear electronic oscillators have shown potential as physical models of neural dynamics. However, two properties of brain activity, namely, criticality and metastability, remain under-investigated with this approach. Here, we present a simple circuit that exhibits both phenomena. The apparatus consists of a two-dimensional square lattice of capacitively coupled glow (neon) lamps. The dynamics of lamp breakdown (flash) events are controlled by a DC voltage globally connected to all nodes via fixed resistors. Depending on this parameter, two phases having distinct event rate and degree of spatiotemporal order are observed. The transition between them is hysteretic, thus a first-order one, and it is possible to enter a metastability region, wherein, approaching a spinodal point, critical phenomena emerge. Avalanches of events occur according to power-law distributions having exponents ≈3/2 for size and ≈2 for duration, and fractal structure is evident as power-law scaling of the Fano factor. These critical exponents overlap observations in biological neural networks; hence, this circuit may have value as building block to realize corresponding physical models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yanchao
2010-01-01
Using the transfer matrix renormalization group (TMRG) method, we study the connection between the first derivative of the thermal average of driving-term Hamiltonian (DTADH) and the trace of quantum critical behaviors at finite temperatures. Connecting with the exact diagonalization method, we give the phase diagrams and analyze the properties of each phase for both the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic frustrated J 3 anisotropy diamond chain models. The finite-temperature scaling behaviors near the critical regions are also investigated. Further, we show the critical behaviors driven by external magnetic field, analyze the formation of the 1/3 magnetic plateau and the influence of different interactions on those critical points for both the ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic distorted diamond chains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellegrini, Marco; Naitoh, Masanori; Araneo, Lucio; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco; Achilli, Andrea
2016-01-01
possibly dependent on the distance of the pipe outlet to the pool floor. Given the reduced size of the pool compared to the plant scale, the observed phenomena should not be extrapolated for the whole S/C. The objective of the ongoing experimental activity is to construct a database based on the high-speed filming, measurements of major quantities such as water temperature, steam pressure and FPs concentration to foster the development of physical models for both lumped parameter SA codes and detailed computational fluid dynamics software, in an effort to enhance the understanding of the complex phenomena following the 1F accident. (author)
Specker, Christopher D.; Ellis, Joel M.; Baird, James K.
2007-06-01
The binary liquid mixture of triethylamine+water has a lower consolute point at a critical composition of 32.27mass% triethylamine. Starting at a temperature within the one-phase region, the electrical conductivity of a sample of this mixture was measured and found to increase smoothly with increasing temperature before falling sharply at 291.24K (18.09°C). Since opalescence was visible at this temperature, it was identified with the critical solution temperature of the binary mixture. A solution of 90 μL of benzyl bromide dissolved in 90mL of 32.27mass% triethylamine+water was prepared, and the resulting Menschutkin reaction between benzyl bromide and triethylamine was allowed to come to equilibrium. The electrical conductivity of this equilibrium mixture was measured in the one-phase region and was found to increase smoothly with increasing temperature before rising sharply at 291.55K (18.40°C). This temperature was identified as the critical temperature of the ternary. The rate of approach of the ternary mixture to chemical equilibrium was also measured and shown to be governed by a first-order rate law. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient followed the Arrhenius equation up to a temperature of about 290.74K (17.59°C). Above this temperature, the rate coefficient fell by as much as 22% below the value predicted by extrapolation of the Arrhenius equation. This suppression in the rate reaction in the vicinity of the critical temperature can be interpreted as evidence for the existence of critical slowing down.
Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas
Sharma, A Surjalal
2005-01-01
The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.
Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian
2018-02-01
First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
2015-04-30
This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.
Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary
Renne, P.R.; Deino, A.L.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.F.; Mark, D.F.; Mitchell III, W.S.; Morgan, L.; Mundil, R.; Smit, J.
2013-01-01
Mass extinctions manifest in Earth's geologic record were turning points in biotic evolution. We present 40Ar/39Ar data that establish synchrony between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years. Perturbation of the
Spinks, Phillip Q; Thomson, Robert C; Zhang, YaPing; Che, Jing; Wu, Yonghua; Shaffer, H Bradley
2012-06-01
Turtles are currently the most endangered major clade of vertebrates on earth, and Asian box turtles (Cuora) are in catastrophic decline. Effective management of this diverse turtle clade has been hampered by human-mediated, and perhaps natural hybridization, resulting in discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers and confusion regarding species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships among hypothesized species of Cuora. Here, we present analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data for all 12 currently hypothesized species to resolve both species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships. Our 15-gene, 40-individual nuclear data set was frequently in conflict with our mitochondrial data set; based on its general concordance with published morphological analyses and the strength of 15 independent estimates of evolutionary history, we interpret the nuclear data as representing the most reliable estimate of species boundaries and phylogeny of Cuora. Our results strongly reiterate the necessity of using multiple nuclear markers for phylogeny and species delimitation in these animals, including any form of DNA "barcoding", and point to Cuora as an important case study where reliance on mitochondrial DNA can lead to incorrect species identification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Koide, Tomoi; Nemoto, Yukio
2005-01-01
We investigate the fluctuations of the diquark-pair field and their effects on observables above the critical temperature T c in two-flavor color superconductivity (CSC) at moderate density using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type effective model of QCD. Because of the strong-coupling nature of the dynamics, the fluctuations of the pair field develop a collective mode, which has a prominent strength even well above T c . We show that the collective mode is actually the soft mode of CSC. We examine the effects of the pair fluctuations on the specific heat and the quark spectrum for T above but close to T c . We find that the specific heat exhibits singular behavior because of the pair fluctuations, in accordance with the general theory of second-order phase transitions. The quarks display a typical non-Fermi liquid behavior, owing to the coupling with the soft mode, leading to a pseudo-gap in the density of states of the quarks in the vicinity of the critical point. Some experimental implications of the precursory phenomena are also discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency f_{H} was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.
Most-Critical Transient Disturbances in an Incompressible Flat-Plate Boundary Layer
Monschke, Jason; White, Edward
2015-11-01
Transient growth is a linear disturbance growth mechanism that plays a key role in roughness-induced boundary-layer transition. It occurs when superposed stable, non-orthogonal continuous spectrum modes experience algebraic disturbance growth followed by exponential decay. Algebraic disturbance growth can modify the basic state making it susceptible to secondary instabilities rapidly leading to transition. Optimal disturbance theory was developed to model the most-dangerous disturbances. However, evidence suggests roughness-induced transient growth is sub-optimal yet leads to transition earlier than optimal theory suggests. This research computes initial disturbances most unstable to secondary instabilities to further develop the applicability of transient growth theory to surface roughness. The main approach is using nonlinear adjoint optimization with solutions of the parabolized Navier-Stokes and BiGlobal stability equations. Two objective functions were considered: disturbance kinetic energy growth and sinuous instability growth rate. The first objective function was used as validation of the optimization method. Counter-rotating streamwise vortices located low in the boundary layer maximize the sinuous instability growth rate. The authors would like to acknowledge NASA and the AFOSR for funding this work through AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0341.
2010-04-01
Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes Michael S. Holden, PhD CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo, NY 14225, USA 8. PERFORMING...HyFly Navy EMRG Reentry-F Slide 2 X-43 HIFiRE-2 Figure 17: Transition in Hypervelocity Flows: CUBRC Focus – Fully Duplicated Ground Test
Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Cockburn, Tom
2011-01-01
This article describes how a collaborative class strategy and an introductory activity were used to develop students' thinking about business and management communication. The article focuses on teachers who want to integrate critical perspectives about business communication into their classes. A course ethos, learning groups, and an introductory…
Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.
One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).
Towne, Dudley H
1988-01-01
This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovchanskiy, I.A.; Pan, A.V.; Fedoseev, S.A.; Shcherbakova, O.V.; Dou, S.X.
2012-01-01
A pinning potential for vortices was introduced assuming plastic pinning of vortex lattice on chains of out-of-plane individual edge dislocations that form low-angle domain boundaries in high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. Using this pinning potential with the classical Kim-Anderson vortex creep approach a model for critical current dependence on field has been successfully developed. The model shows a plausible description of J c (B a ) over the entire field range. Electrical field criterion is incorporated providing the ability to compare measurements made with different criteria (including different measurement techniques). Applicability of this model has been verified by experimental data obtained by direct transport and magnetisation measurements on high quality films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Pinning potential obtained from the fitting procedure is consistent with theoretical predictions. The model showed that the effective pinning landscape changes under influence of external conditions.
Cooky, Cheryl; Dworkin, Shari L
2013-01-01
On August 19, 2009, Caster Semenya, South African track star, won a gold medal in the women's 800-meter event. According to media reports, on the same day, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) ordered Semenya to undergo gender verification testing. This article critically assesses the main concepts and claims that undergird international sport organizations' policies regarding "gender verification" or "sex testing." We examine the ways in which these policies operate through several highly contested assumptions, including that (a) sex exists as a binary; (b) sport is a level playing field for competitors; and (c) some intersex athletes have an unfair advantage over women who are not intersex and, as such, they should be banned from competition to ensure that sport is a level playing field. To conclude, we make three recommendations that are consistent with the attainment of sex and gender justice in sport, which include acknowledging that myriad physical advantages are accepted in sport, recognizing that sport as a level playing field is a myth, and eliminating sex testing in sport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.
1974-01-01
Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Keiling
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Recent Cluster studies reported properties of multiple energy-dispersed ion structures in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL that showed substructure with several well separated ion beamlets, covering energies from 3 keV up to 100 keV (Keiling et al., 2004a, b. Here we report observations from two PSBL crossings, which show a number of identified one-to-one correlations between this beamlet substructure and several plasma-field characteristics: (a bimodal ion conics (<1 keV, (b field-aligned electron flow (<1 keV, (c perpendicular electric field spikes (~20 mV/m, (d broadband electrostatic ELF wave packets (<12.5 Hz, and (e enhanced broadband electromagnetic waves (<4 kHz. The one-to-one correlations strongly suggest that these phenomena were energetically driven by the ion beamlets, also noting that the energy flux of the ion beamlets was 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than, for example, the energy flux of the ion outflow. In addition, several more loosely associated correspondences were observed within the extended region containing the beamlets: (f electrostatic waves (BEN (up to 4 kHz, (g traveling and standing ULF Alfvén waves, (h field-aligned currents (FAC, and (i auroral emissions on conjugate magnetic field lines. Possible generation scenarios for these phenomena are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that the free energy of magnetotail ion beamlets drove a variety of phenomena and that the spatial fine structure of the beamlets dictated the locations of where some of these phenomena occurred. This emphasizes the notion that PSBL ion beams are important for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. However, it is also shown that the dissipation of electromagnetic energy flux (at altitudes below Cluster of the simultaneously occurring Alfvén waves and FAC was larger (FAC being the largest than the dissipation of beam kinetic energy flux, and thus these two energy carriers contributed more to the energy transport on PSBL field lines
Albrecht, J.; Leonhardt, S.; Kronmüller, H.
2001-01-01
Low-angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles θ<5° in optimally doped thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ are investigated by magneto-optical imaging. By using a numerical inversion scheme of Biot-Savart's law, the critical current density across the grain boundary can be determined with a spatial resolution of about 5μm. Detailed investigation of the spatially resolved flux density and current density data shows that the current density across the boundary varies with varying local flux density. Combining the corresponding flux and current pattern, it is found that there exists a universal dependency of the grain boundary current on the local flux density. Considering the magnetic vortex-vortex interaction in and in the vicinity of the grain boundary, a model is developed that is able to describe the experimental data.
Acoustic phenomena during boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorofeev, B.M.
1985-01-01
Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer
Transport phenomena II essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration
Heat Transfer Phenomena of Supercritical Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krau, Carmen Isabella; Kuhn, Dietmar; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2008-07-01
In concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors, the reactor core is cooled and moderated by water at supercritical pressures. The significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water requires an exact knowledge of the heat transfer mechanism to avoid fuel pin damages. Near the pseudo-critical point a deterioration of heat transfer might happen. Processes, that take place in this case, are not fully understood and are due to be examined systematically. In this paper a general overview on the properties of supercritical water is given, experimental observations of different authors will be reviewed in order to identify heat transfer phenomena and onset of occurrence. The conceptional design of a test rig to investigate heat transfer in the boundary layer will be discussed. Both, water and carbon dioxide, may serve as operating fluids. The loop, including instrumentation and safety devices, is shown and suitable measuring methods are described. (authors)
Transport phenomena I essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con
Large momentum transfer phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.
1978-01-01
The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mabrouk Briki
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.
Bera, Anindita; Mishra, Utkarsh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Biswas, Anindya; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2018-06-01
Benford's law is an empirical edict stating that the lower digits appear more often than higher ones as the first few significant digits in statistics of natural phenomena and mathematical tables. A marked proportion of such analyses is restricted to the first significant digit. We employ violation of Benford's law, up to the first four significant digits, for investigating magnetization and correlation data of paradigmatic quantum many-body systems to detect cooperative phenomena, focusing on the finite-size scaling exponents thereof. We find that for the transverse field quantum XY model, behavior of the very first significant digit of an observable, at an arbitrary point of the parameter space, is enough to capture the quantum phase transition in the model with a relatively high scaling exponent. A higher number of significant digits do not provide an appreciable further advantage, in particular, in terms of an increase in scaling exponents. Since the first significant digit of a physical quantity is relatively simple to obtain in experiments, the results have potential implications for laboratory observations in noisy environments.
Grain boundary structure and properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balluffi, R.W.
1979-01-01
An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries
Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Gordon, M.
1977-01-01
For the polymer-solvent system poly(phenylene oxide) in toluene the mechanism and kinetics of crystallization have been studied with the Pulse Induced Critical Scattering technique. It was found that after a delay-time the growth mechanism was diffusion controlled. The delay-time is thought to be
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lejček, Pavel; Šob, Mojmír; Paidar, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 87, Jun (2017), s. 83-139 ISSN 0079-6425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-24711S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : solute segregation * interfacial embrittlement * grain boundary * free surface * computer modeling * measurements of local composition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 31.140, year: 2016
Berry, S. A.
1986-01-01
An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.
Dropout Phenomena at Universities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune
Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.
Quantum phase transition and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K.
1998-01-01
We intend to describe briefly the generic features associated with the zero temperature transition in quantum mechanical systems. We elucidate the discussion of the introductory section using the very common example of Ising model in a transverse field. We discuss the method of fermionisation for one dimensional systems. The quantum-classical correspondence is discussed using Suzuki-Trotter method. We then introduce the quantum rotor model and discuss its spherical limit. We finally discuss novel features arising due to the presence of quenched randomness in the quantum Ising and rotor systems. (author)
Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.
1976-01-01
Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below
Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.
Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles
1991-01-01
A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)
Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals
Lejcek, Pavel
2010-01-01
Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.
Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quintiere, James
analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...
Science at the interface : grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid M.; Clark, Blythe B.; Olmsted, David L.; Medlin, Douglas L.
2009-09-01
Interfaces are a critical determinant of the full range of materials properties, especially at the nanoscale. Computational and experimental methods developed a comprehensive understanding of nanograin evolution based on a fundamental understanding of internal interfaces in nanocrystalline nickel. It has recently been shown that nanocrystals with a bi-modal grain-size distribution possess a unique combination of high-strength, ductility and wear-resistance. We performed a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the structure and motion of internal interfaces in nanograined metal and the resulting grain evolution. The properties of grain boundaries are computed for an unprecedented range of boundaries. The presence of roughening transitions in grain boundaries is explored and related to dramatic changes in boundary mobility. Experimental observations show that abnormal grain growth in nanograined materials is unlike conventional scale material in both the level of defects and the formation of unfavored phases. Molecular dynamics simulations address the origins of some of these phenomena.
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena
Diels, Jean-Claude
2006-01-01
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic
Science and Paranormal Phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H. Pierre
1999-06-03
In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.
Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena
Ponath, H-E
1991-01-01
In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are
Interfacial transport phenomena
Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok
2007-01-01
Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.
1995-02-01
Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)
Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barfield, J.N.
1975-01-01
During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)
A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.; Sanchez, R.
2005-01-01
The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.
2011-05-01
Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).
SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.
Rheological phenomena in focus
Boger, DV
1993-01-01
More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be
Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena
Blank, M
1987-01-01
This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...
Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.
1989-01-01
A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs
Fundamentals of wave phenomena
Hirose, Akira
2010-01-01
This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, L.J.; Rij, W.I. van.
1991-01-01
Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level ''whole-core'' codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawai, Y.
1991-08-01
It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hategan, Cornel
2002-01-01
Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conti, P.S.
1982-01-01
The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)
Modelling of transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1993-09-01
In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs
Transport phenomena in porous media
Ingham, Derek B
1998-01-01
Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...
Quantification of natural phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botero Alvarez, Javier
1997-01-01
The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories
Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.
1995-01-01
The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)
Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)
1963-07-01
This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.
Grain boundary structure and properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balluffi, R.W.
1979-05-01
An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given
Removing Boundary Layer by Suction
Ackeret, J
1927-01-01
Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.
Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen
2011-03-01
the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key boundary in the P cycle, they also suggest it's not a Rubicon moment. The inefficiencies in P use that motivate these boundary debates are also clear targets for improvement, and some world regions may be on a trajectory towards greater P use efficiency (Vitousek et al 2009). This is a critical step for society, because even absent concerns over freshwater eutrophication or marine anoxic events, accelerating rates of P mining and inefficiencies in agricultural P use would still pose very real threats. There is legitimate debate over when readily accessible P reserves may run out (Cordell et al 2009, Van Kauenbergh 2010), but nobody argues with their finite nature. Sooner or later, we will be forced to keep P out of our waterways, if only because we will have to keep it on our farms. Without such a shift, we may face severe P constraints to food security within just a few human generations. As current P reserves decline, rising economic values of low concentration P stores may catalyze their harvest, but without considerable policy interventions, that price hike would exacerbate already strong global inequities in the distribution and use of chemical fertilizers (Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005). The harvest of low concentration P reserves would also create substantial collateral damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, even without exhaustion of high-concentration P reserves, their location in only a few countries creates geopolitical risks from the demand for an increasingly valuable resource (Cordell et al 2009). Policies aimed at lowering P inputs to aquatic environments will not only reduce the eutrophication risks explored by Carpenter and Bennett, they will increase P retention in agricultural landscapes and slow the decline of finite P reserves. Shifts in human diets can also make a profound difference in the amount of P (and N) required to meet caloric needs. Society
Direct channel problems and phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cutkosky, R.E.
1975-01-01
Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena
Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves
Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.
2003-01-01
We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.
Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquier, P.
1989-12-01
In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontani, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, H.C.
1976-01-01
A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation
Agić, Ante
2007-06-01
Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.
Workshop on Interface Phenomena
Kreuzer, Hans
1987-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, Christian.
1982-03-01
Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr
PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena
Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo
2010-10-01
research. We hope that this collection of papers will provide a good overview for anyone interested in recent developments in the field of integrability and nonlinear phenomena. [1] Integrable models in nonlinear optics and soliton solutions Degasperis A [2] Hamiltonian PDEs: deformations, integrability, solutions Dubrovin B [3] Smooth and peaked solitons of the CH equation Holm D D and Ivanov R I [4] KP solitons in shallow water Kodama Y [5] Two extensions of 1D Toda hierarchy Takasaki K [6] On the Lax representation of the 2-component KP and 2D Toda hierarchies Guido Carlet and Manuel Manas [7] The q-deformed mKP hierarchy with self-consistent sources, Wronskian solutions and solitons Lin R L, Peng H and Manas M [8] Hodograph solutions of the dispersionless coupled KdV hierarchies, critical points and the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation Konopelchenko B, Martinez Alonso L and E Medina [9] Non-Hamiltonian generalizations of the dispersionless 2DTL hierarchy Bogdanov L V [10] Squared eigenfunctions and the perturbation theory for the nondegenerate N x N operator: a general outline Kaup D J and Van Gorder R A [11] The noncommutative AKNS system: projection to matrix systems, countable superposition and soliton-like solutions Schiebold C [12] On the soliton solutions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice Biondini G and Wang D [13] Differential algebra of the Painleve property Benes G N and Previato E [14] Klein's curve Braden H W and Northover T P [15] Quantum monodromy and pattern formation Zhilinskii B [16] A symptotics for a special solution to the second member of the Painleve I hierarchy Claeys T [17] Darboux transformation for a two-component derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation Ling L and Liu Q P [18] Backlund transformations as exact integrable time discretizations for the trigonometric Gaudin model Ragnisco O and Zullo F [19] Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation Gomez-Ullate D, Kamran N and Milson R [20] The hydrodynamic Chaplygin
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
Kontani, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...
Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.
2015-01-01
Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)
Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.
1989-01-01
Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramadan, A.E.K.
2004-01-01
Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry
Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y
2012-01-01
Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.
Haters Phenomena in Social Media
Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
2016-01-01
Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løvschal, Mette
2014-01-01
of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming
2013-01-01
project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...
Transport phenomena in environmental engineering
Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav
2018-01-01
A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke
2010-01-01
to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...
The blowdown, refill and reflood phase during a LOCA. Survey of the main physical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reocreux, M.
1980-05-01
In this paper, the main physical phenomena occuring during a LOCA are reviewed. They are presented in a chronological order. For each phenomena, a detailed physical description is given followed by the review of the general modelling problems. For some of these phenomena, modelling details are given for critical flow, for two-phase flow and heat transfer, for critical heat flux and post critical heat flux heat transfer, for reflood and rewet heat transfer and in the survey on LOCA computation codes
Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena
Gonzalez, Jose Cruz
Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.
1996-01-01
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zølner, Mette
The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....
Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena
Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina
2014-01-01
This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the
Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro
2001-01-01
Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)
Micro transport phenomena during boiling
Peng, Xiaofeng
2011-01-01
"Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.
Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena
Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao
2017-01-01
Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth
2010-01-01
of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....
Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces
Gopalakrishnan, S.
1985-01-01
Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.
Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frid, W.
1991-08-01
This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)
Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker
Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.
2014-11-01
Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.
Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for boundary sine-Gordon model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Taejun; Rim, Chaiho
2003-01-01
(R-channel) TBA is elaborated to find the effective central charge dependence on the boundary parameters for the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with the coupling constant (8π)/β 2 =1+λ with λ a positive integer. Numerical analysis of the massless boundary TBA demonstrates that at an appropriate boundary parameter range (cusp point) there exists a singularity crossing phenomena and this effect should be included in TBA to have the right behavior of the effective central charge
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena
Helliwell, Robert A
2006-01-01
The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.
1992-01-01
An experiment to search for the production of quark endash gluon plasma in proton endash antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus endash nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated
Transport phenomena in particulate systems
Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo
2012-01-01
This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.
Discovery potential for new phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, S.; Price, L.E.
1997-03-01
The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales
Frustration and quantum criticality
Vojta, Matthias
2018-06-01
This review article is devoted to the interplay between frustrated magnetism and quantum critical phenomena, covering both theoretical concepts and ideas as well as recent experimental developments in correlated-electron materials. The first part deals with local-moment magnetism in Mott insulators and the second part with frustration in metallic systems. In both cases, frustration can either induce exotic phases accompanied by exotic quantum critical points or lead to conventional ordering with unconventional crossover phenomena. In addition, the competition of multiple phases inherent to frustrated systems can lead to multi-criticality.
Frustration and quantum criticality.
Vojta, Matthias
2018-03-15
This review article is devoted to the interplay between frustrated magnetism and quantum critical phenomena, covering both theoretical concepts and ideas as well as recent experimental developments in correlated-electron materials. The first part deals with local-moment magnetism in Mott insulators and the second part with frustration in metallic systems. In both cases, frustration can either induce exotic phases accompanied by exotic quantum critical points or lead to conventional ordering with unconventional crossover phenomena. In addition, the competition of multiple phases inherent to frustrated systems can lead to multi-criticality. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten
2015-01-01
in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Camurdan
1998-01-01
are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.
Critical fields in high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finnemore, D.K.
1991-01-01
An analysis of various methods to obtain the critical fields of the high temperature superconductors from experimental data is undertaken in order to find definitions of these variables that are consistent with the models used to define them. Characteristic critical fields of H c1 , H c2 and H c that occur in the Ginsburg-Landau theory are difficult to determine experimentally in the high temperature superconductors because there are additional physical phenomena that obscure the results. The lower critical field is difficult to measure because there are flux pinning and surface barrier effects to flux entry; the upper critical field is difficult because fluctuation effects are large at this phase boundary; the thermodynamic critical field is difficult because fluctuations make it difficult to know the field where the magnetization integral should be terminated. In addition to these critical fields there are at least two other cross-over fields. There is the so called irreversibility line where the vortices transform from a rigid flux line lattice to a fluid lattice and there is a second cross-over field associated with the transition from the fluctuation to the Abrikosov vortex regime. The presence of these new physical effects may require new vocabulary
Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena
Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert
2015-01-01
Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969
Reflections on Gibbs: From Critical Phenomena to the Amistad
Kadanoff, Leo P.
2003-03-01
J. Willard Gibbs, the younger was the first American theorist. He was one of the inventors of statistical physics. His introduction and development of the concepts of phase space, phase transitions, and thermodynamic surfaces was remarkably correct and elegant. These three concepts form the basis of different but related areas of physics. The connection among these areas has been a subject of deep reflection from Gibbs' time to our own. I shall talk about these connections by using concepts suggested by the work of Michael Berry and explicitly put forward by the philosopher Robert Batterman. This viewpoint relates theory-connection to the applied mathematics concepts of asymptotic analysis and singular perturbations. J. Willard Gibbs, the younger, had all his achievements concentrated in science. His father, also J. Willard Gibbs, also a Professor at Yale, had one great achievement that remains unmatched in our day. I shall describe it.
Anomalous critical and supercritical phenomena in explosive percolation
D'Souza, Raissa M.; Nagler, Jan
2015-07-01
The emergence of large-scale connectivity on an underlying network or lattice, the so-called percolation transition, has a profound impact on the system’s macroscopic behaviours. There is thus great interest in controlling the location of the percolation transition to either enhance or delay its onset and, more generally, in understanding the consequences of such control interventions. Here we review explosive percolation, the sudden emergence of large-scale connectivity that results from repeated, small interventions designed to delay the percolation transition. These transitions exhibit drastic, unanticipated and exciting consequences that make explosive percolation an emerging paradigm for modelling real-world systems ranging from social networks to nanotubes.
Reactor pressure boundary materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.
2002-04-01
With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database
Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.
Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D
1997-10-01
Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.
Transport phenomena in multiphase flows
Mauri, Roberto
2015-01-01
This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy. It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...
Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena
Howard, J. C.
1979-01-01
Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.
Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talman, R.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance
Slow slip phenomena in Cascadia from 2007 and beyond: a review
Gomberg, Joan; ,
2010-01-01
Recent technological advances combined with more detailed analyses of seismologic and geodetic observations have fundamentally changed our understanding of the ways in which tectonic stresses arising from plate motions are accommodated by slip on faults. The traditional view that relative plate motions are accommodated by a simple cycle of stress accumulation and release on “locked” plate-boundary faults has been revolutionized by the serendipitous discovery and recognition of the significance of slow-slip phenomena, mostly in the deeper reaches of subduction zones. The Cascadia subduction zone, located in the Pacific Northwest of the conterminous United States and adjacent Canada, is an archetype of exploration and learning about slow-slip phenomena. These phenomena are manifest as geodetically observed aseismic transient deformations accompanied by a previously unrecognized class of seismic signals. Although secondary failure processes may be involved in generating the seismic signals, the primary origins of both aseismic and seismic phenomena appear to be episodic fault slip, probably facilitated by fluids, on a plate interface that is critically stressed or weakened. In Cascadia, this transient slip evolves more slowly and over more prolonged durations relative to the slip in earthquakes, and it occurs between the 30- and 40-km-depth contours of the plate interface where information was previously elusive. Although there is some underlying organization that relaxes nearly all the accrued plate-motion stresses along the entirety of Cascadia, we now infer that slow slip evolves in complex patterns indicative of propagating stress fronts. Our new understanding provides key constraints not only on the region where the slow slip originates, but also on the probable characteristics of future megathrust earthquakes in Cascadia. Herein, we review the most significant scientific issues and progress related to understanding slow-slip phenomena in Cascadia and
Antagonistic Phenomena in Network Dynamics
Motter, Adilson E.; Timme, Marc
2018-03-01
Recent research on the network modeling of complex systems has led to a convenient representation of numerous natural, social, and engineered systems that are now recognized as networks of interacting parts. Such systems can exhibit a wealth of phenomena that not only cannot be anticipated from merely examining their parts, as per the textbook definition of complexity, but also challenge intuition even when considered in the context of what is now known in network science. Here, we review the recent literature on two major classes of such phenomena that have far-reaching implications: (a) antagonistic responses to changes of states or parameters and (b) coexistence of seemingly incongruous behaviors or properties - both deriving from the collective and inherently decentralized nature of the dynamics. They include effects as diverse as negative compressibility in engineered materials, rescue interactions in biological networks, negative resistance in fluid networks, and the Braess paradox occurring across transport and supply networks. They also include remote synchronization, chimera states, and the converse of symmetry breaking in brain, power-grid, and oscillator networks as well as remote control in biological and bioinspired systems. By offering a unified view of these various scenarios, we suggest that they are representative of a yet broader class of unprecedented network phenomena that ought to be revealed and explained by future research.
Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena
Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov
we provide a novel and general framework for multiscale modeling of systems featuring one or more dissolved species. This makes it possible to retain molecular detail for parts of the problem that require it while using a simple, continuum description for parts where high detail is unnecessary, reducing the number of degrees of freedom (i.e. number of particles) dramatically. This opens the possibility for modeling ion transport in biological processes and biomolecule assembly in ionic solution, as well as electrokinetic phenomena at interfaces such as corrosion. The number of particles in the system is further reduced through an integrated boundary approach, which we apply to colloidal suspensions. In this thesis, we describe this general framework for multiscale modeling single- and multicomponent systems, provide several simple equilibrium and non-equilibrium case studies, and discuss future applications.
Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena
Teodorani, M.
2003-12-01
Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.
Ludu, Andrei
2016-01-01
The central theme of this book is the extent to which the structure of the free dynamical boundaries of a system controls the evolution of the system as a whole. Applying three orthogonal types of thinking - mathematical, constructivist and morphological, it illustrates these concepts using applications to selected problems from the social and life sciences, as well as economics. In a broader context, it introduces and reviews some modern mathematical approaches to the science of complex systems. Standard modeling approaches (based on non-linear differential equations, dynamic systems, graph theory, cellular automata, stochastic processes, or information theory) are suitable for studying local problems. However they cannot simultaneously take into account all the different facets and phenomena of a complex system, and new approaches are required to solve the challenging problem of correlations between phenomena at different levels and hierarchies, their self-organization and memory-evolutive aspects, the grow...
Thermal phenomenae in nuclear fuel rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baigorria, Carlos.
1983-12-01
Thermal phenomenae occurring in a nuclear fuel rod under irradiation are studied. The most important parameters of either steady or transient thermal states are determined. The validity of applying the Fourier's approximation equations to these problems is also studied. A computer program TRANS is developed in order to study the transient cases. This program solves a system of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations, of parabolic type, in cylindrical coordinates with various boundary conditions. The benchmarking of the TRANS program is done by comparing its predictions with the analytical solution of some simplified transient cases. Complex transient cases such as those corresponding to characteristic reactor accidents are studied, in particular for typical pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel rods, such as those of Atucha I. The Stefan problem emerging in the case of melting of the fuel element is solved. Qualitative differences between the classical Stefan problem, without inner sources, and that one, which includes sources are discussed. The MSA program, for solving the Stefan problem with inner sources is presented; and furthermore, it serves to predict thermal evolution, when the fuel element melts. Finally a model for fuel phase change under irradiation is developed. The model is based on the dimensional invariants of the percolation theory when applied to the connectivity of liquid spires nucleated around each fission fragment track. Suggestions for future research into the subject are also presented. (autor) [es
Correlated randomness and switching phenomena
Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.
2010-08-01
One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.
Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous
Avgoloupis, S. I.
2013-01-01
Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)
Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity
Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza
2018-04-01
The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.
Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.
1986-01-01
Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH
Violent phenomena in the Universe
Narlikar, Jayant V
2007-01-01
The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova
Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics
Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P
2012-01-01
Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear
Quantum theory of collective phenomena
Sewell, G L
2014-01-01
""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s
Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.
Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir
2006-12-01
Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.
2011-10-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.
2010-01-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matuszewska Dominika
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An existence of low stability region in the dense vapours and its influence on some peculiarities in behaviour of selected dry and isentropic ORC fluids is discussed. The retrograde phenomena in the flow of BZT fluids [1.] can be simply related to the mechanical and thermodynamic stability parameters. These new refrigerant and their properties have been analysed based on the software tools REFPROP v.9.1 [2.]. Test examples have confirmed an importance of low thermodynamic stability area in the vicinity of saturation boundary line and neighbourhood of critical point of the fluid. The analytical results have been obtained for selected pure fluids applicable in the ORC and heat pump technology such C4H10, C6H5CH3, C12H26, R123, R134a, R227ea, R245fa, low GWP hydrofluoroolefins (R1234xxXand a group of linear and cyclic siloxanes.
Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conrads, T.J.
1998-01-01
This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina
2003-01-01
.After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....
Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.
2001-01-01
The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self
Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-02-01
Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.
Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, H.Y.
2012-01-01
Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r → -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t → -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function Ψ is given by the phase factor e -iEt/h b ar with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign
Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces
Calle, Carlos I.
2017-02-01
The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliffe, I.
1996-12-01
The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing experimental data with great precision. With the exception of some neutrino anomalies, there is no data that is in disagreement with it. Nevertheless, the model is regarded as incomplete and unsatisfactory. There is no explanation of the pattern of quark and lepton masses and, possibly more important, no understanding of the scale of electroweak interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is implemented in the Standard Model from the presence of a scalar electroweak doublet, the Higgs field, that acquires a vacuum expectation value of order 250 GeV and leaves as a remnant one physical state, the electrically neutral Higgs boson whose mass is not predicted. In this talk, the author compares the techniques used at, and capabilities of, various facilities in searching for new phenomena. The author emphasizes the cases where information from more than one facility may be needed to fully explore the physics
Remote sensing of natural phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miodrag D. Regodić
2014-06-01
Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in
Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2001-01-01
The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...
Weak links in high critical temperature superconductors
Tafuri, Francesco; Kirtley, John R.
2005-11-01
The traditional distinction between tunnel and highly transmissive barriers does not currently hold for high critical temperature superconducting Josephson junctions, both because of complicated materials issues and the intrinsic properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS). An intermediate regime, typical of both artificial superconductor-barrier-superconductor structures and of grain boundaries, spans several orders of magnitude in the critical current density and specific resistivity. The physics taking place at HTS surfaces and interfaces is rich, primarily because of phenomena associated with d-wave order parameter (OP) symmetry. These phenomena include Andreev bound states, the presence of the second harmonic in the critical current versus phase relation, a doubly degenerate state, time reversal symmetry breaking and the possible presence of an imaginary component of the OP. All these effects are regulated by a series of transport mechanisms, whose rules of interplay and relative activation are unknown. Some transport mechanisms probably have common roots, which are not completely clear and possibly related to the intrinsic nature of high-TC superconductivity. The d-wave OP symmetry gives unique properties to HTS weak links, which do not have any analogy with systems based on other superconductors. Even if the HTS structures are not optimal, compared with low critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions, the state of the art allows the realization of weak links with unexpectedly high quality quantum properties, which open interesting perspectives for the future. The observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and the qubit proposals represent significant achievements in this direction. In this review we attempt to encompass all the above aspects, attached to a solid experimental basis of junction concepts and basic properties, along with a flexible phenomenological background, which collects ideas on the Josephson effect in the presence
Weak links in high critical temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tafuri, Francesco; Kirtley, John R
2005-01-01
The traditional distinction between tunnel and highly transmissive barriers does not currently hold for high critical temperature superconducting Josephson junctions, both because of complicated materials issues and the intrinsic properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS). An intermediate regime, typical of both artificial superconductor-barrier-superconductor structures and of grain boundaries, spans several orders of magnitude in the critical current density and specific resistivity. The physics taking place at HTS surfaces and interfaces is rich, primarily because of phenomena associated with d-wave order parameter (OP) symmetry. These phenomena include Andreev bound states, the presence of the second harmonic in the critical current versus phase relation, a doubly degenerate state, time reversal symmetry breaking and the possible presence of an imaginary component of the OP. All these effects are regulated by a series of transport mechanisms, whose rules of interplay and relative activation are unknown. Some transport mechanisms probably have common roots, which are not completely clear and possibly related to the intrinsic nature of high-T C superconductivity. The d-wave OP symmetry gives unique properties to HTS weak links, which do not have any analogy with systems based on other superconductors. Even if the HTS structures are not optimal, compared with low critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions, the state of the art allows the realization of weak links with unexpectedly high quality quantum properties, which open interesting perspectives for the future. The observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and the qubit proposals represent significant achievements in this direction. In this review we attempt to encompass all the above aspects, attached to a solid experimental basis of junction concepts and basic properties, along with a flexible phenomenological background, which collects ideas on the Josephson effect in the presence
EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology
Loss, Daniel
2009-10-01
Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation
Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert
2015-03-01
Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena's co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.
Discontinuities and the magnetospheric phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajaram, R.; Kalra, G.L.; Tandon, J.N.
1978-01-01
Wave coupling at contact discontinuities has an important bearing on the transmission of waves from the solar wind into the magnetosphere across the cusp region of the solar wind-magnetosphere boundary and on the propagation of geomagnetic pulsations in the polar exosphere. Keeping this in view, the problems of wave coupling across a contact discontinuity in a collisionless plasma, described by a set of double adiabatic fluid equations, is examined. The magnetic field is taken normal to the interface and it is shown that total reflection is not possible for any angle of incidence. The Alfven and the magneto-acoustic waves are not coupled. The transmission is most efficient for small density discontinuities. Inhibition of the transmission of the Alfven wave by the sharp density gradients above the F2-peak in the polar exosphere appears to account for the decrease in the pulsation amplitude, on the ground, as the poles are approached from the auroral zone. (author)
Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В. С. Могилатов
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.
Transient phenomena in multiphase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afgan, N.H.
1988-01-01
This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled
Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)
2011-06-23
Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.
Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena
Santamarina, Carlos
2017-07-06
Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.
Transport phenomena through porous screens and openings : from theory to greenhouse practice
Miguel, A.A.F.
1998-01-01
The study of transport phenomena in multi-zone enclosures with permeable boundaries is fundamental for indoor climate control management. In this study, aspects concerning the air exchange through porous screens and openings, and heat transfer between the enclosure surface and inside air,
Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.
Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China
Sun, Xiaochun
Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.
Boundary scattering in the ϕ{sup 4} model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorey, Patrick [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Halavanau, Aliaksei [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,BSU, Minsk Independence Avenue 4 (Belarus); Fermi National Laboratory,Pine St. and Kirk Rd., ZIP 60511, Mail Station 221, Batavia, Illinois (United States); Mercer, James [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Deloitte MCS Limited,Hill House, 1 Little New Street, London, EC4A 3TR (United Kingdom); Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Krakow (Poland); Shnir, Yasha [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,BSU, Minsk Independence Avenue 4 (Belarus); BLTP, JINR,141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Oldenburg University,Postfach 2503 D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)
2017-05-19
We study boundary scattering in the ϕ{sup 4} model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state. We also study the decay of the vibrational boundary mode, and explore different scenarios for its relaxation and for the creation of kinks.
Investigation of lubricants under boundary friction
Heidebroek, E; Pietsch, E
1942-01-01
Numerous observations of such lubrication processes within range of boundary friction on journal bearings and gear tooth profiles have strengthened the supposition that it should be possible to study the attendant phenomena with engineering methods and equipment. These considerations formed the basis of the present studies, which have led to the discovery of relations governing the suitability of bearing surfaces and the concept of "lubricating quality."
Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2008-01-15
We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)
Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.
1988-09-01
Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs
Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.
1984-01-01
This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined
A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron
2017-01-01
Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.N.
1983-01-01
The mechanism of echo phenomenon in different plasma media: laboratory and cosmic plasma, metals and semiconductors is analyzed to get a more comprehensive idea on collective processes in a plasma and for practical applications in radiophysics and plasma diagnostics. The echo phenomenon permitted to confirm a reversible nature of the Landau damping, to prove the fact that the information on perturbation is conserved in a plasma (as non-damping oscillations of the distribution function) even after disappearing of the macroscopic field. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the velocity is measured, microturbulences in a plasma are investigated. New ways of the plasma wave conversion are suggested, as well as ''lightning'' of super-critical plasma layers and regions of plasma non-transparency. Prospective advantages of using echo for studying the mechanisms of charged particle interaction with the surface bounding a plasma are revealed
Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the
Exploration by radioactive fibrinogen of intrarenal coagulation phenomena. Preliminary results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, Jacques.
1974-01-01
The participation of fibrin deposits in kidney pathology was studied by the use of a radioactive tracer involved in the coagulation phenomenon: iodine 131-labelled fibrinogen. The isotopic exploration consists of a fibrinogen kinetics study combined with external counting over the kidney regions. The different stages of the procedure are described: separation, purification and labelling of fibrinogen; characteristics of the radioactive fibrinogen used; practical details of the examination itself; data analysis method. A chapter devoted to verifications and discussions of the procedure is followed by a report on the exploration of intrarenal coagulation phenomena in 30 kidney disease patients. In conclusion, the study of fibrinogen kinetics is considered as the most suitable method to detect local or slight intravascular coagulation phenomena. The sensitivity of the isotopic exploration is very satisfactory. The main criticism directed against this method is that the exploration is general and therefore blind [fr
Outer Magnetospheric Boundaries Cluster Results
Paschmann, Goetz; Schwartz, S J
2006-01-01
When the stream of plasma emitted from the Sun (the solar wind) encounters Earth's magnetic field, it slows down and flows around it, leaving behind a cavity, the magnetosphere. The magnetopause is the surface that separates the solar wind on the outside from the Earth's magnetic field on the inside. Because the solar wind moves at supersonic speed, a bow shock must form ahead of the magnetopause that acts to slow the solar wind to subsonic speeds. Magnetopause, bow shock and their environs are rich in exciting processes in collisionless plasmas, such as shock formation, magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and wave-particle interactions. They are interesting in their own right, as part of Earth's environment, but also because they are prototypes of similar structures and phenomena that are ubiquitous in the universe, having the unique advantage that they are accessible to in situ measurements. The boundaries of the magnetosphere have been the target of direct in-situ measurements since the beginning ...
Magnetic phenomena in holographic superconductivity with Lifshitz scaling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aldo Dector
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effects of Lifshitz dynamical critical exponent z on a family of minimal D=4+1 holographic superconducting models, with a particular focus on magnetic phenomena. We see that it is possible to have a consistent Ginzburg–Landau approach to holographic superconductivity in a Lifshitz background. By following this phenomenological approach we are able to compute a wide array of physical quantities. We also calculate the Ginzburg–Landau parameter for different condensates, and conclude that in systems with higher dynamical critical exponent, vortex formation is more strongly unfavored energetically and exhibits a stronger Type I behavior. Finally, following the perturbative approach proposed by Maeda, Natsuume and Okamura, we calculate the critical magnetic field of our models for different values of z.
Generic boundary scattering in the open XXZ chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2008-01-01
The open critical XXZ spin chain with a general right boundary and a trivial diagonal left boundary is considered. Within this framework we propose a simple computation of the exact generic boundary S-matrix (with diagonal and non-diagonal entries), starting from the 'bare' Bethe ansatz equations. Our results as anticipated coincide with the ones obtained by Ghoshal and Zamolodchikov, after assuming suitable identifications of the bulk and boundary parameters
Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Song (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
2015-07-01
The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for
Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Song
2015-01-01
The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for
Interfacial polarization phenomena in organic molecular films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki
2006-01-01
Electrostatic phenomena occurring at the interface between metal/organic and organic/organic materials are discussed from the viewpoint of dielectrics physics. Focusing on two important origins of surface polarization phenomena, orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges at the interface, surface polarization phenomena of organic thin films are discussed. To define the orientational order of polar molecules, orientational order parameters are introduced, and surface polarization due to the alignment of dipoles is expressed. The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) that are specific for surface organic monomolecular films are discussed, and some experimental evidence are shown. As an extension of the concept of surface Fermi level introduced to discuss the electrostatic phenomena due to electron transfer at the interface between metal-organic insulators, the surface Fermi level is extended to the discussion on the electrostatic phenomena of organic semiconductor materials on metals. In this paper, some experimental evidence of surface polarization originating from polar molecules and displacement of excess charges are shown. After that, with consideration of these surface phenomena, single electron tunneling of organic films are briefly discussed in association with surface polarization phenomena
Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, N.L.
1982-01-01
A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures
Political State Boundary (National)
Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...
Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...
State Agency Administrative Boundaries
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...
Fourteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena
Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A; Silvestri, Sandro; Ultrafast Phenomena XIV
2005-01-01
Ultrafast Phenomena XIV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including ultrafast laser and measurement technology as well as studies of ultrafast phenomena. Pico-, femto-, and atosecond processes relevant in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering are presented. Ultrafast technology is now having a profound impact within a wide range of applications, among them imaging, material diagnostics, and transformation and high-speed optoelectronics. This book summarizes results presented at the 14th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and reviews the state of the art in this important and rapidly advancing field.
Transient phenomena in electrical power systems
Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W
1964-01-01
Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot
Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses
Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen
2009-01-01
Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium
Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena
Morandotti, Roberto
2012-01-01
Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.
Sixteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena
Corkum, Paul; Nelson, Keith A; Riedle, Eberhard; Schoenlein, Robert W; Ultrafast Phenomena XVI
2009-01-01
Ultrafast Phenomena XVI presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 16th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.
Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2003-01-01
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs
Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Silina
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2010-01-01
We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.
Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.
Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M
2014-01-01
The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.
Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skorka, S.J.
1979-01-01
Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown
Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallman, A.M.
1996-02-01
This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site
Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.
1980-01-01
In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)
High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves
2012-01-01
The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...
Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics
Glasgow, Larry A
2010-01-01
Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em
Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard
This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....
Polarization phenomena in two body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, G.H.
1978-01-01
A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references
A cost effective approach for criticality accident analysis of a DOE SNF storage facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrett, R.L.; Couture, G.F.; Gough, S.T.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the methodologies used to derive criticality accident analyses for a spent nuclear fuel receipt, storage, handling, and shipping facility. Two criticality events are considered: process-induced and Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH)-induced. The criticality analyses required the development of: (1) the frequency at which each sceanario occurred, (2) the estimated number of fissions for each scenario, and (3) the consequences associated with each criticality scenario. A fault tree analysis was performed to quantify the frequency of criticality due to process-induced events. For the frequency analysis of NPH-induced criticality, a probabilistic approach was employed. To estimate the consequences of a criticality event, the resulting fission yield was determined using a probabilistic approach. For estimating the source term, a 95% amount of overall conservatism was targeted. This methodology applied to the facility criticality scenarios indicated that: (1) the 95th percentile yield levels from the historical yield distributions are approximately 5 x 10 17 fissions and 5 x 10 18 fissions for internal event and NPH-induced criticality event, respectively; and (2) using probabilistic Latin Hypercube Sampling, the downwind 95th percentile dose to a receptor at the US DOE reservation boundary is 2.2 mrem. This estimate is compared to the bounding dose of 1.4 rem. 4 refs., 1 fig
Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David
2014-01-01
. Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Couzinie, J.P.; Decamps, B.; Boulanger, L.; Priester, L.
2005-01-01
An in-situ annealing experiment has been performed on an intergranular dislocation configuration composed only of glissile grain boundary dislocations observed in a near Σ = 3 {1 1 1} grain boundary in copper. Relaxation phenomena are not obvious than those predicted by theoretical models. Upon annealing, glissile intergranular dislocations are shown to overcome dislocation obstacles by node movement leading to a decrease of the total grain boundary energy
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)
2015-01-22
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating
The atmospheric boundary layer — advances in knowledge and application
Garratt, J. R.; Hess, G. D.; Physick, W. L.; Bougeault, P.
1996-02-01
We summarise major activities and advances in boundary-layer knowledge in the 25 years since 1970, with emphasis on the application of this knowledge to surface and boundary-layer parametrisation schemes in numerical models of the atmosphere. Progress in three areas is discussed: (i) the mesoscale modelling of selected phenomena; (ii) numerical weather prediction; and (iii) climate simulations. Future trends are identified, including the incorporation into models of advanced cloud schemes and interactive canopy schemes, and the nesting of high resolution boundary-layer schemes in global climate models.
Slip systems, dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations in deformed metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Grethe
2009-01-01
Metals are polycrystals and consist of grains, which are subdivided on a finer scale upon plastic deformation due to formation of dislocation boundaries. The crystallographic alignment of planar dislocation boundaries in face centred cubic metals, like aluminium and copper, deformed to moderate...... of the mechanical anisotropy of rolled sheets. The rotation of the crystallographic lattice in each grain during deformation also exhibits grain orientation dependence, originating from the slip systems. A combined analysis of dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations concludes that the two phenomena are coupled...
Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors
Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo
2011-01-01
High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238
The critical ionization velocity - a bibliography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M.A.
1982-12-01
A list of all relevant contributions, known to the authors, concerning the critical ionization velocity phenomena is presented. The contributions are classified and described in a few sentences. (Authors)
State estimation of spatio-temporal phenomena
Yu, Dan
This dissertation addresses the state estimation problem of spatio-temporal phenomena which can be modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs), such as pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. After discretizing the PDE, the dynamical system has a large number of degrees of freedom (DOF). State estimation using Kalman Filter (KF) is computationally intractable, and hence, a reduced order model (ROM) needs to be constructed first. Moreover, the nonlinear terms, external disturbances or unknown boundary conditions can be modeled as unknown inputs, which leads to an unknown input filtering problem. Furthermore, the performance of KF could be improved by placing sensors at feasible locations. Therefore, the sensor scheduling problem to place multiple mobile sensors is of interest. The first part of the dissertation focuses on model reduction for large scale systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. A commonly used model reduction algorithm, the balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD) algorithm, is not computationally tractable for large systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. Inspired by the BPOD and randomized algorithms, we propose a randomized proper orthogonal decomposition (RPOD) algorithm and a computationally optimal RPOD (RPOD*) algorithm, which construct an ROM to capture the input-output behaviour of the full order model, while reducing the computational cost of BPOD by orders of magnitude. It is demonstrated that the proposed RPOD* algorithm could construct the ROM in real-time, and the performance of the proposed algorithms on different advection-diffusion equations. Next, we consider the state estimation problem of linear discrete-time systems with unknown inputs which can be treated as a wide-sense stationary process with rational power spectral density, while no other prior information needs to be known. We propose an autoregressive (AR) model based unknown input realization technique which allows us to recover the input
Certain relativistic phenomena in crystal optics
Chee-Seng, Lim
1980-01-01
Relativistic unsteady phenomena are established for a crystalline medium with unaligned sets of permittivity and permeability principal axes, but incorporating a compounded uniaxiality about some nonprincipal direction. All effects originate from a suddenly activated, arbitrarily oriented, maintained line current conducted with a finite velocity v. Integral representations studied in another paper (Chee-Seng) are applied. The original coordinate system is subjected to a series of rotational and translational, scaled and unscaled transformations. No specific coordinate frame is strictly adhered to. Instead, it is often expedient and advantageous to exploit several reference frames simultaneously in the course of the analysis and interpretations. The electric field is directly related to a net scalar field Δ involving another scalar Ψ and its complement Ψ¯ which can be deduced from Ψ; Ψ and Ψ¯ are associated with two expanding, inclined ellipsoidal wavefronts ξ and ξ¯; these are cocentered at the current origin and touch each other twice along the uniaxis. Elsewhere, ξ leads ξ¯. For a source current faster than ξ:vt ∈ extξ, Ψ≢0 within a finite but growing ''ice-cream cone'' domain, its nontrivial composition being χ-1/2 inside ξ and 2χ-1/2 inside part of a tangent cone from the advancing current edge vt to, and terminating at, ξ; the function χ vanishes along such a tangent cone. Alternatively, for a source current slower than ξ:vt∈ intξ, if vt is avoided, χ≳0 everywhere, while Ψ=χ-1/2 inside ξ but vanishes identically outside ξ. However, the crucial scalar field Δ depends on three separate current-velocity regimes. Over a slow regime: vt∈ intξ¯, Δ is nontrivial inside ξ wherein it is discontinuous across ξ¯. Over an intermediate regime: vt ∈ intξ extξ¯, Δ takes four distinct forms on 12 adjacent domains bounded by ξ, ξ¯ and a double-conical tangent surface linking vt to ξ¯. But for a fast regime: vt∈ ext
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.
2001-01-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2000-03-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)
Interactions of impurities with a moving grain boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, C L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)
1975-01-01
Most theories developed to explain interaction of impurities with a moving grain boundary involve a uniform excess impurity concentration distributed along a planar grain boundary. As boundary velocity increases, the excess impurities exert a net drag force on the boundary until a level is reached whereat the drag force no longer can balance the driving force and breakaway of the boundary from these impurities occurs. In this investigation, assumptions of a uniform lateral impurity profile and a planar grain boundary shape are relaxed by allowing both forward and lateral diffusion of impurities in the vicinity of a grain boundary. It is found that the two usual regions (drag of impurities by, and breakaway of a planar grain boundary) are separated by an extensive region wherein a uniform lateral impurity profile and a planar grain boundary shape are unstable. It is suspected that, in this unstable region, grain boundaries assume a spectrum of more complex morphologies and that elucidation of these morphologies can provide the first definitive description of the breakaway process and insight to more complex phenomena such as solid-solution strengthening, grain growth and secondary recrystallization.
[Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].
Krsiak, M
2008-01-01
The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.
Critical behavior of non-ideal systems
Ivanov, Dmitry Yu
2008-01-01
Dmitry Yu. Ivanov is a professor at the Baltic State Technical University (St. Petersburg, Russia). His research focuses on thermodynamics, critical phenomena and phase transitions, theoretical and experimental investigations of multiple light scattering and correlation spectroscopy in application to Material Science and critical phenomena. His research activities included projects at the Nuclear Research Center in Dubna and Krichevsky Laboratory (Russia) and at the CNRS laboratories and Universities of Paris and Nice (France). He has authored about 70 scientific publications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrov, O.
1975-01-01
Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...
The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.
Lamont, Peter
2012-01-01
This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing
Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel
2017-11-01
A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.
Present state of the controversy about the grain boundary relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Povolo, F.; Molinas, B.J.
1990-04-01
An analysis of the internal friction produced by grain boundary relaxation in metals, alloys and ceramics is presented. The different interpretations given in the literature to relaxation phenomena occurring at temperatures above about half the melting point which include the influence of grain boundaries and their interaction with solutes and precipitates are discussed in detail. A complete set of the experimental data disposable in this field since 1972 until today is reviewed. Finally, some recent experiments are discussed and new ones are suggested. They might solve the actual controversy about the real origin of the relaxation phenomena observed. If this is the case, a considerable amount of information already published can be taken into account with a good degree of confidence. This information contributes to the description of the structure and behaviour of grain boundaries, both being important topics for materials science. (author). 119 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab
A Bayesian explanation of the "Uncanny Valley" effect and related psychological phenomena
Moore, Roger K.
2012-11-01
There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the `uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.
Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena
Schatten, Kenneth H.
1994-07-01
Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.
Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enokizono, Masato
2002-01-01
In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)
Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models
Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang
1994-01-01
A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.
Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clausing, R.E.
1979-01-01
The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included
Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2017-01-01
Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....
Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications
Dattagupta, Sushanta
2004-01-01
From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.
Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.
1997-01-01
Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...
Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases
Boundary entropy of one-dimensional quantum systems at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedan, Daniel; Konechny, Anatoly
2004-01-01
The boundary β function generates the renormalization group acting on the universality classes of one-dimensional quantum systems with boundary which are critical in the bulk but not critical at the boundary. We prove a gradient formula for the boundary β function, expressing it as the gradient of the boundary entropy s at fixed nonzero temperature. The gradient formula implies that s decreases under renormalization, except at critical points (where it stays constant). At a critical point, the number exp(s) is the 'ground-state degeneracy', g, of Affleck and Ludwig, so we have proved their long-standing conjecture that g decreases under renormalization, from critical point to critical point. The gradient formula also implies that s decreases with temperature, except at critical points, where it is independent of temperature. It remains open whether the boundary entropy is always bounded below
Boundary rings and N=2 coset models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerche, W.; Walcher, J.
2002-01-01
We investigate boundary states of N=2 coset models based on Grassmannians Gr(n,n+k), and find that the underlying intersection geometry is given by the fusion ring of U(n). This is isomorphic to the quantum cohomology ring of Gr(n,n+k+1), which in turn can be encoded in a 'boundary' superpotential whose critical points correspond to the boundary states. In this way the intersection properties can be represented in terms of a soliton graph that forms a generalized, Z n+k+1 symmetric McKay quiver. We investigate the spectrum of bound states and find that the rational boundary CFT produces only a small subset of the possible quiver representations
Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is solved numerically using shooting method and the Newton-Raphson method to locate the missing initial conditions. The numerical results reveal that no solution exists beyond a critical value of K and that dual ...
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øjvind Larsen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretical framework like hermeneutics. This allows the possibility of retaining the theoretical intentions of the old Frankfurt school and at the same time there will be no boundaries by specific dominant theoretical perspectives. In this paper, such a framework for a critical hermeneutics is discussed on the basis of Weber’s, Gadamer’s, and Habermas’ theories on hermeneutics within the social sciences.
Development of boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbst, R.
1980-01-01
Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de
CP violating phenomena and theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1987-01-01
An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)
Collision and interaction phenomena - a historical outline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radmaneche, R.
1977-09-01
Collisions and interactions have become important for the description of matter. The author presents an outline which deals with elastic and inelastic collisions, with strong interactions, electromagnetic interactions, weak interactions and gravitational interactions. It is shown that the description of such processes has developed parallel with the understanding of matter and with the mechanism of the phenomena. Current and unsolved problems are mentioned
Transport phenomena in materials processing---1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, B.J.; Lior, N.; Lavine, A.; Flik, M.; Karwe, M.V.; Bergman, T.L.; Beckermann, C.; Charmchi, M.
1990-01-01
The papers contained in this volume represent a wide range of current research interests in processes such as food and polymer processing, casting, welding, machining, laser cutting, and superconductor processing. This volume includes papers presented in four sessions: Heat Transfer in Materials Processing; Thermal Phenomena in Superconductor Processing; Heat Transfer in Food and Polymer Processing; Heat Transfer in CAsting and Welding
Homoclinic phenomena in the gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koiller, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Soares, I.D.
1984-01-01
A class of Bianchi IX cosmological models is shown to have chaotic gravitational collapse, due to Poincare's homoclinic phenomena. Such models can be programmed so that for any given positive integer N (N=infinity included) the universe undergoes N non-periodic oscillations (each oscillation requiring a long time) before collapsing. For N=infinity the universe undergoes periodic oscillations. (Author) [pt
Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, ...
Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions
Sung, Tae-Soo
2013-01-01
We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…
Hyperchaotic phenomena in dynamic decision making
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David
1992-01-01
of this article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form...
Reduplication phenomena: body, mind and archetype.
Garner, J
2000-09-01
The many biological and few psychodynamic explanations of reduplicative syndromes tend to have paralleled the dualism of the phenomenon with organic theories concentrating on form and dynamic theories emphasising content. This paper extends the contribution of psychoanalytic thinking to an elucidation of the form of the delusion. Literature on clinical and aetiological aspects of reduplicative phenomena is reviewed alongside a brief examination of psychoanalytic models not overtly related to these phenomena. The human experience of doubles as universal archetype is considered. There is an obvious aetiological role for brain lesions in delusional misidentifications, but psychological symptoms in an individual can rarely be reduced to an organic disorder. The splitting and doubling which occurs in the phenomena have resonances in cultural mythology and in theories from different schools of psychodynamic thought. For the individual patient and doctor, it is a diverting but potentially empty debate to endeavour to draw strict divisions between what is physical and what is psychological although both need to be investigated. Nevertheless, in patients in whom there is clear evidence of an organic contribution to aetiology a psychodynamic understanding may serve to illuminate the patient's experience. Organic brain disease or serious functional illness predispose to regression to earlier modes of archetypical and primitive thinking with concretization of the metaphorical and mythological world. Psychoanalytic models have a contribution in describing the form as well as the content of reduplicative phenomena.
DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference: proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-10-01
The conference includes sessions which present an overview of DOE programs, available codes, standards and criteria, examples of designs and upgrades from the DOE complex, lessons learned from past natural phenomena, ground motion, seismic evaluation of equipment, and applications of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to DOE facilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers
Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism
Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S.D.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Leighton, Chris; Macdonald, Allan H.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Arena, Dario A.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V.; Koopmans, B.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; May, Steven J.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Rondinelli, James M.; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Stiles, Mark D.; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L.
2017-01-01
This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on
Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting
Zuidema, J.
2005-01-01
Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an
Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2017-01-01
years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...
Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, R A
1977-01-01
A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...
Understanding the physics of changing mass phenomena
Ellermeijer, A.L.
2008-01-01
Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee
Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"
Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.
2002-01-01
In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.
Status of nuclear critical opalescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delorme, J.
1980-12-01
The present information on the pion mode in nuclei is rather adverse to strong critical opalescence phenomena. Energy levels are interpretable in terms of a rather weak particle-hole force where the pion attraction is counterbalanced by short range repulsion. Form factor measurements permit more direct exploration of the longitudinal spin-isospin correlations
Ceramic Translations. Volume 41. Grain Boundaries and Interfacial Phenomena in Electronic Ceramics
1994-01-01
20H -- H20(S) + 02- reaction. In situ FTIR results from our (nitric acid washed) fresh tetragonal hydrothermally -prepared BaTiO3 (alkoxide-based) sample...solution of cation composition Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu = 1.65:0.35:1.6:2:3 was made and an oxalate precipitate was formed using oxalic acid . The oxalate was...consuming fossil fuels, for example, possibly leads to a green-house effect, and by-products such as NOx and SOxcause acid rain. Accordingly, for the
Boundary layer phenomena for differential-delay equations with state-dependent time lags: III
Mallet-Paret, John; Nussbaum, Roger D.
We consider a class of singularly perturbed delay-differential equations of the form ɛ ẋ(t)=f(x(t),x(t-r)), where r= r( x( t)) is a state-dependent delay. We study the asymptotic shape, as ɛ→0, of slowly oscillating periodic solutions. In particular, we show that the limiting shape of such solutions can be explicitly described by the solution of a pair of so-called max-plus equations. We are able thereby to characterize both the regular parts of the solution graph and the internal transition layers arising from the singular perturbation structure.
Inverse boundary design of a radiative smelting furnace with ablative phase change phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farzan, H.; Hosseini Sarvari, S.M.; Mansouri, S.H.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The ablation phenomenon in a reverberatory smelting furnace is simulated numerically. • The results are verified by comparing with exact analytic solution. • Inverse design problem is solved to construct the desired melting rate. • The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the inverse phase change problem. - Abstract: An inverse analysis is employed to control the time rate of heaters in a 2-D smelting furnace to provide the specified radiative heat flux across the design surface to establish a desired melting rate. The design surface in the smelting furnace is the melting surface of the metal concentrate bank, and the melting process is considered to occur as an ablation phenomenon. The net radiation method is used to determine the radiation exchange between the elements of the furnace surfaces and the melting surface. The conjugate gradient method is employed to minimize the objective function, which is the sum of square residuals between the estimated and the desired heat fluxes over the design surface. It is shown that the proposed inverse technique is reliable and accurate for predicting the heater power distribution.
Spectral Action for Torsion with and without Boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iochum, B.; Levy, Cyril Olivier; Vassilevich, D.
2012-01-01
We derive a commutative spectral triple and study the spectral action for a rather general geometric setting which includes the (skew-symmetric) torsion and the chiral bag conditions on the boundary. The spectral action splits into bulk and boundary parts. In the bulk, we clarify certain issues...... of the boundary conditions, and show that θ = 0 is a critical point of the action in any dimension and at all orders of the expansion....
Critical/non-critical system methodology report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
The method used to determine how the waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities/systems were classified as critical or non-critical to the receipt of CH waste is described within this report. All WIPP critical facilities/systems are listed in the Operational Readiness Review Dictionary. Using the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a guide to define the boundaries of the facilities/systems, a direct correlation of the ORR Dictionary to the FSAR can be obtained. The critical facilities/systems are those which are directly related to or have a critical support role in the receipt of CH waste. The facility/systems must meet one of the following requirements to be considered critical: (a) confinement or measure of the release of radioactive materials; (b) continued receipt and/or storage of transuranic waste (TRU) without an interruption greater than one month according to the shipping plan schedule; (c) the environmental and occupational safety of personnel meets the established site programs; and (d) the physical security of the WIPP facilities
Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-06-01
This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.
Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.
1997-06-01
This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs
Beyond the Boundary: Science, Industry, and Managing Symbiosis
Hansen, Birgitte Gorm
2011-01-01
Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation. Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center…
Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontani, Hiroshi
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance
Existence results for anisotropic discrete boundary value problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avci Avci
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems. The main tools used here are the variational principle and critical point theory.
New methods for analyzing transport phenomena in supersonic ejectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamberts, Olivier; Chatelain, Philippe; Bartosiewicz, Yann
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Simulation of a supersonic ejector with the open source software for CFD OpenFOAM. • Validation of the numerical tool based on flow structures obtained by schlieren. • Application of the momentum and energy tube analysis tools to a supersonic ejector. • Extension of this framework to exergy to construct exergy transport tubes. • Quantification of local transfers and losses of exergy within the ejector. - Abstract: This work aims at providing novel insights into the quantification and the location of the transfers and the irreversibilities within supersonic ejectors, and their connection with the entrainment. In this study, we propose two different and complementary approaches. First of all, recent analysis tools based on momentum and energy tubes (Meyers and Meneveau (2013)) are extended to the present compressible flow context and applied to the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow within the ejector. Furthermore, the transport equation for the mean-flow total exergy is derived and exergy transport tubes are proposed as a tool for the investigation of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. In addition to this topological approach, an analysis based on classical stream tubes is performed in order to quantitatively investigate transfers between the primary and the secondary streams all along the ejector. Finally, the present work identifies the location of exergy losses and their origins. Throughout this analysis, new local and cumulative parameters related to transfers and irreversibilities are introduced. The proposed methodology sheds light on the complex phenomena at play and may serve as a basis for the analysis of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. For the ejector under consideration, although global transfers are more important in on-design conditions, it is shown that the net gain in exergy of the secondary stream is maximum for a value of the back pressure that is close to the critical back pressure, as
Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...
Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...
Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarler, B.
1992-01-01
A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [sl
Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.
2016-11-01
Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...
Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...
Boundary representation modelling techniques
2006-01-01
Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...
State Park Statutory Boundaries
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...
Exotic Phenomena Searches at Hadron Colliders
INSPIRE-00305407
2013-01-01
This review presents a selection of the final results of searches for various exotic physics phenomena in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8~TeV delivered by the LHC and collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors in 2011 (5 $fb^{-1}$) and in the first part of 2012 (4 $fb^{-1}$). Searches for large extra dimensions, gravitons, microscopic black holes, long-lived particles, dark matter, and leptoquarks are presented in this report. No sign of new physics beyond the standard model has been observed so far. In the majority of the cases these searches set the most stringent limits to date on the aforementioned new physics phenomena.
Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators
Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.
2004-01-01
We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.
Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tavabi, Amir Hossein, E-mail: a.tavabi@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)
2015-10-15
Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. - Highlights: • Electron-optical caustics are observed in defocused images of biased metallic tips. • The caustics depend on defocus, on the bias between the tips and on their separation. • The setup offers the flexibility to study a wide variety of caustic phenomena.
Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering
Iguchi, Manabu
2014-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material. The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...
Diffusive phenomena and pseudoelasticity in Cu-Al-Be single crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sade, M., E-mail: sade@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Pelegrina, J.L., E-mail: jlp201@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Yawny, A., E-mail: yawny@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Lovey, F.C., E-mail: lovey@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo km. 9500, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Diffusive phenomena occurring under load were analyzed in Cu-Al-Be single crystals. • Stabilization of stress induced martensite was detected in a range of temperatures. • Ageing the austenite under load shifts the austenite/martensite stability field. • A free energy model is proposed considering interchanges between Cu and Be atoms. • Different kinetics for the recovery of the austenite are rationalized. - Abstract: Cu-Al-Be single crystals show pseudoelasticity and the shape memory effect in a well-defined composition range. The β{sub 3}-18R martensitic transition is the origin of these phenomena. The transformation temperatures and the critical stresses to induce the martensitic transition are affected by diffusive phenomena taking place both in the parent phase and in martensite. Pseudoelastic cycles were used to obtain quantitative data concerning the effect of diffusive phenomena like stabilization of martensite, ordering of the parent phase under load and recovery of this phase on the critical stresses to transform. Information was then obtained on changes in the relative phase stability. A model is presented to explain those changes taking place in the parent phase aged under load and in the martensitic 18R structure. Experimental data on the kinetics of diffusive phenomena is also presented and analyzed.
Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob
1997-01-01
A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....
Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems
1989-01-01
This book contains a thorough treatment of neural networks, cellular-automata and synergetics, in an attempt to provide three different approaches to nonlinear phenomena in complex systems. These topics are of major interest to physicists active in the fields of statistical mechanics and dynamical systems. They have been developed with a high degree of sophistication and include the refinements necessary to work with the complexity of real systems as well as the more recent research developments in these areas.
Role of spinning electrons in paramagnetic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, D.M.
1986-06-01
An attempt is made to explain paramagnetic phenomena without assuming the orientation of a molecule or ion in a magnetic field. Only the spin angular momentum is assumed to be responsible. A derivative of the Gurie-Langevin law and the magnetic moments of ions are given as a function of the number of electrons in an inner, incomplete shell. An explanation of Gerlach's experiments with iron and nickel vapors is attempted. An explanation of magnetomechanical experiments with ferromagnetic elements is given
Pseudogap phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases
Chen, Qijin; Wang, Jibiao
2014-01-01
The pairing and superfluid phenomena in a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas is an analogue of Cooper pairing and superconductivity in an electron system, in particular, the high $T_c$ superconductors. Owing to the various tunable parameters that have been made accessible experimentally in recent years, atomic Fermi gases can be explored as a prototype or quantum simulator of superconductors. It is hoped that, utilizing such an analogy, the study of atomic Fermi gases may shed light to ...
Occult Phenomena in Sherlock Holmes the Movie
NAMAZCARRA, CHRIESHER
2014-01-01
Keywords: Occult phenomena, Sherlock Holmes, movie. Lately, it is not difficult for people to find occult practices. There are many television programs and movie which air mystical programme aggressively to raise the rating and attract the viewers. A movie that raise occultism theme is Sherlock Holmes, the Movie. This movie tells about the struggle of detective Sherlock Holmes to fight the black magic power of Lord Blackwood.To carry out the study, the theories of Occultism such as the secrec...
Investigation of oscillating airfoil shock phenomena
Giordano , Daniel; Fleeter , Sanford
1992-01-01
Fundamental experiments were performed in an unsteady flow water table facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. A computer-based image enhancement system was used to measure the oscillating supersonic and transonic shock flow phenomena. By utilizing the hydraulic analogy to compare experimental results with a linear theoretical prediction, magnitude and phase relationships for the...
An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)
1995-09-01
A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.
Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible
Cantwell, Christopher
Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?
Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro
2016-01-01
Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)
Physical phenomena as sense determinate occurrences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, H.J.
2005-01-01
In the view of El Naschie's E Infinity theory [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 22 (2004) 495], our physical laws emerge from a chaotic underground, a 'Dirac-sea'. But we have no direct access from our observations to this chaotic world and this implies that the meaning of the correspondence between the phenomena we obtain by our cognition and their causal structures remains hidden to us. The fundamental process which produces our cognition is the 'constitution of sense'. A formal description of this process will be presented. We use Dempster Shafer's belief calculus to define 'belief' and motivate an Anticipation Principle: 'Put the measurements obtained from the world in such an order that the credibility of your forecasts will be maximized.' From this specification of the basic idea of what physical science ideally strives for, we are able to deduce a frame of reference for the formation of phenomena out of arbitrary sets of measurements. Reality is formed by these 'observable phenomena'. In this emerging reality, we recognize characteristic effects and principles of modern physics: Einstein's Postulate of Relativity, Entanglement, and the Quantum Zeno Effect. The presented view of reality is closely related to the ideas that had been presented hundred years ago by Ernst Mach and which recently J. Anandan generalized in his concept of a 'Relational Reality'
Some aspects of geomagnetically conjugate phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, M.J.
1987-12-01
Both charged particles and waves convey information about the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, along geomagnetic flux tubes.The interhemispheric travel time of electrons or ions, being dependent upon L-value , pitch angle and energy (which may lie between less than or equal to 1 eV and greater than or equal to 1 MeV) may be many hours, ranging down to less than or equal to 1 s. However, the one-hop propagation time for magnetohydrodynamic or whistler mode waves generally lies between 10/sup 2/s and 1 s. Such times, therefore, give the time scales of transient phenomena that are geomagnetically conjugate and of changes in steady-state plasma processes occurring in geomagnetically conjugate regions. Contrasting examples are presented of conjugate physical phenomena, obtained using satellite, rocket, aircraft and ground-based observations; the latter capitalise upon the rather rare disposition of land - rather than ocean - at each end of a geophysically interesting flux tube. Particular attention is paid to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons. Geomagnetic, radio, optical and plasma observations, taken together with model computations, provide a wealth of knowledge on conjugate phenomena and their dependence on conditions in the solar wind, substorms, L-value, etc... Finally, some suggestions are made for future lines of research.
Structural phase transition and precursor phenomena in V3Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, T.; Fukase, T.; Toyota, N.; Muto, Y.
1982-01-01
Thermal dilation experiments on the transforming single crystals V 3 Si indicated that the precursor of the structural transformation at Tsub(m) of about 21 K starts at anomalously high temperatures (proportional70 K) and grows drastically near Tsub(m). This anomaly is also accompanied by the critical increment of electrical resistivity showing a sharp peak at Tsub(m). The application of the uniaxial stress suppresses the resistivity anomaly and makes the superconducting transition width narrower. We propose a model for the precursor phenomena in terms of (1) the directional strain fields (non-cubic) pinned near the defects and (2) the memory effect of orientation of the tetragonal domains born by the defects such as dislocations. (orig.)
Physical phenomena stipulating nucleus formation, growth and structure films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleksandrov, L N [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Fiziki Poluprovodnikov
1975-03-01
This review is concerned with the physical phenomena responsible for the nucleation, growth and structure of films. Emphasis is placed on the study of films of solid-metal systems, semiconductors (In, As, Cd, Se, CdS), and dielectrics. The following problems are discussed in the paper: general regularities of the thermodynamics and kinetics of film formation, methods of obtaining a solid film, the process of film formation, the rate of growth of individual grains. The critical film thickness and its measurement are also considered. The results of investigating the process of formation of mono- and polycrystalline films are discussed. It is concluded, on the basis of studies into the relaxation processes accompanying the growth of films, that an insight into these processes will permits improving film properties.
Singh, Bhim S.
1999-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.
Nonlinear dynamics of drops and bubbles and chaotic phenomena
Trinh, Eugene H.; Leal, L. G.; Feng, Z. C.; Holt, R. G.
1994-01-01
Nonlinear phenomena associated with the dynamics of free drops and bubbles are investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Although newly developed levitation and measurement techniques have been implemented, the full experimental validation of theoretical predictions has been hindered by interfering artifacts associated with levitation in the Earth gravitational field. The low gravity environment of orbital space flight has been shown to provide a more quiescent environment which can be utilized to better match the idealized theoretical conditions. The research effort described in this paper is a closely coupled collaboration between predictive and guiding theoretical activities and a unique experimental program involving the ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation of single droplets and bubbles. The goal is to develop and to validate methods based on nonlinear dynamics for the understanding of the large amplitude oscillatory response of single drops and bubbles to both isotropic and asymmetric pressure stimuli. The first specific area on interest has been the resonant coupling between volume and shape oscillatory modes isolated gas or vapor bubbles in a liquid host. The result of multiple time-scale asymptotic treatment, combined with domain perturbation and bifurcation methods, has been the prediction of resonant and near-resonant coupling between volume and shape modes leading to stable as well as chaotic oscillations. Experimental investigations of the large amplitude shape oscillation modes of centimeter-size single bubbles trapped in water at 1 G and under reduced hydrostatic pressure, have suggested the possibility of a low gravity experiment to study the direct coupling between these low frequency shape modes and the volume pulsation, sound-radiating mode. The second subject of interest has involved numerical modeling, using the boundary integral method, of the large amplitude shape oscillations of charged and uncharged drops in the presence
Boundary condition histograms for modulated phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, M.; Gabay, M.; Saslow, W.M.
1997-11-01
Boundary conditions strongly affect the results of numerical computations for finite size inhomogeneous or incommensurate structures. We present a method which allows to deal with this problem, both for ground state and for critical properties: it combines fluctuating boundary conditions and specific histogram techniques. Our approach concerns classical as well as quantum systems. In particular, current-current correlation functions, which probe large scale coherence of the states, can be accurately evaluated. We illustrate our method on a frustrated two dimensional XY model. (author)
Two-fluid modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for best-estimate LWR safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.
1989-01-01
Two-fluid formulation of the conservation equations has allowed modelling of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and situations involving strong departures in thermal and velocity equilibrium between the phases. The paper reviews the state of the art in modelling critical flows, and certain phase separation phenomena, as well as post-dryout heat transfer situations. Although the two-fluid models and the codes have the potential for correctly modelling such situations, this potential has not always been fully used in practice. (orig.)
The causal boundary of wave-type spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flores, J.L.; Sanchez, M.
2008-01-01
A complete and systematic approach to compute the causal boundary of wave-type spacetimes is carried out. The case of a 1-dimensional boundary is specially analyzed and its critical appearance in pp-wave type spacetimes is emphasized. In particular, the corresponding results obtained in the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence for holography on the boundary, are reinterpreted and very widely generalized. Technically, a recent new definition of causal boundary is used and stressed. Moreover, a set of mathematical tools is introduced (analytical functional approach, Sturm-Liouville theory, Fermat-type arrival time, Busemann-type functions)
Sensitivity of the Boundary Plasma to the Plasma-Material Interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canik, John M.; Tang, X.-Z.
2017-01-01
While the sensitivity of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma to the highly uncertain cross-field transport assumptions is widely recognized, the plasma is also sensitive to the details of the plasma-material interface (PMI) models used as part of comprehensive predictive simulations. Here in this paper, these PMI sensitivities are studied by varying the relevant sub-models within the SOLPS plasma transport code. Two aspects are explored: the sheath model used as a boundary condition in SOLPS, and fast particle reflection rates for ions impinging on a material surface. Both of these have been the study of recent high-fidelity simulation efforts aimed at improving the understanding and prediction of these phenomena. It is found that in both cases quantitative changes to the plasma solution result from modification of the PMI model, with a larger impact in the case of the reflection coefficient variation. Finally, this indicates the necessity to better quantify the uncertainties within the PMI models themselves, and perform thorough sensitivity analysis to propagate these throughout the boundary model; this is especially important for validation against experiment, where the error in the simulation is a critical and less-studied piece of the code-experiment comparison.
Singha Roy, Sudipto; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Rakshit, Debraj; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2017-12-01
Phase transition in quantum many-body systems inevitably causes changes in certain physical properties which then serve as potential indicators of critical phenomena. Besides the traditional order parameters, characterization of quantum entanglement has proven to be a computationally efficient and successful method for detection of phase boundaries, especially in one-dimensional models. Here we determine the rich phase diagram of the ground states of a quantum spin-1/2 XXZ ladder by analyzing the variation of bipartite and multipartite entanglements. Our study characterizes the different ground state phases and notes the correspondence with known results, while highlighting the finer details that emerge from the behavior of ground state entanglement. Analysis of entanglement in the ground state provides a clearer picture of the complex ground state phase diagram of the system using only a moderate-size model.
Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2015-11-01
The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.
Alternative methods in criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedicini, J.M.
1982-01-01
In this thesis two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occurring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates
Alternative methods in criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedicini, J.M.
1982-01-01
Two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occuring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision, is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates
Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mao, Zhiqiang
2011-04-08
Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated
Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
2012-01-01
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
In vessel core melt progression phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courtaud, M.
1993-01-01
For all light water reactor (LWR) accidents, including the so called severe accidents where core melt down can occur, it is necessary to determine the amount and characteristics of fission products released to the environment. For existing reactors this knowledge is used to evaluate the consequences and eventual emergency plans. But for future reactors safety authorities demand decrease risks and reactors designed in such a way that fission products are retained inside the containment, the last protective barrier. This requires improved understanding and knowledge of all accident sequences. In particular it is necessary to be able to describe the very complex phenomena occurring during in vessel core melt progression because they will determine the thermal and mechanical loads on the primary circuit and the timing of its rupture as well as the fission product source term. On the other hand, in case of vessel failure, knowledge of the physical and chemical state of the core melt will provide the initial conditions for analysis of ex-vessel core melt progression and phenomena threatening the containment. Finally a good understanding of in vessel phenomena will help to improve accident management procedures like Emergency Core Cooling System water injection, blowdown and flooding of the vessel well, with their possible adverse effects. Research and Development work on this subject was initiated a long time ago and is still in progress but now it must be intensified in order to meet the safety requirements of the next generation of reactors. Experiments, limited in scale, analysis of the TMI 2 accident which is a unique source of global information and engineering judgment are used to establish and assess physical models that can be implemented in computer codes for reactor accident analysis
BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, L.J.
1992-01-01
In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolandson, S.; Mueller, F.; Loevenhielm, G.
1997-01-01
Since 1988 all reactors in Sweden have mitigating measures, such as filtered vents, implemented. In parallel with the work of implementing these measures, a cooperation effort (RAMA projects) between the Swedish utilities and the Nuclear Power Inspectorate was performed to acquire sufficient knowledge about severe accident research work. The on-going project has the name Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3. In this paper, we will give background information about severe accident management in Sweden. In the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project we will focus on the work concerning coolability of melted core in lower plenum which is the main focus of the In-vessel Coolability Task Group within the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project. The Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project has joined on international consortium and the in-vessel cooling experiments are performed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. in Burr Ridge, Illinois, United States America, Sweden also intends to do one separate experiment with one instrument penetration we have in Swedish/Finnish BWR's. Other parts of the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project, such as support to level 2 studies, the research at Royal Institute of Technology and participation in international programs, such as Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program, Advanced Containment Experiments and PHEBUS will be briefly described in the paper
Jets and large Psub(T) phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narayan, D. S.
1980-07-01
Jets have been observed in hadron-hadron collisions and e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at high energies. An attempt is made to explain the mechanism for the production of jets. The mechanism of quark-fragmentation is described with illustrations. Basic concepts and assumptions are used to study the distribution of quarks and gluons in a hadron. Quark and gluon decay distributions, and the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons, Monte-Carlo methods in the study of jets, large Psub(T) phenomena in hadrons, QCD effects in hadronization of quark jets are discussed.
Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki
1995-01-01
Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity
Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach
Tosun, Ismail
2007-01-01
Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to
General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel
2010-01-01
Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.
Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.
1987-01-01
This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised
Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)
1997-07-01
The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.
Cooperative phenomena in flows; Poster abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loekseth, Trine (ed.)
2011-05-15
The objective of this 'Geilo School' was to bring together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical experimental physicists, material scientists and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between these disciplines may be most fruitfully applied to the study of various aspects of 'Cooperative phenomena in flows'. There were altogether 21 lecturers at the School with about 80 participants from 19 countries. This was the 21. Geilo School held biannually since the first one in I971. Reference to the earlier Geilo Schools 1971-2009 may be found here: http://www.ife.no/departments/physics/projects/geilo (Author)
Current position on severe accident phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henry, Robert E [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)
2004-07-01
The phenomena addressed in this lecture are: in-vessel and ex-vessel hydrogen generation; in-vessel and in-containment natural circulation, steam explosions, direct containment heating, core-concrete interaction; debris coolability, containment strength/failure. The following events were modeled: axial and radial power distribution, two-phase level in the core, steam generation in covered section, decay heat generation, convection to gas, cladding oxidation, cold ballooning and rupture, natural circulation between the core and upper plenum, hydrogen generation, core meltdown, reflooding. Differences between PWR and BWR type reactors.
Current position on severe accident phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, Robert E.
2004-01-01
The phenomena addressed in this lecture are: in-vessel and ex-vessel hydrogen generation; in-vessel and in-containment natural circulation, steam explosions, direct containment heating, core-concrete interaction; debris coolability, containment strength/failure. The following events were modeled: axial and radial power distribution, two-phase level in the core, steam generation in covered section, decay heat generation, convection to gas, cladding oxidation, cold ballooning and rupture, natural circulation between the core and upper plenum, hydrogen generation, core meltdown, reflooding. Differences between PWR and BWR type reactors
Cooperative phenomena in flows; Poster abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loekseth, Trine [ed.
2011-05-15
The objective of this 'Geilo School' was to bring together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical experimental physicists, material scientists and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between these disciplines may be most fruitfully applied to the study of various aspects of 'Cooperative phenomena in flows'. There were altogether 21 lecturers at the School with about 80 participants from 19 countries. This was the 21. Geilo School held biannually since the first one in I971. Reference to the earlier Geilo Schools 1971-2009 may be found here: http://www.ife.no/departments/physics/projects/geilo (Author)
Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.
2001-01-01
Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)
Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena
Kolobov, Alexander V
2012-01-01
A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.
Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications
Khandekar, Sameer
2015-01-01
The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.
Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.
1997-01-01
The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described
Layered phenomena in the mesopause region
Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.
2015-05-01
This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).
Micro- and nanoscale phenomena in tribology
Chung, Yip-Wah
2011-01-01
Drawn from presentations at a recent National Science Foundation Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials, and Micro/Nanomanufacturing, Micro- and Nanoscale Phenomena in Tribology explores the convergence of the multiple science and engineering disciplines involved in tribology and the connection from the macro to nano world. Written by specialists from computation, materials science, mechanical engineering, surface physics, and chemistry, each chapter provides up-to-date coverage of both basic and advanced topics and includes extensive references for further study.After discussing the
Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)
1995-09-01
Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.
Zhang, R; Steiner, M A; Agnew, S R; Kairy, S K; Davies, C H J; Birbilis, N
2017-06-07
An empirical model for the evolution of β-phase (Mg 2 Al 3 ) along grain boundaries in aluminium alloy AA5083 (Al-Mg-Mn) during isothermal exposures is proposed herein. Developing a quantitative understanding of grain boundary precipitation is important to interpreting intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in this alloy system. To date, complete ab initio models for grain boundary precipitation based upon fundamental principles of thermodynamics and kinetics are not available, despite the critical role that such precipitates play in dictating intergranular corrosion phenomena. Empirical models can therefore serve an important role in advancing the understanding of grain boundary precipitation kinetics, which is an approach applicable beyond the present context. High resolution scanning electron microscopy was to quantify the size and distribution of β-phase precipitates on Ga-embrittled intergranular fracture surfaces of AA5083. The results are compared with the degree of sensitisation (DoS) as judged by nitric acid mass loss testing (ASTM-G67-04), and discussed with models for sensitisation in 5xxx series Al-alloys. The work herein allows sensitisation to be quantified from an unambiguous microstructural perspective.
Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J
2018-01-03
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.
2018-01-01
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Local and social facets of planetary boundaries: right to nutrients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi
2015-01-01
Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary boundaries. The boundaries and the current excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical boundaries were determined through the current or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary boundary criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (N r ) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg N r and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg N r and 12 kg P. The critical N boundary in Finland is currently exceeded by 40 kg cap −1 a −1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap −1 a −1 , while the global current excess is 24 kg cap −1 a −1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P boundary is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical boundaries set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary boundaries downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe boundaries requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant boundary criteria and on estimates and remedies. (letter)
The Impact of the Qur'anic Conception of Astronomical Phenomena on Islamic Civilization
Ahmad, I. A.
Discussions of astronomical phenomena in religious texts usually center around either their literal astronomical content or their symbolic significance. We shall instead consider the use of frequent references to astronomical phenomena in the Qur'an as exhortations to a worldview that ushered in the modern era. The Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena had a critical impact on Islamic civilization and the civilizations that followed because it introduced and mandated the adoption of certain attitudes. Among these were a greater respect for empirical data than was common in the preceding Greek civilization and an insistence that the Universe is ruled by a single set of laws. Both of these were rooted in the Islamic concept of tawhîd, the unity of God.
Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dran, J.C.
1965-01-01
Two phenomena have been studied: the action of γ rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO 4 of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O 2 . The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te IV , Pt 11 , As 111 ) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H 2 O 2 . In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO 4 has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute byγ rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO 4 + HO 2 reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10 5 l.mol -1 . sec -1 . (author) [fr
WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conrads, T.J.
1996-09-11
Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.
Unsteady phenomena in the edge tone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paal, G.; Vaik, I.
2007-01-01
Despite its geometrical simplicity, the edge tone displays a remarkably complex behaviour. A plane jet oscillates around the wedge-shaped object with a relatively stable frequency and under certain circumstances emits an audible tone. This configuration plays a central role in the sound production of several wind instruments but occurs in industrial situations too. The flow exhibits various interesting nonlinear phenomena reported in the literature which are not entirely explained. In this paper, detailed high precision numerical simulations of the flow are reported under various conditions. Several phenomena are reproduced in agreement with the literature such as the existence of 'stages', the dependence of oscillation frequency on the outflow velocity and the orifice-edge distance within one stage, the pressure distribution on the edge surface, etc. A criterion for the appropriate time step for constant accuracy has been derived. The location of force action is surprisingly stable; it remains in a very narrow region of the wedge surface independently of the Reynolds number and the orifice-edge distance but it is much further behind the edge tip than reported in the literature. The various stages can coexist in different ways: jumping back and forth between stages or being superposed on each other. Regardless of the form, the first stage continues to be dominant even when the second and third stage appears. The question of disturbance propagation velocity and disturbance wavelength is also investigated. The development of higher harmonics of a single stage along the orifice-edge tip distance is presented
Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena
Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.
2017-12-01
The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.
Syntactic Idioms and Precedent Phenomena: Intersection Zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanna Sytar
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Background: One examined mainly structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms so far. The pragmatic dimension of these original units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology, has not been highlighted properly in the scientific literature, so it needs theoretical understanding. The combination of syntactic idiom and phraseological phenomenon refers to the communication techniques impacting on message recipient. Purpose: to analyze the intersection zones of syntactic idioms and precedent phenomena. Results: Analysis of the collected factual material allows to distinguish two areas of interpenetration of syntactic idioms and precedent units: 1 construction of expression according to the phraseologized model, within which the position of variable component is filled by the precedent name or precedent expression; 2 the model of sentence itself is precedent, and lexical content does not comply with generally known one that does not affect on understanding of model content by recipient. With a combination of syntactic idiom and precedent phenomena speakers provide drawing of recipients’ attention, carry out a hidden influence on them, express their own attitude to the realities, so that perform phatic, manipulative and expressive-evaluative functions. The modifications and transformations of precedent expressions and names appeared to be regular in such interpenetrations. Discussion: The obtained results reflect the general trend towards transform (transformation, modification, variation, etc. of precedent, as well as phraseological units, and can be used for the analysis of patterns of their formation and modifications. Further research phase implies tracing patterns of syntactic idioms combination with other means of expressive syntax.
Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*
Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.
2017-12-01
Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.
Modelling of thermohydraulic emergency core cooling phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.; Lewis, M.J.
1990-10-01
The codes used in the early seventies for safety analysis and licensing were based either on the homogeneous model of two-phase flow or on the so-called separate-flow models, which are mixture models accounting, however, for the difference in average velocity between the two phases. In both cases the behavior of the mixture is prescribed a priori as a function of local parameters such as the mass flux and the quality. The modern best-estimate codes used for analyzing LWR LOCA's and transients are often based on a two-fluid or 6-equation formulation of the conservation equations. In this case the conservation equations are written separately for each phase; the mixture is allowed to evolve on its own, governed by the interfacial exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. It is generally agreed that such relatively sophisticated 6-equation formulations of two-phase flow are necessary for the correct modelling of a number of phenomena and situations arising in LWR accidental situations. They are in particular indispensible for the analysis of stratified or countercurrent flows and of situations in which large departures from thermal and velocity equilibrium exist. This report will be devoted to a discussion of the need for, the capacity and the limitations of the two-phase flow models (with emphasis on the 6-equation formulations) in modelling these two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and/or different core cooling situations. 18 figs., 1 tab., 72 refs
Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Gnani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.
Cavitation phenomena in extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy
Tomita, Y.; Obara, T.; Takayama, K.; Kuwahara, M.
1994-09-01
An experimental investigation was made of cavitation phenomena induced by underwater shock wave focusing applied to the extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy (microexplosion ESWL). Firstly an underwater microexplosion generated by detonation of a 10 mg silver azide pellet was studied and secondly underwater shock focusing and its induced cavitation phenomena were investgated. Underwater shock wave was focused by using a semi-ellipsoidal reflector in which a shock wave generated at the first focal point of the reflector was reflected and focused at the second focal point. It is found that an explosion product gas bubble did not produce any distinct rebound shocks. Meantime cavitation appeared after shock focusing at the second focal point where expansion waves originated at the exit of the reflector were simultaneously collected. A shock/bubble interaction is found to contribute not only to urinary tract stone disintegration but also tissue damage. The cavitation effect associated with the microexplosion ESWL was weaker in comparison with a spark discharge ESWL. The microexplosion ESWL is an effective method which can minimize the number of shock exposures hence decreasing tissue damage by conducting precise positioning of urinary tract stones.
Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...
Study Of Severe Accident Phenomena In Nuclear Power Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiyanto; Antariksawan; Anhar, R.; Arifal
2001-01-01
Several phenomena that occurred in the light water reactor type of nuclear power plant during severe accident were studied. The study was carried out based on the results of severe accident researches in various countries. In general, severe accident phenomena can be classified into in-vessel phenomena, retention in the reactor coolant system, and ex-vessel phenomena. In-vessel retention has been recommended as a severe accident management strategy
Boundary effects in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deutsch, D.; Candelas, P.
1979-01-01
Electromagnetic and scalar fields are quantized in the region near an arbitrary smooth boundary, and the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor is calculated. The energy density is found to diverge as the boundary is approached. For nonconformally invariant fields it varies, to leading order, as the inverse fourth power of the distance from the boundary. For conformally invariant fields the coefficient of this leading term is zero, and the energy density varies as the inverse cube of the distance. An asymptotic series for the renormalized stress-energy tensor is developed as far as the inverse-square term in powers of the distance. Some criticisms are made of the usual approach to this problem, which is via the ''renormalized mode sum energy,'' a quantity which is generically infinite. Green's-function methods are used in explicit calculations, and an iterative scheme is set up to generate asymptotic series for Green's functions near a smooth boundary. Contact is made with the theory of the asymptotic distribution of eigenvalues of the Laplacian operator. The method is extended to nonflat space-times and to an example with a nonsmooth boundary
Discussion of heat transfer phenomena in fluids at supercritical pressure with the aid of CFD models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharabi, Medhat; Ambrosini, Walter
2009-01-01
The paper discusses heat transfer enhancement and deterioration phenomena observed in experimental data for fluids at supercritical pressure. The results obtained by the application of various CFD turbulence models in the prediction of experimental data for water and carbon dioxide flowing in circular tubes are firstly described. On this basis, the capabilities of the addressed models in predicting the observed phenomena are shortly discussed. Then, the analysis focuses on further results obtained by a low-Reynolds number k - ε model addressing one of the considered experimental apparatuses by changing the operating conditions. In particular, the usual imposed heat flux boundary condition is changed to assigned wall temperature, in order to highlight effects otherwise impossible to point out. The obtained results, supported by considerations drawn from experimental information, allow comparing the trends observed for heat transfer deterioration at supercritical pressure with those typical of the thermal crisis in boiling systems, clarifying old concepts of similarity among them
Minnesota County Boundaries - lines
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt
2014-01-01
implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
Glasby, John S
2013-01-01
The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.
Conformal boundary loop models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert
2008-01-01
We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling
Experimental and analytical study of the sputtering phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, P.A.
1976-03-01
One form of the sputtering phenomena, the heat-transfer process that occurs when an initially hot vertical surface is cooled by a falling liquid film, was examined from a new experimental approach. The sputtering front is the lowest wetted position on the vertical surface and is characterized by a short region of intense nucleate boiling. The sputtering front progresses downward at nearly a constant rate, the surface below the sputtering front being dry and almost adiabatic. This heat-transfer process is of interest in the analysis of some of the performance aspects of emergency core-cooling systems of light-water reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed to examine the heat-transfer characteristics of a sputtering front. In the present study, a heat source of sufficient intensity was located immediately below the sputtering front, which prevented its downward progress, thus permitting detailed measurements of steady-state surface temperatures throughout a sputtering front. Experimental evidence showed the sputtering front to correspond to a critical heat-flux (CHF) phenomenon. Data were obtained with water flow rates of 350-1600 lb/sub m//hr-ft and subcoolings of 40-140 0 F on a 3 / 8 -in. solid copper rod at 1 atm. A two-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe a stationary sputtering front where the wet-dry interface corresponds to a CHF phenomena and the dry zone is adiabatic. This model is nonlinear because of the temperature dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient in the wetted region and has yielded good agreement with data. A simplified one-dimensional approximation was developed which adequately describes these data. Finally, by means of a coordinate transformation and additional simplifying assumptions, this analysis was extended to analyze moving sputtering fronts, and reasonably good agreement with reported data was shown
Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brif, Constantin; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel
2010-01-01
Quantum control is concerned with active manipulation of physical and chemical processes on the atomic and molecular scale. This work presents a perspective of progress in the field of control over quantum phenomena, tracing the evolution of theoretical concepts and experimental methods from early developments to the most recent advances. Among numerous theoretical insights and technological improvements that produced the present state-of-the-art in quantum control, there have been several breakthroughs of foremost importance. On the technology side, the current experimental successes would be impossible without the development of intense femtosecond laser sources and pulse shapers. On the theory side, the two most critical insights were (i) realizing that ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics can be controlled via manipulation of quantum interferences and (ii) understanding that optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses are the most effective means for producing the desired quantum interference patterns in the controlled system. Finally, these theoretical and experimental advances were brought together by the crucial concept of adaptive feedback control (AFC), which is a laboratory procedure employing measurement-driven, closed-loop optimization to identify the best shapes of femtosecond laser control pulses for steering quantum dynamics towards the desired objective. Optimization in AFC experiments is guided by a learning algorithm, with stochastic methods proving to be especially effective. AFC of quantum phenomena has found numerous applications in many areas of the physical and chemical sciences, and this paper reviews the extensive experiments. Other subjects discussed include quantum optimal control theory, quantum control landscapes, the role of theoretical control designs in experimental realizations and real-time quantum feedback control. The paper concludes with a perspective of open research directions that are likely to attract significant attention in
Real time animation of space plasma phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.
1987-01-01
In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images
Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).
2001-10-01
Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)
Nuclear disarmament verification via resonant phenomena.
Hecla, Jake J; Danagoulian, Areg
2018-03-28
Nuclear disarmament treaties are not sufficient in and of themselves to neutralize the existential threat of the nuclear weapons. Technologies are necessary for verifying the authenticity of the nuclear warheads undergoing dismantlement before counting them toward a treaty partner's obligation. Here we present a concept that leverages isotope-specific nuclear resonance phenomena to authenticate a warhead's fissile components by comparing them to a previously authenticated template. All information is encrypted in the physical domain in a manner that amounts to a physical zero-knowledge proof system. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the system is shown to reveal no isotopic or geometric information about the weapon, while readily detecting hoaxing attempts. This nuclear technique can dramatically increase the reach and trustworthiness of future nuclear disarmament treaties.
Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena
Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G
2006-01-01
The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.
PHENOMENA AND BASIC MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR MEASUREMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PAULINA CATANA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Macroeconomics is a separate discipline of the Economy that studies and analyzes the behaviour of economic aggregates and significant average, such as price level, national income, national income potential, the gap GDP, employment and unemployment of labour, investment and export of the whole economy. We can accuse to Macroeconomics that it deals also with the average price of all goods and services, not the prices of certain products. These aggregates result from economic behaviour of certain groups (governments, companies, consumers in the course of their activities on different markets. But why does it need Macroeconomics? Experts say that we need this separate discipline because there are certain forces that affect the broader economy globally, which can not be understood only by analyzing individual economic phenomena, individual products or markets.
Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wójcik Tadeusz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.
Extended RPA study of nuclear collective phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drozdz, S.
1987-01-01
A fully microscopic study of nuclear collective phenomena is presented within the framework of an extended RPA which includes 1p-1h and 2p-2h excitations in a consistent way. This theory allows us to obtain a very realistic description of various excitation spectra. As a result, a strong evidence of correlation effects beyond mean-field theory emerges. The effective interaction used is a G-matrix derived from the meson-exchange potential. The extended theory introduces also additional correlations which screen the long-large part of the effective interaction. This effect significantly enhances the stability of the ground state against density fluctuations. In this connection a possible importance of relativistic effects is also discussed. 99 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs. (author)
Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.
Smith, Adrian
2017-04-01
This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Discrete computational mechanics for stiff phenomena
Michels, Dominik L.
2016-11-28
Many natural phenomena which occur in the realm of visual computing and computational physics, like the dynamics of cloth, fibers, fluids, and solids as well as collision scenarios are described by stiff Hamiltonian equations of motion, i.e. differential equations whose solution spectra simultaneously contain extremely high and low frequencies. This usually impedes the development of physically accurate and at the same time efficient integration algorithms. We present a straightforward computationally oriented introduction to advanced concepts from classical mechanics. We provide an easy to understand step-by-step introduction from variational principles over the Euler-Lagrange formalism and the Legendre transformation to Hamiltonian mechanics. Based on such solid theoretical foundations, we study the underlying geometric structure of Hamiltonian systems as well as their discrete counterparts in order to develop sophisticated structure preserving integration algorithms to efficiently perform high fidelity simulations.
Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)
Social phenomena from data analysis to models
Perra, Nicola
2015-01-01
This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...
Peridynamic Formulation for Coupled Thermoelectric Phenomena
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Migbar Assefa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Modeling of heat and electrical current flow simultaneously in thermoelectric convertor using classical theories do not consider the influence of defects in the material. This is because traditional methods are developed based on partial differential equations (PDEs and lead to infinite fluxes at the discontinuities. The usual way of solving such PDEs is by using numerical technique, like Finite Element Method (FEM. Although FEM is robust and versatile, it is not suitable to model evolving discontinuities. To avoid such shortcomings, we propose the concept of peridynamic theory to derive the balance of energy and charge equations in the coupled thermoelectric phenomena. Therefore, this paper presents the transport of heat and charge in thermoelectric material in the framework of peridynamic (PD theory. To illustrate the reliability of the PD formulation, numerical examples are presented and results are compared with those from literature, analytical solutions, or finite element solutions.
Density turbulence and disruption phenomena in TEXTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waidmann, G.; Kuang, G.; Jadoul, M.
1992-01-01
Disruptive processes are observed in tokamak plasmas not only at the operating limits (density limit or q-limit) but can be found under a variety of experimental conditions. Large forces are exerted then on vessel components and support structures. The sudden release of stored plasma energy presents a serious erosion problem for the first wall already in the next generation of large tokamak machines. Strong energy losses from the plasma and an influx of impurities are already present in minor plasma disruptions which do not immediately lead to a plasma current termination. The rapid loss of energy confinement was investigated within the framework of a systematic study on plasma disruption phenomena in TEXTOR. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs
Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena Report
Dryer, Murray
1987-09-01
Scientific progress on the topic of energy, mass, and momentum transport from the Sun into the heliosphere is contingent upon interdisciplinary and international cooperative efforts on the part of many workers. Summarized here is a report of some highlights of research carried out during the SMY/SMA by the STIP (Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena) Project that included solar and interplanetary scientists around the world. These highlights are concerned with coronal mass ejections from solar flares or erupting prominences (sometimes together); their large-scale consequences in interplanetary space (such as shocks and magnetic 'bubbles'); and energetic particles and their relationship to these large-scale structures. It is concluded that future progress is contingent upon similar international programs assisted by real-time (or near-real-time) warnings of solar activity by cooperating agencies along the lines experienced during the SMY/SMA.
Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1986-11-01
The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum
Implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic plasma phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamimura, T.; Montalvo, E.; Barnes, D.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.
1986-11-01
A direct method for the implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in magnetized, multi-dimensional plasmas is developed. The method is second-order accurate for ωΔt < 1, with ω a characteristic frequency and time step Δt. Direct time integration of the implicit equations with simplified space differencing allows the consistent inclusion of finite particle size. Decentered time differencing of the Lorentz force permits the efficient simulation of strongly magnetized plasmas. A Fourier-space iterative technique for solving the implicit field corrector equation, based on the separation of plasma responses perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field and longitudinal and transverse to the wavevector, is described. Wave propagation properties in a uniform plasma are in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Applications to collisionless tearing and coalescence instabilities further demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm. (author)
Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Patella
2008-06-01
Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.
Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena?
Ohayon, M M; Priest, R G; Caulet, M; Guilleminault, C
1996-10-01
Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common in narcolepsy. However, the prevalence of these phenomena in the general population is uncertain. A representative community sample of 4972 people in the UK, aged 15-100, was interviewed by telephone (79.6% of those contacted). Interviews were performed by lay interviewers using a computerised system that guided the interviewer through the interview process. Thirty-seven per cent of the sample reported experiencing hypnagogic hallucinations and 12.5% reported hypnopompic hallucinations. Both types of hallucinations were significantly more common among subjects with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or mental disorders. According to this study, the prevalence of narcolepsy in the UK is 0.04%. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations were much more common than expected, with a prevalence that far exceeds that which can be explained by the association with narcolepsy. Hypnopompic hallucinations may be a better indicator of narcolepsy than hypnagogic hallucinations in subjects reporting excessive daytime sleepiness.
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-10-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-01-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable
Noise-driven phenomena in hysteretic systems
Dimian, Mihai
2014-01-01
Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems provides a general approach to nonlinear systems with hysteresis driven by noisy inputs, which leads to a unitary framework for the analysis of various stochastic aspects of hysteresis. This book includes integral, differential and algebraic models that are used to describe scalar and vector hysteretic nonlinearities originating from various areas of science and engineering. The universality of the authors approach is also reflected by the diversity of the models used to portray the input noise, from the classical Gaussian white noise to its impulsive forms, often encountered in economics and biological systems, and pink noise, ubiquitous in multi-stable electronic systems. The book is accompanied by HysterSoft© - a robust simulation environment designed to perform complex hysteresis modeling – that can be used by the reader to reproduce many of the results presented in the book as well as to research both disruptive and constructive effects of noise in hysteret...