WorldWideScience

Sample records for boundary conditions modeling

  1. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...... are done using different boundary conditions in order to investigate the influence of phase shifts in reflections, the angle dependence of the reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient. The focus of the simulations is to investigate the influence of the boundary condition on room acoustic...

  2. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  3. The Stochastic Ising Model with the Mixed Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We estimate the spectral gap of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model for four classes of mixed boundary conditions. On a finite square, in the absence of an external field, two-sided estimates on the spectral gap for the first class of (weak positive boundary conditions are given. Further, at inverse temperatures , we will show lower bounds of the spectral gap of the Ising model for the other three classes mixed boundary conditions.

  4. Mesoscopic Modelling of Heterogeneous Boundary Conditions for Microchannel Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Sbragaglia, M.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a mesoscopic model of the fluid–wall interactions for flows in microchannel geometries. We define a suitable implementation of the boundary conditions for a discrete version of the Boltzmann equations describing a wall-bounded single-phase fluid. We distinguish different slippage

  5. Modeling Groundwater Flow using both Neumann and Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijl, Wouter; El-Rawy, Mustafa; Batelaan, Okke

    2013-04-01

    In groundwater flow models it is customary to use the recharge rate, obtained from measured precipitation minus run off and evapotranspiration, as the top boundary condition (a Neumann boundary condition). However, as has been emphasized by Tóth (1962; 2009), the topography of the water table offers a better boundary condition (a Dirichlet boundary condition), because it leads to the delineation of flow systems and stagnation zones. However, in practical modeling studies the recharge rates obtained when using the Dirichlet boundary condition may turn out to be unrealistically small or large. To remediate this we have developed an unconventional modeling procedure that is based on both the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary condition on the phreatic surface. Such a model does not only calculate the heads and fluxes, but also an update of the initially perceived hydraulic conductivities, in such a way that the initially perceived conductivity model is preserved as much as possible. For given grid block conductivities, numerical groundwater models (e.g. MODFLOW) are linear in the heads. However, for given heads the numerical models are not linear in the grid block conductivities. Mohammed et al. (2009) have developed a MODFLOW-compatible numerical model that is linear in the stream functions for given grid block conductivities, while it is also linear in the grid block resistivities (inverse of conductivities) if the heads are given. Unconventional modeling is based on this bi-linearity. Assume we specify a reasonable perception of the hydraulic conductivities and determine the numerical solution with Neumann boundary conditions. The resulting fluxes are then substituted into the stream function model, together with Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the grid block resistivities can then be determined by a standard routine for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. The thus calibrated grid block conductivities do not deviate much from the initially perceived

  6. CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman

    cost than e.g. using large-eddy simulations. The developed ABL model is successfully validated using a range of different test cases with increasing complexity. Data from several large scale field campaigns, wind tunnel experiments, and previous numerical simulations is presented and compared against...... model results. A method is developed how to simulate the time-dependant non-neutral ABL flow over complex terrain: a precursor simulation is used to specify unsteady inlet boundary conditions on complex terrain domains. The advantage of the developed RANS model framework is its general applicability....... All implementations in the ABL model are tuning free, and except for standard site specific input parameters, no additional model coefficients need to be specified before the simulation. In summary the results show that the implemented modifications are applicable and reproduce the main flow...

  7. Baroclinic Planetary Boundary Layer Model: Neutral and Stable Stratification Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, D.; Djolov, G.; Syrakov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The temperature and wind profiles in a baroclinic Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) are investigated. Assuming stationarity, the turbulent state in the PBL at stable and neutral conditions is uniquely determined by the Rossby number, the external stratification parameter and two external baroclinic parameters. A simple two-layer baroclinic model is developed. It consists of a Surface Layer (SL) and overlying Ekman type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations is close using the K-theory. In SL the turbulent exchange coefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theory while in the Ekman layer it is constant. The universal functions in the resistance, heat and humidity transfer laws can be deduced from the model. The internal PBL characteristics, necessary for the model calculations, are presented in terms of the external parameters. Favourable agreement of model results with experimental data is demonstrated.

  8. Modeling mixed boundary conditions in a Hilbert space with the complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anthony N; Hromadka, T V

    2015-01-01

    The Laplace equation that results from specifying either the normal or tangential force equilibrium equation in terms of the warping functions or its conjugate can be modeled as a complex variable boundary element method or CVBEM mixed boundary problem. The CVBEM is a well-known numerical technique that can provide solutions to potential value problems in two or more dimensions by the use of an approximation function that is derived from the Cauchy Integral in complex analysis. This paper highlights three customizations to the technique.•A least squares approach to modeling the complex-valued approximation function will be compared and analyzed to determine if modeling error on the boundary can be reduced without the need to find and evaluated additional linearly independent complex functions.•The nodal point locations will be moved outside the problem domain.•Contour and streamline plots representing the warping function and its complementary conjugate are generated simultaneously from the complex-valued approximating function.

  9. Examination of the seepage face boundary condition in subsurface and coupled surface/subsurface hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, C.; Paniconi, C.; Pasetto, D.; Putti, M.

    2017-03-01

    A seepage face is a nonlinear dynamic boundary that strongly affects pressure head distributions, water table fluctuations, and flow patterns. Its handling in hydrological models, especially under complex conditions such as heterogeneity and coupled surface/subsurface flow, has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we compare the treatment of the seepage face as a static (Dirichlet) versus dynamic boundary condition, we assess its resolution under conditions of layered heterogeneity, we examine its interaction with a catchment outlet boundary, and we investigate the effects of surface/subsurface exchanges on seepage faces forming at the land surface. The analyses are carried out with an integrated catchment hydrological model. Numerical simulations are performed for a synthetic rectangular sloping aquifer and for an experimental hillslope from the Landscape Evolution Observatory. The results show that the static boundary condition is not always an adequate stand-in for a dynamic seepage face boundary condition, especially under conditions of high rainfall, steep slope, or heterogeneity; that hillslopes with layered heterogeneity give rise to multiple seepage faces that can be highly dynamic; that seepage face and outlet boundaries can coexist in an integrated hydrological model and both play an important role; and that seepage faces at the land surface are not always controlled by subsurface flow. The paper also presents a generalized algorithm for resolving seepage face outflow that handles heterogeneity in a simple way, is applicable to unstructured grids, and is shown experimentally to be equivalent to the treatment of atmospheric boundary conditions in subsurface flow models.

  10. Exact finite-size corrections for the spanning-tree model under different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailian, N. Sh.; Kenna, R.

    2015-02-01

    We express the partition functions of the spanning tree on finite square lattices under five different sets of boundary conditions in terms of a principal partition function with twisted-boundary conditions. Based on these expressions, we derive the exact asymptotic expansions of the logarithm of the partition function for each case. We have also established several groups of identities relating spanning-tree partition functions for the different boundary conditions. We also explain an apparent discrepancy between logarithmic correction terms in the free energy for a two-dimensional spanning-tree model with periodic and free-boundary conditions and conformal field theory predictions. We have obtained corner free energy for the spanning tree under free-boundary conditions in full agreement with conformal field theory predictions.

  11. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatsen, Michiel; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Von Der Heydt, Anna S.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Sluijs, Appy; Abels, H.A.; Bijl, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models

  12. Phase-space networks of the six-vertex model under different boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yilong

    2010-04-01

    The six-vertex model is mapped to three-dimensional sphere stacks and different boundary conditions corresponding to different containers. The shape of the container provides a qualitative visualization of the boundary effect. Based on the sphere-stacking picture, we map the phase spaces of the six-vertex models to discrete networks. A node in the network represents a state of the system, and an edge between two nodes represents a zero-energy spin flip, which corresponds to adding or removing a sphere. The network analysis shows that the phase spaces of systems with different boundary conditions share some common features. We derived a few formulas for the number and the sizes of the disconnected phase-space subnetworks under the periodic boundary conditions. The sphere stacking provides new challenges in combinatorics and may cast light on some two-dimensional models.

  13. On a Mathematical Model with Noncompact Boundary Conditions Describing Bacterial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanouar, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we are concerned with the well-posedness of a mathematical model describing a maturation-velocity structured bacterial population. Each bacterium is distinguished by its degree of maturity and its maturation velocity. The bacterial mitosis is mathematically described by noncompact boundary conditions. We show that the mathematical model is governed by a positive strongly continuous semigroup.

  14. Wind-driven rain as a boundary condition for HAM simulations: analysis of simplified modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Roels, Staf

    2007-01-01

    While the numerical simulation of moisture transfer inside building components is currently undergoing standardisation, the modelling of the atmospheric boundary conditions has received far less attention. This article analyses the modelling of the wind-driven-rain load on building facades by par...

  15. An outgoing energy flux boundary condition for finite difference ICRP antenna models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    For antennas at the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) modeling in vacuum can now be carried out to a high level of detail such that shaping of the current straps, isolating septa, and discrete Faraday shield structures can be included. An efficient approach would be to solve for the fields in the vacuum region near the antenna in three dimensions by finite methods and to match this solution at the plasma-vacuum interface to a solution obtained in the plasma region in one dimension by Fourier methods. This approach has been difficult to carry out because boundary conditions must be imposed at the edge of the finite difference grid on a point-by-point basis, whereas the condition for outgoing energy flux into the plasma is known only in terms of the Fourier transform of the plasma fields. A technique is presented by which a boundary condition can be imposed on the computational grid of a three-dimensional finite difference, or finite element, code by constraining the discrete Fourier transform of the fields at the boundary points to satisfy an outgoing energy flux condition appropriate for the plasma. The boundary condition at a specific grid point appears as a coupling to other grid points on the boundary, with weighting determined by a kemel calctdated from the plasma surface impedance matrix for the various plasma Fourier modes. This boundary condition has been implemented in a finite difference solution of a simple problem in two dimensions, which can also be solved directly by Fourier transformation. Results are presented, and it is shown that the proposed boundary condition does enforce outgoing energy flux and yields the same solution as is obtained by Fourier methods.

  16. Boundary conditions and the generalized metric formulation of the double sigma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Te Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Double sigma model with strong constraints is equivalent to the ordinary sigma model by imposing a self-duality relation. The gauge symmetries are the diffeomorphism and one-form gauge transformation with the strong constraints. We consider boundary conditions in the double sigma model from three ways. The first way is to modify the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions with a fully O(D,D description from double gauge fields. We perform the one-loop β function for the constant background fields to find low-energy effective theory without using the strong constraints. The low-energy theory can also have O(D,D invariance as the double sigma model. The second way is to construct different boundary conditions from the projectors. The third way is to combine the antisymmetric background field with field strength to redefine an O(D,D generalized metric. We use this generalized metric to reconstruct a consistent double sigma model with the classical and quantum equivalence.

  17. A Two-Dimensional Transverse Magnetic Propagation Model of a Sine Wave Using Mur Boundary Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korjack, T

    1997-01-01

    .... The nonreflecting boundary conditions due to Mur were used at the boundary surfaces. Electric field intensity distributions resulted over a progressive time expansion to illustrate the propagation effect over the entire 2-D mesh...

  18. A boundary condition to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation for modeling strongly focused nonlinear ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnitskiy, P., E-mail: pavrosni@yandex.ru; Yuldashev, P., E-mail: petr@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlova, V., E-mail: vera@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    An equivalent source model was proposed as a boundary condition to the nonlinear parabolic Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya (KZ) equation to simulate high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields generated by medical ultrasound transducers with the shape of a spherical shell. The boundary condition was set in the initial plane; the aperture, the focal distance, and the initial pressure of the source were chosen based on the best match of the axial pressure amplitude and phase distributions in the Rayleigh integral analytic solution for a spherical transducer and the linear parabolic approximation solution for the equivalent source. Analytic expressions for the equivalent source parameters were derived. It was shown that the proposed approach allowed us to transfer the boundary condition from the spherical surface to the plane and to achieve a very good match between the linear field solutions of the parabolic and full diffraction models even for highly focused sources with F-number less than unity. The proposed method can be further used to expand the capabilities of the KZ nonlinear parabolic equation for efficient modeling of HIFU fields generated by strongly focused sources.

  19. Applying Boundary Conditions Using a Time-Dependent Lagrangian for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jonathan; Shadwick, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    Modeling the evolution of a short, intense laser pulse propagating through an underdense plasma is of particular interest in the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Numerical models are typically created by first discretizing the equations of motion and then imposing boundary conditions. Using the variational principle of Chen and Sudan, we spatially discretize the Lagrangian density to obtain discrete equations of motion and a discrete energy conservation law which is exactly satisfied regardless of the spatial grid resolution. Modifying the derived equations of motion (e.g., enforcing boundary conditions) generally ruins energy conservation. However, time-dependent terms can be added to the Lagrangian which force the equations of motion to have the desired boundary conditions. Although some foresight is needed to choose these time-dependent terms, this approach provides a mechanism for energy to exit the closed system while allowing the conservation law to account for the loss. An appropriate time discretization scheme is selected based on stability analysis and resolution requirements. We present results using this variational approach in a co-moving coordinate system and compare such results to those using traditional second-order methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY- 1104683.

  20. Reweighting twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussone, Andrea; Hansen, Martin; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermionic fields is a procedure extensively used when evaluating, for example, form factors on the lattice. Twisting is usually performed for one flavour and only in the valence, and this causes a breaking of unitarity. In this work we explore the possibility of restoring unitarity through the reweighting method. We first study some properties of the approach at tree level and then we stochastically evaluate ratios of fermionic determinants for different boundary conditions in order to include them in the gauge averages, avoiding in this way the expensive generation of new configurations for each choice of the twisting angle, $\\theta$. As expected the effect of reweighting is negligible in the case of large volumes but it is important when the volumes are small and the twisting angles are large. In particular we find a measurable effect for the plaquette and the pion correlation function in the case of $\\theta=\\pi/2$ in a volume $16\\times 8^3$, and we observe a syst...

  1. An efficient realization of frequency dependent boundary conditions in an acoustic finite-difference time-domain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn; López, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method provides a simple and accurate way of solving initial boundary value problems. However, most acoustic problems involve frequency dependent boundary conditions, and it is not easy to include such boundary conditions in an FDTD model. Although solutions...... to this problem exist, most of them have high computational costs, and stability cannot always be ensured. In this work, a solution is proposed based on "mixing modelling strategies"; this involves separating the FDTD mesh and the boundary conditions (a digital filter representation of the impedance...

  2. Energy dissipation in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model with open boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate energy dissipation caused by traffic in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model with open boundary conditions (OBC). Boundary results in excess energy dissipation. The effects of the stochastic boundary conditions on energy dissipation are discussed. The behaviors of energy dissipation in different traffic phase are distinct. As an order parameter, energy dissipation rate E d characterizes the phase transition behaviors well. It is shown that there is no true free-flow state in nondeterministic NaSch model with OBC. We refer to this non-true free-flow state as quasi-free-flow (QFF) phase in which there are interactions between vehicles caused by stochastic braking but no backward moving jam exists. In the maximum current phase, E d is minimal thus the social payoff is maximal. Energy dissipation profiles in QFF, jammed and maximum current phase are presented. Theoretical analyses are in good agreement with numerical results for the case v max = 1.

  3. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions in The Building Component: Boundary Conditions Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the surface transfer coefficients. Such models cannot accurately predict the HAM...... conditions in the component and on the surface of the component with non-uniform air temperature or relative humidity distributions in an indoor space. Moreover, the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions...... and water content at the material surface and surface texture of the material. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the influence of the non-uniform local air velocity near the surface of a building component on the HAM conditions in the component. A case study and sensitivity study have been...

  4. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...... thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acquire the thermal distribution in critical points. Meanwhile the boundary conditions including...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results....

  5. Fractional instantons and bions in the O(N) model with twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    Recently, multiple fractional instanton configurations with zero instanton charge, called bions, have been revealed to play important roles in quantum field theories on compactified spacetime. In two dimensions, fractional instantons and bions have been extensively studied in the ℂP{sup N−1} model and the Grassmann sigma model on ℝ{sup 1}×S{sup 1} with the ℤ{sub N} symmetric twisted boundary condition. Fractional instantons in these models are domain walls with a localized U(1) modulus twisted half along their world volume. In this paper, we classify fractional instantons and bions in the O(N) nonlinear sigma model on ℝ{sup N−2}×S{sup 1} with more general twisted boundary conditions in which arbitrary number of fields change sign. We find that fractional instantons have more general composite structures, that is, a global vortex with an Ising spin (or a half-lump vortex), a half sine-Gordon kink on a domain wall, or a half lump on a “space-filling brane” in the O(3) model (ℂP{sup 1} model) on ℝ{sup 1}×S{sup 1}, and a global monopole with an Ising spin (or a half-Skyrmion monopole), a half sine-Gordon kink on a global vortex, a half lump on a domain wall, or a half Skyrmion on a “space-filling brane” in the O(4) model (principal chiral model or Skyrme model) on ℝ{sup 2}×S{sup 1}. We also construct bion configurations in these models.

  6. Finite element time domain modeling of controlled-source electromagnetic data with a hybrid boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin; Auken, Esben; Han, Muran; Li, Jianhui

    2017-10-01

    We implemented an edge-based finite element time domain (FETD) modeling algorithm for simulating controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh and we consider a finite difference discretization of time using the backward Euler method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping method with trivial computation cost once the matrix is factorized. We try to keep the same time step size for a fixed number of steps using an adaptive time step doubling (ATSD) method. The finite element modeling domain is also truncated using a semi-adaptive method. We proposed a new boundary condition based on approximating the total field on the modeling boundary using the primary field corresponding to a layered background model. We validate our algorithm using several synthetic model studies.

  7. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis - A study of boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Nils Refstrup; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer...... that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced...... models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and but not very well for acoustically soft PDMS systems shorter than the PDMS damping length of 3 mm....

  8. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis --- a study of boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Nils Refstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer that actuates the device by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We compare the resulting acoustic fields in these full solid-fluid models with those obtained in reduced fluid models comprising of only a water domain with simplified, approximate boundary conditions representing the surrounding solids. The reduced models are found to only approximate the acoustically hard pyrex systems to a limited degree for large wall thicknesses and not at all for the acoustically soft PDMS systems.

  9. Planck scale boundary conditions in the standard model with singlet scalar dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    We investigate Planck scale boundary conditions on the Higgs sector of the standard model with a gauge singlet scalar dark matter. We will find that vanishing self-coupling and Veltman condition at the Planck scale are realized with the 126 GeV Higgs mass and top pole mass, 172 GeV≲M{sub t}≲173.5 GeV, where a correct abundance of scalar dark matter is obtained with mass of 300 GeV≲m{sub S}≲1 TeV. It means that the Higgs potential is flat at the Planck scale, and this situation can not be realized in the standard model with the top pole mass.

  10. Baroclinic Planetary Boundary-Layer Model for Neutral and Stable Stratification Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djolov, G. D.; Yordanov, D. L.; Syrakov, D. E.

    The temperature and wind profiles in abaroclinic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are investigated.Assuming stationary conditions, the turbulent state in the ABL forstable and neutral conditions is uniquely determined by the Rossbynumber, the external stratification parameter and two externalbaroclinic parameters. A simple two-layer baroclinic model isdeveloped. It consists of a surface layer (SL) and overlyingEkman-type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations isclosed using K-theory. In the SL the turbulent exchangecoefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theorywhile in the Ekman layer it is assumed constant. The universalfunctions in the resistance, heat and humidity transfer laws arededuced from the analytical solutions for the wind and temperatureprofiles. The solutions of the ABL resistance laws for theinternal ABL parameters, necessary for the calculations of the ABLprofiles, are approximated in terms of the external ABLparameters. Favourable agreement of model results with theavailable experimental data is demonstrated.

  11. Mathematical modeling of radiant heating of a closed rectangular area under conditions of convective heat transfer at the external boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of radiant heating of a closed rectangular area under conditions of convective heat transfer at the external boundaries is passed. The fields of temperature and stream function, illustrating the unsteady nature of the heat transfer were obtained. The extent influence of convective heat transfer at the external boundaries on the circulating flows formation in the gas cavity are shown.

  12. Towards Dynamic Realism for Solar Wind Boundary Conditions Used in Global Heliospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, L. J.; Mueller, H.; Heiderer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The two Voyager missions have demonstrated the highly time-dependent nature of the outer heliosphere, and the measurements from IBEX will require, for proper interpretation of the data, theoretical models that incorporate this time-dependence. Our research group uses multifluid HD models of the global heliosphere with idealized, simplified solar wind conditions for the inner boundary of the simulations. For this contribution, solar wind data of the past four solar cycles, taken from NASA's OMNI data set, is used to build a realistic inner boundary data set for our simulations. This data set is time-dependent so as to realistically represent changes in solar wind characteristics through the solar cycle and capture the corresponding transient effects in the heliosphere. We have had preliminary success with our data set, extrapolating OMNI data, which is entirely Sun-Earth directed, to fill the entire ecliptic disc. The success of the results confirmed to us that, with some improvements, our central technique would create a solar win data set sufficiently realistic for heliospheric simulations. To refine the data set, independent analyses and categorization of data will be performed. Four solar wind regimes are envisioned, undisturbed fast and slow wind, ICME wind, and 'other' wind, the catchall category. After we have categorized the entire OMNI data set, our extrapolations will represent the behavior of each regime in a more realistic fashion. Preliminary results for global heliospheric simulations will be presented.

  13. Modelling of Edge Insulation Depending on Boundary Conditions for the Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska, Agata; Strzałkowski, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    The article presents results of CFD software aided simulations of a thermal bridge, existing at the wall–slab on ground connection. Calculations were made for different variants of the edge insulation location. Schemes without any edge insulation, with some vertical insulation, horizontal, diagonal, and diagonal combined with insulation used as formwork under the slab on ground were analysed. Each variant was differentiated with boundary conditions for the ground. Vertical borders of the model in the ground, as well as the lower border were described in the first solution as adiabatic, while in the second case, a variable temperature value, depending on the ground depth, was set. For comparison, additional calculations were conducted for non-stationary conditions, in which the initial temperature of the ground was set to the average annual temperature of air. The calculations were based on the location of Szczecin, for which the outside air temperature was set to -16.0°C. Results obtained from the simulation were then used to determine the thermal bridge parameters, in particular, thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance. The effect of the set of boundary conditions is clearly seen. In general, for all the five variants, lower values of heat fluxes and linear thermal transmittances were obtained, when variable temperature in the ground was assumed. From the point of view of energy balance, it is more favourable to use the values of ψg obtained when the ground temperature is taken into account. The data breakdown shows that application of the actual temperature distribution in the ground to a model has a strong effect on distribution of the 0.0°C isotherm. The adiabatic model indicates that the ground under the slab freezes, while the model, which takes into account the temperature of the ground, shows that the ground under the floor has positive temperatures and the 0.0°C isotherm reaches only the edge of the outer wall. Moreover, the

  14. Influence of Initial Geometry and Boundary Conditions on Flat Subduction Models and Resulting Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical investigations of surface deformation in response to flat slab subduction began with seminal papers by Bird (1988) and Mitrovica et al. (1989). Recently, a number of numerical studies have begun to explore the complexity in the dynamics of flat-slab subduction initiation and continuation, but did not address the corresponding surface deformation (English et al., 2003; Pérez-Campos et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Jones et al., 2011; Arrial and Billen, 2013; Vogt and Gerya, 2014). Herein, we explore the conditions that lead to flat-slab subduction and characterize the resulting surface deformation using a 2D finite-difference marker-in-cell method. We specifically explore how initial model geometry and boundary conditions affect the evolution of the angle at which a slab subducts in the presence/absence of a buoyant oceanic plateau and the resulting surface topography. In our simulations, the surface is tracked through time as an internal erosion/sedimentation surface. The top boundary of the crust is overlaid by a "sticky" (viscous 10^17 Pa.s) water/air layer with correspondingly stratified densities. We apply a coupled surface processes model that solves the sediment transport/diffusion erosion equation at each time step to account for the corresponding crustal mass flux and its effect on crustal deformation. Model results show the initial angle of subduction has a substantial impact on the subduction angle of the slab and hence the evolution of topography. The results also indicate plate velocity and the presence of an oceanic plateau in a forced subduction only have a moderate effect on the angle of subduction.

  15. Impact of chemical lateral boundary conditions in a regional air quality forecast model on surface ozone predictions during stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Diane; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Michael D.; Lupu, Alexandru

    2018-02-01

    A regional air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, is used to examine the conditions under which a limited-area air quality model can accurately forecast near-surface ozone concentrations during stratospheric intrusions. Periods in 2010 and 2014 with known stratospheric intrusions over North America were modelled using four different ozone lateral boundary conditions obtained from a seasonal climatology, a dynamically-interpolated monthly climatology, global air quality forecasts, and global air quality reanalyses. It is shown that the mean bias and correlation in surface ozone over the course of a season can be improved by using time-varying ozone lateral boundary conditions, particularly through the correct assignment of stratospheric vs. tropospheric ozone along the western lateral boundary (for North America). Part of the improvement in surface ozone forecasts results from improvements in the characterization of near-surface ozone along the lateral boundaries that then directly impact surface locations near the boundaries. However, there is an additional benefit from the correct characterization of the location of the tropopause along the western lateral boundary such that the model can correctly simulate stratospheric intrusions and their associated exchange of ozone from stratosphere to troposphere. Over a three-month period in spring 2010, the mean bias was seen to improve by as much as 5 ppbv and the correlation by 0.1 depending on location, and on the form of the chemical lateral boundary condition.

  16. Exact Solution of the Six-Vertex Model with Domain Wall Boundary Conditions. Disordered Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Bleher, P M

    2005-01-01

    The six-vertex model, or the square ice model, with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) has been introduced and solved for finite $N$ by Korepin and Izergin. The solution is based on the Yang-Baxter equations and it represents the free energy in terms of an $N\\times N$ Hankel determinant. Paul Zinn-Justin observed that the Izergin-Korepin formula can be re-expressed in terms of the partition function of a random matrix model with a nonpolynomial interaction. We use this observation to obtain the large $N$ asymptotics of the six-vertex model with DWBC in the disordered phase. The solution is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach and the Deift-Zhou nonlinear steepest descent method. As was noticed by Kuperberg, the problem of enumeration of alternating sign matrices (the ASM problem) is a special case of the the six-vertex model. We compare the obtained exact solution of the six-vertex model with known exact results for the 1, 2, and 3 enumerations of ASMs, and also with the exact solution on the so-called f...

  17. Middle Pliocene vegetation: Reconstructions, paleoclimatic inferences, and boundary conditions for climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Fleming, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The general characteristics of global vegetation during the middle Pliocene warm period can be reconstructed from fossil pollen and plant megafossil data. The largest differences between Pliocene vegetation and that of today occurred at high latitudes in both hemispheres, where warming was pronounced relative to today. In the Northern Hemisphere coniferous forests lived in the modern tundra and polar desert regions, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere southern beech apparently grew in coastal areas of Antarctica. Pliocene middle latitude vegetation differed less, although moister-than-modern conditions supported forest and woodland growth in some regions now covered by steppe or grassland. Pliocene tropical vegetation reflects essentially modern conditions in some regions and slightly cooler-than-or warmer-than- modern climates in other areas. Changes in topography induced by tectonics may be responsible for many of the climatic changes since the Pliocene in both middle and lower latitudes. However, the overall latitudinal progression of climatic conditions on land parallels that seen in the reconstruction of middle Pliocene sea-surface temperatures. Pliocene paleovegetational data was employed to construct a 2????2?? global grid of estimated mid-Pliocene vegetational cover for use as boundary conditions for numerical General Circulation Model simulations of middle Pliocene climates. Continental outlines and topography were first modified to represent the Pliocene landscape on the 2????2?? grid. A modern 1????1?? vegetation grid was simplified and mapped on this Pliocene grid, and then modified following general geographic trends evident in the Pliocene paleovegetation data set.

  18. Development of stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for the modeling of solids deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet-Grellier, Thomas; Pramanik, Ranjan; Pan, Kai; Albaiz, Abdulaziz; Jones, Bruce D.; Williams, John R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper develops a method for imposing stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with and without the need for dummy particles. SPH has been used for simulating phenomena in a number of fields, such as astrophysics and fluid mechanics. More recently, the method has gained traction as a technique for simulation of deformation and fracture in solids, where the meshless property of SPH can be leveraged to represent arbitrary crack paths. Despite this interest, application of boundary conditions within the SPH framework is typically limited to imposed velocity or displacement using fictitious dummy particles to compensate for the lack of particles beyond the boundary interface. While this is enough for a large variety of problems, especially in the case of fluid flow, for problems in solid mechanics there is a clear need to impose stresses upon boundaries. In addition to this, the use of dummy particles to impose a boundary condition is not always suitable or even feasibly, especially for those problems which include internal boundaries. In order to overcome these difficulties, this paper first presents an improved method for applying stress boundary conditions in SPH with dummy particles. This is then followed by a proposal of a formulation which does not require dummy particles. These techniques are then validated against analytical solutions to two common problems in rock mechanics, the Brazilian test and the penny-shaped crack problem both in 2D and 3D. This study highlights the fact that SPH offers a good level of accuracy to solve these problems and that results are reliable. This validation work serves as a foundation for addressing more complex problems involving plasticity and fracture propagation.

  19. Using effective boundary conditions to model fast diffusion on a road in a large field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2017-10-01

    We consider a logistic diffusion equation on the plane consisting of two components, a ‘road’ that is parallel to the x-axis, and a ‘field’, in each of which the diffusion rate differs significantly. Compared to the size of the field, the width δ of the road is assumed to be small. Thus in this diffusion equation multiple scales appear in two places: the spatial variable and the diffusion parameter. Such an equation is not easy to solve numerically, and it is not easy to see the effects of the road. Recently, Berestycki, Roquejoffre and Rossi provide a model which is meant to resolve these issues. In this paper we first use the idea of effective boundary conditions (EBCs) to propose, rigorously, a different model: we study the limit of the solution of the original logistic equation as δ→ 0 , obtaining a limiting model, in which the road now is the x-axis with EBCs imposed on it. This effective problem has no multiple scales and hence should be easier to solve numerically. Moreover, to see the effects of the road, we further investigate the asymptotic propagation speed of the effective model, showing that the road indeed enhances the spreading speed along its direction, provided that the diffusion rate on the road is of order O≤ft(δ-1\\right) .

  20. Effects of boundary conditions on magnetization switching in kinetic ising models of nanoscale ferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, H.L.; Kolesik, M.; Lindgård, P.-A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetization switching in highly anisotropic single-domain ferromagnets has been previously shown to be qualitatively described by the droplet theory of metastable decay and simulations of two-dimensional kinetic Ising systems with periodic boundary conditions. In this paper we consider the effe......Magnetization switching in highly anisotropic single-domain ferromagnets has been previously shown to be qualitatively described by the droplet theory of metastable decay and simulations of two-dimensional kinetic Ising systems with periodic boundary conditions. In this paper we consider...

  1. Using random boundary conditions to simulate disordered quantum spin models in two-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, A.; Moreno-Cardoner, M.; Sanpera, A.

    2017-05-01

    Disordered quantum antiferromagnets in two-dimensional compounds have been a focus of interest in the last years due to their exotic properties. However, with very few exceptions, the ground states of the corresponding Hamiltonians are notoriously difficult to simulate making their characterization and detection very elusive, both theoretically and experimentally. Here we propose a method to signal quantum disordered antiferromagnets by doing exact diagonalization in small lattices using random boundary conditions and averaging the observables of interest over the different disorder realizations. We apply our method to study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 model in an anisotropic triangular lattice. In this model, the competition between frustration and quantum fluctuations might lead to some spin-liquid phases as predicted from different methods ranging from spin-wave mean-field theory to 2D-DMRG or PEPS. Our method accurately reproduces the ordered phases expected of the model and signals quantum disordered phases by the presence of a large number of quasidegenerate ground states together with an undefined local order parameter. The method presents a weak dependence on finite-size effects.

  2. Radiative forcing from aircraft emissions of NOx: model calculations with CH4 surface flux boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two independent chemistry-transport models with troposphere-stratosphere coupling are used to quantify the different components of the radiative forcing (RF from aircraft emissions of NOx, i.e., the University of L'Aquila climate-chemistry model (ULAQ-CCM and the University of Oslo chemistry-transport model (Oslo-CTM3. The tropospheric NOx enhancement due to aircraft emissions produces a short-term O3 increase with a positive RF (+17.3 mW/m2 (as an average value of the two models. This is partly compensated by the CH4 decrease due to the OH enhancement (−9.4 mW/m2. The latter is a long-term response calculated using a surface CH4 flux boundary condition (FBC, with at least 50 years needed for the atmospheric CH4 to reach steady state. The radiative balance is also affected by the decreasing amount of CO2 produced at the end of the CH4 oxidation chain: an average CO2 accumulation change of −2.2 ppbv/yr is calculated on a 50 year time horizon (−1.6 mW/m2. The aviation perturbed amount of CH4 induces a long-term response of tropospheric O3 mostly due to less HO2 and CH3O2 being available for O3 production, compared with the reference case where a constant CH4 surface mixing ratio boundary condition is used (MBC (−3.9 mW/m2. The CH4 decrease induces a long-term response of stratospheric H2O (−1.4 mW/m2. The latter finally perturbs HOx and NOx in the stratosphere, with a more efficient NOx cycle for mid-stratospheric O3 depletion and a decreased O3 production from HO2+NO in the lower stratosphere. This produces a long-term stratospheric O3 loss, with a negative RF (−1.2 mW/m2, compared with the CH4 MBC case. Other contributions to the net NOx RF are those due to NO2 absorption of UV-A and aerosol perturbations (the latter calculated only in the ULAQ-CCM. These comprise: increasing sulfate due to more efficient oxidation of SO2, increasing inorganic and organic nitrates and the net aerosols indirect effect on warm clouds

  3. Ocean regional circulation model sensitizes to resolution of the lateral boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Sy; Hwang, Jin Hwan

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical downscaling with nested regional oceanographic models is an effective approach for forecasting operationally coastal weather and projecting long term climate on the ocean. Nesting procedures deliver the unwanted in dynamic downscaling due to the differences of numerical grid sizes and updating steps. Therefore, such unavoidable errors restrict the application of the Ocean Regional Circulation Model (ORCMs) in both short-term forecasts and long-term projections. The current work identifies the effects of errors induced by computational limitations during nesting procedures on the downscaled results of the ORCMs. The errors are quantitatively evaluated for each error source and its characteristics by the Big-Brother Experiments (BBE). The BBE separates identified errors from each other and quantitatively assess the amount of uncertainties employing the same model to simulate for both nesting and nested model. Here, we focus on discussing errors resulting from two main matters associated with nesting procedures. They should be the spatial grids' differences and the temporal updating steps. After the diverse cases from separately running of the BBE, a Taylor diagram was adopted to analyze the results and suggest an optimization intern of grid size and updating period and domain sizes. Key words: lateral boundary condition, error, ocean regional circulation model, Big-Brother Experiment. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by grants from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries entitled "Development of integrated estuarine management system" and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant (No. 2015R1A5A 7037372) funded by MSIP of Korea. The authors thank the Integrated Research Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering of Seoul National University for administrative support.

  4. Turbulence modeling, local grid refinement and absorbing boundary conditions for free-surface flow simulations in offshore applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur; Luppes, Roelf; van der Heiden, Hendrik; van der Plas, Peter; Duz, Bulent; Huijsmans, Rene

    2014-01-01

    To study extreme hydrodynamic wave impact in offshore and coastal engineering, the VOF-based CFD simulation tool ComFLOW is being developed. Recently, much attention has been paid to turbulence modeling, local grid refinement, wave propagation and absorbing boundary conditions. The turbulence model

  5. Numerical model simulations of boundary-layer dynamics during winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melas, D.; Persson, T.; Bruin, H. de

    2001-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model, incorporating a land-surface scheme based on Deardorffs' approach, is used to study the diurnal variation of the boundary layer structure and surface fluxes during four consecutive days with air temperatures well below zero, snow covered ground and changing synoptic f...

  6. The XY model and the three-state antiferromagnetic Potts model in three dimensions critical properties from fluctuating boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlob, A P

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional XY model and the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic three-state Potts model. In both cases we compute the difference in the free energies of a system with periodic and a system with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the neighbourhood of the critical coupling. From the finite-size scaling behaviour of this quantity we extract values for the critical temperature and the critical exponent nu that are compatible with recent high statistics Monte Carlo studies of the models. The results for the free energy difference at the critical temperature and for the exponent nu confirm that both models belong to the same universality class.

  7. Explicit Solutions for the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s Mushy Zone Model with Convective or Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo A. Tarzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We complete the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s mushy zone model (Solomon, 1982 for the one-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem by obtaining explicit solutions when a convective or heat flux boundary condition is imposed on the fixed face for a semi-infinite material. We also obtain the necessary and sufficient condition on data in order to get the explicit solutions for both cases which is new with respect to the original model. Moreover, when these conditions are satisfied, the two phase-change problems are equivalent to the same problem with a temperature boundary condition on the fixed face and therefore an inequality for the coefficient which characterized one of the two free interfaces of the model is also obtained.

  8. Symmetries and Boundary Conditions with a Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krissia; D'Amico, Irene; Oliveira, Luiz N.

    2017-10-01

    Interest in finite-size systems has risen in the last decades, due to the focus on nanotechnological applications and because they are convenient for numerical treatment that can subsequently be extrapolated to infinite lattices. Independently of the envisioned application, special attention must be given to boundary condition, which may or may not preserve the symmetry of the infinite lattice. Here, we present a detailed study of the compatibility between boundary conditions and conservation laws. The conflict between open boundary conditions and momentum conservation is well understood, but we examine other symmetries, as well: we discuss gauge invariance, inversion, spin, and particle-hole symmetry and their compatibility with open, periodic, and twisted boundary conditions. In the interest of clarity, we develop the reasoning in the framework of the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model, whose Hamiltonian displays a variety of symmetries. Our discussion includes analytical and numerical results. Our analytical survey shows that, as a rule, boundary conditions break one or more symmetries of the infinite-lattice Hamiltonian. The exception is twisted boundary condition with the special torsion Θ = πL/2, where L is the lattice size. Our numerical results for the ground-state energy at half-filling and the energy gap for L = 2-7 show how the breaking of symmetry affects the convergence to the L → ∞ limit. We compare the computed energies and gaps with the exact results for the infinite lattice drawn from the Bethe-Ansatz solution. The deviations are boundary-condition dependent. The special torsion yields more rapid convergence than open or periodic boundary conditions. For sizes as small as L = 7, the numerical results for twisted condition are very close to the L → ∞ limit. We also discuss the ground-state electronic density and magnetization at half filling under the three boundary conditions.

  9. Constraining spatial variability in recharge and discharge in an arid environment through modeling carbon-14 with improved boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Harrington, Glenn A.; Knapton, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-14 (14C) has been widely used to estimate groundwater recharge rates in arid regions, and is increasingly being used as a tool to assist numerical model calibration. However, lack of knowledge on 14C inputs to groundwater potentially limits its reliability for constraining spatial variability in recharge. In this study, we use direct measurements of 14C in the unsaturated zone to develop a 14C input map for a regional scale unconfined aquifer in the Ti Tree Basin in central Australia. The map is used as a boundary condition for a 3-D groundwater flow and solute transport model for the basin. The model is calibrated to both groundwater 14C activity and groundwater level, and calibration is achieved by varying recharge rates in 18 hydrogeological zones. We test the sensitivity of the calibration to both the 14C boundary condition, and the number or recharge zones used. The calibrated recharge rates help resolve the conceptual model for the basin, and demonstrate that spatially distributed discharge (through evapotranspiration) is an important part of the water balance. This approach demonstrates the importance of boundary conditions for 14C transport modeling (14C input activity), for improving estimates of spatial variability in recharge and discharge.

  10. Exact results for the Casimir force in a model with Neumann-infinity boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djondjorov, P. A.; Dantchev, D. M.; Vassilev, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    The dependence of the critical Casimir force on two parameters (temperature and external ordering field) within the mean-field Ginzburg-Landau Ising type model is studied. Here, the case of a film geometry where one boundary of the film exhibits strong adsorption to one of the phases (components) of the system, whereas the first derivative of the order-parameter profile vanishes on the other one is studied. The results obtained herein are valid for both, simple fluids and binary liquid mixtures. In the present contribution, the order parameter profile and the Casimir force are presented in exact analytic form, expressed through the Weierstrass function. Using these results, the dependence of the critical Casimir force on the temperature and external ordering field are illustrated.

  11. Suitability of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Water Quality Model to Predict Changes in Water Quality from Altered Meteorological Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon van der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Downscaled climate scenarios can be used to inform management decisions on investment in infrastructure or alternative water sources within water supply systems. Appropriate models of the system components, such as catchments, rivers, lakes and reservoirs, are required. The climatic sensitivity of the coupled hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM was investigated, by incrementally altering boundary conditions, to determine its suitability for evaluating climate change impacts. A series of simulations were run with altered boundary condition inputs for the reservoir. Air and inflowing water temperature (TEMP, wind speed (WIND and reservoir inflow and outflow volumes (FLOW were altered to investigate the sensitivity of these key drivers over relevant domains. The simulated water quality variables responded in broadly plausible ways to the altered boundary conditions; sensitivity of the simulated cyanobacteria population to increases in temperature was similar to published values. However the negative response of total chlorophyll-a suggested by the model was not supported by an empirical analysis of climatic sensitivity. This study demonstrated that ELCOM-CAEDYM is sensitive to climate drivers and may be suitable for use in climate impact studies. It is recommended that the influence of structural and parameter derived uncertainty on the results be evaluated. Important factors in determining phytoplankton growth were identified and the importance of inflowing water quality was emphasized.

  12. Effects of Boundary Conditions and Viscous Energy Dissipation on Carbon Burning in Thermonuclear Supernova Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunina-Barkovskaya, N. V.; Imshennik, V. S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, we investigate carbon burning in a thermonuclear type-Ia supernova in the approximation of unsteady convection. The relatively broad range of convective parameters, 1 x 10^{-3} detonation from the edge takes place was found to be preserved only for cases with a low boundary temperature at the presupernova stage, T_b(PS) = 6.4 x 10^6 K, and with a high envelope mass, m_ex = 2 x 10^{-3} M_solar. In cases with a more realistic temperature, T_b(PS) = 2 x 10^8 K, which corresponds to helium burning in the shell source, and with a lower mass m_ex, delayed detonation from the edge takes place only at alpha_c = 2 x 10^{-3}, while at alpha_c = 1 x 10^{-3}, numerous model pulsations occur during t > 500 s. Artificial viscosity is shown to give a determining contribution to the increase in entropy in outer model shells, which is caused by the generation of weak shock waves during pulsations. We also show that the entropies calculated by two independent methods are equal.

  13. Integrated Surface-groundwater Flow Modeling: a Free-surface Overland Flow Boundary Condition in a Parallel Groundwater Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollet, S J; Maxwell, R M

    2005-04-08

    Interactions between surface and ground water are a key component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed scale. Models that honor these interactions are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. These types of models link the subsurface and surface domains via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in field systems, there is a need for a more general coupled modeling approach. A more general coupled model is presented that incorporates a new two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variable saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow. In ParFlow, the overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another important advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism incorporated into ParFlow, which is efficiently exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The model is shown to reproduce an analytical solution for overland flow and compares favorably to other commonly used hydrologic models. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow is also examined. The results show the uncertainty in overland flow predictions due to subsurface heterogeneity and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. Both the overland flow component and the coupled model are evaluated in a parallel scaling study and show to be efficient.

  14. Optimization of Open Boundary Conditions in a 3D Internal Tidal Model with the Adjoint Method around Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhou Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of inverse problem, the optimization of open boundary conditions (OBCs in a 3D internal tidal model is investigated with the adjoint method. Fourier coefficients of M2 internal tide on four open boundaries, which are regarded as OBCs, are inverted simultaneously. During the optimization, the steepest descent method is used to minimize cost function. The reasonability and feasibility of the model are tested by twin experiments (TEs. In TE1, OBCs on four open boundaries are successfully inverted by using independent point (IP strategy, suggesting that IP strategy is useful in parameter estimation. Results of TE2 indicate that the model is effective even by assimilating inaccurate “observations.” Based on conclusions of TEs, the M2 internal tide around Hawaii is simulated by assimilating T/P data in practical experiment. The simulated cochart shows good agreement with that obtained from the Oregon State University tidal model and T/P observations. Careful inspection shows that the major difference between simulated results and OSU model results is short-scale fluctuations superposed on coamplitude lines, which can be treated as the surface manifestation modulated by the internal tide. The computed surface manifestation along T/P tracks is comparable to the estimation in previous work.

  15. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  16. The choice of boundary conditions and mesh for scaffolding FEM model on the basis of natural vibrations measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyniak, Patrycja; Błazik-Borowa, Ewa; Szer, Jacek; Lipecki, Tomasz; Szer, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Scaffolding is a specific construction with high susceptibility to low frequency vibrations. The numerical model of scaffolding presented in this paper contains real imperfections received from geodetic measurements of real construction. Boundary conditions were verified on the basis of measured free vibrations. A simulation of a man walking on penultimate working level as a dynamic load variable in time was made for verified model. The paper presents procedure for a choice of selected parameters of the scaffolding FEM model. The main aim of analysis is the best projection of the real construction and correct modeling of worker walking on the scaffolding. Different boundary conditions are considered, because of their impact on construction vibrations. Natural vibrations obtained from FEM calculations are compared with free vibrations measured during in-situ tests. Structure accelerations caused by walking human are then considered in this paper. Methodology of creating numerical models of scaffoldings and analysis of dynamic effects during human walking are starting points for further considerations about dynamic loads acting on such structures and effects of these loads to construction and workers, whose workplaces are situated on the scaffolding.

  17. Spatial spin-up of fine scales in a regional climate model simulation driven by low-resolution boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Dominic; Laprise, René; Thériault, Julie M.; Lucas-Picher, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    In regional climate modelling, it is well known that domains should be neither too large to avoid a large departure from the driving data, nor too small to provide a sufficient distance from the lateral inflow boundary to allow the full development of the small-scale (SS) features permitted by the finer resolution. Although most practitioners of dynamical downscaling are well aware that the jump of resolution between the lateral boundary condition (LBC) driving data and the nested regional climate model affects the simulated climate, this issue has not been fully investigated. In principle, as the jump of resolution becomes larger, the region of interest in the limited-area domain should be located further away from the lateral inflow boundary to allow the full development of the SS features. A careless choice of domain might result in a suboptimal use of the full finer resolution potential to develop fine-scale features. To address this issue, regional climate model (RCM) simulations using various resolution driving data are compared following the perfect-prognostic Big-Brother protocol. Several experiments were carried out to evaluate the width of the spin-up region (i.e. the distance between the lateral inflow boundary and the domain of interest required for the full development of SS transient eddies) as a function of the RCM and LBC resolutions, as well as the resolution jump. The spin-up distance turns out to be a function of the LBC resolution only, independent of the RCM resolution. When varying the RCM resolution for a given resolution jump, it is found that the spin-up distance corresponds to a fixed number of RCM grid points that is a function of resolution jump only. These findings can serve a useful purpose to guide the choice of domain and RCM configuration for an optimal development of the small scales allowed by the increased resolution of the nested model.

  18. Influence of Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions on the global water isotope distribution in an atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharammal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the validity of δ18O proxy records as indicators of past temperature change, a series of experiments was conducted using an atmospheric general circulation model fitted with water isotope tracers (Community Atmosphere Model version 3.0, IsoCAM. A pre-industrial simulation was performed as the control experiment, as well as a simulation with all the boundary conditions set to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM values. Results from the pre-industrial and LGM simulations were compared to experiments in which the influence of individual boundary conditions (greenhouse gases, ice sheet albedo and topography, sea surface temperature (SST, and orbital parameters were changed each at a time to assess their individual impact. The experiments were designed in order to analyze the spatial variations of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecip in response to individual climate factors. The change in topography (due to the change in land ice cover played a significant role in reducing the surface temperature and δ18Oprecip over North America. Exposed shelf areas and the ice sheet albedo reduced the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature and δ18Oprecip further. A global mean cooling of 4.1 °C was simulated with combined LGM boundary conditions compared to the control simulation, which was in agreement with previous experiments using the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM3. Large reductions in δ18Oprecip over the LGM ice sheets were strongly linked to the temperature decrease over them. The SST and ice sheet topography changes were responsible for most of the changes in the climate and hence the δ18Oprecip distribution among the simulations.

  19. Evaluation of Sub-Zonal Airflow Models for the Prediction of Local Interior Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul W. M. H.; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Currently, researchers are striving to advance the possibilities to calculate the integrated phenomena of heat, air and moisture flows in buildings, with specific focus on the interactions between the building zones and building components. This paper presents an investigation of the capability...... and applicability of the sub-zonal airflow model to predict the local indoor environmental conditions, as well as the local surface transfer coefficients near building components. Two test cases were analyzed for, respectively, natural and forced convection in a room. The simulation results predicted from the sub...... transfer coefficients near the building component for the analyzed cases. The relatively short computation time and flexibility of the sub-zonal model makes the application attractive for transient simulation of heat, air and moisture transport in buildings. However, the availability of appropriate...

  20. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2016-04-01

    Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed

  1. Estimation of Open Boundary Conditions for an Internal Tidal Model with Adjoint Method: A Comparative Study on Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an internal tidal model, the practical performances of the limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS method and two gradient descent (GD methods (the normal one with Wolfe’s line search and the simplified one are investigated computationally through a series of ideal experiments in which the open boundary conditions (OBCs are inverted by assimilating the interior observations with the adjoint method. In the case that the observations closer to the unknown boundary are included for assimilation, the L-BFGS method performs the best. As compared with the simplified GD method, the normal one really uses less iteration to reach a satisfactory solution, but its advantage over the simplified one is much smaller than expected. In the case that only the observations that are further from the unknown boundary are assimilated, the simplified GD method performs the best instead, whereas the performances of the other two methods are not satisfactory. The advanced L-BFGS algorithm and Wolfe’s line search still need to be improved when applied to the practical cases. The simplified GD method, which is controllable and easy to implement, should be regarded seriously as a choice, especially when the classical advanced optimization techniques fail or perform poorly.

  2. Lattice realizations of the open descendants of twisted boundary conditions for sl(2) A D E models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, C. H. Otto; Pearce, Paul A.

    2005-06-01

    The twisted boundary conditions and associated partition functions of the conformal sl(2) A D E models are studied on the Klein bottle and the Möbius strip. The A D E minimal lattice models give realization to the complete classification of the open descendants of the sl(2) minimal theories. We construct the transfer matrices of these lattice models that are consistent with non-orientable geometries. In particular, we show that in order to realize all the Klein bottle amplitudes of different crosscap states, not only the topological flip on the lattice but also the involution in the spin configuration space must be taken into account. This involution is the \\mathbb {Z}_2 symmetry of the Dynkin diagrams which corresponds to the simple current of the Ocneanu algebra.

  3. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  4. Transonic turbine blade loading calculations using different turbulence models - effects of reflecting and non-reflecting boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouimaa, S. [Physical Department, Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Messaoudi, L. [Mechanical Department, Engineering Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Giel, Paul W. [QSS Group, Inc., NASAGlenn Research Center Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The objective of this study is to simulate the transonic gas turbine blade-to-blade compressible fluid flow. We are interested mainly in the determination of the pressure distribution around the blade. The particular blade architecture makes these simulations more complex due to the variety of phenomena induced by this flow. Our study is based on the experiment performed by Giel and colleagues. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article was a turbine rotor with design flow turning of 136{sup o} and an axial chord of 12.7cm. Simulations were performed on an irregular quadratic structured grid with the FLUENT software package which solves the Navier-Stokes equations by using finite volume methods. Two-dimensional stationary numerical simulations were made under turbulent conditions allowing us to compare the characteristic flow effects of Reflecting Boundary Conditions (RBC) and Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions (NRBC) newly implemented in FLUENT 6.0. Many simulations were made to compare different turbulence models: a one equation model (Spalart-Allmaras), several two-equation models (k-{epsilon}, RNG k-{epsilon}, Realizable k-{epsilon}, SST k-{omega}), and a Reynolds-stress model (RSM). Also examined were the effects of the inlet turbulence intensities (0.25% and 7%), the exit Mach numbers (1.0 and 1.3) and the inlet Reynolds numbers (0.5x10{sup 6} and 1x10{sup 6}). The results obtained show a good correlation with the experiment. (author)

  5. Dynamic Model and Vibration Characteristics of Planar 3-RRR Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Intermediate Links considering Exact Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the dynamic model of a planar 3-RRR flexible parallel manipulator (FPM, it is often difficult to achieve active vibration control algorithm based on the system dynamic model. To establish a simple and efficient dynamic model of the planar 3-RRR FPM to study its dynamic characteristics and build a controller conveniently, firstly, considering the effect of rigid-flexible coupling and the moment of inertia at the end of the flexible intermediate link, the modal function is determined with the pinned-free boundary condition. Then, considering the main vibration modes of the system, a high-efficiency coupling dynamic model is established on the basis of guaranteeing the model control accuracy. According to the model, the modal characteristics of the flexible intermediate link are analyzed and compared with the modal test results. The results show that the model can effectively reflect the main vibration modes of the planar 3-RRR FPM; in addition the model can be used to analyze the effects of inertial and coupling forces on the dynamics model and the drive torque of the drive motor. Because this model is of the less dynamic parameters, it is convenient to carry out the control program.

  6. On filter boundary conditions in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Most research papers on topology optimization involve filters for regularization. Typically, boundary effects from the filters are ignored. Despite significant drawbacks the inappropriate homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used, probably because they are trivial to implement. In this paper...

  7. Uncertainty propagation of phase contrast-MRI derived inlet boundary conditions in computational hemodynamics models of thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Silvia; Morbiducci, Umberto; Gallo, Diego; Ponzini, Raffaele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Bignardi, Cristina; Passoni, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the impact that uncertainty in phase contrast-MRI derived inlet boundary conditions has on patient-specific computational hemodynamics models of the healthy human thoracic aorta. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we provide advice on where, when and how, it is important to account for this source of uncertainty. The study shows that the uncertainty propagates not only to the intravascular flow, but also to the shear stress distribution at the vessel wall. More specifically, the results show an increase in the uncertainty of the predicted output variables, with respect to the input uncertainty, more marked for blood pressure and wall shear stress. The methodological approach proposed here can be easily extended to study uncertainty propagation in both healthy and pathological computational hemodynamic models.

  8. Boundary Conditions of Methamphetamine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B.; Onyemekwu, Chukwudi; Hart, Carl L.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Kober, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased significantly and become a global health concern. Craving is known to predict methamphetamine use and relapse following abstinence. Some have suggested that cravings are automatic, generalized, and uncontrollable, but experimental work addressing these claims is lacking. In two exploratory studies we tested the boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving by asking: (1) is craving specific to users’ preferred route of administration? and (2) can craving be regulated by cognitive strategies? Two groups of methamphetamine users were recruited. In Study 1, participants were grouped by their preferred route of administration (intranasal vs. smoking), and rated their craving in response to photographs and movies depicting methamphetamine use (via the intranasal vs. smoking route). In Study 2, methamphetamine smokers implemented cognitive regulation strategies while viewing photographs depicting methamphetamine smoking. Strategies involved either focusing on the positive aspects of smoking methamphetamine or the negative consequences of doing so – the latter strategy based on treatment protocols for addiction. In Study 1, we found a significant interaction between group and route of administration, such that participants who preferred to smoke methamphetamine reported significantly stronger craving for smoking stimuli, whereas those who preferred the intranasal route reported stronger craving for intranasal stimuli. In Study 2, participants reported significantly lower craving when focusing on the negative consequences associated with methamphetamine use. Taken together, these findings suggest that strength of craving for methamphetamine is moderated by users’ route of administration and can be reduced by cognitive strategies. This has important theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications. PMID:26302338

  9. Modeling Stochastic Boundary Conditions in a Coastal Catchment using a Bayesian Network: An Application to the Houston Ship Channel, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couasnon, Anaïs; Sebastian, Antonia; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has highlighted the increased risk of compound flooding in the U.S. In coastal catchments, an elevated downstream water level, resulting from high tide and/or storm surge, impedes drainage creating a backwater effect that may exacerbate flooding in the riverine environment. Catchments exposed to tropical cyclone activity along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts are particularly vulnerable. However, conventional flood hazard models focus mainly on precipitation-induced flooding and few studies accurately represent the hazard associated with the interaction between discharge and elevated downstream water levels. This study presents a method to derive stochastic boundary conditions for a coastal watershed. Mean daily discharge and maximum daily residual water levels are used to build a non-parametric Bayesian network (BN) based on copulas. Stochastic boundary conditions for the watershed are extracted from the BN and input into a 1-D process-based hydraulic model to obtain water surface elevations in the main channel of the catchment. The method is applied to a section of the Houston Ship Channel (Buffalo Bayou) in Southeast Texas. Data at six stream gages and two tidal stations are used to build the BN and 100-year joint return period events are modeled. We find that the dependence relationship between the daily residual water level and the mean daily discharge in the catchment can be represented by a Gumbel copula (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.31) and that they result in higher water levels in the mid- to upstream reaches of the watershed than when modeled independently. This indicates that conventional (deterministic) methods may underestimate the flood hazard associated with compound flooding in the riverine environment and that such interactions should not be neglected in future coastal flood hazard studies.

  10. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  11. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acqu...

  12. Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2010-01-01

    A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...

  13. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleczek, M.A.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX

  14. Boundary conditions for 3D dynamic models of ablation of ceramics by pulsed mid-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila Verde, A. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ramos, Marta M.D. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)]. E-mail: marta@fisica.uminho.pt

    2005-07-15

    We present and discuss a set of boundary conditions (BCs) to use in three-dimensional, mesoscopic, finite element models of mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of brittle materials. These models allow the study of the transient displacement and stress fields generated at micrometer scales during and after one laser pulse, where using conventional BCs may lead to some results without physical significance that can be considered an artefact of the calculations. The proposed BCs are tested and applied to a micrometer-scale continuous model of human dental enamel under CO{sub 2} radiation (10.6 {mu}m, 0.35 {mu}s pulse, sub-ablative fluence), giving rise to the following results: the highest stress is obtained at the irradiated surface of the model, at the end of the laser pulse, but afterwards it decreases rapidly until it becomes significantly lower than the stress in a region 2.5 {mu}m deep in the model; a thermally induced vibration in the material is predicted. This non-intuitive dynamics in stress and displacement distribution cannot be neglected and has to be considered in dynamic laser ablation models, since it may have serious implications in the mechanisms of ablation.

  15. Restructuring surface tessellation with irregular boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the surface tessellation problem is explored, in particular, the task of meshing a surface with the added consideration of incorporating constructible building components. When a surface is tessellated into discrete counterparts, certain unexpected conditions usually occur at the boundary of the surface, in particular, when the surface is being trimmed. For example, irregularly shaped panels form at the trimmed edges. To reduce the number of irregular panels that may form during the tessellation process, this paper presents an algorithmic approach to restructuring the surface tessellation by investigating irregular boundary conditions. The objective of this approach is to provide an alternative way for freeform surface manifestation from a well-structured discrete model of the given surface.

  16. On the Effect of the Boundary Conditions and the Collision Model on Rarefied Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M.; Stefanov, S.; Valougeorgis, D.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, the effect of the gas-surface interaction law and of the intermolecular collision model is examined by solving, using the DSMC method, the heat transfer problem between parallel plates and the non-isothermal Poiseuille flow problem. In the former one the Cercignani-Lampis model is applied to analyze the influence of the gas-surface interaction parameters, while in the latter one a comparison between the results obtained by implementing the Hard Sphere, Variable Hard Sphere, Variable Soft Sphere and Maxwellian models is performed. Calculations have been carried out for several values of the Knudsen number, temperature ratio and Froude number. A comparison between the DSMC and the corresponding discrete velocity results yields very good agreement between the two approaches. Finally, the convergence behavior of a Bernoulli trials based scheme, which allows the use of a smaller number of particles per cell, and the No Time Counter are compared for different sampling sequences.

  17. Finite element time domain modeling of controlled-Source electromagnetic data with a hybrid boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin

    2017-01-01

    We implemented an edge-based finite element time domain (FETD) modeling algorithm for simulating controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh and we consider a finite difference discretization of time using the backward Euler...... method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping...

  18. Experimental Validation of Model Updating and Damage Detection via Eigenvalue Sensitivity Methods with Artificial Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    means. Enter the FEM. As described by computer modeling company, COMSOL , this alternative approach involves discretizing the PDE to create an...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 107 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] COMSOL . The finite element method (FEM) [Online]. Available: https://www.comsol.com/multiphysics

  19. Artificial Boundary Conditions for Finite Element Model Update and Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    computational research is performed in MATLAB [11] . The Pulse Reflex software of Bruel & Kjaer Company [12] is used for recording the experimental...Y. Lu, “Dynamic model updating using combined genetic- eigensensitivity algorithm and application in seismic response prediction,” Earthquake Eng...D. Van Nostrand, 1937. [11] MATLAB R2014a, Mathworks, Inc. [12] Pulse Reflex, version 20.0.0, Bruel &. Kjaer, 2016. [13] Roy R. Craig

  20. Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; De Rouck, Julien; Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented.......The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented....

  1. Discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back boundary condition of multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuqi; Hong, Ning; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will focus on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations (CDEs), and analyze the discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back (HBB) boundary condition (or sometimes called bounce-back boundary condition) of the MRT model where three different discrete velocity models are considered. We first present a theoretical analysis on the discrete effect of the HBB boundary condition for the simple problems with a parabolic distribution in the x or y direction, and a numerical slip proportional to the second-order of lattice spacing is observed at the boundary, which means that the MRT model has a second-order convergence rate in space. The theoretical analysis also shows that the numerical slip can be eliminated in the MRT model through tuning the free relaxation parameter corresponding to the second-order moment, while it cannot be removed in the single-relaxation-time model or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model unless the relaxation parameter related to the diffusion coefficient is set to be a special value. We then perform some simulations to confirm our theoretical results, and find that the numerical results are consistent with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we would also like to point out the present analysis can be extended to other boundary conditions of lattice Boltzmann models for CDEs.

  2. Global distribution of minerals in arid soils as lower boundary condition in dust models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust eroded from arid soils affects the radiation budget of the Earth system, modifies ocean bioproductivity and influences human health. Dust aerosol is a complex mixture of minerals. Dust mineral composition has several potentially important impacts to environment and society. Iron and phosphorus embedded in mineral aerosol are essential for the primary marine productivity when dust deposits over the open ocean. Dust also acts as efficient agent for heterogeneous ice nucleation and this process is dependent on mineralogical structure of dust. Recent findings in medical geology indicate possible role of minerals to human health. In this study, a new 1-km global database was developed for several minerals (Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Quartz, Feldspar, Hematite and Gypsum) embedded in clay and silt populations of arid soils. For the database generation, high-resolution data sets on soil textures, soil types and land cover was used. Tin addition to the selected minerals, phosphorus was also added whose geographical distribution was specified from compiled literature and data on soil types. The developed global database was used to specify sources of mineral fractions in the DREAM dust model and to simulate atmospheric paths of minerals and their potential impacts on marine biochemistry and tropospheric ice nucleation.

  3. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  4. On groundwater flow modelling in safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. A comparative study with emphasis on boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, P

    1999-11-01

    Modelling groundwater flow is an essential part of the safety assessment of spent fuel disposal because moving groundwater makes a physical connection between a geological repository and the biosphere. Some of the common approaches to model groundwater flow in bedrock are equivalent porous continuum (EC), stochastic continuum and various fracture network concepts. The actual flow system is complex and measuring data are limited. Multiple distinct approaches and models, alternative scenarios as well as calibration and sensitivity analyses are used to give confidence on the results of the calculations. The correctness and orders of magnitude of results of such complex research can be assessed by comparing them to the results of simplified and robust approaches. The first part of this study is a survey of the objects, contents and methods of the groundwater flow modelling performed in the safety assessment of the spent fuel disposal in Finland and Sweden. The most apparent difference of the Swedish studies compared to the Finnish ones is the approach of using more different models, which is enabled by the more resources available in Sweden. The results of more comprehensive approaches provided by international co-operation are very useful to give perspective to the results obtained in Finland. In the second part of this study, the influence of boundary conditions on the flow fields of a simple 2D model is examined. The assumptions and simplifications in this approach include e.g. the following: (1) the EC model is used, in which the 2-dimensional domain is considered a continuum of equivalent properties without fractures present, (2) the calculations are done for stationary fields, without sources or sinks present in the domain and with a constant density of the groundwater, (3) the repository is represented by an isotropic plate, the hydraulic conductivity of which is given fictitious values, (4) the hydraulic conductivity of rock is supposed to have an exponential

  5. Green's functions for Neumann boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2012-01-01

    Green's functions for Neumann boundary conditions have been considered in Math Physics and Electromagnetism textbooks, but special constraints and other properties required for Neumann boundary conditions have generally not been noticed or treated correctly. In this paper, we derive an appropriate Neumann Green's function with these constraints and properties incorporated.

  6. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  7. Global boundary conditions for the Dirac operator

    CERN Document Server

    Falomir, H A

    1997-01-01

    Ellipticity of boundary value problems is characterized in terms of the Calderon projector. The presence of topological obstructions for the chiral Dirac operator under local boundary conditions in even dimension is discussed. Functional determinants for Dirac operators on manifolds with boundary are considered. The functional determinant for a Dirac operator on a bidimensional disk, in the presence of an Abelian gauge field and subject to global boundary conditions of the type introduced by Atiyah-Patodi-Singer, is evaluated. The relationship with the index theorem is also commented.

  8. Influence of lateral and top boundary conditions on regional air quality prediction: A multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youhua; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Chai, Tianfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.; Pierce, Robert B.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Pfister, Gabriele; Vukovich, Jeffrey M.; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Holloway, John S.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Flocke, Frank M.; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, L. Gregory; Dibb, Jack E.; Streets, David G.; Brune, William H.

    2007-05-01

    The sensitivity of regional air quality model to various lateral and top boundary conditions is studied at 2 scales: a 60 km domain covering the whole USA and a 12 km domain over northeastern USA. Three global models (MOZART-NCAR, MOZART-GFDL and RAQMS) are used to drive the STEM-2K3 regional model with time-varied lateral and top boundary conditions (BCs). The regional simulations with different global BCs are examined using ICARTT aircraft measurements performed in the summer of 2004, and the simulations are shown to be sensitive to the boundary conditions from the global models, especially for relatively long-lived species, like CO and O3. Differences in the mean CO concentrations from three different global-model boundary conditions are as large as 40 ppbv, and the effects of the BCs on CO are shown to be important throughout the troposphere, even near surface. Top boundary conditions show strong effect on O3 predictions above 4 km. Over certain model grids, the model's sensitivity to BCs is found to depend not only on the distance from the domain's top and lateral boundaries, downwind/upwind situation, but also on regional emissions and species properties. The near-surface prediction over polluted area is usually not as sensitive to the variation of BCs, but to the magnitude of their background concentrations. We also test the sensitivity of model to temporal and spatial variations of the BCs by comparing the simulations with time-varied BCs to the corresponding simulations with time-mean and profile BCs. Removing the time variation of BCs leads to a significant bias on the variation prediction and sometime causes the bias in predicted mean values. The effect of model resolution on the BC sensitivity is also studied.

  9. Implementation of Boundary Condition to THALES Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beomjun; Chun, Chong Kuk; Park, Ho Young; Woo, Hae-Seuk [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The boundary condition of momentum equation of THALES code utilizes the exit pressure boundary to solve the elliptic partial difference momentum equations. This method is the same as the most of the subchannel analysis codes. Other codes such as VIPRE utilize the uniform pressure distribution as outlet boundary condition. In this case, uniform inlet flow rate is assumed. In order to test the core flow field regarding the boundary conditions, analysis was performed for two core conditions. One condition is nominal plant operating condition. In this paper, generic THALES power distribution is used. For nominal operation case, there are no different results depending on the type of outlet pressure boundary condition. But low-power and high-peaking case, density difference for lateral direction becomes large due to high peaking power of core. Since density change causes pressure change, In this case, uniform outlet pressure distribution can't be assumed anymore. Design outlet pressure distribution is measured at nominal core condition. Therefore, design outlet pressure distribution also can't be used due to the difference in core power and flow rate. As a result, it is reasonable that neumann boundary condition is applied in low-power and high peaking core condition including various accident condition.

  10. Radiative Impact of Aerosols on the Regional Boundary Layer Features in Strong and Weak Wind Conditions using WRF Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, R. A.; Sharan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles play a vital role in the Earth's radiative energy budget. They exert a net cooling influence on climate by directly reflecting the solar radiation to space and by modifying the shortwave reflective properties of clouds. Radiation is the main source that regulates the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height depends on accurate calculation of both shortwave and longwave radiation. The weakening of the ambient winds is known to influence the structure of PBL. This study examines the sensitivity of the performance of Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) ARW Model to the use of different radiation schemes [For Long wave Radiation: Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM), Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Goddard, New Goddard, NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0), New Goddard scheme, Fu-Liou-Gu scheme and for Short wave Radiation: Dudhia scheme, Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0), New Goddard scheme]. Two different simulations are conducted one for the summer (14-15 May 2009) and winter (14-15 Dec 2008) season characterized by strong and weak wind conditions over India. Comparison of surface temperatures from different schemes for different cities (New Delhi, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jaipur and Jodhpur) on 14-15 May 2009 and 14-15 Dec 2008 with those observed shows the simulation with RRTM , New Goddard, and Fu-Liou-Gu schemes are closer to the observations as compared to other schemes. The temperature simulated from all the radiation schemes have more than 0.9 correlation coefficient but the root mean square error is relatively less in summer compared to winter season. It is surmised that Fu-Liou-Gu scheme performs better in almost all the cases. The reason behind can be the greater absorption of solar and IR radiative fluxes in the atmosphere and the surface provided in Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme than those computed in

  11. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-26

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  12. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  13. Surface critical behaviour at m-axial Lifshitz points: continuum models, boundary conditions and two-loop renormalization group results

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, H. W.; Rutkevich, S.; Gerwinski, A.

    2003-01-01

    The critical behaviour of semi-infinite $d$-dimensional systems with short-range interactions and an O(n) invariant Hamiltonian is investigated at an $m$-axial Lifshitz point with an isotropic wave-vector instability in an $m$-dimensional subspace of $\\mathbb{R}^d$ parallel to the surface. Continuum $|\\bphi|^4$ models representing the associated universality classes of surface critical behaviour are constructed. In the boundary parts of their Hamiltonians quadratic derivative terms (involving...

  14. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  15. Multiyear applications of WRF/Chem over continental U.S.: Model evaluation, variation trend, and impacts of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; He, Jian; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Multiyear applications of an online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model allow an assessment of the variation trends in simulated meteorology, air quality, and their interactions to changes in emissions and meteorology, as well as the impacts of initial and boundary conditions (ICONs/BCONs) on simulated aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions over a period of time. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry version 3.4.1 (WRF/Chem v. 3.4.1) with the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism coupled with the Volatility Basis Set module for secondary organic aerosol formation (WRF/Chem-CB05-VBS) is applied for multiple years (2001, 2006, and 2010) over continental U.S. This work also examines the changes in simulated air quality and meteorology due to changes in emissions and meteorology and the model's capability in reproducing the observed variation trends in species concentrations from 2001 to 2010. In addition, the impacts of the chemical ICONs/BCONs on model predictions are analyzed. ICONs/BCONs are downscaled from two global models, the modified Community Earth System Model/Community Atmosphere model version 5.1 (CESM/CAM v5.1) and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate model (MACC). The evaluation of WRF/Chem-CB05-VBS simulations with the CESM ICONs/BCONs for 2001, 2006, and 2010 shows that temperature at 2 m (T2) is underpredicted for all three years likely due to inaccuracies in soil moisture and soil temperature, resulting in biases in surface relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. With the exception of cloud fraction, other aerosol-cloud variables including aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud optical thickness are underpredicted for all three years, resulting in overpredictions of radiation variables. The model performs well for O3 and particulate matter with diameter less than or equal to 2.5 (PM2.5) for all three years comparable to other studies from literature. The model is able to

  16. Boundary conditions for the gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    A review of the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is presented with the emphasis on application to the formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity. At present, it is known how to treat boundaries in the harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations and a tetrad formulation of the Einstein-Bianchi system. However, a universal approach valid for other formulations is not in hand. In particular, there is no satisfactory boundary theory for the 3+1 formulations which have been highly successful in binary black hole simulation. I discuss the underlying problems that make the initial-boundary-value problem much more complicated than the Cauchy problem. I review the progress that has been made and the important open questions that remain. Science is a differential equation. Religion is a boundary condition. (Alan Turing, quoted in J D Barrow, ‘Theories of Everything’)

  17. Understanding and simulating the link between African easterly waves and Atlantic tropical cyclones using a regional climate model: the role of domain size and lateral boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Louis-Philippe [MISU, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CRCMD Network, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jones, Colin G. [Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Center, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Using a suite of lateral boundary conditions, we investigate the impact of domain size and boundary conditions on the Atlantic tropical cyclone and african easterly Wave activity simulated by a regional climate model. Irrespective of boundary conditions, simulations closest to observed climatology are obtained using a domain covering both the entire tropical Atlantic and northern African region. There is a clear degradation when the high-resolution model domain is diminished to cover only part of the African continent or only the tropical Atlantic. This is found to be the result of biases in the boundary data, which for the smaller domains, have a large impact on TC activity. In this series of simulations, the large-scale Atlantic atmospheric environment appears to be the primary control on simulated TC activity. Weaker wave activity is usually accompanied by a shift in cyclogenesis location, from the MDR to the subtropics. All ERA40-driven integrations manage to capture the observed interannual variability and to reproduce most of the upward trend in tropical cyclone activity observed during that period. When driven by low-resolution global climate model (GCM) integrations, the regional climate model captures interannual variability (albeit with lower correlation coefficients) only if tropical cyclones form in sufficient numbers in the main development region. However, all GCM-driven integrations fail to capture the upward trend in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. In most integrations, variations in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity appear uncorrelated with variations in African easterly wave activity. (orig.)

  18. Stokes equations with penalised slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Ibrahima; Tibirna, Cristian; Urquiza, José

    2013-07-01

    We consider the finite-element approximation of Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions imposed with the penalty method. In the case of a smooth curved boundary, our numerical results suggest that curved finite elements, regularised normal vectors or reduced integration techniques can be used to avoid a Babuska's-type paradox and ensure the convergence of finite-element approximations to the exact solution. Convergence orders with these remedies are also compared.

  19. Boundary conditions in CO5BOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Bernd

    The declaration of boundary conditions is a crucial step in the setup of a CO5BOLD simulation (and many others) due to the physical nature of the problem, that is reflected in the mathematical description by partial differential equations, discrete versions of which are integrated by the numerical solver(s). While parameters controlling the flux of energy through the computational box are most important for all simulations of convective flows, the detailed specifications describing the behavior of energy, gas and dust densities, velocities, and magnetic fields at or just beyond the boundaries influence the flow, dynamics, and stratification within the box. Recent refinements of the treatment of boundary conditions in CO5BOLD resulted in reliably working implementations of open and closed versions for top, bottom, and ``inner'' boundaries even under conditions with strong velocity fields (waves, shocks, or downdrafts). They are implemented and available in the current version of CO5BOLD - but have to be activated properly with parameters adapted to the type of the star under consideration (by defining for instance the depth of the damping layers for the closed-bottom boundary or by specifying the damping constants for the open-bottom boundary).

  20. Antireflective Boundary Conditions for Deblurring Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Donatelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper deals with the use of antireflective boundary conditions for deblurring problems where the issues that we consider are the precision of the reconstruction when the noise is not present, the linear algebra related to these boundary conditions, the iterative and noniterative regularization solvers when the noise is considered, both from the viewpoint of the computational cost and from the viewpoint of the quality of the reconstruction. In the latter case, we consider a reblurring approach that replaces the transposition operation with correlation. For many of the considered items, the anti-reflective algebra coming from the given boundary conditions is the optimal choice. Numerical experiments corroborating the previous statement and a conclusion section end the paper.

  1. The use of hydrological and geoelectrical data to fix the boundary conditions of a ground water flow model: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giudici

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether the hydrometric level of an artificial lake in a quarry near Milan (Italy could be assigned as a Dirichlet boundary condition for the phreatic aquifer in a fine scale groundwater flow model, hydrological measurements of piezometric head and rainfall rate time series have been analysed by spectral and statistical methods. The piezometric head close to the quarry lake proved to be well correlated with seasonal variations in the rainfall. Furthermore, geoelectrical tomography detected no semi-permeable layer between the phreatic aquifer and the lake, so the contact between surface and ground water is good. Finally, a time-varying prescribed head condition can be applied for ground water flow modelling. Keywords: ground water flow, boundary conditions, surface and ground water interactions, geoelectrical tomography, statistical analysis.

  2. Low Velocity Impact Response of Laminated Composite Truncated Sandwich Conical Shells with Various Boundary Conditions Using Complete Model and GDQ Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azizi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic analysis of the composite sandwich truncated conical shells (STCS with various boundary conditions subjected to the low velocity impact was studied analytically, based on the higher order sandwich panel theory. The impact was assumed to occur normally over the top face-sheet, and the contact force history was predicted using two solution models of the motion which were derived based on Hamilton’s principle by considering the displacement continuity conditions between the layers⸳ In order to obtain the contact force and the displacement histories, the differential quadrature method (DQM was used. In this investigation, the effects of different parameters such as the number of layers of the face sheets, the boundary conditions, the semi vertex angle of the cone, and the impact velocity of the impactor on the impact response of the complete model were studied.

  3. A transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model with modified boundary conditions and Padé approximation for Li-ion battery: Part 2. Modeling and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The electrochemistry-based battery model can provide physics-meaningful knowledge about the lithium-ion battery system with extensive computation burdens. To motivate the development of reduced order battery model, three major contributions have been made throughout this paper: (1) the transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model is proposed to address the current-voltage relationship with Padé approximation method and modified boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations. The model performance has been verified under pulse charge/discharge and dynamic stress test (DST) profiles with the standard derivation less than 0.021 V and the runtime 50 times faster. (2) the parametric relationship between the equivalent circuit model and simplified electrochemical model has been established, which will enhance the comprehension level of two models with more in-depth physical significance and provide new methods for electrochemical model parameter estimation. (3) four simplified electrochemical model parameters: equivalent resistance Req, effective diffusion coefficient in electrolyte phase Deeff, electrolyte phase volume fraction ε and open circuit voltage (OCV), have been identified by the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm with the modified DST profiles under 45, 25 and 0 °C. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model coupled with RLS algorithm can achieve high accuracy for electrochemical parameter identification in dynamic scenarios.

  4. parabolic equation with integral boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of control by the initial conditions of the heat equation with an integral boundary condition. This problem is ill-posed. Perturbing the final condition we obtain an approximate nonlocal problem depending on a small parameter. We show that the approximate problems are well posed. We also obtain estimates of the solutions of the approximate problems and a convergence result of these solutions. Finally, we give explicit convergence rates.

  5. Comparison of particle-wall interaction boundary conditions in the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S., E-mail: jasgon@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)

  6. Time-domain boundary conditions for outdoor ground surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sandra L.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. Keith; Marlin, David H.

    2003-10-01

    Finite-difference time-domain techniques are promising for detailed dynamic simulations of sound propagation in complex atmospheric environments. Success of such simulations requires the development of new techniques to accurately handle the reflective and absorptive properties of a porous ground. One method of treating the ground boundary condition in the time domain [Salomons et al., Acta Acust. 88, 483-492 (2002)] is to use modified fluid dynamic equations, where the ground is considered as a porous medium described by its physical properties. However, this approach significantly increases computation time, as the domain must be extended into the ground and a large number of grid points are needed. Standard impedance models for the ground boundary condition are frequency-domain models, which generally are non-causal [Y. H. Berthelot, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 1736-1739 (2001)]. The development of a time-domain boundary condition from these models requires removing the singularity from the impedance equation when transforming from the frequency domain to the time domain. Alternatively, as the impedance boundary condition is a flux equation, a time-domain boundary condition can be derived from first principles, using the physical properties of the ground. We report on our development of a time-domain ground boundary condition.

  7. Functional differential inclusions with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence of solutions for a class of second order functional differential inclusions with integral boundary conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the right hand side has convex as well as nonconvex values.

  8. An h-principle with boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotto, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    We prove an h-principle with boundary condition for a certain class of topological spaces valued sheaves. The techniques used in the proof come from the study of the homotopy type of the cobordism categories, and they are of simplicial and categorical nature. Applying the main result of this paper...

  9. Lyapunov Based Estimation of Flight Stability Boundary under Icing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current fight boundary of the envelope protection in icing conditions is usually defined by the critical values of state parameters; however, such method does not take the interrelationship of each parameter and the effect of the external disturbance into consideration. This paper proposes constructing the stability boundary of the aircraft in icing conditions through analyzing the region of attraction (ROA around the equilibrium point. Nonlinear icing effect model is proposed according to existing wind tunnel test results. On this basis, the iced polynomial short period model can be deduced further to obtain the stability boundary under icing conditions using ROA analysis. Simulation results for a series of icing severity demonstrate that, regardless of the icing severity, the boundary of the calculated ROA can be treated as an estimation of the stability boundary around an equilibrium point. The proposed methodology is believed to be a promising way for ROA analysis and stability boundary construction of the aircraft in icing conditions, and it will provide theoretical support for multiple boundary protection of icing tolerant flight.

  10. Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent; Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on the accuracy of reflection-type boundary conditions in the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy modeling of porous flows solved with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which we operate with the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision and the Brinkman-force based scheme (BF), called BF-TRT scheme. In parallel, we compare it with the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy linear finite element method (FEM) where the Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced on grid vertices. In bulk, both BF-TRT and FEM share the same defect: in their discretization a correction to the modeled Brinkman equation appears, given by the discrete Laplacian of the velocity-proportional resistance force. This correction modifies the effective Brinkman viscosity, playing a crucial role in the triggering of spurious oscillations in the bulk solution. While the exact form of this defect is available in lattice-aligned, straight or diagonal, flows; in arbitrary flow/lattice orientations its approximation is constructed. At boundaries, we verify that such a Brinkman viscosity correction has an even more harmful impact. Already at the first order, it shifts the location of the no-slip wall condition supported by traditional LBM boundary schemes, such as the bounce-back rule. For that reason, this work develops a new class of boundary schemes to prescribe the Dirichlet velocity condition at an arbitrary wall/boundary-node distance and that supports a higher order accuracy in the accommodation of the TRT-Brinkman solutions. For their modeling, we consider the standard BF scheme and its improved version, called IBF; this latter is generalized in this work to suppress or to reduce the viscosity correction in arbitrarily oriented flows. Our framework extends the one- and two-point families of linear and parabolic link-wise boundary schemes, respectively called B-LI and B-MLI, which avoid the interference of the Brinkman viscosity correction in their closure relations. The performance of LBM and FEM

  11. Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Goncalo, E-mail: goncalo.nuno.silva@gmail.com [Irstea, Antony Regional Centre, HBAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes CS 10030, 92761 Antony cedex (France); Talon, Laurent, E-mail: talon@fast.u-psud.fr [CNRS (UMR 7608), Laboratoire FAST, Batiment 502, Campus University, 91405 Orsay (France); Ginzburg, Irina, E-mail: irina.ginzburg@irstea.fr [Irstea, Antony Regional Centre, HBAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes CS 10030, 92761 Antony cedex (France)

    2017-04-15

    The present contribution focuses on the accuracy of reflection-type boundary conditions in the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy modeling of porous flows solved with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which we operate with the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision and the Brinkman-force based scheme (BF), called BF-TRT scheme. In parallel, we compare it with the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy linear finite element method (FEM) where the Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced on grid vertices. In bulk, both BF-TRT and FEM share the same defect: in their discretization a correction to the modeled Brinkman equation appears, given by the discrete Laplacian of the velocity-proportional resistance force. This correction modifies the effective Brinkman viscosity, playing a crucial role in the triggering of spurious oscillations in the bulk solution. While the exact form of this defect is available in lattice-aligned, straight or diagonal, flows; in arbitrary flow/lattice orientations its approximation is constructed. At boundaries, we verify that such a Brinkman viscosity correction has an even more harmful impact. Already at the first order, it shifts the location of the no-slip wall condition supported by traditional LBM boundary schemes, such as the bounce-back rule. For that reason, this work develops a new class of boundary schemes to prescribe the Dirichlet velocity condition at an arbitrary wall/boundary-node distance and that supports a higher order accuracy in the accommodation of the TRT-Brinkman solutions. For their modeling, we consider the standard BF scheme and its improved version, called IBF; this latter is generalized in this work to suppress or to reduce the viscosity correction in arbitrarily oriented flows. Our framework extends the one- and two-point families of linear and parabolic link-wise boundary schemes, respectively called B-LI and B-MLI, which avoid the interference of the Brinkman viscosity correction in their closure relations. The performance of LBM

  12. An advanced process-based distributed model for the investigation of rainfall-induced landslides: The effect of process representation and boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Grigorios G.; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Extreme rainfall events are the major driver of shallow landslide occurrences in mountainous and steep terrain regions around the world. Subsurface hydrology has a dominant role on the initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, since changes in the soil water content affect significantly the soil shear strength. Rainfall infiltration produces an increase of soil water potential, which is followed by a rapid drop in apparent cohesion. Especially on steep slopes of shallow soils, this loss of shear strength can lead to failure even in unsaturated conditions before positive water pressures are developed. We present HYDROlisthisis, a process-based model, fully distributed in space with fine time resolution, in order to investigate the interactions between surface and subsurface hydrology and shallow landslides initiation. Fundamental elements of the approach are the dependence of shear strength on the three-dimensional (3-D) field of soil water potential, as well as the temporal evolution of soil water potential during the wetting and drying phases. Specifically, 3-D variably saturated flow conditions, including soil hydraulic hysteresis and preferential flow phenomena, are simulated for the subsurface flow, coupled with a surface runoff routine based on the kinematic wave approximation. The geotechnical component of the model is based on a multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis, which takes into account the basic principles of unsaturated soil mechanics. A series of numerical simulations were carried out with various boundary conditions and using different hydrological and geotechnical components. Boundary conditions in terms of distributed soil depth were generated using both empirical and process-based models. The effect of including preferential flow and soil hydraulic hysteresis was tested together with the replacement of the infinite slope assumption with the multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis. The results show that boundary conditions play

  13. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struchtrup, Henning, E-mail: struchtr@uvic.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  14. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2013-11-01

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  15. Comparison of patient-specific inlet boundary conditions in the numerical modelling of blood flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, David; Semple, Scott I; Richards, Jennifer M J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Three inlet boundary condition datasets were derived from phase-contrast MRI: (i) centre line velocity data converted to two-dimensional (2D) velocity profile using Womersley equations (Womersley), (ii) 2D velocity profile with one axial component of velocity (1CV), (iii) 2D velocity profile with three components of velocity (3CV). Computational fluid dynamics was performed using a rigid wall approach with geometry data extracted from the computed tomography dataset. Helical flow was present in the 1CV and 3CV simulations, with more complex patterns for the 3CV case. The Womersley method produced simplified flow patterns with an absence of helical flow. Mean values of quantitative indices (helical flow index, mean wall shear stress, oscillatory index) were compared with the 3CV inlet data. These were lower for both the Womersley inlet data (28%, 71%, 56%) and the 1CV inlet data (9%, 24%, 69%). It was concluded that inlet methods based on centre line velocity, such as might be obtained from Doppler ultrasound, lead to significantly simplified abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics and thus are not recommended. Single velocity component (axial) data from MRI might suffice when general flow characteristics and spatial wall shear stress are required. Ideally 2D MRI velocity profiles with 3-velocity component data are preferred to fully account for helical flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Absorbing boundary conditions for inertial random processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoliver, J.; Porra, J.M. [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal, 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Lindenberg, K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A recent paper by J. Heinrichs [Phys. Rev. E {bold 48}, 2397 (1993)] presents analytic expressions for the first-passage times and the survival probability for a particle moving in a field of random correlated forces. We believe that the analysis there is flawed due to an improper use of boundary conditions. We compare that result, in the white noise limit, with the known exact expression of the mean exit time. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Boundary conditions in conformal and integrable theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2000-01-01

    The study of boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories is not only physically important. It also reveals a lot on the structure of the theory ``in the bulk''. The same graphs classify both the torus and the cylinder partition functions and provide data on their hidden ``quantum symmetry''. The Ocneanu triangular cells -- the 3j-symbols of these symmetries, admit various interpretations and make a link between different problems.

  18. On the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Graber, Philip Jameson

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear boundary/interior damping. First, applying the nonlinear semigroup theory, we show the existence and uniqueness of local in time solutions. The main difficulty in proving the local existence result is that the Neumann boundary conditions experience loss of regularity due to boundary sources. Using an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in Lasiecka and Tataru (1993) [28], we show that the existence of solutions can still be obtained. Second, we prove that under some restrictions on the source terms, then the local solution can be extended to be global in time. In addition, it has been shown that the decay rates of the solution are given implicitly as solutions to a first order ODE and depends on the behavior of the damping terms. In several situations, the obtained ODE can be easily solved and the decay rates can be given explicitly. Third, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term and if the boundary source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution ceases to exists and blows up in finite time. Moreover, in either the absence of the interior source or the boundary source, then we prove that the solution is unbounded and grows as an exponential function. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Subject-specific finite element modelling of the human foot complex during walking: sensitivity analysis of material properties, boundary and loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei

    2017-11-14

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.

  20. Surface critical behaviour at m-axial Lifshitz points: continuum models, boundary conditions and two-loop renormalization group results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H W; Rutkevich, S; Gerwinski, A [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany)

    2003-04-25

    The critical behaviour of semi-infinite d-dimensional systems with short-range interactions and an O(n) invariant Hamiltonian is investigated at an m-axial Lifshitz point with an isotropic wave-vector instability in an m-dimensional subspace of R{sup d} parallel to the surface. Continuum |{phi}|{sup 4} models representing the associated universality classes of surface critical behaviour are constructed. In the boundary parts of their Hamiltonians quadratic derivative terms (involving a dimensionless coupling constant {lambda}) must be included in addition to the familiar ones {proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}. Beyond one-loop order the infrared-stable fixed points describing the ordinary, special and extraordinary transitions in d = 4 + m/2 - {epsilon} dimensions (with {epsilon} > 0) are located at {lambda} = {lambda}* = O({epsilon}). At second order in {epsilon}, the surface critical exponents of both the ordinary and the special transitions start to deviate from their m = 0 analogues. Results to order {epsilon}{sup 2} are presented for the surface critical exponent {beta}{sup ord}{sub 1} of the ordinary transition. The scaling dimension of the surface energy density is shown to be given exactly by d + m({theta} - 1), where {theta} = {nu}{sub l4}/{nu}{sub l2} is the bulk anisotropy exponent. (letter to the editor)

  1. GenCade Lateral Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    from marine corals, algae , and other organisms. ................... 18 Figure 5. The Complementary Error Function...Eckstein was Deputy Director of CHL, and José E. Sánchez was Director of CHL. COL Bryan S. Green was ERDC Commander. Dr. Jeffery P. Holland was ERDC... benefit of producing perfect agreement at this boundary during model calibration. However, it would be serendipitous if this procedure also produced

  2. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  3. Boundary Conditions and Predictions of Quantum Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Don N.

    2008-09-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (1) is often called a 'theory of everything,' and item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the 'no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that have the 3-dimensional argument of the wavefunction on their one and only boundary. This proposal has had several partial successes, mainly when one takes the zero-loop approximation of summing over a small number of complex extrema of the action. However, it has also been severely challenged by an argument by Susskind.

  4. Characteristic Boundary Conditions for ARO-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    8217--’--’~,oc=~ AEDC-TR-82-28 Characteristic Boundary Conditions for ARO-1 Karl R. Kneile and Donald C. Todd Sverdrup Technology, Inc. and James...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I i I R E P O R T NUMBER 12 GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 I AEDC-TR-82-28 4. T I T L E (and Subtitle:, CHARACTERISTIC BOU~DARY...ARO-I program 20. A B S T R A C T ( C ~ t i n ~ ~ reverme side tf n e c o s e a ~ and I d e n t l ~ ~ b lock n u m b o ~ Characteristic

  5. Scalar boundary conditions in hyperscaling violating geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Pin Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the possible boundary conditions of scalar field modes in a hyperscaling violation (HV geometry with Lifshitz dynamical exponent z (z≥1 and hyperscaling violation exponent θ (θ≠0. For the case with θ>0, we show that in the parameter range 1≤z≤2, −z+d−12, −z+d−10, which has been addressed in Ref. [1]. Meanwhile, we also carry out the parallel investigation in the case with θ0, only one type is available.

  6. Eigenvalue inequalities for the Laplacian with mixed boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Rohleder, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Inequalities for the eigenvalues of the (negative) Laplacian subject to mixed boundary conditions on polyhedral and more general bounded domains are established. The eigenvalues subject to a Dirichlet boundary condition on a part of the boundary and a Neumann boundary condition on the remainder of the boundary are estimated in terms of either Dirichlet or Neumann eigenvalues. The results complement several classical inequalities between Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues due to Pólya, Payne, Levine and Weinberger, Friedlander, and others.

  7. Non-local boundary conditions and internal gravity wave generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Vitaly V

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the mathematical modeling of wave dynamics in a stratified medium. Non-local absorbing boundary conditions are considered based on the two following assumptions: (i) a linear theory can be applied at large distances from perturbation sources; and (ii) there are no other sources of wave disturbance outside the mixing zone in the stratified medium. The boundary conditions considered in this paper allowed us to describe the diverging internal gravity waves generated by the mixing region in a stratified medium.

  8. Unconditionally stable methods for simulating multi-component two-phase interface models with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-component dynamic two-phase interface models, which are formulated by the Cahn-Hilliard system with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions. These models can be derived from the minimum problems of Helmholtz free energy or grand potential in the realistic thermodynamic systems. The resulted Cahn-Hilliard systems with various boundary conditions are fully coupled and strongly nonlinear. A linear transformation is introduced to decouple the relations between different components, and as a result, the models are simplified. From this, we further propose a semi-implicit unconditionally stable time discretization scheme, which allows us to solve the Cahn-Hilliard system by a decoupled way, and thus, our method can significantly reduce the computational cost and memory requirements. The mixed finite element methods are employed for the spatial discretization, and the approximate errors are also analyzed for both space and time. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed methods. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Differences in Trabecular Microarchitecture and Simplified Boundary Conditions Limit the Accuracy of QCT-based Finite Element Models of Vertebral Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Amira I; Louzeiro, Daniel; Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Morgan, Elise F

    2017-12-01

    Vertebral fractures are common in the elderly, but efforts to reduce their incidence have been hampered by incomplete understanding of the failure processes that are involved. This study's goal was to elucidate failure processes in the lumbar vertebra and to assess the accuracy of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element (FE) simulations of these processes. Following QCT scanning, spine segments (n=27) consisting of L1 with adjacent intervertebral discs and neighboring endplates of T12 and L2 were compressed axially in a stepwise manner. A micro-computed tomography scan was performed at each loading step. The resulting time-lapse series of images was analyzed using digital volume correlation (DVC) to quantify deformations throughout the vertebral body. While some diversity among vertebrae was observed in how these deformations progressed, common features were large strains that developed progressively in the superior third and, concomitantly, in the mid-transverse plane, in a manner that was associated with spatial variations in microstructural parameters such as connectivity density. Results of FE simulations corresponded qualitatively to the measured failure patterns when boundary conditions were derived from DVC displacements at the endplate. However, quantitative correspondence was often poor, particularly when boundary conditions were simplified to uniform compressive loading. These findings suggest that variations in trabecular microstructure are one cause of the differences in failure patterns among vertebrae and that both lack of incorporation of these variations into QCT-based FE models and oversimplification of boundary conditions limit the accuracy of these models in simulating vertebral failure.

  10. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  11. Land Boundary Conditions for the Goddard Earth Observing System Model Version 5 (GEOS-5) Climate Modeling System: Recent Updates and Data File Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanama, Sarith P.; Koster, Randal D.; Walker, Gregory K.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Bin; Suarez, Max J.

    2015-01-01

    The Earths land surface boundary conditions in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) modeling system were updated using recent high spatial and temporal resolution global data products. The updates include: (i) construction of a global 10-arcsec land-ocean lakes-ice mask; (ii) incorporation of a 10-arcsec Globcover 2009 land cover dataset; (iii) implementation of Level 12 Pfafstetter hydrologic catchments; (iv) use of hybridized SRTM global topography data; (v) construction of the HWSDv1.21-STATSGO2 merged global 30 arc second soil mineral and carbon data in conjunction with a highly-refined soil classification system; (vi) production of diffuse visible and near-infrared 8-day MODIS albedo climatologies at 30-arcsec from the period 2001-2011; and (vii) production of the GEOLAND2 and MODIS merged 8-day LAI climatology at 30-arcsec for GEOS-5. The global data sets were preprocessed and used to construct global raster data files for the software (mkCatchParam) that computes parameters on catchment-tiles for various atmospheric grids. The updates also include a few bug fixes in mkCatchParam, as well as changes (improvements in algorithms, etc.) to mkCatchParam that allow it to produce tile-space parameters efficiently for high resolution AGCM grids. The update process also includes the construction of data files describing the vegetation type fractions, soil background albedo, nitrogen deposition and mean annual 2m air temperature to be used with the future Catchment CN model and the global stream channel network to be used with the future global runoff routing model. This report provides detailed descriptions of the data production process and data file format of each updated data set.

  12. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara boundary conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... distributed parallel circular cylinder or spheres in uniform viscous flow are investigated with slip boundary condition under Stokes approximation using particle-in-cell model technique and the result compared with the no-slip case. The corresponding problem of streaming flow past spheroidal particles departing but little in ...

  13. Detonation Shock Dynamics Modelling with Arbitrary Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) model can be used to predict detonation wave propagation in a high explosive (HE). The detonation wave is prescribed a velocity that depends on its curvature. Additionally, the angle between the wave and the HE boundary may not exceed a specified ``boundary angle'', the value of which depends on the HE and its confining material(s). The level-set method is commonly used to drive DSD computation. Boundary conditions are applied to the level-set field at the charge edges to maintain the explosive boundary angle criteria. The position of the boundary must be accurate and continuous across adjacent cells to achieve accurate and robust results. This is mainly an issue for mixed material meshes where the boundary does not coincide with the cell boundaries. For such meshes, a set of volume fractions defines the amount of material in each cell. The boundary is defined implicitly by the volume fractions, and must be reconstructed to an explicit form for use in DSD. This work describes a novel synthesis of the level-set method and simulated annealing, an optimisation method used to reconstruct the boundary. The accuracy and robustness of the resulting DSD calculation are evaluated with a range of test problems.

  14. Towards the fourth GEWEX atmospheric boundary layer model intercomparison study (GABLS4): exploration of very stable conditions over an Antarctic ice shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihma, T.; Kilpeläinen, T.; Rontu, L.; Anderson, P.S.; Orr, A.; Phillips, T.; Finkele, K.; Rodrigo, I.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Svensson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical weather prediction and climate models continue to have large errors for stable boundary layers (SBL). To understand and to improve on this, so far three atmospheric boundary layer model inter-comparison studies have been organised within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

  15. A Boundary Control Problem for the Viscous Cahn–Hilliard Equation with Dynamic Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colli, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.colli@unipv.it; Gilardi, Gianni, E-mail: gianni.gilardi@unipv.it [Universitá di Pavia and Research Associate at the IMATI – C.N.R. PAVIA, Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Casorati” (Italy); Sprekels, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.sprekels@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A boundary control problem for the viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with possibly singular potentials and dynamic boundary conditions is studied and first order necessary conditions for optimality are proved.

  16. On domain wall boundary conditions for the XXZ spin Hamiltonian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    In this note, we derive the spectrum of the infinite quantum XXZ spin chain with domain wall boundary conditions. The eigenstates are constructed as limits of Bethe states for the finite XXZ spin chain with quantum sl(2) invariant boundary conditions.......In this note, we derive the spectrum of the infinite quantum XXZ spin chain with domain wall boundary conditions. The eigenstates are constructed as limits of Bethe states for the finite XXZ spin chain with quantum sl(2) invariant boundary conditions....

  17. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  18. On the use of in vivo measured flow rates as boundary conditions for image-based hemodynamic models of the human aorta: implications for indicators of abnormal flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, D; De Santis, G; Negri, F; Tresoldi, D; Ponzini, R; Massai, D; Deriu, M A; Segers, P; Verhegghe, B; Rizzo, G; Morbiducci, U

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the imposition of personalized, non-invasively measured blood flow rates as boundary conditions (BCs) influences image-based computational hemodynamic studies in the human aorta. We extracted from 4D phase-contrast MRI acquisitions of a healthy human (1) the geometry of the thoracic aorta with supra-aortic arteries and (2) flow rate waveforms at all boundaries. Flow simulations were carried out, and the implications that the imposition of different BC schemes based on the measured flow rates have on wall shear stress (WSS)-based indicators of abnormal flow were analyzed. Our results show that both the flow rate repartition among the multiple outlets of the aorta and the distribution and magnitude of the WSS-based indicators are strongly influenced by the adopted BC strategy. Keeping as reference hemodynamic model the one where the applied BC scheme allowed to obtain a satisfactory agreement between the computed and the measured flow rate waveforms, differences in WSS-based indicators up to 49% were observed when the other BC strategies were applied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in subject-specific computational hemodynamics models of the human aorta the imposition of BC settings based on non-invasively measured flow rate waveforms influences indicators of abnormal flow to a large extent. Hence, a BCs set-up assuring realistic, subject-specific instantaneous flow rate distribution must be applied when BCs such as flow rates are prescribed.

  19. An Examination of Higher-Order Treatments of Boundary Conditions in Split-Step Fourier Parabolic Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    31  APPENDIX. MATLAB CODES FOR HYBRID METHOD ............................................33  LIST OF REFERENCES...plasma physics, seismic propagation and underwater acoustics [1]. Tappert was the first to introduce the PE method for underwater acoustic...MMPE model, a Matlab version of the SSF algorithm has been developed for this thesis based on the same operator approximations as the MMPE model. It

  20. Automatic generation of 2D micromechanical finite element model of silicon–carbide/aluminum metal matrix composites: Effects of the boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations of the deformation and damage evolution of Silicon–Carbide (SiC) particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite including interphase are carried out for different microstructures and particle volume fractions of the composites. A program is developed...... for the automatic generation of 2D micromechanical FE-models with randomly distributed SiC particles. In order to simulate the damage process in aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles, a damage parameter based on the stress triaxial indicator and the maximum principal stress criterion based elastic brittle damage...... are performed to study the influence of boundary condition, particle number and volume fraction of the representative volume element (RVE) on composite stiffness and strength properties....

  1. Analysis and interpretation of residence time distribution experimental curves in FM01-LC reactor using axial dispersion and plug dispersion exchange models with closed-closed boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Diaz, Martin R., E-mail: mcruz@tese.edu.m [Division de Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnologico S/N Esq. Av. Hank Gonzalez, Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55120, Ecatepec, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Rivero, Eligio P. [Departamento de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Av. Primero de Mayo, Cuautitlan Izcalli, C.P. 54740, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The liquid phase mixing flow pattern at low (20 < Re < 120) and intermediate liquid flow rate (120 < Re < 400) was studied by means of residence time distribution (RTD) experimental curve in an up-flow Filter Press electrochemical reactor (FM01-LC) bench scale. For this purpose, a plastic turbulence promoter was used with stainless-steel and platinised titanium structural meshes as electrodes in channel configuration. To visualize and determine the mixing flow pattern in the liquid phase, the stimulus-response technique was employed using dextran blue (D{sub M} = 1.058 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 25 {sup o}C, in water) as model tracer. A theoretical analysis and approximation RTD experimental curves with axial dispersion model (ADM) and plug dispersion exchange model (PDE), with 'closed-closed vessel' boundary conditions were used in order to establish a better approximation of the axial dispersion, stagnant zones, channelling and by-pass (preference flow) effects present at low and intermediate Re. RTD curves show that the liquid flow pattern in the FM01-LC deviates considerably from axial dispersion model at low Re, where the FM01-LC exhibits large channelling, stagnant zones, and dead zone. The PDE model represents fairly this deviation from ideal flow (less dead zone).

  2. Implementation of diffuse-reflection boundary conditions using lattice Boltzmann models based on half-space Gauss-Laguerre quadratures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruş, Victor Eugen; Sofonea, Victor

    2014-04-01

    The Gauss-Laguerre quadrature method is used on the Cartesian semiaxes in the momentum space to construct a family of lattice Boltzmann models. When all quadrature orders Qx, Qy, Qz equal N+1, the Laguerre lattice Boltzmann model LLB(Qx,Qy,Qz) exactly recovers all moments up to order N of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution function f(eq), calculated over any Cartesian octant of the three-dimensional momentum space. Results of Couette flow simulations at Kn=0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and in the ballistic regime are reported. Specific microfluidic effects (velocity slip, temperature jump, longitudinal heat flux) are well captured up to Kn=0.5, as demonstrated by comparison to direct simulation Monte Carlo results. Excellent agreement with analytic results is obtained in the ballistic regime.

  3. A Numerical Handling of the Boundary Conditions Imposed by the Skull on an Inhomogeneous Diffusion-Reaction Model of Glioblastoma Invasion Into the Brain: Clinical Validation Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S Stamatakos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel explicit triscale reaction-diffusion numerical model of glioblastoma multiforme tumor growth is presented. The model incorporates the handling of Neumann boundary conditions imposed by the cranium and takes into account both the inhomogeneous nature of human brain and the complexity of the skull geometry. The finite-difference time-domain method is adopted. To demonstrate the workflow of a possible clinical validation procedure, a clinical case/scenario is addressed. A good agreement of the in silico calculated value of the doubling time (ie, the time for tumor volume to double with the value of the same quantity based on tomographic imaging data has been observed. A theoretical exploration suggests that a rough but still quite informative value of the doubling time may be calculated based on a homogeneous brain model. The model could serve as the main component of a continuous mathematics-based glioblastoma oncosimulator aiming at supporting the clinician in the optimal patient-individualized design of treatment using the patient’s multiscale data and experimenting in silico (ie, on the computer.

  4. Solar Wind Simulations from the Sun to Earth Using a Data-Driven, MHD Model and Characteristically-Consistent Boundary Conditions Derived from SDO/HMI Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalim, M. S.; Pogorelov, N.; Liu, Y.; Hu, Q.; Wu, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind (SW) emerging from the Sun is the main driving mechanism of solar events which may lead to geomagnetic storms that are the primary causes of space weather disturbances that affect the magnetic environment of Earth and may have hazardous effects on the space-borne and ground-based technological systems as well as human health. Therefore, accurate modeling of the SW is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of such storms. We have developed a data-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the global solar corona which utilizes characteristic boundary conditions implemented within the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) - a collection of problem oriented routines incorporated into the Chombo adaptive mesh refinement framework developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Our global solar corona model can be driven by both time-dependent and Carrington-rotation averaged vector magnetogram synoptic map data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) and the horizontal velocity data on the photosphere obtained by applying the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms method on the HMI-observed vector magnetic fields. In this study, we will present the results of three-dimensional global simulations of SW propagation from the Sun to Earth by using our global solar corona and inner heliosphere models and validate our results using spacecraft data at 1 AU.

  5. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  6. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  7. On higher-order boundary conditions at elastic-plastic boundaries in strain-gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    are suppressed by using a very high artificial hardening modulus. Through numerical studies of pure bending under plane strain conditions, it is shown that this method predicts the build-up of higher order stresses in the pseudo-elastic regime. This has the effect of delaying the onset of incipient yield......A computational method for dealing with higher order boundary conditions on moving elastic-plastic boundaries in strain gradient plasticity is proposed. The basic idea is to skip the notion of a purely elastic regime, and instead introduce a pseudo-elastic regime, where plastic deformations......, as well as extending the plastic zone further toward the neutral axis of the beam, when compared to conventional models. Arguments supporting the present method are presented that rest on both mathematical and physical grounds. The results obtained are compared with other methods for dealing with higher...

  8. Quantum “violation” of Dirichlet boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dirichlet boundary conditions have been widely used in general relativity. They seem at odds with the holographic property of gravity simply because a boundary configuration can be varying and dynamic instead of dying out as required by the conditions. In this work we report what should be a tension between the Dirichlet boundary conditions and quantum gravitational effects, and show that a quantum-corrected black hole solution of the 1PI action no longer obeys, in the naive manner one may expect, the Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed at the classical level. We attribute the ‘violation’ of the Dirichlet boundary conditions to a certain mechanism of the information storage on the boundary.

  9. Quantum “violation” of Dirichlet boundary condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com

    2017-02-10

    Dirichlet boundary conditions have been widely used in general relativity. They seem at odds with the holographic property of gravity simply because a boundary configuration can be varying and dynamic instead of dying out as required by the conditions. In this work we report what should be a tension between the Dirichlet boundary conditions and quantum gravitational effects, and show that a quantum-corrected black hole solution of the 1PI action no longer obeys, in the naive manner one may expect, the Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed at the classical level. We attribute the ‘violation’ of the Dirichlet boundary conditions to a certain mechanism of the information storage on the boundary.

  10. Solution of one-dimensional moving boundary problem with periodic boundary conditions by variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Nath Kabindra Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the solution of the one dimensional moving boundary problem with periodic boundary conditions is obtained with the help of variational iterational method. By using initial and boundary values, the explicit solutions of the equations have been derived, which accelerate the rapid convergence of the series solution. The method performs extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity. The temperature distribution and the position of moving boundary are evaluated and numerical results are presented graphically.

  11. A new top boundary condition for modeling surface diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer: theoretical analysis and application to soil evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new top boundary condition (TBC for representing the air–soil diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer. This new TBC (1 accounts for the multi-phase flow of a generic tracer; (2 accounts for effects of soil temperature, pH, solubility, sorption, and desorption processes; (3 enables a smooth transition between wet and dry soil conditions; (4 is compatible with the conductance formulation for modeling air–water volatile tracer exchange; and (5 is applicable to site, regional, and global land models.

    Based on the new TBC, we developed new formulations for bare-soil resistance and corresponding soil evaporation efficiency. The new soil resistance is predicted as the reciprocal of the harmonic sum of two resistances: (1 gaseous and aqueous molecular diffusion and (2 liquid mass flow resulting from the hydraulic pressure gradient between the soil surface and center of the topsoil control volume. We compared the predicted soil evaporation efficiency with those from several field and laboratory soil evaporation measurements and found good agreement with the typically observed two-stage soil evaporation curves. Comparison with the soil evaporation efficiency equation of Lee and Pielke (1992; hereafter LP92 indicates that their equation can overestimate soil evaporation when the atmospheric resistance is low and underestimate soil evaporation when the soil is dry. Using a synthetic inversion experiment, we demonstrated that using inverted soil resistance data from field measurements to derive empirical soil resistance formulations resulted in large uncertainty because (1 the inverted soil resistance data are always severely impacted by measurement error and (2 the derived empirical equation is very sensitive to the number of data points and the assumed functional form of the resistance.

    We expect the application of our new TBC in land models will provide a consistent representation for the diffusive tracer

  12. Effect of Aspect Ratio and Boundary Conditions in Modeling Shape Memory Alloy Nanostructures with 3D Coupled Dynamic Phase-Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dhote

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA nanostructures is influenced by strain rate and temperature evolution during dynamic loading. The coupling between temperature, strain, and strain rate is essential to capture inherent thermomechanical behavior in SMAs. In this paper, we propose a new 3D phase-field model that accounts for two-way coupling between mechanical and thermal physics. We use the strain-based Ginzburg-Landau potential for cubic-to-tetragonal phase transformations. The variational formulation of the developed model is implemented in the isogeometric analysis framework to overcome numerical challenges. We have observed a complete disappearance of the out-of-plane martensitic variant in a very high aspect ratio SMA domain as well as the presence of three variants in equal portions in a low aspect ratio SMA domain. The dependence of different boundary conditions on the microstructure morphology has been examined energetically. The tensile tests on rectangular prism nanowires, using the displacement based loading, demonstrate the shape memory effect and pseudoelastic behavior. We have also observed that higher strain rates, as well as the lower aspect ratio domains, resulting in high yield stress and phase transformations occur at higher stress during dynamic axial loading.

  13. Implementation of a Phase-Lagged Boundary Condition for Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouden, Alex; Cimbala, John; Lewis, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    One factor that contributes significantly to the cost of a time-dependent CFD simulation is the size and scope of the computational domain. Common approximations, such as periodic and symmetric boundary conditions, have the advantage of reducing the domain proportional to its periodicity or symmetry. However, turbomachinery applications featuring multiple blade rows render the periodic boundary condition unphysical because the adjacent blade rows are designed with dissimilar blade counts. Though the meshes of adjacent blade rows can be modeled independently and data can be interpolated across a grid interface, applying the standard periodic definition to the coupled faces leads to an over-constrained situation: a failure to reconcile two governing relations imposed on the same cell. A phase-lagged boundary condition (PLBC) relaxes the over-constraint problem and provides a more correct assumption for the resulting flow field. PLBC is available in a limited number of private CFD codes and is only briefly documented in the literature. The present work expands upon its development by implementing PLBC in OpenFOAM®, an open-source CFD software package. Its performance is demonstrated for basic turbomachinery applications through comparisons with full-wheel simulation. This research is funded by a grant from the DOE.

  14. Method Suitable for Updating the Boundary Condition of Continuous Beam Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, JianXin; Zheng, Honglan; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The boundary support conditions of continuous beam bridges play the great influence on the results of the structural analysis, but it is difficult to accurately model the boundaries owing to the complexity structure of constraint conditions. To address this issue, a parameterized method is proposed to update the boundary support conditions in this study. First, the connection stiffness at boundary is considered as the optimization variable, and then the optimization problem of updating the boundary conditions are described in detail based on the theory of finite element model updating. Second, for verifying the proposed method, a loading test was conducted on an actual three-span continuous beam bridge. With the proposed method, the discrepancy between the measured modal parameters and the analytical results are greatly reduced; therefore, it is shown that the proposed method is effective for updating the boundary support conditions of actual continuous beam bridges.

  15. Stationary solutions and Neumann boundary conditions in the Sivashinsky equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denet, Bruno

    2006-09-01

    New stationary solutions of the (Michelson) Sivashinsky equation of premixed flames are obtained numerically in this paper. Some of these solutions, of the bicoalescent type recently described by Guidi and Marchetti, are stable with Neumann boundary conditions. With these boundary conditions, the time evolution of the Sivashinsky equation in the presence of a moderate white noise is controlled by jumps between stationary solutions.

  16. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ruggeri, Fabrizio

    2016-01-06

    In this work we develop a hierarchical Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems (IBVPs) for one-dimensional linear parabolic partial differential equations. Noisy boundary data and known initial condition are assumed. We derive the likelihood function associated with the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Such function is then analytically marginalized using the linearity of the equation. Gaussian priors have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal diffusivity parameter when its prior distribution is lognormal or modeled by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. We use the Laplace method to provide approximated Gaussian posterior distributions for the thermal diffusivity. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated for different experimental setups.

  17. Bayesian Inference for Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ruggeri, Fabrizio

    2015-01-07

    In this work we develop a hierarchical Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems (IBVPs) for one-dimensional linear parabolic partial differential equations. Noisy boundary data and known initial condition are assumed. We derive the likelihood function associated with the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Such function is then analytically marginalized using the linearity of the equation. Gaussian priors have been assumed for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values. Our approach is applied to synthetic data for the one-dimensional heat equation model, where the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We show how to infer the thermal diffusivity parameter when its prior distribution is lognormal or modeled by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. We use the Laplace method to provide approximated Gaussian posterior distributions for the thermal diffusivity. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated for different experimental setups.

  18. Magnetospheric conditions near the equatorial footpoints of proton isotropy boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from a cluster of three THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft during February–March 2009 frequently provide an opportunity to construct local data-adaptive magnetospheric models, which are suitable for the accurate mapping along the magnetic field lines at distances of 6–9 Re in the nightside magnetosphere. This allows us to map the isotropy boundaries (IBs of 30 and 80 keV protons observed by low-altitude NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites to the equatorial magnetosphere (to find the projected isotropy boundary, PIB and study the magnetospheric conditions, particularly to evaluate the ratio KIB (Rc/rc; the magnetic field curvature radius to the particle gyroradius in the neutral sheet at that point. Special care is taken to control the factors which influence the accuracy of the adaptive models and mapping. Data indicate that better accuracy of an adaptive model is achieved when the PIB distance from the closest spacecraft is as small as 1–2 Re. For this group of most accurate predictions, the spread of KIB values is still large (from 4 to 32, with the median value KIB ~13 being larger than the critical value Kcr ~ 8 expected at the inner boundary of nonadiabatic angular scattering in the current sheet. It appears that two different mechanisms may contribute to form the isotropy boundary. The group with K ~ [4,12] is most likely formed by current sheet scattering, whereas the group having KIB ~ [12,32] could be formed by the resonant scattering of low-energy protons by the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC waves. The energy dependence of the upper K limit and close proximity of the latter event to the plasmapause locations support this conclusion. We also discuss other reasons why the K ~ 8 criterion for isotropization may fail to work, as well as a possible relationship between the two scattering mechanisms.

  19. Chiral boundary conditions for singletons and W-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Joris; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the holographic dictionary for a free massless scalar in AdS3, focusing on the `singleton' solutions for which the boundary profile is an arbitrary chiral function. We look for consistent boundary conditions which include this class of solutions. On one hand, we give a no-go argument that they cannot be interpreted within any boundary condition which preserves full conformal invariance. On the other hand, we show that such solutions fit naturally in a generalization of the Compère-Song-Strominger boundary conditions, which preserve a chiral Virasoro and current algebra. These observations have implications for the black hole deconstruction proposal, which proposes singleton solutions as candidate black hole microstate geometries. Our results suggest that the chiral boundary condition, which also contains the extremal BTZ black hole, is the natural setting for holographically interpreting the black hole deconstruction proposal.

  20. Galilean-invariant algorithm coupling immersed moving boundary conditions and Lees-Edwards boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Xiaowei; Ge, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Many investigators have coupled the Lees-Edwards boundary conditions (LEBCs) and suspension methods in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method to study the pure bulk properties of particle-fluid suspensions. However, these suspension methods are all link-based and are more or less exposed to the disadvantages of violating Galilean invariance. In this paper, we have coupled LEBCs with a node-based suspension method, which is demonstrated to be Galilean invariant in benchmark simulations. We use the coupled algorithm to predict the viscosity of a particle-fluid suspension at very low Reynolds number, and the simulation results are in good agreement with the semiempirical Krieger-Dougherty formula.

  1. On the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Emily

    This thesis is concerned with the study of the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, which is important both from a physical and a mathematical point of view. In physics, it is a universal model for the evolutions of weakly nonlinear dispersive wave trains. As such it appears in many physical contexts, such as optics, acoustics, plasmas, biology, etc. Mathematically, it is a completely integrable, infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, and possesses a surprisingly rich structure. This equation has been extensively studied in the last 50 years, but many important questions are still open. In particular, this thesis contains the following original contributions: NLS with real spectral singularities. First, the focusing NLS equation is considered with decaying initial conditions. This situation has been studied extensively before, but the assumption is almost always made that the scattering coefficients have no real zeros, and thus the scattering data had no poles on the real axis. However, it is easy to produce example potentials with this behavior. For example, by modifying parameters in Satsuma-Yajima's sech potential, or by choosing a "box" potential with a particular area, one can obtain corresponding scattering entries with real zeros. The inverse scattering transform can be implemented by formulating the modified Jost eigenfunctions and the scattering data as a Riemann Hilbert problem. But it can also be formulated by using integral kernels. Doing so produces the Gelf'and-Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) equations. Solving these integral equations requires integrating an expression containing the reflection coefficient over the real axis. Under the usual assumption, the reflection coefficient has no poles on the real axis. In general, the integration contour cannot be deformed to avoid poles, because the reflection coefficient may not admit analytic extension off the real axis. Here it is shown that the GLM equations may be (uniquely) solved using a principal value

  2. The system of equations for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet boundary condition and three Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Nur Syaza Mohd; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal

    2017-05-01

    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical way to approximate the solutions of a Boundary Value Problem (BVP). The potential problem which involves the Laplace's equation on the square shape domain will be considered where the boundary is divided into four sets of linear boundary elements. We study the derivation system of equation for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet Boundary Condition (BC) is prescribed on one element of the boundary and Neumann BC on the other three elements. The mixed BVP will be reduced to a Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) by using a direct method which involves Green's second identity representation formula. Then, linear interpolation is used where the boundary will be discretized into some linear elements. As the result, we then obtain the system of linear equations. In conclusion, the specific element in the mixed BVP will have the specific prescribe value depends on the type of boundary condition. For Dirichlet BC, it has only one value at each node but for the Neumann BC, there will be different values at the corner nodes due to outward normal. Therefore, the assembly process for the system of equations related to the mixed BVP may not be as straight forward as Dirichlet BVP and Neumann BVP. For the future research, we will consider the different shape domains for mixed BVP with different prescribed boundary conditions.

  3. Stress boundary conditions with the staggered grid: a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; May, Dave

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the numerical properties of the finite-difference method employing dynamic boundary conditions (BC). Stress BC's are gaining popularity in the geodynamic modelling community since the use of a free surface (stress-free BC) is required to model the dynamic evolution of topography. Additionnaly, normal stress BC's might also be used to prescribe known lithospheric rheological models as a dynamic forcing. Under this constraints, boundary velocities are not fixed, they thus vary through time in reaction to stress equilibria within the domain. Dynamic BC's were implemented on a regular Cartesian mesh using a standart staggered grid discretisation. The numerical properties of the scheme were quantified by means of a convergence study and error analysis. Integrated errors owing to the numerical method were evaluated using analytical and manufactured full flow-field solutions and associated convergence rates were derived. Finally, we present two lithospheric-scale applications. The first model depicts the topographic evolution of a linear-viscous lithosphere subjected to the rise of a mantle plume, employing a staircase type free surface. The second model shows the pattern of strain localisation in a thermally activated power law crust subjected to normal stress loading.

  4. Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherman, Aleksey; Sen, Srimoyee; Wagman, Michael L.; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2017-04-01

    Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with S U (Nf) light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large Nc volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.

  5. Boundary conditions for potentials at a plane interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.Y.; DeRaad, L.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    For the case of plane interfaces, it is shown that Maxwell's equations can be solved by use of potentials that satisfy a set of decoupled boundary conditions. This is accomplished by exploiting the gauge freedom that is intrinsic to potentials. It is shown that it is always possible to choose a special Lorentz gauge such that the boundary conditions can be restated as the continuity of the vector and scalar potentials as well as the normal derivative of the tangential components of the vector potential. The advantages of this new set of decoupled boundary conditions are demonstrated by three simple examples.

  6. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and

  7. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Regional Air Quality Simulations—Analysis of AQMEII Phase 3 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical boundary conditions are a key input to regional-scale photochemical models. In this study, performed during the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3), we perform annual simulations over North America with chemical boundary con...

  8. Existence Results for Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Integrodifferential Equations with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some existence results for a boundary value problem involving a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of fractional order with integral boundary conditions. Our results are based on contraction mapping principle and Krasnosel'skiĭ's fixed point theorem.

  9. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for a fractional boundary value problem with Dirichlet boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Graef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider a nonlinear fractional boundary value problem with the Dirichlet boundary condition. An associated Green's function is constructed as a series of functions by applying spectral theory. Criteria for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are obtained based on it.

  10. Absorption and impedance boundary conditions for phased geometrical-acoustics methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, both absorption coefficients and surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been...... developed on which boundary condition produces accurate results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal, random, and field incidence absorption coefficients and normal incidence surface impedance are used in a phased beam tracing model, and the simulated results are validated...... with boundary element solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. Effects of the neglect of reflection phase shift are also investigated. It is concluded that the impedance, random incidence, and field incidence absorption boundary conditions produce...

  11. Absorption and impedance boundary conditions for phased geometrical-acoustics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-10-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, both absorption coefficients and surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed on which boundary condition produces accurate results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal, random, and field incidence absorption coefficients and normal incidence surface impedance are used in a phased beam tracing model, and the simulated results are validated with boundary element solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. Effects of the neglect of reflection phase shift are also investigated. It is concluded that the impedance, random incidence, and field incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials.

  12. Refined impedance boundary conditions on a semitransparent periodically loaded structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshin, O. N.; Dvurechenskii, V. D.

    1987-09-01

    Improved impedance boundary conditions are presented for a semitransparent periodically loaded structure, i.e., a periodic array of conductors in which reactive loads are inserted. Structures of this sort find application in antenna-feed devices.

  13. Comparison of artificial absorbing boundaries for acoustic wave equation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingjie; Song, Hanjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Absorbing boundary conditions are necessary in numerical simulation for reducing the artificial reflections from model boundaries. In this paper, we overview the most important and typical absorbing boundary conditions developed throughout history. We first derive the wave equations of similar methods in unified forms; then, we compare their absorbing performance via theoretical analyses and numerical experiments. The Higdon boundary condition is shown to be the best one among the three main absorbing boundary conditions that are based on a one-way wave equation. The Clayton and Engquist boundary is a special case of the Higdon boundary but has difficulty in dealing with the corner points in implementaion. The Reynolds boundary does not have this problem but its absorbing performance is the poorest among these three methods. The sponge boundary has difficulties in determining the optimal parameters in advance and too many layers are required to achieve a good enough absorbing performance. The hybrid absorbing boundary condition (hybrid ABC) has a better absorbing performance than the Higdon boundary does; however, it is still less efficient for absorbing nearly grazing waves since it is based on the one-way wave equation. In contrast, the perfectly matched layer (PML) can perform much better using a few layers. For example, the 10-layer PML would perform well for absorbing most reflected waves except the nearly grazing incident waves. The 20-layer PML is suggested for most practical applications. For nearly grazing incident waves, convolutional PML shows superiority over the PML when the source is close to the boundary for large-scale models. The Higdon boundary and hybrid ABC are preferred when the computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is not required, such as migration and migration velocity analyses, since they are not as sensitive to the amplitude errors as the full waveform inversion.

  14. On Impulsive Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations with Irregular Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nonlinear impulsive differential equations of fractional order with irregular boundary conditions. Some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by applying standard fixed-point theorems. For illustration of the results, some examples are discussed.

  15. Two Baryons with Twisted Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Davoudi, Zohreh [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) and Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States); Luu, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) and Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The quantization condition for two particle systems with arbitrary number of two-body open coupled-channels, spin and masses in a finite cubic volume is presented. The condition presented is in agreement with all previous studies of two-body systems in a finite volume. The result is fully relativistic and holds for all momenta below inelastic thresholds and is exact up to exponential volume corrections that are governed by m{sub {pi}} L, where m{sub {pi}} is the pion mass and L is the spatial extent of my box. Its implication for the studies of coupled-channel baryon-baryon systems is discussed, and the necessary tools for implementing the formalism are review.

  16. Development of a Discrete Mass Inflow Boundary Condition for MFIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Musser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges is an open source software package developed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL used for modeling the chemical reactions, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics of fluid-solid systems. Currently, the stable publically available release of MFIX does not include a discrete mass inflow boundary condition (DMIBC for its discrete element method (DEM package. Inflow boundary conditions are useful for simulating systems where particles are consumed through chemical reactions and an incoming feed is necessary to sustain the reaction. To implement the DMIBC an inlet staging area is designated outside the computational domain and particles are passed through the wall region associated with the inlet. Forces incurred on entering particles, generated from collisions with particles already in the system, are ignored whereas, particles already in the system respond to contact forces and react accordingly, moving away from the inlet. This approach prevents any unphysical overlap between new and existing particles. It also ensures that particles entering the system will enter the computational domain regardless of opposing forces. Once an incoming particle is fully within the domain, it reacts appropriately to any and all contact force. This approach for a DMIBC has been implemented and is available within the current development version of MFIX.

  17. Nonlinear Vibrations of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Various Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aminikhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with applying the homotopy perturbation method to the problem of the nonlinear oscillations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium under various boundary conditions. A multiple-beam model is utilized in which the governing equations of each layer are coupled with those of its adjacent ones via the van der Waals interlayer forces. The amplitude-frequency curves for large-amplitude vibrations of single-walled, double-walled, and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are obtained. The influences of some commonly used boundary conditions, changes in material constant of the surrounding elastic medium, and variations of the nanotubes geometrical parameters on the vibration characteristics of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are discussed. The comparison of the generated results with those from the open literature illustrates that the solutions obtained are of very high accuracy and clarifies the capability and the simplicity of the present method. It is worthwhile to say that the results generated are new and can be served as a benchmark for future works.

  18. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen [URS Corporation; Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Benyahia, Sofiane [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of gas-solids flow. In this study, a model for specularity coefficient used in Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions by Li and Benyahia (AIChE Journal, 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable specularity coefficient model provides a physical way to calculate the specularity coefficient needed by the partial-slip boundary conditions for the solids phase. Through a series of 2-D numerical simulations of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed riser, the model predicts qualitatively consistent trends to the previous studies. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison is conducted between numerical results of variable and constant specularity coefficients to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal variations in specularity coefficient.

  19. Evaluation of outflow boundary conditions for two-phase lattice Boltzmann equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang

    2013-06-01

    Outflow boundary condition (OBC) is a critical issue in computational fluid dynamics. As a type of numerical method for fluid flows, the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method has gained much success in a variety of complex flows, and certain OBCs have been suggested for the LBE in simulating simple single-phase flows. However, very few discussions on the OBCs have been made for the two-phase LBE method. In this work, three types of OBCs that are widely used in the LBE for single-phase flows, i.e., the Neumann boundary condition, the convective boundary condition, and the extrapolation boundary condition, are extended to a two-phase LBE method and their performances are investigated. The comprehensive results of several two-phase flows show that these boundary conditions behave quite differently in the simulations of two-phase flows. Specifically, it is found that the Neumann boundary condition and the extrapolation boundary condition give rather poor predictions, while the type of convective boundary conditions work well, although the choice of the convection velocity has some slight influences on the results. We also apply these OBC schemes to some other two-phase models, and similar observations are found.

  20. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  1. DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino

    2010-11-01

    To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.

  2. On Solutions of Fractional Order Boundary Value Problems with Integral Boundary Conditions in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. H. Salem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the existence of a class of solutions for some boundary value problems of fractional order with integral boundary conditions. The considered problems are very interesting and important from an application point of view. They include two, three, multipoint, and nonlocal boundary value problems as special cases. We stress on single and multivalued problems for which the nonlinear term is assumed only to be Pettis integrable and depends on the fractional derivative of an unknown function. Some investigations on fractional Pettis integrability for functions and multifunctions are also presented. An example illustrating the main result is given.

  3. Boundary-value problems for second-order differential operators with nonlocal boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Denche

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a second-order differential operator combining weighting integral boundary condition with another two-point boundary condition. Under certain conditions on the weighting functions, called regular and non regular cases, we prove that the resolvent decreases with respect to the spectral parameter in $L^{p}(0,1$, but there is no maximal decrease at infinity for $p>1$. Furthermore, the studied operator generates in $L^{p}(0,1 $, an analytic semi group for $p=1$ in the regular case, and an analytic semi group with singularities for $p>1$, in both cases, and for $p=1$, in the non regular case only. The obtained results are then used to show the correct solvability of a mixed problem for parabolic partial differential equation with non regular boundary conditions.

  4. How to determine a boundary condition for diffusion at a thin membrane from experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztołowicz, Tadeusz; WÄ sik, Sławomir; Lewandowska, Katarzyna D.

    2017-07-01

    We present a method of deriving a boundary condition for diffusion at a thin membrane from experimental data. Based on experimental results obtained for normal diffusion of ethanol in water, we show that the derived boundary condition at a membrane contains a term with a Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative of order 1/2 . Such a form of the boundary condition shows that a transfer of particles through a thin membrane is a "long-memory process." The presented method is an example that an important part of the mathematical model of physical processes may be derived directly from experimental data.

  5. Transport synthetic acceleration with opposing reflecting boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M.R.; Adams, M.L.

    2000-02-01

    The transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme is extended to problems with opposing reflecting boundary conditions. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. A procedure is developed that allows the use of the conjugate gradient (CG) method to solve the resulting low-order system of equations. Several well-known transport iteration algorithms are cast in a linear algebraic form to show their equivalence to standard iterative techniques. Source iteration in the presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions is shown to be equivalent to a (poorly) preconditioned stationary Richardson iteration, with the preconditioner defined by the method of iterating on the incident fluxes on the reflecting boundaries. The TSA method (and any synthetic method) amounts to a further preconditioning of the Richardson iteration. The presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions requires special consideration when developing a procedure to realize the CG method for the proposed system of equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite matrices; this condition requires the algebraic elimination of the boundary angular corrections from the low-order equations. As a consequence of this elimination, evaluating the action of the resulting matrix on an arbitrary vector involves two transport sweeps and a transmission iteration. Results of applying the acceleration scheme to a simple test problem are presented.

  6. Superradiance in the BTZ black hole with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Ferreira, Hugo R. C.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2018-03-01

    We show the existence of superradiant modes of massive scalar fields propagating in BTZ black holes when certain Robin boundary conditions, which never include the commonly considered Dirichlet boundary conditions, are imposed at spatial infinity. These superradiant modes are defined as those solutions whose energy flux across the horizon is towards the exterior region. Differently from rotating, asymptotically flat black holes, we obtain that not all modes which grow up exponentially in time are superradiant; for some of these, the growth is sourced by a bulk instability of AdS3, triggered by the scalar field with Robin boundary conditions, rather than by energy extraction from the BTZ black hole. Thus, this setup provides an example wherein Bosonic modes with low frequency are pumping energy into, rather than extracting energy from, a rotating black hole.

  7. Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problems at Resonance with Nonlinear Wentzell Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian G. Gal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded domain Ω⊂RN with a Lipschitz boundary ∂Ω and p,q∈(1,+∞, we consider the quasilinear elliptic equation -Δpu+α1u=f in Ω complemented with the generalized Wentzell-Robin type boundary conditions of the form bx∇up-2∂nu-ρbxΔq,Γu+α2u=g on ∂Ω. In the first part of the article, we give necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the given functions f, g and the nonlinearities α1, α2, for the solvability of the above nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with the nonlinear boundary conditions. In other words, we establish a sort of “nonlinear Fredholm alternative” for our problem which extends the corresponding Landesman and Lazer result for elliptic problems with linear homogeneous boundary conditions. In the second part, we give some additional results on existence and uniqueness and we study the regularity of the weak solutions for these classes of nonlinear problems. More precisely, we show some global a priori estimates for these weak solutions in an L∞-setting.

  8. Method of the quasilinearization for nonlinear impulsive differential equations with linear boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Eloe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of quasilinearization for nonlinear impulsive differential equations with linear boundary conditions is studied. The boundary conditions include periodic boundary conditions. It is proved the convergence is quadratic.

  9. Function Substitution in Partial Differential Equations: Nonhomogeneous Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Oblakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a mixed initial-boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. The classical approach to search for analytical solution of such problems in the first phase involves variable substitution, leading to a problem with homogeneous boundary conditions. Reference materials [1] give, as a rule, the simplest types of variable substitutions where new and old unknown functions differ by a term, linear in the spatial variable. The form of this additive term depends on the type of the boundary conditions, but is in no way related to the equation under consideration. Moreover, in the case of the second boundary-value problem, it is necessary to use a quadratic additive, since a linear substitution for this type of conditions may be unavailable. The courseware [2] - [4], usually, ends only with the first boundary-value problem generally formulated.The paper considers a substitution that takes into account, in principle, the form of a linear differential operator. Namely, as an additive term, it is proposed to use the parametrically time-dependent solution of the boundary value problem for an ordinary differential equation obtained from the original partial differential equation by the method of separation of the Fourier variables.The existence of the proposed substitution for boundary conditions of any type is proved by the example of a non-stationary heat-transfer equation with the heat exchange available with the surrounding medium. In this case, the additive term is a linear combination of hyperbolic functions. It is shown that, in addition to the "insensitivity" to the type of boundary conditions, the advantages of a new substitution in comparison with the traditional linear (or quadratic one include a much simpler structure of the solution obtained. Just the described approach allows us to obtain a solution with a clearly distinguished stationary component, in case a stationarity occurs, for

  10. Boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differentials equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaily, Amr G; Epstein, Marcelo

    2013-07-01

    An easy-to-apply algorithm is proposed to determine the correct set(s) of boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. The proposed approach is based on the idea of the incoming/outgoing characteristics and is validated by considering two problems. The first one is the well-known Euler system of equations in gas dynamics and it proved to yield set(s) of boundary conditions consistent with the literature. The second test case corresponds to the system of equations governing the flow of viscoelastic liquids.

  11. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  12. Weak imposition of the slip boundary condition on curved boundaries for Stokes flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, José M.; Garon, André; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    We study the finite element approximation of two methods to weakly impose a slip boundary condition for incompressible fluid flows: the Lagrange multiplier method and Nitsche's method. For each method, we can distinguish several formulations depending on the values of some real parameters. In the case of a spatial domain with a polygonal or polyhedral boundary, we prove convergence results of their finite element approximations, extending previous results of Verfürth [33] and we show numerical results confirming them. In the case of a spatial domain with a smooth curved boundary, numerical results show that approximations computed on polygonal domains approximating the original domain may not converge to the exact solution, depending on the values of the aforementioned parameters and on the finite element discretization. These negative results seem to highlight Babuska's like paradox, due to the approximation of the boundary by polygonal ones. In particular, they seem to contradict some of Verfürth's theoretical convergence results.

  13. Effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanyintola, O. F.; Talukdar, P.; Simonson, C. J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (China)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood is measured by recording the change in mass of a test specimen when the air relative humidity (RH) is changed between 33% RH and 75% RH. The aim is to represent diurnal cycles in indoor humidity with 33% RH maintained for 16 h and 75% RH maintained for 8 h. Measurements are taken using two different apparatuses, which provide different convective transfer coefficients between the air and the plywood, and the results are compared to a numerical model for validation. The validated numerical model is then used to investigate the effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of plywood. The results show that the buffering capacity of plywood depends on the initial conditions and thickness of the plywood as well as the surface film coefficient and humidity cycle. (author)

  14. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  15. A New Parallel Boundary Condition for Turbulence Simulations in Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mike F.; Landreman, Matt; Dorland, William; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos

    2017-10-01

    For gyrokinetic simulations of core turbulence, the ``twist-and-shift'' parallel boundary condition (Beer et al., PoP, 1995), which involves a shift in radial wavenumber proportional to the global shear and a quantization of the simulation domain's aspect ratio, is the standard choice. But as this condition was derived under the assumption of axisymmetry, ``twist-and-shift'' as it stands is formally incorrect for turbulence simulations in stellarators. Moreover, for low-shear stellarators like W7X and HSX, the use of a global shear in the traditional boundary condition places an inflexible constraint on the aspect ratio of the domain, requiring more grid points to fully resolve its extent. Here, we present a parallel boundary condition for ``stellarator-symmetric'' simulations that relies on the local shear along a field line. This boundary condition is similar to ``twist-and-shift'', but has an added flexibility in choosing the parallel length of the domain based on local shear consideration in order to optimize certain parameters such as the aspect ratio of the simulation domain.

  16. Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán

    2018-01-01

    A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.

  17. Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán

    2017-08-01

    A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.

  18. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 4. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics - 1.The Riddle of Fluid Sticking to the Wall in Flow. Sandeep Prabhakara M D Deshpande. General Article Volume 9 Issue 4 April 2004 pp 50-60 ...

  19. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...

  20. Validation of Boundary Conditions for CFD Simulations on Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pedersen, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for ventilation research and design of ventilation systems has increased during the recent years. This paper provides an investigation of direct description of boundary conditions for a complex inlet diffuser and a heated surface. A series...

  1. "Missing" boundary conditions? Discretize first, substitute next, and combine later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    1990-01-01

    A simple approach exists to prevent the need for constructing boundary conditions in situations where they are not explicitly supplied by the original analytical formulation of the problem. An example is the Poisson equation for the pressure in calculations of incompressible flow. Other examples are

  2. Existence of solutions for fractional differential inclusions with boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of solutions for fractional-order differential inclusions with boundary-value conditions. The main tools are based on fixed point theorems due to Bohnerblust-Karlin and Leray-Schauder together with a continuous selection theorem for upper semi-continuous multi-valued maps.

  3. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) do- decagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for. QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory ...

  4. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics - Solution of the Sticky Problem. Sandeep Prabhakara M D Deshpande. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 61-71 ...

  5. On a stochastic Burgers equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina T. Kolkovska

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional Burgers equation perturbed by a white noise term with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a non-Lipschitz coefficient. We obtain existence of a weak solution proving tightness for a sequence of polygonal approximations for the equation and solving a martingale problem for the weak limit.

  6. Salesperson improvisation: Antecedents, performance outcomes, and boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah Banin, A.; Boso, N.; Hultman, M.; Souchon, A. L.; Hughes, P; Nemkova, E.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Premised on the idea that not all salesperson behaviors can be pre-scripted and that, increasingly, salespersons must find ways to respond to unexpected but urgent market conditions, this study theorizes the drivers, outcomes and boundary conditions of salesperson improvisation. Using primary data from industrial salespersons, the study examine...

  7. Effect of a boundary condition on the cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Shingo

    2014-12-01

    The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated on the basis of kinetic theory. We perform a numerical analysis of the (BGK model) Boltzmann equation for a wide range of the Knudsen number and an asymptotic analysis for small Knudsen numbers employing two kinds of kinetic boundary conditions on the cylinders. One is the modified Maxwell-type boundary condition (proposed by S. K. Dadzie and J. G. Méolans) and the other is the Cercignani-Lampis condition, both of which have separate accommodation coefficients associated with the molecular velocity component normal to the boundary and with the tangential component. Our main interest is in the effect of those boundary conditions on the inverted velocity profile. The results show that the onset of the inversion is practically controlled by the tangential accommodation only.

  8. The boundary conditions for point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weder, Ricardo [Departamento de Metodos Matematicos y Numericos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-726, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)], E-mail: weder@servidor.unam.mx

    2008-10-17

    In this paper we study point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media. We assume that there are several point transformed electromagnetic cloaks located in different points in space. Our results apply in particular to the first-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Pendry et al and to the high-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Hendi et al and by Cai et al. We identify the appropriate cloaking boundary conditions that the solutions of Maxwell equations have to satisfy at the outside, {partial_derivative}K{sub +}, and at the inside, {partial_derivative}K{sub -}, of the boundary of the cloaked object K in the case where the permittivity and the permeability are bounded below and above in K. Namely, that the tangential components of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at {partial_derivative}K{sub +}-which is always true-and that the normal components of the curl of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at {partial_derivative}K{sub -}. These results are proven requiring that energy be conserved. In the case of one spherical cloak with a spherically stratified K and a radial current at {partial_derivative}K we verify by an explicit calculation that our cloaking boundary conditions are satisfied and that cloaking of active devices holds, even if the current is at the boundary of the cloaked object. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media, our results apply to the cloaking of objects with passive and active devices contained in general anisotropic media, in particular to objects with passive and active devices contained inside general crystals. Our results suggest a method to enhance cloaking in the approximate transformation media that are used in practice. Namely, to coat the boundary of the cloaked object (the inner boundary of the cloak) with a material that imposes the

  9. Boundary Conditions for a New Type of Design Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    -teresting to understand the shifting focus and identification of boundary conditions that manufacturing organisations must undergo, in order to develop just as systematic an approach to the service-related aspects of their business development, as they have in place for their product development. This chapter...... and knowledge associated with the use of the product is increasingly perceived to be the new design object. But how to organise the design of combined products and services, over expanded time domains and new stakeholder boundaries? The design research community is paying increasing attention to this new design...

  10. Boundary conditions for gas flow problems from anisotropic scattering kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quy-Dong; Vu, Van-Huyen; Lauriat, Guy; Léonard, Céline

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an interface model for gas flowing through a channel constituted of anisotropic wall surfaces. Using anisotropic scattering kernels and Chapman Enskog phase density, the boundary conditions (BCs) for velocity, temperature, and discontinuities including velocity slip and temperature jump at the wall are obtained. Two scattering kernels, Dadzie and Méolans (DM) kernel, and generalized anisotropic Cercignani-Lampis (ACL) are examined in the present paper, yielding simple BCs at the wall fluid interface. With these two kernels, we rigorously recover the analytical expression for orientation dependent slip shown in our previous works [Pham et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 051201 (2012) and To et al., J. Heat Transfer 137, 091002 (2015)] which is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. More important, our models include both thermal transpiration effect and new equations for the temperature jump. While the same expression depending on the two tangential accommodation coefficients is obtained for slip velocity, the DM and ACL temperature equations are significantly different. The derived BC equations associated with these two kernels are of interest for the gas simulations since they are able to capture the direction dependent slip behavior of anisotropic interfaces.

  11. Liver cancer arterial perfusion modelling and CFD boundary conditions methodology: a case study of the haemodynamics of a patient-specific hepatic artery in literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing liver scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    Some of the latest treatments for unresectable liver malignancies (primary or metastatic tumours), which include bland embolisation, chemoembolisation, and radioembolisation, among others, take advantage of the increased arterial blood supply to the tumours to locally attack them. A better understanding of the factors that influence this transport may help improve the therapeutic procedures by taking advantage of flow patterns or by designing catheters and infusion systems that result in the injected beads having increased access to the tumour vasculature. Computational analyses may help understand the haemodynamic patterns and embolic-microsphere transport through the hepatic arteries. In addition, physiological inflow and outflow boundary conditions are essential in order to reliably represent the blood flow through arteries. This study presents a liver cancer arterial perfusion model based on a literature review and derives boundary conditions for tumour-bearing liver-feeding hepatic arteries based on the arterial perfusion characteristics of normal and tumorous liver segment tissue masses and the hepatic artery branching configuration. Literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing realistic scenarios are created and haemodynamically analysed for the same patient-specific hepatic artery. As a result, this study provides boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics simulations that will allow researchers to numerically study, for example, various intravascular devices used for liver disease intra-arterial treatments with different cancer scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Notes on wave theory in heat conduction: a new boundary condition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, Alexandre E.; Benneker, A.H.; Benneker, A.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The physical basis behind the simple hyperbolic heat transport model is discussed. The model equations are interpreted as energy equations for a system in a state of local nonequilibrium. On this basis a new boundary condition for the hyperbolic model is proposed when the temperature of a surface is

  13. On the Derivation of Boundary Conditions for Continuum Dislocation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hochrainer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD is a single crystal strain gradient plasticity theory based exclusively on the evolution of the dislocation state. Recently, we derived a constitutive theory for the average dislocation velocity in CDD in a phase field-type description for an infinite domain. In the current work, so-called rational thermodynamics is employed to obtain thermodynamically consistent boundary conditions for the dislocation density variables of CDD. We find that rational thermodynamics reproduces the bulk constitutive equations as obtained from irreversible thermodynamics. The boundary conditions we find display strong parallels to the microscopic traction conditions derived by Gurtin and Needleman (M.E. Gurtin and A. Needleman, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 53 (2005 1–31 for strain gradient theories based on the Kröner–Nye tensor.

  14. Winkler boundary conditions for three-point bending tests on 1D nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadean, D.; McIlroy, David N.; Faulkner, Brian E.; Aston, D. Eric

    2010-06-01

    Bending tests with atomic force microscopes (AFM) is a common method for elasticity measurements on 1D nanomaterials. Interpretation of the force and deflection data is necessary to determine the Young's modulus of the tested material and has been done assuming either of two classic boundary conditions that represent two extreme possibilities for the rigidity of the sample-anchor interface. The elasticity results from the two boundary conditions differ by a factor of four. Furthermore, both boundary conditions ignore the effects of deflections in the anchors themselves. The Winkler model for beams on elastic foundations is developed here for three-point bending tests to provide a more realistic representation. Equations for computing sample elasticity are derived from two sets of boundary conditions for the Winkler model. Application of this model to interpret the measurement of mechanical stiffness of a silica nanowire at multiple points in a three-point bending is discussed. With the correct choice of boundary conditions, the Winkler model gives a better fit for the observed stiffness profile than the classical beam models while providing a result that differs from both by a factor of two and is comparable to the bulk elasticity.

  15. Winkler boundary conditions for three-point bending tests on 1D nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadean, D; McIlroy, David N; Faulkner, Brian E; Aston, D Eric

    2010-06-04

    Bending tests with atomic force microscopes (AFM) is a common method for elasticity measurements on 1D nanomaterials. Interpretation of the force and deflection data is necessary to determine the Young's modulus of the tested material and has been done assuming either of two classic boundary conditions that represent two extreme possibilities for the rigidity of the sample-anchor interface. The elasticity results from the two boundary conditions differ by a factor of four. Furthermore, both boundary conditions ignore the effects of deflections in the anchors themselves. The Winkler model for beams on elastic foundations is developed here for three-point bending tests to provide a more realistic representation. Equations for computing sample elasticity are derived from two sets of boundary conditions for the Winkler model. Application of this model to interpret the measurement of mechanical stiffness of a silica nanowire at multiple points in a three-point bending is discussed. With the correct choice of boundary conditions, the Winkler model gives a better fit for the observed stiffness profile than the classical beam models while providing a result that differs from both by a factor of two and is comparable to the bulk elasticity.

  16. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Influence of the boundary conditions from the global chemistry transport model TM5 on the regional aerosol chemistry transport model REM CALGRID; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Einfluss der Randbedingungen aus dem globalen Chemie-Transport-Modell TM5 auf das regionale Aerosol-Chemie-Transport-Modell REM-CALGRID. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Hannig, Katrin [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this report the coupling of a global model is presented with a continental model. It examines how far the forecasts of regional air quality in Europe are affected by the choice of boundary conditions. The focus of this report is to analyze the influence of different boundary conditions on the calculated soil concentrations of ozone and PM10. A model evaluation, however, was not the aim of this study. [German] In diesem Bericht wird die Koppelung eines Globalmodells mit einem kontinentalen Modell vorgestellt. Es wird untersucht, wie weit die Prognosen der regionalen Luftqualitaet in Europa von der Wahl der Randbedingungen beeinflusst werden. Der Schwerpunkt des vorliegenden Berichts liegt in der Analyse des Einflusses der verschiedenen Randbedingungen auf die berechneten Bodenkonzentrationen von Ozon und PM10. Eine Modellevaluierung hingegen war nicht Ziel dieser Studie.

  17. Effects of microscopic boundary conditions on plastic deformations of small-sized single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    for uniaxial plane strain compression of a single crystal block and for uniform pure bending of a single crystal foil. The compressed block has loading surfaces that are penetrable or impenetrable to dislocations. This allows for a study of the two types of higher-order boundaries available, and a significant......The finite deformation version of the higher-order gradient crystal plasticity model proposed by the authors is applied to solve plane strain boundary value problems, in order to obtain an understanding of the effect of the higher-order boundary conditions. Numerical solutions are carried out...... effect of higher-order boundary conditions on the overall deformation mode of the block is observed. The bent foil has free surfaces through which dislocations can go out of the material, and we observe a strong size-dependent mechanical response resulting from the surface condition assumed....

  18. Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trouch, P.; Rouck, J. de; Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a new active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented. This numerical boundary condition AWAVOF is based on an active wave absorption system...... that was first developed in the context of physical wave flume experiments, using a wave paddle. The method applies to regular and irregular waves. Velocities are measured at one location inside the computational domain. The reflected wave train is separated from the incident wave field in front of a structure...... by means of digital filtering and subsequent superposition of the measured velocity signals. The incident wave signal is corrected, so that the reflected wave is effectively absorbed at the boundary. The effectiveness of the active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition is proved using numerical...

  19. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2017-01-01

    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  20. Positivity for equations involving polyharmonic operators with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunau, H.-Ch.; Sweers, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cranston, Fabes and Zhao ([26], [5]) established the uniform bound sup x; y 2 x 6= y R G1;n (x; z)G1;n (z; y) dz G1;n (x; y) M < 1; (1) where G1;n (x; y) is the Green function for the Laplacian - with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a Lipschitz domain - Rn with n 3 (see [27] for n = 2).

  1. Boundary conditions for simulating large SAW devices using ANSYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dasong; Yu, Fengqi; Hu, Jian; Li, Peng

    2010-08-01

    In this report, we propose improved substrate left and right boundary conditions for simulating SAW devices using ANSYS. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method can greatly reduce computation time. Furthermore, the longer the distance from the first reflector to the last one, the more computation time can be reduced. To verify the proposed method, a design example is presented with device center frequency 971.14 MHz.

  2. Scattering of wedges and cones with impedance boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Lyalinov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    This book is a systematic and detailed exposition of different analytical techniques used in studying two of the canonical problems, the wave scattering by wedges or cones with impedance boundary conditions. It is the first reference on novel, highly efficient analytical-numerical approaches for wave diffraction by impedance wedges or cones. The applicability of the reported solution procedures and formulae to existing software packages designed for real-world high-frequency problems encountered in antenna, wave propagation, and radar cross section.

  3. Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Back Face Deformations of Flat UHMWPE Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the experimental results in general, and was computationally more expedient. Delamination is a very common failure mode in composite laminates , and... delaminations in the composites . The calculation showed reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the clamped-corners and free boundary condition...cases for the peak BFD, remaining thickness of the composite and the delamination behavior. The model is useful to assess the size-effects and boundary

  4. CT image segmentation using FEM with optimized boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hishida

    Full Text Available The authors propose a CT image segmentation method using structural analysis that is useful for objects with structural dynamic characteristics. Motivation of our research is from the area of genetic activity. In order to reveal the roles of genes, it is necessary to create mutant mice and measure differences among them by scanning their skeletons with an X-ray CT scanner. The CT image needs to be manually segmented into pieces of the bones. It is a very time consuming to manually segment many mutant mouse models in order to reveal the roles of genes. It is desirable to make this segmentation procedure automatic. Although numerous papers in the past have proposed segmentation techniques, no general segmentation method for skeletons of living creatures has been established. Against this background, the authors propose a segmentation method based on the concept of destruction analogy. To realize this concept, structural analysis is performed using the finite element method (FEM, as structurally weak areas can be expected to break under conditions of stress. The contribution of the method is its novelty, as no studies have so far used structural analysis for image segmentation. The method's implementation involves three steps. First, finite elements are created directly from the pixels of a CT image, and then candidates are also selected in areas where segmentation is thought to be appropriate. The second step involves destruction analogy to find a single candidate with high strain chosen as the segmentation target. The boundary conditions for FEM are also set automatically. Then, destruction analogy is implemented by replacing pixels with high strain as background ones, and this process is iterated until object is decomposed into two parts. Here, CT image segmentation is demonstrated using various types of CT imagery.

  5. Mathematical Model of Non-stationary Heat Conduction in the Wall: Asymmetric Problem with the Boundary Conditions of Imperfect Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvátová Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of a non-stationary heat conduction in the solid wall. It is focused on mathematical modelling of its asymmetric heating and cooling by imperfect heat transfer to both sides of the wall. It describes method used for deriving of the long time analytical solution describing temperature distribution in the heated (cooled wall by use Laplace transform and verification of its validity by numerical calculation with COMSOL Multiphysics software. In the tested example, the maximum difference between analytical and numerical solution was about 3.5 % considering the possible maximum and minimum temperatures in the wall under the given conditions.

  6. Sensitivity of an idealized subtropical gyre to the eastern boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Láiz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow pattern of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG is simulated using a highly idealised one-layer quasi-geostrophic wind-driven model. The novel feature of the model is the specification of the eastern boundary conditions. This is an upwelling favourable region with a quasi-permanent southward flowing coastal jet, which is fed by the eastern branch of the Canary Current. The corresponding boundary conditions are non-zero normal flux and constant potential vorticity, the latter being consistent with the generation of anticyclonic vorticity by the coastal jet. We examine the sensitivity of the model to the eastern boundary conditions and compare the results with recent observations for the region.

  7. Reflection of Spin Waves From the Boundary of Ferromagnetic Medium under Generalized Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Danoyan Z.N.; Atoyan L.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper reflection problem of an incident bulk ferromagnetic spin-wave is solved. The wave reflects from the ferromagnetic medium surface, when on the surface are given the generalized boundary conditions for magnetization density [4]. Solution of the problem provides a foundation to confirm, that in ferromagnetic medium appears two non-homogeneous accompanying surface waves, besides of the mirror reflected wave. The two surface waves propagation velocities are the same, but coefficients...

  8. Simulation of microcirculatory hemodynamics: estimation of boundary condition using particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Wang, Ruofan; Reglin, Bettina; Fang, Luping; Pries, Axel R; Ning, Gangmin

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of the boundary condition is a critical problem in simulating hemodynamics in microvascular networks. This paper proposed a boundary estimation strategy based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which aims to minimize the number of vessels with inverted flow direction in comparison to the experimental observation. The algorithm took boundary values as the particle swarm and updated the position of the particles iteratively to approach the optimization target. The method was tested in a real rat mesenteric network. With random initial boundary values, the method achieved a minimized 9 segments with an inverted flow direction in the network with 546 vessels. Compared with reported literature, the current work has the advantage of a better fit with experimental observations and is more suitable for the boundary estimation problem in pulsatile hemodynamic models due to the experiment-based optimization target selection.

  9. Existence and asymptotic behavior of the wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Graber, Philip Jameson

    2012-03-07

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the strongly damped wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions and nonlinear boundary/interior sources and nonlinear boundary/interior damping. First, applying the nonlinear semigroup theory, we show the existence and uniqueness of local in time solutions. In addition, we show that in the strongly damped case solutions gain additional regularity for positive times t>0. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term and if the boundary source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution grows as an exponential function. Moreover, in the absence of the strong damping term, we prove that the solution ceases to exists and blows up in finite time. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. On The Stabilization of the Linear Kawahara Equation with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the stabilization of global solutions of the linear Kawahara equation (K with periodic boundary conditions under the effect of a localized damping mechanism. The Kawahara equation is a model for small amplitude long waves. Using separation of variables, the Ingham inequality, multiplier techniques and compactness arguments we prove the exponential decay of the solutions of the (K model.

  11. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  12. Numerical investigation of saturated upward flow boiling of water in a vertical tube using VOF model: effect of different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, B.; Irandoost, M. S.; Hassani, M.; Kouhikamali, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a numerical simulation of upward two-phase flow evaporation in a vertical tube has been studied by considering water as working fluid. To this end, the computational fluid dynamic simulations of this system are performed with heat and mass transfer mechanisms due to energy transfer during the phase change interaction near the heat transfer surface. The volume of fluid model in an available Eulerian-Eulerian approach based on finite volume method is utilized and the mass source term in conservation of mass equation is implemented using a user defined function. The characteristics of water flow boiling such as void fraction and heat transfer coefficient distribution are investigated. The main cause of fluctuations on heat transfer coefficient and volume fraction is velocity increment in the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The case study of this research including convective heat transfer coefficient and tube diameter are considered as a parametric study. The operating conditions are considered at high pressure in saturation temperature and the physical properties of water are determined by considering system's inlet temperature and pressure in saturation conditions. Good agreement is achieved between the numerical and the experimental values of heat transfer coefficients.

  13. Sensitivity of the meteorological model WRF-ARW to planetary boundary layer schemes during fog conditions in a coastal arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Naira; Temimi, Marouane; Weston, Michael; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we intercompare seven different PBL schemes in WRF in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and we assess their impact on the performance of the simulations. The study covered five fog events reported in 2014 at Abu Dhabi International Airport. The analysis of Synoptic conditions indicated that during all examined events, the UAE was under a high geopotential pressure and light wind that does not exceed 7 m/s at 850 hPa ( 1.5 km). Seven PBL schemes, namely, Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Moller-Yamada Nakanishi and Niino (MYNN) level 2.5, Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE-EDMF), Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM2), Grenier-Bretherton-McCaa (GBM) and MYNN level 3 were tested. In situ observations used in the model's assessment included radiosonde data from the Abu Dhabi International Airport and surface measurements of relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature, wind speed, and temperature profiles. Overall, all the tested PBL schemes showed comparable skills with relatively higher performance with the QNSE scheme. The average RH Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and BIAS for all PBLs were 15.75% and - 9.07%, respectively, whereas the obtained RMSE and BIAS when QNSE was used were 14.65% and - 6.3% respectively. Comparable skills were obtained for the rest of the variables. Local PBL schemes showed better performance than non-local schemes. Discrepancies between simulated and observed values were higher at the surface level compared to high altitude values. The sensitivity to lead time showed that best simulation performances were obtained when the lead time varies between 12 and 18 h. In addition, the results of the simulations show that better performance is obtained when the starting condition is dry.

  14. Influence of boundary conditions on fluid flow on hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simona, Fialová; František, Pochylý; Michal, Havlásek; Jiři, Malík

    2017-09-01

    The work is focused on the shape of velocity profiles of viscous liquid (water) in contact with hydrophobic surface. A demonstration is done on an example of liquid flow between two parallel plates. The solution is carried out at both the constant and variable viscosity of the liquid near the wall. The slip boundary condition of the liquid on the wall is expressed by the coefficient of adhesion and the shear stress on the wall. As a result, presented are the shapes of the velocity profiles in dependence on the coefficient of adhesion and the slip velocity on the wall. This solution is for laminar flow.

  15. Numerical solutions of telegraph equations with the Dirichlet boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Turkcan, Kadriye Tuba; Koksal, Mehmet Emir

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the Cauchy problem for telegraph equations in a Hilbert space is considered. Stability estimates for the solution of this problem are presented. The third order of accuracy difference scheme is constructed for approximate solutions of the problem. Stability estimates for the solution of this difference scheme are established. As a test problem to support theoretical results, one-dimensional telegraph equation with the Dirichlet boundary condition is considered. Numerical solutions of this equation are obtained by first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes.

  16. Radiation Boundary Conditions for the Two-Dimensional Wave Equation from a Variational Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Broeze, Jan; van Daalen, Edwin F.G.; van Daalen, E.F.G.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle is used to derive a new radiation boundary condition for the two-dimensional wave equation. This boundary condition is obtained from an expression for the local energy flux velocity on the boundary in normal direction. The wellposedness of the wave equation with this boundary

  17. Mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations with non standard boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidriri, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major applications of the domain decomposition time marching algorithm is the coupling of the Navier-Stokes systems with Boltzmann equations in order to compute transitional flows. Another important application is the coupling of a global Navier-Stokes problem with a local one in order to use different modelizations and/or discretizations. Both of these applications involve a global Navier-Stokes system with nonstandard boundary conditions. The purpose of this work is to prove, using the classical Leray-Schauder theory, that these boundary conditions are admissible and lead to a well posed problem.

  18. Non-diagonal boundary conditions for gl(1|1) super spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabinski, Andre M; Frahm, Holger, E-mail: frahm@itp.uni-hannover.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-01-29

    We study a one-dimensional model of free fermions with gl(1|1) supersymmetry and demonstrate how non-diagonal boundary conditions can be incorporated into the framework of the graded quantum inverse scattering method (gQISM) by means of super matrices with entries from a superalgebra. For super Hermitian twists and open boundary conditions subject to a certain constraint, we solve the eigenvalue problem for the super transfermatrix by means of the graded algebraic Bethe ansatz technique (gABA) starting from a fermionic coherent state. For generic boundary conditions the algebraic Bethe ansatz cannot be applied. In this case the spectrum of the super transfermatrix is obtained from a functional relation.

  19. Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions in the RELAP5-3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz

    2008-05-01

    The heat transfer boundary conditions used in the RELAP5-3D computer program have evolved over the years. Currently, RELAP5-3D has the following options for the heat transfer boundary conditions: (a) heat transfer correlation package option, (b) non-convective option (from radiation/conduction enclosure model or symmetry/insulated conditions), and (c) other options (setting the surface temperature to a volume fraction averaged fluid temperature of the boundary volume, obtaining the surface temperature from a control variable, obtaining the surface temperature from a time-dependent general table, obtaining the heat flux from a time-dependent general table, or obtaining heat transfer coefficients from either a time- or temperature-dependent general table). These options will be discussed, including the more recent ones.

  20. A fast Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) solver for separating fluid-solid wall boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    We address the task of computing solutions for a separating fluid-solid wall boundary condition model. We present an embarrassingly parallel, easy to implement, fluid LCP solver.We are able to use greater domain sizes than previous works have shown, due to our new solver. The solver exploits matrix...

  1. Buckling of Monopod Bucket Foundations – Influence of Boundary Conditions and Soil-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Pinna, Rodney; Randolph, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    of large-diameter bucket foundations. Since shell structures are generally sensitive to initially imperfect geometries, eigenmode-affine imperfections are introduced in a nonlinear finite-element analysis. The influence of modelling the real lid structure compared to classic boundary conditions...

  2. A semi-analytical solution for viscothermal wave propagation in narrow gaps with arbitrary boundary conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Blijderveen, M.; de Boer, Andries

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that viscothermal wave propagation in narrow gaps can efficiently be described by means of the low reduced frequency model. For simple geometries and boundary conditions, analytical solutions are available. For example, Beltman [4] gives the acoustic pressure in the gap

  3. FULL GPU Implementation of Lattice-Boltzmann Methods with Immersed Boundary Conditions for Fast Fluid Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Boroni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM has shown great potential in fluid simulations, but performance issues and difficulties to manage complex boundary conditions have hindered a wider application. The upcoming of Graphic Processing Units (GPU Computing offered a possible solution for the performance issue, and methods like the Immersed Boundary (IB algorithm proved to be a flexible solution to boundaries. Unfortunately, the implicit IB algorithm makes the LBM implementation in GPU a non-trivial task. This work presents a fully parallel GPU implementation of LBM in combination with IB. The fluid-boundary interaction is implemented via GPU kernels, using execution configurations and data structures specifically designed to accelerate each code execution. Simulations were validated against experimental and analytical data showing good agreement and improving the computational time. Substantial reductions of calculation rates were achieved, lowering down the required time to execute the same model in a CPU to about two magnitude orders.

  4. Boundary slip from the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guigao; Zhang, Junfeng

    2009-02-01

    We report an interesting and important observation of the velocity fields from immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann methods (IB-LBM). The computed velocity profiles can deviate from theoretical predictions greatly even for very simple flow situations, both in the immersed boundary layer and the bulk region. A rigorous analysis of the IB-LBM simulated velocity for a symmetric shear flow is carried out, and the analytical solutions indicate a strong dependence of velocity on the relaxation parameter (kinetic viscosity). Also our simulations demonstrate that simply increasing the immersed boundary layer thickness is not an efficient approach to reduce such velocity discrepancy. We hope this work will bring the awareness of this essential issue to people using IB-LBM for various flow situations.

  5. Boundary condition-selective length dependence of the flexural rigidity of microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Chengyuan

    2017-07-01

    Length-dependent flexural rigidity (FR) is observed experimentally for microtubules (MTs) subjected to certain boundary conditions. To shed some light on this unique feature, we have studied the FR of MTs with different boundary conditions. A molecular structural mechanics method is employed to accurately describe the real boundary conditions imposed on MTs in experiments. Some of component protofilaments of MTs are blocked at the ends while others are free. In addition, linked kinesin is treated as an elastic body rather than a rigid body. Our simulations show that for relatively long MTs having a length comparable to those measured in experiments the length-dependent rigidity is detected only for those with fixed-free and fixed-fixed ends, which is consistent with the experimental observation. To capture the physics leading to the above phenomenon, Timoshenko beam model is adopted accounting for both transverse shear effect (TSE) and imperfect boundary effect (IBE). Comparison between TSE and IBE indicates that the boundary condition-selective length-dependence achieved for the FR of relatively long MTs is primarily a result of the influence of IBE rather than TSE.

  6. 6d Dirac fermion on a rectangle; scrutinizing boundary conditions, mode functions and spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Kouhei; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tatsumi, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    We classify possible boundary conditions of a 6d Dirac fermion Ψ on a rectangle under the requirement that the 4d Lorentz structure is maintained, and derive the profiles and spectrum of the zero modes and nonzero KK modes under the two specific boundary conditions, (i) 4d-chirality positive components being zero at the boundaries and (ii) internal chirality positive components being zero at the boundaries. In the case of (i), twofold degenerated chiral zero modes appear which are localized towards specific directions of the rectangle pointed by an angle parameter θ. This leads to an implication for a new direction of pursuing the origin of three generations in the matter fields of the standard model, even though triple-degenerated zero modes are not realized in the six dimensions. When such 6d fermions couple with a 6d scalar with a vacuum expectation value, θ contributes to a mass matrix of zero-mode fermions consisting of Yukawa interactions. The emergence of the angle parameter θ originates from a rotational symmetry in the degenerated chiral zero modes on the rectangle extra dimensions since they do not feel the boundaries. In the case of (ii), this rotational symmetry is promoted to the two-dimensional conformal symmetry though no chiral massless zero mode appears. We also discuss the correspondence between our model on a rectangle and orbifold models in some details.

  7. Influence of Spanwise Boundary Conditions on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations with the OVERFLOW code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. In the present study, two different spanwise grids are being used to investigate the effect of the spanwise extent and periodicity on the near-field unsteady structures and radiated noise. The baseline grid with periodic boundary conditions has a short span equal to 1/9th of the stowed chord, whereas the other, longer span grid adds stretched grids on both sides of the core, baseline grid to allow inviscid surface boundary conditions at both ends. The results indicate that the near-field mean statistics obtained using the two grids are similar to each other, as are the directivity and spectral shapes of the radiated noise. However, periodicity forces all acoustic waves with less than one wavelength across the span to be two-dimensional, without any variation in the span. The spanwise coherence of the acoustic waves is what is needed to make estimates of the noise that would be radiated from realistic span lengths. Simulations with periodic conditions need spans of at least six slat chords to allow spanwise variation in the low-frequencies associated with the peak of broadband slat noise. Even then, the full influence of the periodicity is unclear, so employing grids with a fine, central region and highly stretched meshes that go to slip walls may be a more efficient means of capturing the spanwise decorrelation of low-frequency acoustic phenomena.

  8. On Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Hermite Discretization of the Linearised Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Neeraj; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    We define certain criteria, using the characteristic decomposition of the boundary conditions and energy estimates, which a set of stable boundary conditions for a linear initial boundary value problem, involving a symmetric hyperbolic system, must satisfy. We first use these stability criteria to show the instability of the Maxwell boundary conditions proposed by Grad (Commun Pure Appl Math 2(4):331-407, 1949). We then recognise a special block structure of the moment equations which arises due to the recursion relations and the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials; the block structure will help us in formulating stable boundary conditions for an arbitrary order Hermite discretization of the Boltzmann equation. The formulation of stable boundary conditions relies upon an Onsager matrix which will be constructed such that the newly proposed boundary conditions stay close to the Maxwell boundary conditions at least in the lower order moments.

  9. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Gang Feng

    2012-05-31

    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a

  10. Atom-partitioned multipole expansions for electrostatic potential boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M., E-mail: michael.s.lee131.civ@mail.mil [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Leiter, K. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Eisner, C. [Secure Mission Solutions, a Parsons Company (United States); Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Knap, J. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Applications such as grid-based real-space density functional theory (DFT) use the Poisson equation to compute electrostatics. However, the expected long tail of the electrostatic potential requires either the use of a large and costly outer domain or Dirichlet boundary conditions estimated via multipole expansion. We find that the oft-used single-center spherical multipole expansion is only appropriate for isotropic mesh domains such as spheres and cubes. In this work, we introduce a method suitable for high aspect ratio meshes whereby the charge density is partitioned into atomic domains and multipoles are computed for each domain. While this approach is moderately more expensive than a single-center expansion, it is numerically stable and still a small fraction of the overall cost of a DFT calculation. The net result is that when high aspect ratio systems are being studied, form-fitted meshes can now be used in lieu of cubic meshes to gain computational speedup.

  11. Damage detection of fatigue cracks under nonlinear boundary condition using subharmonic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyang; Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong; Lu, Ye

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been widely utilized for detecting fatigue crack, one of the most common forms of damage. However, one of limitations associated with this technique is that nonlinearities can be produced not only by damage but also by various intrinsic effects such as boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as two elastic, frictionless half spaces that enter into contact during vibration and where the contact obeys the basic Hertz contact law. The nonlinear ordinary differential equation drawn from the developed model was solved with the method of multiple scales. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied. Different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack were found that can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments using an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal could be used to detect the fatigue crack and further to distinguish it from inherent nonlinear boundary conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  13. The boundary conditions for simulations of a shake-table experiment on the seismic response of 3D slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Cong, Shengyi; Ling, Xianzhang; Ju, Nengpan

    2017-01-01

    Boundary conditions can significantly affect a slope's behavior under strong earthquakes. To evaluate the importance of boundary conditions for finite element (FE) simulations of a shake-table experiment on the slope response, a validated three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear FE model is presented, and the numerical and experimental results are compared. For that purpose, the robust graphical user-interface "SlopeSAR", based on the open-source computational platform OpenSees, is employed, which simplifies the effort-intensive pre- and post-processing phases. The mesh resolution effect is also addressed. A parametric study is performed to evaluate the influence of boundary conditions on the FE model involving the boundary extent and three types of boundary conditions at the end faces. Generally, variations in the boundary extent produce inconsistent slope deformations. For the two end faces, fixing the y-direction displacement is not appropriate to simulate the shake-table experiment, in which the end walls are rigid and rough. In addition, the influence of the length of the 3D slope's top face and the width of the slope play an important role in the difference between two types of boundary conditions at the end faces (fixing the y-direction displacement and fixing the ( y, z) direction displacement). Overall, this study highlights that the assessment of a comparison between a simulation and an experimental result should be performed with due consideration to the effect of the boundary conditions.

  14. A unified analysis of kinetic models for the problem of thermal creep based on the boundary conditions of Cercignani-Lampis for heterogeneous plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Cinara Ewerling da, E-mail: cinara@pb.ifarroupilha.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IFF/UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Federal Farroupilha, Panambi, RS (Brazil); Knackfuss, Rosenei Felippe, E-mail: knackfuss@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work is presented a series of numerical results and graphical comparisons of the physical quantities of interest such as: the velocity profile and the heat on profile. This formulation is developed for the problem of Thermal Creep, where the gas is moving between two parallel plates with different chemical constitutions (heterogeneous plates) due to a temperature gradient. The flow of a rarefied gas, is investigated with special attention to the gas-surface interaction, modeled by the Cercignani-Lampis kernel, that unlike Maxwell's scattering kernel, is defined in terms of two accommodation coefficients (normal and tangential) to represent the physical properties of the gas. The kinetic theory for rarefied gas dynamics, derived from the linearized Boltzmann equation, is developed in an unified approach, to the BGK model, S model, GJ model and MRS model. In the search for solutions to solve the problem of Thermal Creep with kernel of the Cercignani-Lampis, we used a analytical version of the discrete ordinates method (ADO) based on an arbitrary quadrature scheme, under which is determined a problem of eigenvalues and their respective separation constants. Numerical results are developed by the computer program FORTRAN. (author)

  15. Effect of boundary conditions on magnetocapacitance effect in a ring-type magnetoelectric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    By considering the nonlinear magneto-elastic coupling relationships of magnetostrictive materials, an analytical model is proposed. The resonance frequencies can be accurately predicted by this theoretical model, and they are in good agreement with experimental data. Subsequently, the magnetocapacitance effect in a ring-type magnetoelectric (ME) structure with different boundary conditions is investigated, and it is found that various mechanical boundaries, the frequency, the magnetic field, the geometric size, and the interface bonding significantly affect the capacitance of the ME structure. Further, additional resonance frequencies can be predicted by considering appropriate imperfect interface bonding. Finally, the influence of an external force on the capacitance is studied. The result shows that an external force on the boundary changes the capacitance, but has only a weak influence on the resonance frequency.

  16. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  17. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...... pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  18. Crossing boundaries in a collaborative modeling workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Cravens, Amanda; Miller, Brian W.; Talbert, Marian; Talbert, Colin; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Fink, Michelle; Decker, Karin; Odell, Eric

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial literature on the importance of bridging across disciplinary and science–management boundaries. One of the ways commonly suggested to cross boundaries is for participants from both sides of the boundary to jointly produce information (i.e., knowledge co-production). But simply providing tools or bringing people together in the same room is not sufficient. Here we present a case study documenting the mechanisms by which managers and scientists collaborated to incorporate climate change projections into Colorado’s State Wildlife Action Plan. A critical component of the project was the use of a collaborative modeling and visualization workspace: the U.S. Geological Survey’s Resource for Advanced Modeling (RAM). Using video analysis and pre/post surveys from this case study, we examine how the RAM facilitated cognitive and social processes that co-produced a more salient and credible end product. This case provides practical suggestions to scientists and practitioners who want to implement actionable science.

  19. Global existence and exponential growth for a viscoelastic wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gerbi, Stéphane

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions and a viscoelastic term. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin method combined with the fixed point theorem, we show the existence and uniqueness of a local in time solution. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data, the solution continues to exist globally in time. On the other hand, if the interior source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution is unbounded and grows as an exponential function. In addition, in the absence of the strong damping, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time.

  20. A Boundary Mixture Approach to Violations of Conditional Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Conditional independence is a fundamental principle in latent variable modeling and item response theory. Violations of this principle, commonly known as local item dependencies, are put in a test information perspective, and sharp bounds on these violations are defined. A modeling approach is proposed that makes use of a mixture representation of…

  1. CFD Analysis of the Human Exhalation Flow using Different Boundary Conditions and Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafruela, J.M.; Olmedo, Inés; Ruiz de Adana, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the dispersion of the exhaled contaminants by humans in indoor environments, with special attention to the exhalation jet and its interaction with the indoor airflow pattern in both mixing and displacement ventilation conditions. The way in which three different numerical...... different environmental conditions and to validate whether a steady boundary condition of the exhalation flow may simulate human breathing in an effective and accurate way. The results show a very good agreement of the numerical results obtained for Test a and the experimental data. This fact confirms...... the use of numerical simulation as a powerful tool to predict the contaminant distribution exhaled by a human. The numerical tests with steady boundary conditions for the exhalation flow require a transitory resolution procedure and the predictions provided by these models display some discrepancies...

  2. Numerical Study of Outlet Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Turbulent Internal Flows Using the NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the outlet boundary conditions for turbulent internal flow simulations. Several outlet boundary conditions have been investigated by applying the National Combustion Code (NCC) to the configuration of a LM6000 single injector flame tube. First of all, very large eddy simulations (VLES) have been performed using the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS) approach, in which both the nonlinear and linear dynamic subscale models were employed. Secondly, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier- Stokes (URANS) simulations have also been performed for the same configuration to investigate the effects of different outlet boundary conditions in the context of URANS. Thirdly, the possible role of the initial condition is inspected by using three different initial flow fields for both the PRNS/VLES simulation and the URANS simulation. The same grid is used for all the simulations and the number of mesh element is about 0.5 million. The main purpose of this study is to examine the long-time behavior of the solution as determined by the imposed outlet boundary conditions. For a particular simulation to be considered as successful under the given initial and boundary conditions, the solution must be sustainable in a physically meaningful manner over a sufficiently long period of time. The commonly used outlet boundary condition for steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is a fixed pressure at the outlet with all the other dependent variables being extrapolated from the interior. The results of the present study suggest that this is also workable for the URANS simulation of the LM6000 injector flame tube. However, it does not work for the PRNS/VLES simulation due to the unphysical reflections of the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. This undesirable situation can be practically alleviated by applying a simple unsteady convection equation for the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. The

  3. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  4. Global Ocean Forecast System V3.0 Validation Test Report Addendum: Provision of Boundary Conditions to the Relocatable Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    Model (NLOM) and 1/8º Modular Ocean Data Assimilation ( MODAS )). This document can be viewed as both a User’s Manual and an addendum to the Phase II...8217 = experiment number x10 (000=from archive file) 3 ’yrflag’ = days in year flag (0=360J16,1=366J16,2=366J01,3- actual ) $NX ’idm...366J01,3- actual ) $NX ’idm ’ = longitudinal array size $NY ’jdm ’ = latitudinal array size 32 ’kdm ’ = number of layers 34.0

  5. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  6. Solution of a Problem Linear Plane Elasticity with Mixed Boundary Conditions by the Method of Boundary Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of …eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.

  7. Influence of Different Boundary Conditions in Finite Element Analysis on Pelvic Biomechanical Load Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Wu, Tao; Wang, Hui-Zhi; Qi, Xin-Zheng; Yao, Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2017-02-01

    To observe the effects of boundary conditions and connect conditions on biomechanics predictions in finite element (FE) pelvic models. Three FE pelvic models were constructed to analyze the effect of boundary conditions and connect conditions in the hip joint: an intact pelvic model assumed contact of the hip joint on both sides (Model I); and a pelvic model assumed the hip joint connecting surfaces fused together with (Model II) or without proximal femurs (Model III). The model was validated by bone surface strains obtained from strain gauges in an in vitro pelvic experiment. Vertical load was applied to the pelvic specimen, and the same load was simulated in the FE model. There was a strong correlation between the FE analysis results of Model I and the experimental results (R 2 = 0.979); meanwhile, the correlation coefficient and the linear regression function increased slightly with increasing load force. Comparing the three models, the stress values in the point near the pubic symphysis in Model III were 48.52 and 39.1% lower, respectively, in comparison with Models I and II. Furthermore, the stress values on the dome region of the acetabulum in Models II and III were 103.61 and 390.53% less than those of Model I. Besides, the posterior acetabular wall stress values of Model II were 197.15 and 305.17% higher than those of Models I and III, respectively. These findings suggest that the effect of the connect condition in the hip joint should not be neglected, especially in studies related to clinical applications. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Moment-based boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann simulations of natural convection in cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2016-06-29

    We study a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model for natural convection with moment-based boundary conditions. The unknown primary variables of the algorithm at a boundary are found by imposing conditions directly upon hydrodynamic moments, which are then translated into conditions for the discrete velocity distribution functions. The method is formulated so that it is consistent with the second order implementation of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equations for fluid flow and temperature. Natural convection in square cavities is studied for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 108. An excellent agreement with benchmark data is observed and the flow fields are shown to converge with second order accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  9. Influence of Boundary Conditions and Defects on the Buckling Behavior of SWCNTs via a Structural Mechanics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boundary conditions and defects on the buckling behavior of SWCNTs are investigated using a structural mechanics model. Due to the application of carbon nanotubes in different fields such as NEMS, where they are subjected to different loading and boundary conditions, an investigation of buckling behavior of nanotubes with different boundary conditions is necessary. Critical buckling loads and the effects of vacancy and Stone-Wales defects were studied for zigzag and armchair nanotubes with various boundary conditions and aspect ratios (length/diameter. The comparison of our results with those of the buckling of shells with cutouts indicates that vacancy defects in carbon nanotubes can most likely be modeled as cutouts of the shells. Finally, a hybrid vacancy defect and Stone-Wales defect are also developed, and their effect on the critical buckling loads is studied.

  10. Boundary conditions in the Ginzburg Landau Formulation in heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linearized gap equation is the basis for the microscopic derivation of the second order terms in the Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion. However, close to the boundary these second order terms do not have the same form, since the kernel is changed due to quasi-particle scattering. In addition, these boundary ...

  11. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gradient near a wall have to satisfy the no-slip condition at every instant. ... The well known Bernoulli equation giving a relation .... resistance being proportional to the slip velocity itself. leads to infinite stress. But this model was proposed before the. N-S equations were known. The third hypothesis was due to Navier himself.

  12. Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer : A Model Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J H; van de Wiel, B.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically

  13. Vibration analysis of multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary and coupling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Chaofan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of studying the vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system under various boundary and coupling conditions, this paper constructs a free vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The vibration characteristics of a multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary supports and elastic coupling conditions are investigated using the current analysis model. Unlike most existing techniques, the beam displacement function is generally sought as an improved Fourier cosine series, and four sine terms are introduced to overcome all the relevant discontinuities or jumps of elastic boundary conditions. On this basis, the unknown series coefficients of the displacement function are treated as the generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, and the vibration problem of multi-span bean systems is converted into a standard eigenvalue problem concerning the unknown displacement expansion coefficient. By comparing the free vibration characteristics of the proposed method with those of the FEA method, the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are validated, providing a reliable and theoretical basis for multi-span beam system structure in engineering applications.

  14. A simple and efficient outflow boundary condition for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have proposed special treatments for outlet boundary conditions owing to lack of information at the outlet. Among them, the simplest method requires a large enough computational domain to prevent or reduce numerical errors at the boundaries. However, an efficient method generally requires special treatment to overcome the problems raised by the outlet boundary condition used. For example, mass flux is not conserved and the fluid field is not divergence-free at the outlet boundary. Overcoming these problems requires additional computational cost. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient outflow boundary condition for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, aiming to reduce the computational domain for simulating flow inside a long channel in the streamwise direction. The proposed outflow boundary condition is based on the transparent equation, where a weak formulation is used. The pressure boundary condition is derived by using the Navier–Stokes equations and the outlet flow boundary condition. In the numerical algorithm, a staggered marker-and-cell grid is used and temporal discretization is based on a projection method. The intermediate velocity boundary condition is consistently adopted to handle the velocity–pressure coupling. Characteristic numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, the agreement of computational results from small and large domains suggests that our proposed outflow boundary condition can significantly reduce computational domain sizes.

  15. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  16. Path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation with open-boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhang; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Boixo, Sergio; Neven, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    The tunneling decay event of a metastable state in a fully connected quantum spin model can be simulated efficiently by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) [Isakov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180402]. This is because the exponential scaling with the number of spins of the thermally assisted quantum tunneling rate and the Kramers escape rate of QMC are identical [Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 012322 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.012322], a result of a dominant instantonic tunneling path. In Isakov et al., it was also conjectured that the escape rate in open-boundary QMC is quadratically larger than that of conventional periodic-boundary QMC; therefore, open-boundary QMC might be used as a powerful tool to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The intuition behind this conjecture is that the action of the instanton in open-boundary QMC is a half of that in periodic-boundary QMC. Here, we show that this simple intuition—although very useful in interpreting some numerical results—deviates from the actual situation in several ways. Using a fully connected quantum spin model, we derive a set of conditions on the positions and momenta of the end points of the instanton, which remove the extra degrees of freedom due to open boundaries. In comparison, the half-instanton conjecture incorrectly sets the momenta at the end points to zero. We also found that the instantons in open-boundary QMC correspond to quantum tunneling events in the symmetric subspace (maximum total angular momentum) at all temperatures, whereas the instantons in periodic-boundary QMC typically lie in subspaces with lower total angular momenta at finite temperatures. This leads to a lesser-than-quadratic speedup at finite temperatures. The results provide useful insights in utilizing open-boundary QMC to solve hard optimization problems. We also outline the generalization of the instantonic tunneling method to many-qubit systems without permutation

  17. Importance of initial buoyancy field on evolution of mantle thermal structure: Implications of surface boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Glišović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique

  18. Revisit boundary conditions for the self-adjoint angular flux formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the boundary conditions for SAAF. We derived the equivalent parity variational form ready for coding up. The more rigorous approach of evaluating odd parity should be solving the odd parity equation coupled with the even parity. We proposed a symmetric reflecting boundary condition although neither positive definiteness nor even-odd decoupling is achieved. A simple numerical test verifies the validity of these boundary conditions.

  19. Solution to the one-dimensional telegrapher's equation subject to a backreaction boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Prüstel, Thorsten; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss solutions of the one-dimensional telegrapher's equation in the presence of boundary conditions. We revisit the case of a radiation boundary condition and obtain an alternative expression for the already known Green's function. Furthermore, we formulate a backreaction boundary condition, which has been widely used in the context of diffusion-controlled reversible reactions, for a one-dimensional telegrapher's equation and derive the corresponding Green's function.

  20. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. This model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake model approach with a “top-down” model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake model

  1. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mueller

    2017-01-01

    We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  2. Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and Z{sub 4} fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Paul A., E-mail: p.pearce@ms.unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rasmussen, Jørgen, E-mail: j.rasmussen@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Tipunin, Ilya Yu., E-mail: tipunin@gmail.com [TAMM Theory Division, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninski Pr., 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    For general Temperley–Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p{sup ′}) with p,p{sup ′} coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang–Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley–Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member LM(1,2) of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity β=0 and central charge c=−2. Specialising to LM(1,2) with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size N and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler–Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is established directly in the Temperley–Lieb algebra. We classify the eigenvalues of the double row transfer matrices using the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral parameter plane and obtain finitised characters related to spaces of coinvariants of Z{sub 4} fermions. In the continuum scaling limit, the Robin boundary conditions are associated with irreducible Virasoro Verma modules with conformal weights Δ{sub r,s−1/2} =1/(32) (L{sup 2}−4) where L=2s−1−4r, r∈Z, s∈N. These conformal weights populate a Kac table with half-integer Kac labels. Fusion of the corresponding modules with the generators of the Kac fusion algebra is examined and general fusion rules are proposed.

  3. Effective nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions for 1D nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerand, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    We study Hamilton-Jacobi equations in [ 0 , + ∞) of evolution type with nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions in the case where the Hamiltonian is not necessarily convex with respect to the gradient variable. In this paper, we give two main results. First, we prove for a nonconvex and coercive Hamiltonian that general boundary conditions in a relaxed sense are equivalent to effective ones in a strong sense. Here, we exhibit the effective boundary conditions while for a quasi-convex Hamiltonian, we already know them (Imbert and Monneau, 2016). Second, we give a comparison principle for a nonconvex and nonnecessarily coercive Hamiltonian where the boundary condition can have constant parts.

  4. Semi-transparent boundary conditions in the worldline formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, S A Franchino; Pisani, P A G, E-mail: safranchino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: pisani@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP-CONICET/Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-22

    The interaction of a quantum field with a background containing a Dirac delta function with support on a surface of codimension 1 represents a particular kind of matching conditions on that surface for the field. In this paper, we show that the worldline formalism can be applied to this model. We obtain the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel corresponding to a scalar field on R{sup d+1} in the presence of an arbitrary regular potential and subject to this kind of matching conditions on a flat surface. We also consider two such surfaces and compute their Casimir attraction due to the vacuum fluctuations of a massive scalar field weakly coupled to the corresponding Dirac deltas.

  5. Impacts of boundary condition changes on regional climate projections over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hee; Kim, Yeonjoo; Wang, Guiling

    2017-06-01

    Future projections using regional climate models (RCMs) are driven with boundary conditions (BCs) typically derived from global climate models. Understanding the impact of the various BCs on regional climate projections is critical for characterizing their robustness and uncertainties. In this study, the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (RegCM4) is used to investigate the impact of different aspects of boundary conditions, including lateral BCs and sea surface temperature (SST), on projected future changes of regional climate in West Africa, and BCs from the coupled European Community-Hamburg Atmospheric Model 5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model are used as an example. Historical, future, and several sensitivity experiments are conducted with various combinations of BCs and CO2 concentration, and differences among the experiments are compared to identify the most important drivers for RCMs. When driven by changes in all factors, the RegCM4-produced future climate changes include significantly drier conditions in Sahel and wetter conditions along the Guinean coast. Changes in CO2 concentration within the RCM domain alone or changes in wind vectors at the domain boundaries alone have minor impact on projected future climate changes. Changes in the atmospheric humidity alone at the domain boundaries lead to a wetter Sahel due to the northward migration of rain belts during summer. This impact, although significant, is offset and dominated by changes of other BC factors (primarily temperature) that cause a drying signal. Future changes of atmospheric temperature at the domain boundaries combined with SST changes over oceans are sufficient to cause a future climate that closely resembles the projection that accounts for all factors combined. Therefore, climate variability and changes simulated by RCMs depend primarily on the variability and change of temperature aspects of the RCM BCs. Moreover, it is found that the response

  6. Boundary tension of 2D and 3D Ising models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Hoede, C.

    A simple route to determine the boundary tension of Ising models is proposed. As pointed out by Onsager, the boundary tension is an important quantity since it vanishes at the critical temperature and can thus be used to determine the critical temperature. Here we derive expressions for the boundary

  7. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2012-01-01

    As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.

  8. Rayleigh-Benard convection with time-dependent boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.

    1989-04-15

    The 13-mode Lorenz model previously introduced to describe hexagons and rolls in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with periodic modulation of the lower plate is generalized to arbitrary time dependence of both upper and lower plates. Earlier results of Krishnamurti (J. Fluid Mech. 33, 445 (1968); 33, 457 (1968)) for the case of a linear ramp with constant temperature difference are recovered. The conditions for observing hexagons are derived analytically for periodic modulation with different frequencies, amplitudes, and phases at the two plates.

  9. Questions on solvability of exterior boundary value problems with fractional boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berikbol Torebek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study questions on solvability of some boundary value problems for the Laplace equation with boundary integro-differential operators in the exterior of a unit ball. We study properties of the given integral - differential operators of fractional order in a class of functions which are harmonic outside a ball. We prove theorems about existence and uniqueness of a solution of the problem. We construct explicit form of the solution of the problem in integral form, by solving the Dirichlet problem.

  10. On the structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for grain boundary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1984-08-01

    The applicability of the structural unit/grain boundary dislocation (GBD) model to the atomistic structures of [001] and [011] tilt boundary series recently calculated by Sutton, Vitek and Wang is studied in detail. It is found that a hierarchy of structural unit/GBD descriptions exists which may be used to describe such boundaries. Each description corresponds to a different choice of "delimiting boundary" structural units which are mixed together to make up all boundaries in the series. In all cases the structural units exhibit systematic distortions as the tilt angle changes. As the number of delimiting boundaries in a series is increased, and the range of structures is "quantized" on a finer scale, the distortions of the structural units decreases, but the amount of information regarding the GBD structure is decreased. It is pointed out that different members of the hierarchy of descriptions can be used advantageously for different purposes.

  11. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  12. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.

    2017-10-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  13. Simulation of Couette flow using conventional Burnett equations with modified slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hualin; Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Weifang

    2016-11-01

    Gas or liquid flow through small channels has become more and more popular due to the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies such as micro-motors, electrostatic comb-drive, micro-chromatographs, micro-actuators, micro-turbines and micro-pumps, etc. The flow conditions in and around these systems are always recognized as typical transitional regimes. Under these conditions, the mean free path of gas molecules approaches the characteristic scale of the micro-devices itself, and due to the little collisions the heat and momentum cannot equilibrate between the wall and fluids quickly. Couette flow is a simple and critical model in fluid dynamics which focuses on the mechanism of the heat transfer in shear-driven micro-cavities or micro-channels. Despite numerous work on the numerical solutions of the Couette flow, how to propose stable and accurate slip boundary conditions in rarefied flow conditions still remains to be elucidated. In this paper, converged solutions for steady-state micro Couette flows are obtained by using conventional Burnett equations with a set of modified slip boundary conditions. Instead of using the physical variables at the wall, the modified slip conditions use the variables at the edge of the Knudsen layer based on a physically plausible assumption in literature that Knudsen layer has a thickness only in the order of a mean free path and molecules are likely to travel without collision in this layer. Numerical results for non-dimensional wall shear stress and heat flux are compared with those of the DSMC solutions. Although there are not much improvement in the accuracy by using this modified slip conditions, the modified conditions perform much better than the unmodified slip conditions for numerical stabilization. All results show that the set of conventional Burnett equations with second order modified conditions are proved to be an appropriate model for the micro-Couette flows.

  14. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.

  15. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Three-Dimensional Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  16. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite volume, finite difference, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  17. Sensitivity of Pliocene climate simulations in MRI-CGCM2.3 to respective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Accumulations of global proxy data are essential steps for improving reliability of climate model simulations for the Pliocene warming climate. In the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PlioMIP2), a part project of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4, boundary forcing data have been updated from the PlioMIP phase 1 due to recent advances in understanding of oceanic, terrestrial and cryospheric aspects of the Pliocene palaeoenvironment. In this study, sensitivities of Pliocene climate simulations to the newly archived boundary conditions are evaluated by a set of simulations using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model, MRI-CGCM2.3. The simulated Pliocene climate is warmer than pre-industrial conditions for 2.4 °C in global mean, corresponding to 0.6 °C warmer than the PlioMIP1 simulation by the identical climate model. Revised orography, lakes, and shrunk ice sheets compared with the PlioMIP1 lead to local and remote influences including snow and sea ice albedo feedback, and poleward heat transport due to the atmosphere and ocean that result in additional warming over middle and high latitudes. The amplified higher-latitude warming is supported qualitatively by the proxy evidences, but is still underestimated quantitatively. Physical processes responsible for the global and regional climate changes should be further addressed in future studies under systematic intermodel and data-model comparison frameworks.

  18. Aeroelastic analysis of versatile thermal insulation (VTI) panels with pinched boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Erasmo; Zappino, Enrico; Patočka, Karel; Komarek, Martin; Ferrarese, Adriano; Montabone, Mauro; Kotzias, Bernhard; Huermann, Brian; Schwane, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Launch vehicle design and analysis is a crucial problem in space engineering. The large range of external conditions and the complexity of space vehicles make the solution of the problem really challenging. The problem considered in the present work deals with the versatile thermal insulation (VTI) panel. This thermal protection system is designed to reduce heat fluxes on the LH2 tank during the long coasting phases. Because of the unconventional boundary conditions and the large-scale geometry of the panel, the aeroelastic behaviour of VTI is investigated in the present work. Known available results from literature related to similar problem, are reviewed by considering the effect of various Mach regimes, including boundary layer thickness effects, in-plane mechanical and thermal loads, non-linear effects and amplitude of limit cycle oscillations. A dedicated finite element model is developed for the supersonic regime. The models used for coupling the orthotropic layered structural model with Piston Theory aerodynamic models allow the calculations of flutter conditions in case of curved panels supported in a discrete number of points. An advanced computational aeroelasticity tool is developed using various dedicated commercial softwares (CFX, ZAERO, EDGE). A wind tunnel test campaign is carried out to assess the computational tool in the analysis of this type of problem.

  19. Characterizing summertime chemical boundary conditions for airmasses entering the US West Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Pfister

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the pollution inflow into California during summertime and how it impacts surface air quality through combined analysis of a suite of observations and global and regional models. The focus is on the transpacific pollution transport investigated by the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission in June 2008. Additional observations include satellite retrievals of carbon monoxide and ozone by the EOS Aura Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES, aircraft measurements from the MOZAIC program and ozonesondes. We compare chemical boundary conditions (BC from the MOZART-4 global model, which are commonly used in regional simulations, with measured concentrations to quantify both the accuracy of the model results and the variability in pollution inflow. Both observations and model reflect a large variability in pollution inflow on temporal and spatial scales, but the global model captures only about half of the observed free tropospheric variability. Model tracer contributions show a large contribution from Asian emissions in the inflow. Recirculation of local US pollution can impact chemical BC, emphasizing the importance of consistency between the global model simulations used for BC and the regional model in terms of emissions, chemistry and transport. Aircraft measurements in the free troposphere over California show similar concentration ranges, variability and source contributions as free tropospheric air masses over ocean, but caution has to be taken that local pollution aloft is not misinterpreted as inflow. A flight route specifically designed to sample boundary conditions during ARCTAS-CARB showed a prevalence of plumes transported from Asia and thus may not be fully representative for average inflow conditions. Sensitivity simulations with a regional model with altered BCs show that the temporal variability in the pollution inflow does

  20. On one method for solving transient heat conduction problems with asymmetric boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Kudinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using additional boundary conditions and additional required function in integral method of heat-transfer we obtain approximate analytical solution of transient heat conduction problem for an infinite plate with asymmetric boundary conditions of the first kind. This solution has a simple form of trigonometric polynomial with coefficients exponentially stabilizing in time. With the increase in the count of terms of a polynomial the obtained solution is approaching the exact solution. The introduction of a time-dependent additional required function, setting in the one (point of the boundary points, allows to reduce solving of differential equation in partial derivatives to integration of ordinary differential equation. The additional boundary conditions are found in the form that the required solution would implement the additional boundary conditions and that implementation would be equivalent to executing the original differential equation in boundary points. In this article it is noted that the execution of the original equation at the boundaries of the area only (via the implementation of the additional boundary conditions leads to the execution of the original equation also inside that area. The absence of direct integration of the original equation on the spatial variable allows to apply this method to solving the nonlinear boundary value problems with variable initial conditions and variable physical properties of the environment, etc.

  1. Finite-Rate Ablation Boundary Conditions for Carbon-Phenolic Heat-Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, Frank S.

    2003-01-01

    A formulation of finite-rate ablation surface boundary conditions, including oxidation, nitridation, and sublimation of carbonaceous material with pyrolysis gas injection, has been developed based on surface species mass conservation. These surface boundary conditions are discretized and integrated with a Navier-Stokes solver. This numerical procedure can predict aerothermal heating, chemical species concentration, and carbonaceous material ablation rate over the heatshield surface of re-entry space vehicles. In this study, the gas-gas and gas-surface interactions are established for air flow over a carbon-phenolic heatshield. Two finite-rate gas-surface interaction models are considered in the present study. The first model is based on the work of Park, and the second model includes the kinetics suggested by Zhluktov and Abe. Nineteen gas phase chemical reactions and four gas-surface interactions are considered in the present model. There is a total of fourteen gas phase chemical species, including five species for air and nine species for ablation products. Three test cases are studied in this paper. The first case is a graphite test model in the arc-jet stream; the second is a light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator at the Stardust re-entry peak heating conditions, and the third is a fully dense carbon-phenolic heatshield at the peak heating point of a proposed Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle. Predictions based on both finite-rate gas- surface interaction models are compared with those obtained using B' tables, which were created based on the chemical equilibrium assumption. Stagnation point convective heat fluxes predicted using Park's finite-rate model are far below those obtained from chemical equilibrium B' tables and Zhluktov's model. Recession predictions from Zhluktov's model are generally lower than those obtained from Park's model and chemical equilibrium B' tables. The effect of species mass diffusion on predicted ablation rate is also

  2. Investigation of Lattice Boltzmann wetting boundary conditions for capillaries with irregular polygonal cross-section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of an alternative wetting boundary condition for complex geometries in a phase field Lattice Boltzmann scheme, which is an alternative to the commonly used formulation by Yeomans and coworkers. Though our boundary condition is much simpler in its implementation,

  3. Eigenstates of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition is solved. Using the projection operators, we categorize eigenfunctions corresponding to each of the irreducible representations of the symmetry group . Based on these results, the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are discussed.

  4. Incorporating boundary conditions in the integral form of the radiative transfer equation for transcranial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Zhu, Yansong; Kang, Jin U.

    2016-01-01

    An integral Neumann-series implementation of the Radiative Transfer Equation that accounts for boundary conditions is proposed to simulate photon transport through tissue for transcranial optical imaging.......An integral Neumann-series implementation of the Radiative Transfer Equation that accounts for boundary conditions is proposed to simulate photon transport through tissue for transcranial optical imaging....

  5. Conditions affecting boundary response to messages out of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S

    1976-05-01

    Multiple studies evaluated the role of the following parameters in mediating the effects of auditory subliminal inputs upon the body boundary: being made aware that exposure to subliminal stimuli is occurring, nature of the priming preliminary to the input, length of exposure, competing sensory input, use of specialized content messages, tolerance for unrealistic experience, and masculinity-feminity. A test-retest design was typically employed that involved measuring the baseline Barrier score with the Holtzman bolts and then ascertaining the Barrier change when responding to a second series of Holtzman blots at the same time that subliminal input was occurring. Complex results emerged that defined in considerably new detail what facilitates and blocks the boundary-disrupting effects of subliminal messages in men and to a lesser degree in women.

  6. On the numerical solution of the diffusion equation with a nonlocal boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary specifications feature in the mathematical modeling of many phenomena. In this paper, numerical schemes are developed for obtaining approximate solutions to the initial boundary value problem for one-dimensional diffusion equation with a nonlocal constraint in place of one of the standard boundary conditions. The method of lines (MOL semidiscretization approach is used to transform the model partial differential equation into a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The partial derivative with respect to the space variable is approximated by a second-order finite-difference approximation. The solution of the resulting system of first-order ODEs satisfies a recurrence relation which involves a matrix exponential function. Numerical techniques are developed by approximating the exponential matrix function in this recurrence relation. We use a partial fraction expansion to compute the matrix exponential function via Pade approximations, which is particularly useful in parallel processing. The algorithm is tested on a model problem from the literature.

  7. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II

  8. Problem of the boundary condition in quantum cosmology: a simple example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuk, Alexander

    1988-10-01

    The quantum cosmological minisuperspace model with a massless scalar field with a potential lambdahi/sup 4/ is investigated. The Hartle-Hawking proposal gives the possibility of picking a particular solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the space of the imaginary conformal factor a and scalar field phi. An analytic expression for this solution is obtained and an analytic continuation to the space of real ..cap alpha.. and phi is performed. The boundary conditions on the surface a = O, phi=+-infinityare psi(a=O, phi=+-infinity=1. It is shown that near this boundary the psi have exponential behaviour. In the region where the interaction between gravity and the scalar field plays the main role the psi have an oscillation behaviour and this leads to the inflation of the universe. (author).

  9. The Ritz Method for Boundary Problems with Essential Conditions as Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojin Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an elementary derivation of an extension of the Ritz method to trial functions that do not satisfy essential boundary conditions. As in the Babuška-Brezzi approach boundary conditions are treated as variational constraints and Lagrange multipliers are used to remove them. However, we avoid the saddle point reformulation of the problem and therefore do not have to deal with the Babuška-Brezzi inf-sup condition. In higher dimensions boundary weights are used to approximate the boundary conditions, and the assumptions in our convergence proof are stated in terms of completeness of the trial functions and of the boundary weights. These assumptions are much more straightforward to verify than the Babuška-Brezzi condition. We also discuss limitations of the method and implementation issues that follow from our analysis and examine a number of examples, both analytic and numerical.

  10. CFD study of the flow pattern in an ultrasonic horn reactor: Introducing a realistic vibrating boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Movahedirad, Salman; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh

    2017-03-01

    Recently, great attention has been paid to predict the acoustic streaming field distribution inside the sonoreactors, induced by high-power ultrasonic wave generator. The focus of this paper is to model an ultrasonic vibrating horn and study the induced flow pattern with a newly developed moving boundary condition. The numerical simulation utilizes the modified cavitation model along with the "mixture" model for turbulent flow (RNG, k-ε), and a moving boundary condition with an oscillating parabolic-logarithmic profile, applied to the horn tip. This moving-boundary provides the situation in which the center of the horn tip vibrates stronger than that of the peripheral regions. The velocity field obtained by computational fluid dynamic was in a reasonably good agreement with the PIV results. The moving boundary model is more accurate since it better approximates the movement of the horn tip in the ultrasonic assisted process. From an optimizing point of view, the model with the new moving boundary is more suitable than the conventional models for design purposes because the displacement magnitude of the horn tip is the only fitting parameter. After developing and validating the numerical model, the model was utilized to predict various quantities such as cavitation zone, pressure field and stream function that are not experimentally feasible to measure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of boundary conditions on the solution of a hyperbolic thermoelasticity problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitokhin, Evgeniy Yu.; Babenkov, Mikhail B.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a series of problems with a short laser impact on a thin metal layer accounting various boundary conditions of the first and second kind. The behavior of the material is modeled by the hyperbolic thermoelasticity of Lord-Shulman type. We obtain analytical solutions of the problems in the semi-coupled formulation and numerical solutions in the coupled formulation. Numerical solutions are compared with the analytical ones. The analytical solutions of the semi-coupled problems and numerical solutions of the coupled problems show qualitative match. The solutions of hyperbolic thermoelasticity problems are compared with those obtained in the frame of the classical thermoelasticity. It was determined that the most prominent difference between the classical and hyperbolic solutions arises in the problem with fixed boundaries and constant temperature on them. The smallest differences were observed in the problem with unconstrained, thermally insulated edges. It was shown that a cooling zone is observed if the boundary conditions of the first kind are given for the temperature. Analytical expressions for the velocities of the quasiacoustic and quasithermal fronts as well as the critical value for the attenuation coefficient of the excitation impulse are verified numerically.

  12. Unsteady Casson nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet with thermal radiation, convective and slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibukun Sarah Oyelakin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on combined Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer in a Casson nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation and heat generation. The effects of partial slip on the velocity at the boundary, convective thermal boundary condition, Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion coefficients on the concentration boundary condition are investigated. The model equations are solved using the spectral relaxation method. The results indicate that the fluid flow, temperature and concentration profiles are significantly influenced by the fluid unsteadiness, the Casson parameter, magnetic parameter and the velocity slip. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity and temperature growth. An increase in the Dufour parameter reduces the flow temperature, while an increase in the value of the Soret parameter causes increase in the concentration of the fluid. Again, increasing the velocity slip parameter reduces the velocity profile whereas increasing the heat generation parameter increases the temperature profile. A validation of the work is presented by comparing the current results with existing literature.

  13. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions. Non-preturbative tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2012-08-23

    The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)

  14. Large time behavior of solutions to parabolic equations with Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Lio, Francesca

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we are interested in the large time behavior as t-->+[infinity] of the viscosity solutions of parabolic equations with nonlinear Neumann type boundary conditions in connection with ergodic boundary problems which have been recently studied by Barles and the author in [G. Barles, F. Da Lio, On the boundary ergodic problem for fully nonlinear equations in bounded domains with general nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linèaire 22 (5) (2005) 521-541].

  15. Personalized blood flow computations: A hierarchical parameter estimation framework for tuning boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Suciu, Constantin; Moldoveanu, Florin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2017-03-01

    We propose a hierarchical parameter estimation framework for performing patient-specific hemodynamic computations in arterial models, which use structured tree boundary conditions. A calibration problem is formulated at each stage of the hierarchical framework, which seeks the fixed point solution of a nonlinear system of equations. Common hemodynamic properties, like resistance and compliance, are estimated at the first stage in order to match the objectives given by clinical measurements of pressure and/or flow rate. The second stage estimates the parameters of the structured trees so as to match the values of the hemodynamic properties determined at the first stage. A key feature of the proposed method is that to ensure a large range of variation, two different structured tree parameters are personalized for each hemodynamic property. First, the second stage of the parameter estimation framework is evaluated based on the properties of the outlet boundary conditions in a full body arterial model: the calibration method converges for all structured trees in less than 10 iterations. Next, the proposed framework is successfully evaluated on a patient-specific aortic model with coarctation: only six iterations are required for the computational model to be in close agreement with the clinical measurements used as objectives, and overall, there is a good agreement between the measured and computed quantities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. MHD Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Flat Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  17. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  18. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J Uddin

    Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  19. Effects of boundary conditions on bistable behaviour in axisymmetrical shallow shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, P M; Seffen, K A

    2017-07-01

    Multistable shells are thin-walled structures that have more than one stable state of self-stress. We consider isotropic axisymmetrical shallow shells of arbitrary polynomial shapes using a Föppl-von Kármán analytical model. By employing a Rayleigh-Ritz approach, we identify stable shapes from local minima in the strain energy formulation, and we formally characterize the level of influence of the boundary conditions on the critical geometry for achieving bistable inversion-an effect not directly answered in the literature. Systematic insight is afforded by connecting the boundary to ground through sets of extensional and rotational linear springs. For typical cap-like shells, it is shown that bistability is generally enhanced when the extensional spring stiffness increases and when the rotational spring stiffness decreases, i.e. when boundary movements in-plane are resisted but when their rotations are not; however, for certain other shapes and large in-plane stiffness values, bistability can be enhanced by resisting but not entirely preventing edge rotations. Our predictions are furnished as detailed regime maps of the critical geometry, which are accurately correlated against finite-element analysis. Furthermore, the suitabilities of single degree-of-freedom models, for which solutions are achieved in closed form, are evaluated and compared to our more accurate predictions.

  20. Approximate albedo boundary conditions for energy multigroup X,Y-geometry discrete ordinates nuclear global calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi J.M.; Nunes, Carlos E.A.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ceanunes@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Secretaria Municipal de Educacao de Itaborai, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Novra Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-11-01

    Discussed here is the accuracy of approximate albedo boundary conditions for energy multigroup discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for criticality calculations in neutron fission reacting systems, such as nuclear reactors. The multigroup (S{sub N}) albedo matrix substitutes approximately the non-multiplying media around the core, e.g., baffle and reflector, as we neglect the transverse leakage terms within these non-multiplying regions. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy versus the computer running time. (author)

  1. Quasilinear differential equations in exterior domains with nonlinear boundary conditions and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tarfulea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to a class of quasilinear elliptic equations with nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions in exterior domains. Problems of this kind arise in various areas of science and technology. An important model case related to the initial data problem in general relativity is presented. As an application of our main result, we deduce the existence of the conformal factor for the Hamiltonian constraint in general relativity in the presence of multiple black holes. We also give a proof for uniqueness in this case.

  2. Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.

  3. Cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas: Effect of a boundary condition on the inverted velocity profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Shingo

    2015-07-01

    The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated under the following two kinds of kinetic boundary conditions. One is the modified Maxwell-type boundary condition proposed by Dadzie and Méolans [J. Math. Phys. 45, 1804 (2004), 10.1063/1.1690491] and the other is the Cercignani-Lampis condition, both of which have separate accommodation coefficients associated with the molecular velocity component normal to the boundary and with the tangential component. An asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation for small Knudsen numbers and a numerical analysis of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model equation for a wide range of the Knudsen number are performed to clarify the effect of each accommodation coefficient as well as of the boundary condition itself on the behavior of the gas, especially on the flow-velocity profile. As a result, the velocity-slip and temperature-jump conditions corresponding to the above kinetic boundary conditions are derived, which are necessary for the fluid-dynamic description of the problem for small Knudsen numbers. The parameter range for the onset of the velocity inversion phenomenon, which is related mainly to the decrease in the tangential momentum accommodation, is also obtained.

  4. Effect of 3D boundary conditions on rift propagation or failure to break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Watremez, Louise; Delescluse, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Oblique rift segments are generally modelled using two type of set-ups. The first one consist of off-set weak notches which are pulled in a cylindrical manner, the second one consist at pulling obliquely on wide weak zone inside which a system of en-echellon grabben can develop. These two set up produce diverging segments of constant age and younger oblique segments which localise after some delays which depends on the offset of the diverging segments and the rheology of the lithosphere. In this study, we propose a different set-up which consist at seeding only one diverging weak segments and at letting the continental rupture propagate through the model in order to assess 1/ how 3D boundary conditions affect the speed on propagation of the continental break-up and 2/ how the structure that form at the front of the propagating break-up affect the propagation it-self. We find that a cylindrical boundary condition or extension in the direction of propagation favour very rapid continental break-up propagation, narrow rift zones and extremely linear diverging segments. On the contrary, when a slight compression is applied in the direction of rift propagation. The propagation is slow and might even stop completely. This slow down in propagation results in an increase of pre-breakup structuration of the margins and can even cause segmentation of final spreading. The numerical models are finally compared to natural examples from the Atlantic and the South China Sea.

  5. Gowdy waves as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C

    2010-01-01

    Gowdy waves, one of the standard 'apples with apples' tests, is proposed as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the non-linear regime. As an illustration, energy-constraint preservation is separately tested in the Z4 framework. Both algebraic conditions, derived from energy estimates, and derivative conditions, deduced from the constraint-propagation system, are considered. The numerical errors at the boundary are of the same order than those at the interior points.

  6. Breaking Generalized Covariance, Classical Renormalization and Boundary Conditions from Superpotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Livshits, Gideon I

    2014-01-01

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either th...

  7. Exploring the Boundary Conditions of the Redundancy Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether study of a scientific text and a visual display that contained redundant text segments would affect memory and transfer. The authors randomly assigned 42 students from a university in the southwestern United States in equal numbers to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) a redundant condition, in which participants studied a…

  8. First-principle proof of the modified collision boundary conditions for the hard-sphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental issue lying at the foundation of classical statistical mechanics is the determination of the collision boundary conditions that characterize the dynamical evolution of multi-particle probability density functions (PDF) and are applicable to systems of hard-spheres undergoing multiple elastic collisions. In this paper it is proved that, when the deterministic N-body PDF is included in the class of admissible solutions of the Liouville equation, the customary form of collision boundary conditions adopted in previous literature becomes physically inconsistent and must actually be replaced by suitably modified collision boundary conditions.

  9. Simulations of QCD and QED with C* boundary conditions arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin; Patella, Agostino; Tantalo, Nazario

    We present exploratory results from dynamical simulations of QCD in isolation, as well as QCD coupled to QED, with C* boundary conditions. In finite volume, the use of C* boundary conditions allows for a gauge invariant and local formulation of QED without zero modes. In particular we show that the simulations reproduce known results and that masses of charged mesons can be extracted in a completely gauge invariant way. For the simulations we use a modified version of the HiRep code. The primary features of the simulation code are presented and we discuss some details regarding the implementation of C* boundary conditions and the simulated lattice action.

  10. The asymptotic equivalence of fixed heat flux and fixed temperature thermal boundary conditions for rapidly rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Julien, Keith; Nieves, David; Driggs, Derek; Marti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers adjusts the temperature such that the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions are satisfied. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading order reduced system of governing equations are therefore equivalent for both boundary condit...

  11. A Hierarchical Bayesian Setting for an Inverse Problem in Linear Parabolic PDEs with Noisy Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ruggeri, Fabrizio

    2016-05-12

    In this work we develop a Bayesian setting to infer unknown parameters in initial-boundary value problems related to linear parabolic partial differential equations. We realistically assume that the boundary data are noisy, for a given prescribed initial condition. We show how to derive the joint likelihood function for the forward problem, given some measurements of the solution field subject to Gaussian noise. Given Gaussian priors for the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary values, we analytically marginalize the joint likelihood using the linearity of the equation. Our hierarchical Bayesian approach is fully implemented in an example that involves the heat equation. In this example, the thermal diffusivity is the unknown parameter. We assume that the thermal diffusivity parameter can be modeled a priori through a lognormal random variable or by means of a space-dependent stationary lognormal random field. Synthetic data are used to test the inference. We exploit the behavior of the non-normalized log posterior distribution of the thermal diffusivity. Then, we use the Laplace method to obtain an approximated Gaussian posterior and therefore avoid costly Markov Chain Monte Carlo computations. Expected information gains and predictive posterior densities for observable quantities are numerically estimated using Laplace approximation for different experimental setups.

  12. The influence of the electrical boundary condition on domain structures and electrocaloric effect of PbTiO3 nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric effect (ECE induced by the domain switching of PbTiO3 (PTO nanoparticles under the different electrical boundary conditions is carried out using the phase field model. The toroidal moment of polarization with vortex domain structures decreases to zero taking surface charge compensation into the electrical boundary condition, i.e. intermediate electrical boundary. There exists a critical parameter value 0.25, which decides the single domain and vortex domain structures of ferroelectric nanomaterial at the room temperature. The loops of toroidal moment as a function of the applied curled electric filed are obtained under the different electrical boundary conditions. The various domain structures in ferroelectric nanostructure are discussed in detail. Moreover negative and positive adiabatic temperature changes accompanying with vortex domain structure switching are obtained with the curled electric field under the intermediate electrical boundary. These results indicate that ferroelectric nanostructures can be practical used in field of cooling and heating technology through adjusting the surface electrical boundary.

  13. A Resistive Boundary Condition Enhanced DGTD Scheme for the Transient Analysis of Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, the electromagnetic (EM) features of graphene are characterized by a discontinuous Galerkin timedomain (DGTD) algorithm with a resistive boundary condition (RBC). The atomically thick graphene is equivalently modeled using a RBC by regarding the graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet. To incorporate RBC into the DGTD analysis, the surface conductivity of the graphene composed of contributions from both intraband and interband terms is firstly approximated by rational basis functions using the fastrelaxation vector-fitting (FRVF) method in the Laplace-domain. Next, through the inverse Laplace transform, the corresponding time-domain matrix equations in integral can be obtained. Finally, these matrix equations are solved by time-domain finite integral technique (FIT). For elements not touching the graphene sheet, however, the well-known Runge-Kutta (RK) method is employed to solve the two first-order time-derivative Maxwell’s equations. The application of the surface boundary condition significantly alleviates the memory consuming and the limitation of time step size required by Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. To validate the proposed algorithm, various numerical examples are presented and compared with available references.

  14. Detecting Unsteady Blade Row Interaction in a Francis Turbine using a Phase-Lag Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouden, Alex; Cimbala, John; Lewis, Bryan

    2013-11-01

    For CFD simulations in turbomachinery, methods are typically used to reduce the computational cost. For example, the standard periodic assumption reduces the underlying mesh to a single blade passage in axisymmetric applications. If the simulation includes only a single array of blades with an uniform inlet condition, this assumption is adequate. However, to compute the interaction between successive blade rows of differing periodicity in an unsteady simulation, the periodic assumption breaks down and may produce inaccurate results. As a viable alternative the phase-lag boundary condition assumes that the periodicity includes a temporal component which, if considered, allows for a single passage to be modeled per blade row irrespective of differing periodicity. Prominently used in compressible CFD codes for the analysis of gas turbines/compressors, the phase-lag boundary condition is adapted to analyze the interaction between the guide vanes and rotor blades in an incompressible simulation of the 1989 GAMM Workshop Francis turbine using OpenFOAM. The implementation is based on the ``direct-storage'' method proposed in 1977 by Erdos and Alzner. The phase-lag simulation is compared with available data from the GAMM workshop as well as a full-wheel simulation. Funding provided by DOE Award number: DE-EE0002667.

  15. Vibrations of a Slightly Curved Microbeam Resting on an Elastic Foundation with Nonideal Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Sarı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the dynamic behavior of a slightly curved resonant microbeam having nonideal boundary conditions is presented. The model accounts for midplane stretching, an applied axial load, and a small AC harmonic force. The ends of the curved microbeam are on immovable simple supports and the microbeam is resting on a nonlinear elastic foundation. The forced vibration response of curved microbeam due to the small AC load is obtained analytically by means of direct application of the method of multiple scales (a perturbation method. The effects of the nonlinear elastic foundation as well as the effect of curvature on the vibrations of the microbeam are examined. It is found that the effect of curvature is of softening type. For sufficiently high values of the coefficients, the elastic foundation and the axial load may suppress the softening behavior resulting in hardening behavior of the nonlinearity. The frequencies and mode shapes obtained are compared with the ideal boundary conditions case and the differences between them are contrasted on frequency-response curves. The frequency response and nonlinear frequency curves obtained may provide a reference for the choice of reasonable resonant conditions, design, and industrial applications of such systems. Results may be beneficial for future experimental and theoretical works on MEMS.

  16. Spectroscopy of {sup 12}C within the boundary condition for three-body resonant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Chie [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: chie@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Kato, Kiyoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    The 3{alpha}-cluster structure of excited states in {sup 12}C is investigated by taking into account the correct boundary condition for three-body resonant states. In this study, we adopt the Complex Scaling Method (CSM), which enables us to obtain the resonant states that can be described as square integrable states with the same boundary conditions as those of the bound states, and calculate not only resonance energies but also the total decay widths of the 3{alpha} system. We compare the calculated resonance parameters to the experimental data and also to the previous 3{alpha} model results obtained with a bound state approximation. Our results well explain the many observed levels and give an assurance for the presence of the second 2{sup +} state, which is expected by the 3{alpha} model calculations with the approximations of bound state or two-body scattering. As for the negative-parity states, it is considered that the calculated 4{sup -} state is assigned to the observed E{sub x}=13.4MeV state. Through the calculation of channel amplitudes, the obtained third 0{sup +} state is found to have a s-wave dominant and a more dilute structure compared to the second 0{sup +} state.

  17. Modeling the Boundaries of Plant Ecotones of Mountain Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ivanova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ecological second-order phase transition model has been used to describe height-dependent changes in the species composition of mountain forest ecosystems. Forest inventory data on the distribution of various tree species in the Sayan Mountains (south Middle Siberia are in good agreement with the model proposed in this study. The model was used to estimate critical heights for different altitudinal belts of vegetation, determine the boundaries and extents of ecotones between different vegetation belts, and reveal differences in the ecotone boundaries between the north- and south-facing transects. An additional model is proposed to describe ecotone boundary shifts caused by climate change.

  18. On mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of transient compressible flow across open boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rian, Kjell Erik

    2003-07-01

    In numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows, artificial boundaries are needed to obtain a finite computational domain when an unbounded physical domain is given. Artificial boundaries which fluids are free to cross are called open boundaries. When calculating such flows, non-physical reflections at the open boundaries may occur. These reflections can pollute the solution severely, leading to inaccurate results, and the generation of spurious fluctuations may even cause the numerical simulation to diverge. Thus, a proper treatment of the open boundaries in numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows is required to obtain a reliable solution for realistic conditions. A local quasi-one-dimensional characteristic-based open-boundary treatment for the Favre-averaged governing equations for time-dependent three-dimensional multi-component turbulent reacting compressible flow is presented. A k-{epsilon} model for turbulent compressible flow and Magnussen's EDC model for turbulent combustion is included in the analysis. The notion of physical boundary conditions is incorporated in the method, and the conservation equations themselves are applied on the boundaries to complement the set of physical boundary conditions. A two-dimensional finite-difference-based computational fluid dynamics code featuring high-order accurate numerical schemes was developed for the numerical simulations. Transient numerical simulations of the well-known, one-dimensional shock-tube problem, a two-dimensional pressure-tower problem in a decaying turbulence field, and a two-dimensional turbulent reacting compressible flow problem have been performed. Flow- and combustion-generated pressure waves seem to be well treated by the non-reflecting subsonic open-boundary conditions. Limitations of the present open-boundary treatment are demonstrated and discussed. The simple and solid physical basis of the method makes it both favourable and relatively easy to

  19. Crossing the boundary: numerical investigation of water entry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-11-01

    Several engineering and scientific applications involve water impact problems. To accurately capture the dynamics of the cavity formation and the water ejected as a body hits the water, the formidable range of temporal and spatial scales should accurately be resolved with affordable computational cost. We have enhanced the potential of the two-phase flow version of the immersed-boundary adaptive mesh refinement flow solver, developed by our group, to perform high-fidelity two-phase flow calculations on locally refined grids. We employ a level-set method and tackle the computational challenges arise during the explicit solution of a mass-conserving reinitialization equation. In contrast to conventional approaches, we propose a convergence criterion which enables the number of iterations to be self-adjusted based on the values of the distance function. The efficiency of our method is demonstrated by performing two-phase flow calculations including the high-speed water entry of a V-shaped wedge. Our results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements and enable us to gain insight into the instability that arises on the onset of the closure phase of the cavity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1509071).

  20. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Marco; Johnston, Desmond A.; Janke, Wolfhard

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic limit of the 3d plaquette Ising model, in which the plaquette couplings in one direction were set to zero, was solved for free boundary conditions by Suzuki (1972) [1], who later dubbed it the fuki-nuke, or "no-ceiling", model. Defining new spin variables as the product of nearest-neighbour spins transforms the Hamiltonian into that of a stack of (standard) 2d Ising models and reveals the planar nature of the magnetic order, which is also present in the fully isotropic 3d plaquette model. More recently, the solution of the fuki-nuke model was discussed for periodic boundary conditions, which require a different approach to defining the product spin transformation, by Castelnovo et al. (2010) [2]. We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  1. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Mueller@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany); Johnston, Desmond A., E-mail: D.A.Johnston@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and the Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Janke, Wolfhard, E-mail: Wolfhard.Janke@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    An anisotropic limit of the 3d plaquette Ising model, in which the plaquette couplings in one direction were set to zero, was solved for free boundary conditions by Suzuki (1972) , who later dubbed it the fuki-nuke, or “no-ceiling”, model. Defining new spin variables as the product of nearest-neighbour spins transforms the Hamiltonian into that of a stack of (standard) 2d Ising models and reveals the planar nature of the magnetic order, which is also present in the fully isotropic 3d plaquette model. More recently, the solution of the fuki-nuke model was discussed for periodic boundary conditions, which require a different approach to defining the product spin transformation, by Castelnovo et al. (2010) . We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  2. Dynamic adjustment of climatological ozone boundary conditions for air-quality forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Makar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten different approaches for applying lateral and top climatological boundary conditions for ozone have been evaluated using the off-line regional air-quality model AURAMS, driven with meteorology provided by the GEM weather-forecast model. All ten approaches employ the same climatological ozone profiles, but differ in the manner in which they are applied, via the inclusion or exclusion of (i a dynamic adjustment of the climatological ozone profile in response to the model-predicted tropopause height, (ii a sponge zone for ozone on the model top, (iii upward extrapolation of the climatological ozone profile, and (iv different mass consistency corrections. The model performance for each approach was evaluated against North American surface ozone and ozonesonde observations from the BAQS-Met field study period in the summer of 2007. The original daily one-hour maximum surface ozone biases of about +15 ppbv were greatly reduced (halved in some simulations using alternative methodologies. However, comparisons to ozonesonde observations showed that the reduction in surface ozone bias sometimes came at the cost of significant positive biases in ozone concentrations in the free troposphere and upper troposphere. The best overall performance throughout the troposphere was achieved using a methodology that included dynamic tropopause height adjustment, no sponge zone at the model top, extrapolation of ozone when required above the limit of the climatology, and no mass consistency corrections (global mass conservation was still enforced. The simulation using this model version had a one-hour daily maximum surface ozone bias of +8.6 ppbv, with small reductions in model correlation, and the best comparison to ozonesonde profiles. This recommended and original methodologies were compared for two further case studies: a high-resolution simulation of the BAQS-Met measurement intensive, and a study of the downwind region of the Canadian Rockies. Significant

  3. High order local absorbing boundary conditions for acoustic waves in terms of farfield expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, Vianey; Acosta, Sebastian; Dastrup, Blake

    2017-03-01

    We devise a new high order local absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for radiating problems and scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves from obstacles of arbitrary shape. By introducing an artificial boundary S enclosing the scatterer, the original unbounded domain Ω is decomposed into a bounded computational domain Ω- and an exterior unbounded domain Ω+. Then, we define interface conditions at the artificial boundary S, from truncated versions of the well-known Wilcox and Karp farfield expansion representations of the exact solution in the exterior region Ω+. As a result, we obtain a new local absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for a bounded problem on Ω-, which effectively accounts for the outgoing behavior of the scattered field. Contrary to the low order absorbing conditions previously defined, the error at the artificial boundary induced by this novel ABC can be easily reduced to reach any accuracy within the limits of the computational resources. We accomplish this by simply adding as many terms as needed to the truncated farfield expansions of Wilcox or Karp. The convergence of these expansions guarantees that the order of approximation of the new ABC can be increased arbitrarily without having to enlarge the radius of the artificial boundary. We include numerical results in two and three dimensions which demonstrate the improved accuracy and simplicity of this new formulation when compared to other absorbing boundary conditions.

  4. Characteristic Boundary Conditions for Numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Simulation of Solar and Laboratory Plasma Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Wang, A. H.; Cassibry, J.

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the self-consistent time-dependent numerical boundary conditions for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to study the solar and laboratory plasma dynamics. It is well known that these plasma flows cover from the sub-sonic and sub-Alfvénic to super-sonic and super-Alfvénic region. Mathematically, the set of governing differential equations is transited from elliptical to hyperbolic type. In order to assure self-consistency, characteristic boundary conditions need to be used because the information propagating according to these characteristics will affect the solutions inside the computational domain. To illustrate the importance of the characteristic boundary conditions, two examples are given; one for solar plasma which is to study the energy and magnetic flux from the sub-photosphere to the corona, and the other one concerns laboratory plasma flow for the investigation of sub-Alfvénic inlet boundary conditions of an MHD nozzle flow.

  5. On the symmetry of the boundary conditions of the volume potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal'menov, Tynysbek Sh.; Arepova, Gaukhar; Suragan, Durvudkhan

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that the volume potential determines the mass or the charge distributed over the domain with density f. The volume potential is extensively used in function theory and embedding theorems. It is also well known that the volume potential gives a solution to an inhomogeneous equation. And it generates a linear self-adjoint operator. It is known that self-adjoint differential operators are generated by boundary conditions. In our previous papers for an arbitrary domain a boundary condition on the volume potential is given. In the past, it was not possible to prove the self-adjointness of these obtained boundary conditions. In the present paper, we prove the symmetry of boundary condition for the volume potential.

  6. Existence of arbitrarily smooth solutions of the LLG equation in 3D with natural boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Feischl, Michael; Tran, Thanh

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in three space dimensions with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions admits arbitrarily smooth solutions, given that the initial data is sufficiently close to a constant function.

  7. Principal Functions of Nonselfadjoint Discrete Dirac Equations with Spectral Parameter in Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Aygar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let denote the operator generated in by , , , and the boundary condition , where , , , and , are complex sequences, , , and is an eigenparameter. In this paper we investigated the principal functions corresponding to the eigenvalues and the spectral singularities of .

  8. Asymptotic behavior of solutions to nonlinear parabolic equation with nonlinear boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diabate Nabongo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that solutions of a nonlinear parabolic equation of second order with nonlinear boundary conditions approach zero as t approaches infinity. Also, under additional assumptions, the solutions behave as a function determined here.

  9. Applying the method of fundamental solutions to harmonic problems with singular boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtchev, Svilen S.; Alves, Carlos J. S.

    2017-07-01

    The method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is known to produce highly accurate numerical results for elliptic boundary value problems (BVP) with smooth boundary conditions, posed in analytic domains. However, due to the analyticity of the shape functions in its approximation basis, the MFS is usually disregarded when the boundary functions possess singularities. In this work we present a modification of the classical MFS which can be applied for the numerical solution of the Laplace BVP with Dirichlet boundary conditions exhibiting jump discontinuities. In particular, a set of harmonic functions with discontinuous boundary traces is added to the MFS basis. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared with the results form the classical MFS.

  10. Asymptotic stability and blow up for a semilinear damped wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gerbi, Stéphane

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we consider a multi-dimensional wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions, related to the KelvinVoigt damping. Global existence and asymptotic stability of solutions starting in a stable set are proved. Blow up for solutions of the problem with linear dynamic boundary conditions with initial data in the unstable set is also obtained. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertically bounded double diffusive convection in the fingering regime: comparing no-slip vs free-slip boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yantao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Vertically bounded fingering double diffusive convection (DDC) is numerically investigated, focusing on the influences of different velocity boundary conditions, i.e. the no-slip condition which is inevitable in the lab-scale experimental research, and the free-slip condition which is an approximation for the interfaces in many natural environments, such as the oceans. For both boundary conditions the flow is dominated by fingers and the global responses follow the same scaling laws, with enhanced prefactors for the free-slip cases. Therefore, the laboratory experiments with the no-slip boundaries serve as a good model for the finger layers in the ocean. Moreover, in the free-slip case although the tangential shear stress is eliminated at the boundaries, the local dissipation rate in the near-wall region may exceed the value found in the no-slip cases, which is caused by the stronger vertical motions of fingers and sheet structures near the free-slip boundaries. This counter intuitive result might be relevant...

  12. Dirac perturbations on Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Generic boundary conditions and new quasinormal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Jing, Jiliang

    2017-11-01

    We study Dirac quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (Schwarzschild-AdS) black holes, following the generic principle for allowed boundary conditions proposed in [M. Wang, C. Herdeiro, and M. O. P. Sampaio, Phys. Rev. D 92, 124006 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124006]. After deriving the equations of motion for Dirac fields on the aforementioned background, we impose vanishing energy flux boundary conditions to solve these equations. We find a set of two Robin boundary conditions are allowed. These two boundary conditions are used to calculate Dirac normal modes on empty AdS and quasinormal modes on Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. In the former case, we recover the known normal modes of empty AdS; in the latter case, the two sets of Robin boundary conditions lead to two different branches of quasinormal modes. The impact on these modes of the black hole size, the angular momentum quantum number and the overtone number are discussed. Our results show that vanishing energy flux boundary conditions are a robust principle, applicable not only to bosonic fields but also to fermionic fields.

  13. Numerical study of radiative heat transfer and effects of thermal boundary conditions on CLC fuel reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Mansour, R.; Li, H.; Habib, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its severe impacts and consequences on the climate system and ecosystem. As a promising technology proving good carbon capture ability with low-efficiency penalty, Chemical Looping Combustion technology has risen much interest. However, the radiative heat transfer was hardly studied, nor its effects were clearly declared. The present work provides a mathematical model for radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion systems and conducts a numerical research on the effects of boundary conditions, solid particles reflectivity, particles size, and the operating temperature. The results indicate that radiative heat transfer has very limited impacts on the flow pattern. Meanwhile, the temperature variations in the static bed region (where solid particles are dense) brought by radiation are also insignificant. However, the effects of radiation on temperature profiles within free bed region (where solid particles are very sparse) are obvious, especially when convective-radiative (mixed) boundary condition is applied on fuel reactor walls. Smaller oxygen carrier particle size results in larger absorption & scattering coefficients. The consideration of radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor increases the temperature gradient within free bed region. On the other hand, the conversion performance of fuel is nearly not affected by radiation heat transfer within fuel reactor. However, the consideration of radiative heat transfer enhances the heat transfer between the gas phase and solid phase, especially when the operating temperature is low.

  14. Numerical study of radiative heat transfer and effects of thermal boundary conditions on CLC fuel reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Mansour, R.; Li, H.; Habib, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its severe impacts and consequences on the climate system and ecosystem. As a promising technology proving good carbon capture ability with low-efficiency penalty, Chemical Looping Combustion technology has risen much interest. However, the radiative heat transfer was hardly studied, nor its effects were clearly declared. The present work provides a mathematical model for radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion systems and conducts a numerical research on the effects of boundary conditions, solid particles reflectivity, particles size, and the operating temperature. The results indicate that radiative heat transfer has very limited impacts on the flow pattern. Meanwhile, the temperature variations in the static bed region (where solid particles are dense) brought by radiation are also insignificant. However, the effects of radiation on temperature profiles within free bed region (where solid particles are very sparse) are obvious, especially when convective-radiative (mixed) boundary condition is applied on fuel reactor walls. Smaller oxygen carrier particle size results in larger absorption & scattering coefficients. The consideration of radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor increases the temperature gradient within free bed region. On the other hand, the conversion performance of fuel is nearly not affected by radiation heat transfer within fuel reactor. However, the consideration of radiative heat transfer enhances the heat transfer between the gas phase and solid phase, especially when the operating temperature is low.

  15. Role of open boundary conditions on the hysteretic behaviour of one-dimensional spin crossover nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruta, Daniel; Linares, Jorge; Miyashita, Seiji; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    In order to explain clearly the role of the open boundary conditions (OBCs) on phase transition in one dimensional system, we consider an Ising model with both short-range (J) and long-range (G) interactions, which has allowed us to study the cooperative nature of spin-crossover (SCO) materials at the nanometer scale. At this end, we developed a transfer-matrix method for one-dimensional (1D) SCO system with free boundary conditions, and we give numerical evidences for how the thermal spin transition curves vary as a function of the physical parameters (J, G) or an applied pressure. Moreover for OBCs case, we have derived the bulk, surface and finite-size contributions to the free energy and we have investigated the variation of these energies as function of J and system size. We have found that the surface free energy behaves like J⟨σ⟩2, where ⟨σ⟩ is the average magnetization per site. Since the properties of the nanometric scale are dramatically influenced by the system's size (N), our analytical outcomes for the size dependence represent a step to achieve new characteristic of the future devices and also a way to find various novel properties which are absent in the bulk materials.

  16. Implementation of the asymptotic corrugation boundary condition in the finite difference time domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrew E.; Kishk, Ahmed A.

    2005-12-01

    Geometry description in the finite difference time domain method is a tedious task if the geometry contains fine details, such as the case of corrugated objects. Such fine details constrain the cell size. The corrugated object can be modeled using the asymptotic corrugation boundary condition (ACBC) with a correction due to the width-over-period ratio. The ACBC forces certain field distributions inside the corrugation and allows for the removal of the corrugation teeth to have a homogeneous region with enforced field behavior that represents the actual corrugations. The ACBC approach is found to be accurate when the number of corrugations per wavelength is large (typically around 10 corrugations per wavelength). Computed results using ACBC are in good agreement with detailed simulations, which demonstrates the validity of the asymptotic approximations. Last, a major improvement in the computation time is achieved when using the ACBC to model structures that have a large number of corrugations per wavelength.

  17. Structural vibration a uniform accurate solution for laminated beams, plates and shells with general boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Guoyong; Su, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This book develops a uniform accurate method which is capable of dealing with vibrations of laminated beams, plates and shells with arbitrary boundary conditions including classical boundaries, elastic supports and their combinations. It also provides numerous solutions for various configurations including various boundary conditions, laminated schemes, geometry and material parameters, which fill certain gaps in this area of reach and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. For each case, corresponding fundamental equations in the framework of classical and shear deformation theory are developed. Following the fundamental equations, numerous free vibration results are presented for various configurations including different boundary conditions, laminated sequences and geometry and material properties. The proposed method and corresponding formulations can be readily extended to static analysis.

  18. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  19. Nonlinear Schrodinger equations on the half-line with nonlinear boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Batal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the initial boundary value problem for nonlinear Schrodinger equations on the half-line with nonlinear boundary conditions $$ u_x(0,t+\\lambda|u(0,t|^ru(0,t=0,\\quad \\lambda\\in\\mathbb{R}-\\{0\\},\\; r> 0. $$ We discuss the local well-posedness when the initial data $u_0=u(x,0$ belongs to an $L^2$-based inhomogeneous Sobolev space $H^s(\\mathbb{R}_+$ with $s\\in (\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{7}{2}-\\{\\frac{3}{2}\\}$. We deal with the nonlinear boundary condition by first studying the linear Schrodinger equation with a time-dependent inhomogeneous Neumann boundary condition $u_x(0,t=h(t$ where $h\\in H^{\\frac{2s-1}{4}}(0,T$.

  20. Exact solution for the fractional cable equation with nonlocal boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhlekova, Emilia; Dimovski, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    The fractional cable equation is studied on a bounded space domain. One of the prescribed boundary conditions is of Dirichlet type, the other is of a general form, which includes the case of nonlocal boundary conditions. In real problems nonlocal boundary conditions are prescribed when the data on the boundary can not be measured directly. We apply spectral projection operators to convert the problem to a system of integral equations in any generalized eigenspace. In this way we prove uniqueness of the solution and give an algorithm for constructing the solution in the form of an expansion in terms of the generalized eigenfunctions and three-parameter Mittag-Leffler functions. Explicit representation of the solution is given for the case of double eigenvalues. We consider some examples and as a particular case we recover a recent result. The asymptotic behavior of the solution is also studied.

  1. Boundary conditions for the formation of the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, Maarten; de Meijer, R. J.; ten Kate, I. L.; van Westrenen, W.

    Recent measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of lunar samples indicate that the Moon's bulk composition shows great similarities with the composition of the silicate Earth. Moon formation models that attempt to explain these similarities make a wide variety of assumptions about the

  2. Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Transtrum, Mark K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...

  3. A new approach to implement absorbing boundary condition in biomolecular electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Md Osman

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to employ the absorbing boundary condition in conjunction with the finite-element method (FEM) in biomolecular electrostatics. The introduction of Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary operators in electromagnetic scattering problem has been incorporated by few researchers. However, in the area of biomolecular electrostatics, this boundary condition has not been investigated yet. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, to solve nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using Newton's method and second, to find an efficient and acceptable solution with minimum number of unknowns. In this work, a Galerkin finite-element formulation is used along with a Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary operator that explicitly accounts for the open field problem by mapping the Sommerfeld radiation condition from the far field to near field. While the Bayliss-Turkel condition works well when the artificial boundary is far from the scatterer, an acceptable tolerance of error can be achieved with the second order operator. Numerical results on test case with simple sphere show that the treatment is able to reach the same level of accuracy achieved by the analytical method while using a lower grid density. Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary condition (BTABC) combined with the FEM converges to the exact solution of scattering problems to within discretization error.

  4. Numerical models for casting solidification: Part II. Application of the boundary element method to solidification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C. P.; Umeda, T.; Kimura, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A new numerical model, which is based on the boundary element method, was proposed for the simulation of solidification problems, and its application was demonstrated for solidification of metals in metal and sand molds. Comparisons were made between results from this model and those from the explicit finite difference method. Temperature recovery method was successfully adopted to estimate the liberation of latent heat of freezing in the boundary element method. A coupling method was proposed for problems in which the boundary condition of the interface consisting of inhomogeneous bodies is governed by Newton’s law of cooling in the boundary element method. It was concluded that the boundary element method which has several advantages, such as the wide variety of element shapes, simplicity of data preparation, and small CPU times, will find wide application as an alternative for finite difference or finite element methods, in the fields of solidification problems, especially for complex, three-dimensional geometries.

  5. An arbitrary boundary with ghost particles incorporated in coupled FEM-SPH model for FSI problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ting; Hu, Dean; Wan, Detao; Zhuang, Chen; Yang, Gang

    2017-12-01

    It is important to treat the arbitrary boundary of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems in computational mechanics. In order to ensure complete support condition and restore the first-order consistency near the boundary of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with SPH model, a new ghost particle method is proposed by dividing the interceptive area of kernel support domain into subareas corresponding to boundary segments of structure. The ghost particles are produced automatically for every fluid particle at each time step, and the properties of ghost particles, such as density, mass and velocity, are defined by using the subareas to satisfy the boundary condition. In the coupled FEM-SPH model, the normal and shear forces from a boundary segment of structure to a fluid particle are calculated through the corresponding ghost particles, and its opposite forces are exerted on the corresponding boundary segment, then the momentum of the present method is conservation and there is no matching requirements between the size of elements and the size of particles. The performance of the present method is discussed and validated by several FSI problems with complex geometry boundary and moving boundary.

  6. Calculation of the radial electric field with RF sheath boundary conditions in divertor geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, B.; Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Myra, J. R.; Xiao, X. T.

    2018-02-01

    The equilibrium electric field that results from an imposed DC bias potential, such as that driven by a radio frequency (RF) sheath, is calculated using a new minimal two-field model in the BOUT++ framework. Biasing, using an RF-modified sheath boundary condition, is applied to an axisymmetric limiter, and a thermal sheath boundary is applied to the divertor plates. The penetration of the bias potential into the plasma is studied with a minimal self-consistent model that includes the physics of vorticity (charge balance), ion polarization currents, force balance with E× B , ion diamagnetic flow (ion pressure gradient) and parallel electron charge loss to the thermal and biased sheaths. It is found that a positive radial electric field forms in the scrape-off layer and it smoothly connects across the separatrix to the force-balanced radial electric field in the closed flux surface region. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experiments. Plasma convection related to the E× B net flow in front of the limiter is also obtained from the calculation.

  7. On the Energetics of a Damped Beam-Like Equation for Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJAD HUSSAIN SANDILO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy estimates for a damped linear homogeneous beam-like equation will be considered. The energy estimates will be studied for different BCs (Boundary Conditions for the axially moving continuum. The problem has physical and engineering application. The applications are mostly occurring in models of conveyor belts and band-saw blades. The research study is focused on the Dirichlet, the Neumann and the Robin type of BCs. From physical point of view, the considered mathematical model expounds the transversal vibrations of a moving belt system or moving band-saw blade. It is assumed that a viscous damping parameter and the horizontal velocity are positive and constant. It will be shown in this paper that change in geometry or the physics of the boundaries can affect the stability properties of the system in general and stability depends on the axial direction of the motion. In all cases of the BCs, it will be shown that there is energy decay due to viscous damping parameter and it will also be shown that in some cases there is no conclusion whether the beam energy decreases or increases. The detailed physical interpretation of all terms and expressions is provided and studied in detail.

  8. Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    -number estimates based on output from the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (a version of SMHI with a grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20 km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary...... to the measuring site is about 100 km and the Richardson methods reproduce the height of the marine boundary layer. This suggests that the HIRLAM model adequately resolves a water fetch of 100 km with respect to predictions of the height of the marine boundary layer....

  9. Simple Navier’s slip boundary condition for the non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skoček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the Lattice Boltzmann method, as the fluid dynamics solver, to properly simulate macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition is investigated. An approximate equation relating the Lattice Boltzmann variable slip boundary condition with the macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition...

  10. Investigation of one inverse problem in case of modeling water areas with "liquid" boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheloput, Tatiana; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    In hydrodynamics often appears the problem of modeling water areas (oceans, seas, rivers, etc.) with "liquid" boundaries. "Liquid" boundary means set of those parts of boundary where impermeability condition is broken (for example, straits, bays borders, estuaries, interfaces of oceans). Frequently such effects are ignored: for "liquid" boundaries the same conditions are used as for "solid" ones, "material boundary" approximation is applied [1]. Sometimes it is possible to interpolate the results received from models of bigger areas. Moreover, approximate estimates for boundary conditions are often used. However, those approximations are not always valid. Sometimes errors in boundary condition determination could lead to a significant decrease in the accuracy of the simulation results. In this work one way of considering the problem mentioned above is described. According to this way one inverse problem on reconstruction of boundary function in convection-reaction-diffusion equations which describe transfer of heat and salinity is solved. The work is based on theory of adjoint equations [2] and optimal control, as well as on common methodology of investigation inverse problems [3]. The work contains theoretical investigation and the results of computer simulation applied for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, conditions and restrictions that should be satisfied for solvability of the problem are entered and justified in the work. Submitted work could be applied for the solution of more complicated inverse problems and data assimilation problems in the areas with "liquid" boundaries; also it is a step for developing algorithms on computing level, speed, temperature and salinity that could be applied for real objects. References 1. A. E. Gill. Atmosphere-ocean dynamics. // London: Academic Press, 1982. 2. G. I. Marchuk. Adjoint equations. // Moscow: INM RAS, 2000, 175 p. (in Russian). 3. V.I. Agoshkov. The methods of optimal control and adjoint equations in problems of

  11. Homogenization of the evolution Stokes equation in a perforated domain with a stochastic Fourier boundary condition

    KAUST Repository

    Bessaih, Hakima

    2015-04-01

    The evolution Stokes equation in a domain containing periodically distributed obstacles subject to Fourier boundary condition on the boundaries is considered. We assume that the dynamic is driven by a stochastic perturbation on the interior of the domain and another stochastic perturbation on the boundaries of the obstacles. We represent the solid obstacles by holes in the fluid domain. The macroscopic (homogenized) equation is derived as another stochastic partial differential equation, defined in the whole non perforated domain. Here, the initial stochastic perturbation on the boundary becomes part of the homogenized equation as another stochastic force. We use the twoscale convergence method after extending the solution with 0 in the holes to pass to the limit. By Itô stochastic calculus, we get uniform estimates on the solution in appropriate spaces. In order to pass to the limit on the boundary integrals, we rewrite them in terms of integrals in the whole domain. In particular, for the stochastic integral on the boundary, we combine the previous idea of rewriting it on the whole domain with the assumption that the Brownian motion is of trace class. Due to the particular boundary condition dealt with, we get that the solution of the stochastic homogenized equation is not divergence free. However, it is coupled with the cell problem that has a divergence free solution. This paper represents an extension of the results of Duan and Wang (Comm. Math. Phys. 275:1508-1527, 2007), where a reaction diffusion equation with a dynamical boundary condition with a noise source term on both the interior of the domain and on the boundary was studied, and through a tightness argument and a pointwise two scale convergence method the homogenized equation was derived. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  12. On Nonlinear Inverse Problems of Heat Transfer with Radiation Boundary Conditions: Application to Dehydration of Gypsum Plasterboards Exposed to Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belmiloudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates boundary optimal controls and parameter estimates to the well-posedness nonlinear model of dehydration of thermic problems. We summarize the general formulations for the boundary control for initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear partial differential equations modeling the heat transfer and derive necessary optimality conditions, including the adjoint equation, for the optimal set of parameters minimizing objective functions J. Numerical simulations illustrate several numerical optimization methods, examples, and realistic cases, in which several interesting phenomena are observed. A large amount of computational effort is required to solve the coupled state equation and the adjoint equation (which is backwards in time, and the algebraic gradient equation (which implements the coupling between the adjoint and control variables. The state and adjoint equations are solved using the finite element method.

  13. Nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions of arbitrary order and multi-strip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We study boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions of order $q in (m-1, m]$, $m ge 2$ with multi-strip boundary conditions. Multi-strip boundary conditions may be regarded as the generalization of multi-point boundary conditions. Our problem is new in the sense that we consider a nonlocal strip condition of the form: $$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i int^{eta_i}_{zeta_i} x(sds, $$ which can be viewed as an extension of a multi-point nonlocal boundary condition: $$ x(1=sum_{i=1}^{n-2}alpha_i x(eta_i. $$ In fact, the strip condition corresponds to a continuous distribution of the values of the unknown function on arbitrary finite segments $(zeta_i,eta_i$ of the interval $[0,1]$ and the effect of these strips is accumulated at $x=1$. Such problems occur in the applied fields such as wave propagation and geophysics. Some new existence and uniqueness results are obtained by using a variety of fixed point theorems. Some illustrative examples are also discussed.

  14. OPAL Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    CENTURY is a computer model of plant-soil ecosystems that simulates the dynamics of grasslands, forest , crops, and savannas with a focus on nutri...Kamnalrut, and J. L. Kinyamario. 1993. Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide. Global

  15. Free Vibration Analysis of a Rectangular Plate with Kelvin Type Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kırışık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse vibrations of a rectangular plate with the Kelvin type boundary conditions at four corners are investigated. The plate is modeled as being attached to four lumped spring-damper systems at the corners. An analytical procedure is proposed based on the modal analysis. The completely free case of the plate is first studied. The expressions for the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of the plate are obtained by utilizing the separation of variables. Then, the case in which the stiffness and the viscous damping as external forces acting at the corners of the plate is studied. Following the modal analysis procedure, the general solution for the equation of motion of the rectangular plate is derived. Some numerical results are presented.

  16. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of the Dry Clutches under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high thermal stresses, generated between the contacting surfaces of the clutch system (pressure plate, clutch disc and flywheel due to the frictional heating during the slipping, are considered to be one of the main reasons of clutch failure. A finite element technique has been used to study the transient thermoelastic phenomena of a dry clutch. The effect of the boundary conditions on the contact pressure distribution, the temperature field and the heat flux generated along the frictional surfaces are investigated. Analysis has been completed using two dimensional axisymmetric model that was used to simulate the clutch elements. ANSYS software has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.

  17. Influence of thermal boundary conditions on convection and dynamos in early and present earth-like cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, K.; Wicht, J.; Dietrich, W.; Christensen, U. R.

    2012-12-01

    The early dynamos of Earth and Mars probably operated without an inner core being present. They were thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating, whereas the present geodynamo is thought to be predominantly driven by buoyancy fluxes which arise from the release of latent heat and the compositional enrichment associated with inner core solidification. Dynamo simulations model the secular cooling by volumetric internal buoyancy sources and the inner core-related driving by bottom sources. The impact of the inner core growth on the ancient geodynamo has been discussed extensively but is still controversial. As for Mars, the Mars Global Surveyor detected a strong northern-southern dichotomy in the crustal magnetization. A scenario proposed so far is due to such an ancient dynamo, where thermal heterogeneities at the core mantle boundary (CMB) were imposed by the lower mantle structure. A key issue here is how easily influence of the boundary anomalies emerges. Here we show that the dynamos without inner core solidification are much more sensitive to the CMB heat flows imposed by the lower mantle structure. We compare three-dimensional convection-driven MHD dynamo simulations either driven by homogeneously distributed internal heat sources or by buoyancy sources at the inner core boundary (ICB). Several different boundary heat-flux patterns are used. The effects are found even when boundaries are homogeneous. The impact of the outer boundary condition, fixed temperature or fixed heat flux, is large when convection is predominantly driven by volumetric internal heating. In the dynamos driven by ICB buoyancy sources, the lower boundary condition becomes more important. In both cases, a fixed flux condition promotes larger convective scales than a fixed temperature condition. A dipolar magnetic field can further increase the flow scale. This different sensitivity may also extend to cases when CMB heat flows are laterally inhomogeneous. In the dynamos

  18. Grid-size dependence of Cauchy boundary conditions used to simulate stream-aquifer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the simulation of stream–aquifer interactions as grids are refined vertically and horizontally and suggests that traditional methods for calculating conductance can produce inappropriate values when the grid size is changed. Instead, different grid resolutions require different estimated values. Grid refinement strategies considered include global refinement of the entire model and local refinement of part of the stream. Three methods of calculating the conductance of the Cauchy boundary conditions are investigated. Single- and multi-layer models with narrow and wide streams produced stream leakages that differ by as much as 122% as the grid is refined. Similar results occur for globally and locally refined grids, but the latter required as little as one-quarter the computer execution time and memory and thus are useful for addressing some scale issues of stream–aquifer interactions. Results suggest that existing grid-size criteria for simulating stream–aquifer interactions are useful for one-layer models, but inadequate for three-dimensional models. The grid dependence of the conductance terms suggests that values for refined models using, for example, finite difference or finite-element methods, cannot be determined from previous coarse-grid models or field measurements. Our examples demonstrate the need for a method of obtaining conductances that can be translated to different grid resolutions and provide definitive test cases for investigating alternative conductance formulations.

  19. Technical note: Coordination and harmonization of the multi-scale, multi-model activities HTAP2, AQMEII3, and MICS-Asia3: simulations, emission inventories, boundary conditions, and model output formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, Stefano; Koffi, Brigitte; Solazzo, Efisio; Keating, Terry; Hogrefe, Christian; Schulz, Michael; Benedictow, Anna; Griesfeller, Jan Jurgen; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Carmichael, Greg; Fu, Joshua; Dentener, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012-2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). To improve model estimates of the impacts of intercontinental transport of air pollution on climate, ecosystems, and human health and to answer a set of policy-relevant questions, these three initiatives performed emission perturbation modelling experiments consistent across the global, hemispheric, and continental/regional scales. In all three initiatives, model results are extensively compared against monitoring data for a range of variables (meteorological, trace gas concentrations, and aerosol mass and composition) from different measurement platforms (ground measurements, vertical profiles, airborne measurements) collected from a number of sources. Approximately 10 to 25 modelling groups have contributed to each initiative, and model results have been managed centrally through three data hubs maintained by each initiative. Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives to address a common set of policy-relevant questions, this publication provides the motivation for the modelling activity, the rationale for specific choices made in the model experiments, and an overview of the organizational structures for both the modelling and the measurements used and analysed in a number of modelling studies in this special issue.

  20. Exact controllability for a wave equation with mixed boundary conditions in a non-cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Cui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the exact controllability of a one-dimensional wave equation with mixed boundary conditions in a non-cylindrical domain. The fixed endpoint has a Dirichlet-type boundary condition, while the moving end has a Neumann-type condition. When the speed of the moving endpoint is less than the characteristic speed, the exact controllability of this equation is established by Hilbert Uniqueness Method. Moreover, we shall give the explicit dependence of the controllability time on the speed of the moving endpoint.

  1. Conformal field theory of critical Casimir forces between surfaces with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Santachiara, R.; Emig, T.

    2017-03-01

    Systems as diverse as binary mixtures and inclusions in biological membranes, and many more, can be described effectively by interacting spins. When the critical fluctuations in these systems are constrained by boundary conditions, critical Casimir forces (CCF) emerge. Here we analyze CCF between boundaries with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions, employing conformal field theory (CFT). After presenting the concept of boundary changing operators, we specifically consider two different boundary configurations for a strip of critical Ising spins: (I) alternating equi-sized domains of up and down spins on both sides of the strip, with a possible lateral shift, and (II) alternating domains of up and down spins of different size on one side and homogeneously fixed spins on the other side of the strip. Asymptotic results for the CCF at small and large distances are derived. We introduce a novel modified Szegö formula for determinants of real antisymmetric block Toeplitz matrices to obtain the exact CCF and the corresponding scaling functions at all distances. We demonstrate the existence of a surface renormalization group flow between universal force amplitudes of different magnitude and sign. The Casimir force can vanish at a stable equilibrium position that can be controlled by parameters of the boundary conditions. Lateral Casimir forces assume a universal simple cosine form at large separations.

  2. Uses of zeta regularization in QFT with boundary conditions: a cosmo-topological Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde, Emilio [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC/CSIC) Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Parell-2a planta E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-05-26

    Zeta regularization has proven to be a powerful and reliable tool for the regularization of the vacuum energy density in ideal situations. With the Hadamard complement, it has been shown to provide finite (and meaningful) answers too in more involved cases, as when imposing physical boundary conditions (BCs) in two- and higher-dimensional surfaces (being able to mimic, in a very convenient way, other ad hoc cut-offs, as non-zero depths). Recently, these techniques have been used in calculations of the contribution of the vacuum energy of the quantum fields pervading the universe to the cosmological constant (cc). Naive counting of the absolute contributions of the known fields lead to a value which is off by as much as 120 orders of magnitude, as compared with observational tests, what is known as the cosmological constant problem. This is very difficult to solve and we do not address that question directly. What we have considered-with relative success in several approaches of different nature-is the additional contribution to the cc coming from the non-trivial topology of space or from specific boundary conditions imposed on braneworld models (kind of cosmological Casimir effects). Assuming someone will be able to prove (some day) that the ground value of the cc is zero, as many had suspected until very recently, we will then be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs. We show that this value can have the correct order of magnitude-corresponding to the one coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of our universe-in a number of quite reasonable models involving small and large compactified scales and/or brane BCs, and supergravitons.

  3. Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooijdonk, I. G. S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.

    2017-02-01

    The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically lead to weakly stable, turbulent nights; clear-sky and weak-wind conditions, on the other hand, lead to very stable, weakly turbulent conditions. Previously, the dynamical behaviour near the transition between these regimes was investigated in an idealized setting, relying on Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity to describe turbulent transport. Here, we investigate a similar set-up, using direct numerical simulation; in contrast to MO-based models, this type of simulation does not need to rely on turbulence closure assumptions. We show that previous predictions are verified, but now independent of turbulence parametrizations. Also, it appears that a regime shift to the very stable state is signaled in advance by specific changes in the dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer. Here, we show how these changes may be used to infer a quantitative estimate of the transition point from the weakly stable boundary layer to the very stable boundary layer. In addition, it is shown that the idealized, nocturnal boundary-layer system shares important similarities with generic non-linear dynamical systems that exhibit critical transitions. Therefore, the presence of other, generic early warning signals is tested as well. Indeed, indications are found that such signals are present in stably stratified turbulent flows.

  4. Boundary Weyl anomaly of N=(2,2) superconformal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachas, Constantin; Plencner, Daniel [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’ École Normale Supérieure,PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06,24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2017-03-07

    We calculate the trace and axial anomalies of N=(2,2) superconformal theories with exactly marginal deformations, on a surface with boundary. Extending recent work by Gomis et al, we derive the boundary contribution that captures the anomalous scale dependence of the one-point functions of exactly marginal operators. Integration of the bulk super-Weyl anomaly shows that the sphere partition function computes the Kähler potential K(λ,λ̄) on the superconformal manifold. Likewise, our results confirm the conjecture that the partition function on the supersymmetric hemisphere computes the holomorphic central charge, c{sup Ω}(λ), associated with the boundary condition Ω. The boundary entropy, given by a ratio of hemispheres and sphere, is therefore fully determined by anomalies.

  5. Structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for grain boundary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of the structural unit/grain boundary dislocation (GBD) model to recently calculated core structures of a number of series of boundaries is considered. The following questions are posed: (1) Is there a best choice of structural units? (2) Can the distortions of these units be understood in a systematic way? (3) Are the distortions of the units of a given type sufficiently small to justify the model? Questions (1) and (2) are discussed in detail and answered affirmatively. The answer to Question (3) is qualified. Relaxations occur in all boundaries tested which tend to improve the uniformity of the units, localize the corresponding GBDs and, hence, increase the applicability of the model. The model therefore stands as the most physically viable model for representing the systmatics of the computed core structures. However, in some cases, these relaxations are relatively weak, the units exhibit significant systematic distortions, and the corresponding GBDs are partially delocalized. In such cases the model must be considered an approximation, particularly for many quantitative purposes.

  6. Structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for grain boundary structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of the structural unit/grain boundary dislocation (GBD) model to recently calculated core structures of a number of series of boundaries is considered. The following questions are posed: (1) Is there a best choice of structural units. (2) Can the distortions of these units be understood in a systematic way. (3) Are the distortions of the units of a given type sufficiently small to justify the model. Questions (1) and (2) are discussed in detail and answered affirmatively. The answer to Question (3) is qualified. It is pointed out that relaxations occur in all boundaries tested which tend to improve the uniformity of the units, localize the corresponding GBDs and, hence, increase the applicability of the model. The model therefore stands as the most physically viable model for representing the systematics of the computed core structures. However, in some cases, these relaxations are relatively weak, the units exhibit significant systematic distortions, and the corresponding GBDs are partially delocalized. In such cases the model must be considered an approximation, particularly for many quantitative purposes.

  7. Modeling and computation of boundary-layer flows laminar, turbulent and transitional boundary layers in incompressible and compressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.

  8. On integrable boundaries in the 2 dimensional O(N) σ-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniceto, Inês; Bajnok, Zoltán; Gombor, Tamás; Kim, Minkyoo; Palla, László

    2017-09-01

    We make an attempt to map the integrable boundary conditions for 2 dimensional non-linear O(N) σ-models. We do it at various levels: classically, by demanding the existence of infinitely many conserved local charges and also by constructing the double row transfer matrix from the Lax connection, which leads to the spectral curve formulation of the problem; at the quantum level, we describe the solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation and derive the Bethe-Yang equations. We then show how to connect the thermodynamic limit of the boundary Bethe-Yang equations to the spectral curve.

  9. Dynamics and local boundary properties of the dawn-side magnetopause under conditions observed by Equator-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements, taken by the magnetometer experiment (MAM on board the German Equator-S spacecraft, have been used to identify and categorise 131 crossings of the dawn-side magnetopause at low latitude, providing unusual, long duration coverage of the adjacent magnetospheric regions and near magnetosheath. The crossings occurred on 31 orbits, providing unbiased coverage over the full range of local magnetic shear from 06:00 to 10:40 LT. Apogee extent places the spacecraft in conditions associated with intermediate, rather than low, solar wind dynamic pressure, as it processes into the flank region. The apogee of the spacecraft remains close to the magnetopause for mean solar wind pressure. The occurrence of the magnetopause encounters are summarised and are found to compare well with predicted boundary location, where solar wind conditions are known. Most scale with solar wind pressure. Magnetopause shape is also documented and we find that the magnetopause orientation is consistently sunward of a model boundary and is not accounted for by IMF or local magnetic shear conditions. A number of well-established crossings, particularly those at high magnetic shear, or exhibiting unusually high-pressure states, were observed and have been analysed for their boundary characteristics and some details of their boundary and near magnetosheath properties are discussed. Of particular note are the occurrence of mirror-like signatures in the adjacent magnetosheath during a significant fraction of the encounters and a high number of multiple crossings over a long time period. The latter is facilitated by the spacecraft orbit which is designed to remain in the near magnetosheath for average solar wind pressure. For most encounters, a well-ordered, tangential (draped magnetosheath field is observed and there is little evidence of large deviations in local boundary orientations. Two passes corresponding to close conjunctions of the Geotail spacecraft

  10. Dynamics and local boundary properties of the dawn-side magnetopause under conditions observed by Equator-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements, taken by the magnetometer experiment (MAM on board the German Equator-S spacecraft, have been used to identify and categorise 131 crossings of the dawn-side magnetopause at low latitude, providing unusual, long duration coverage of the adjacent magnetospheric regions and near magnetosheath. The crossings occurred on 31 orbits, providing unbiased coverage over the full range of local magnetic shear from 06:00 to 10:40 LT. Apogee extent places the spacecraft in conditions associated with intermediate, rather than low, solar wind dynamic pressure, as it processes into the flank region. The apogee of the spacecraft remains close to the magnetopause for mean solar wind pressure. The occurrence of the magnetopause encounters are summarised and are found to compare well with predicted boundary location, where solar wind conditions are known. Most scale with solar wind pressure. Magnetopause shape is also documented and we find that the magnetopause orientation is consistently sunward of a model boundary and is not accounted for by IMF or local magnetic shear conditions. A number of well-established crossings, particularly those at high magnetic shear, or exhibiting unusually high-pressure states, were observed and have been analysed for their boundary characteristics and some details of their boundary and near magnetosheath properties are discussed. Of particular note are the occurrence of mirror-like signatures in the adjacent magnetosheath during a significant fraction of the encounters and a high number of multiple crossings over a long time period. The latter is facilitated by the spacecraft orbit which is designed to remain in the near magnetosheath for average solar wind pressure. For most encounters, a well-ordered, tangential (draped magnetosheath field is observed and there is little evidence of large deviations in local boundary orientations. Two passes corresponding to close conjunctions of the Geotail spacecraft

  11. Mesoscale Model Intercomparison and Observational Evaluation for Three Contrasting Diurnal Cycles in CASES-99: Focus on the Stable Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Mauritsen, T.; Bruijn, de E.I.F.; Svensson, G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The boundary-layer scheme in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models is an essential connection between the atmosphere and the land-surface. Despite its relevance, the representation of the boundary-layer and the diurnal cycle in NWP models is rather poor, especially for stable conditions.

  12. Structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for twist boundaries in cubic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, P. D.; Belluffi, R. W.

    1984-10-01

    The systemics of 001 twist boundary structure is presented formally in terms of a structure unit/grain boundary dislocation (GBD) hierarchical model and the earlier model of Sutton is generalized. By comparison with experimental observation and atomistic calculation using pair potential models, the physical significance of the individual members of the hierarchy is determined. Comparison with experiment indicates a strong 110 type primary relaxation for theta is equal to or 36.9 deg. and a significant secondary relaxation near Sigma 5 which must result from oblique perturbations in the array of primary GBDs. On the other hand, comparison with available calculated results indicate a strong 110 type relaxation at low angles but a progressively weaker relaxation at higher angles. Also, no evidence is found for any significant secondary relaxations when at least one pair potential is employed.

  13. Contaminant transport in soil with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie; Zhan, Hongbin; Ma, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Predicting the fate and movement of contaminant in soils and groundwater is essential to assess and reduce the risk of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. Reaction processes of contaminant often decreased monotonously with depth. Time-dependent input sources usually occurred at the inlet of natural or human-made system such as radioactive waste disposal site. This study presented a one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation (CDE) for contaminant transport in soils with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent inlet boundary conditions, and derived its analytical solution. The adsorption coefficient and degradation rate were represented as sigmoidal functions of soil depth. Solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) and concentration profiles obtained from CDE with depth-dependent and constant reaction coefficients were compared, and a constant effective reaction coefficient, which was calculated by arithmetically averaging the depth-dependent reaction coefficient, was proposed to reflect the lumped depth-dependent reaction effect. With the effective adsorption coefficient and degradation rate, CDE could produce similar BTCs and concentration profiles as those from CDE with depth-dependent reactions in soils with moderate chemical heterogeneity. In contrast, the predicted concentrations of CDE with fitted reaction coefficients at a certain depth departed significantly from those of CDE with depth-dependent reactions. Parametric analysis was performed to illustrate the effects of sinusoidally and exponentially decaying input functions on solute BTCs. The BTCs and concentration profiles obtained from the solutions for finite and semi-infinite domain were compared to investigate the effects of effluent boundary condition. The finite solution produced higher concentrations at the increasing limb of the BTCs and possessed a higher peak concentration than the semi-infinite solution which had a slightly long tail. Furthermore, the finite solution gave

  14. Explicit formulation for natural frequencies of double-beam system with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzabeigy, Alborz; Madoliat, Reza [Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabbagh, Vahid [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, free transverse vibration of two parallel beams connected through Winkler type elastic layer is investigated. Euler- Bernoulli beam hypothesis has been applied and it is assumed that boundary conditions of upper and lower beams are similar while arbitrary without any limitation even for non-ideal boundary conditions. Material properties and cross-section geometry of beams could be different from each other. The motion of the system is described by a homogeneous set of two partial differential equations, which is solved by using the classical Bernoulli-Fourier method. Explicit expressions are derived for the natural frequencies. In order to verify accuracy of results, the problem once again solved using modified Adomian decomposition method. Comparison between results indicates excellent accuracy of proposed formulation for any arbitrary boundary conditions. Derived explicit formulation is simplest method to determine natural frequencies of double-beam systems with high level of accuracy in comparison with other methods in literature.

  15. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  16. Reconsidering the boundary conditions for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya

    2008-11-01

    A careful examination of a dynamic mode I crack problem leads to the conclusion that the commonly used boundary conditions do not always hold in the case of an applied crack face loading, so that a modification is required to satisfy the equations. In particular, a transient compressive stress wave travels along the crack faces, moving outward from the loading region on the crack face. This does not occur in the quasistatic or steady state problems, and is a special feature of the transient dynamic problem that is important during the time interval immediately following the application of crack face loading. We demonstrate why the usual boundary conditions lead to a prediction of crack face interpenetration, and then examine how to modify the boundary condition for a semi-infinite crack with a cohesive zone. Numerical simulations illustrate the resulting approach.

  17. An algorithmic implementation of physical reflective boundary conditions in particle methods: Collision detection and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga Filho, Carlos Alberto Dutra

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a computational algorithmic implementation of physical reflective boundary conditions and applications, for use in particle methods. It is motivated by the lack of a straightforward study in the literature dedicated to the presentation of this reflective boundary condition, based on Newton's restitution law and the foundations of analytic geometry. Particular attention is given here to the procedures of collision detection and response. The importance of the consistency of input data and an appropriate temporal integration technique for use in the particle method is also discussed. Validation tests are performed, with the results of the algorithm verified using analytical results. Numerical simulations of static and dynamic problems are carried out. The analysis of the numerical results shows that the physical reflective boundary conditions are consistent and that the algorithm has been properly implemented.

  18. Attractor of Beam Equation with Structural Damping under Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously, considering the viscous effect of material, damping of medium, and rotational inertia, we study a kind of more general Kirchhoff-type extensible beam equation utt-uxxtt+uxxxx-σ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxx-ϕ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxxt=q(x, in  [0,L]×R+ with the structural damping and the rotational inertia term. Little attention is paid to the longtime behavior of the beam equation under nonlinear boundary conditions. In this paper, under nonlinear boundary conditions, we prove not only the existence and uniqueness of global solutions by prior estimates combined with some inequality skills, but also the existence of a global attractor by the existence of an absorbing set and asymptotic compactness of corresponding solution semigroup. In addition, the same results also can be proved under the other nonlinear boundary conditions.

  19. Constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the 3+1 first-order approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C

    2010-01-01

    A set of stable energy-momentum constraint-preserving boundary conditions are proposed for the first-order Z4 case. No linear modes appear in the robust stability test. Also, a modified finite-differences stencil for boundary points is presented, which avoids the corner and vertex points even in cartesian-like grids. Moreover, the proposed boundary conditions are tested in a strong field scenario, the Gowdy waves metric, showing that the accumulated amount of energy-momentum constraint violations is of the same order of magnitude than the one generated by either periodic or reflection conditions, which are exact in the Gowdy waves case. As a side result, a new symmetrizer is explicitly given, which extends the parametric domain of symmetric hyperbolicity for the Z4 formalism. The aplication of these results to first-order BSSN-like formalisms is also considered.

  20. (2,2) and (0,4) supersymmetric boundary conditions in 3d N =4 theories and type IIB branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Okazaki, Tadashi

    2017-10-01

    The half-BPS boundary conditions preserving N =(2 ,2 ) and N =(0 ,4 ) supersymmetry in 3d N =4 supersymmetric gauge theories are examined. The BPS equations admit decomposition of the bulk supermultiplets into specific boundary supermultiplets of preserved supersymmetry. Nahm-like equations arise in the vector multiplet BPS boundary condition preserving N =(0 ,4 ) supersymmetry, and Robin-type boundary conditions appear for the hypermultiplet coupled to the vector multiplet when N =(2 ,2 ) supersymmetry is preserved. The half-BPS boundary conditions are realized in the brane configurations of type IIB string theory.

  1. A radiative transfer equation-based image-reconstruction method incorporating boundary conditions for diffuse optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Zhu, Yansong; Wong, Dean F.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-03-01

    Developing reconstruction methods for diffuse optical imaging requires accurate modeling of photon propagation, including boundary conditions arising due to refractive index mismatch as photons propagate from the tissue to air. For this purpose, we developed an analytical Neumann-series radiative transport equation (RTE)-based approach. Each Neumann series term models different scattering, absorption, and boundary-reflection events. The reflection is modeled using the Fresnel equation. We use this approach to design a gradient-descent-based analytical reconstruction algorithm for a three-dimensional (3D) setup of a diffuse optical imaging (DOI) system. The algorithm was implemented for a three-dimensional DOI system consisting of a laser source, cuboidal scattering medium (refractive index > 1), and a pixelated detector at one cuboid face. In simulation experiments, the refractive index of the scattering medium was varied to test the robustness of the reconstruction algorithm over a wide range of refractive index mismatches. The experiments were repeated over multiple noise realizations. Results showed that by using the proposed algorithm, the photon propagation was modeled more accurately. These results demonstrated the importance of modeling boundary conditions in the photon-propagation model.

  2. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushko, Maria L., E-mail: maria.sushko@pnnl.gov; Alexandrov, Vitaly; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3–10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a plate-like structure with 1.2–1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular

  3. Boundary Condition Study for the Juncture Flow Experiment in the NASA Langley 14x22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Carlson, J.-R.; Hannon, J. A.; Jenkins, L. N.; Bartram, S. M.; Pulliam, T. H.; Lee, H. C.

    2017-01-01

    Because future wind tunnel tests associated with the NASA Juncture Flow project are being designed for the purpose of CFD validation, considerable effort is going into the characterization of the wind tunnel boundary conditions, particularly at inflow. This is important not only because wind tunnel flowfield nonuniformities can play a role in integrated testing uncertainties, but also because the better the boundary conditions are known, the better CFD can accurately represent the experiment. This paper describes recent investigative wind tunnel tests involving two methods to measure and characterize the oncoming flow in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The features of each method, as well as some of their pros and cons, are highlighted. Boundary conditions and modeling tactics currently used by CFD for empty-tunnel simulations are also described, and some results using three different CFD codes are shown. Preliminary CFD parametric studies associated with the Juncture Flow model are summarized, to determine sensitivities of the flow near the wing-body juncture region of the model to a variety of modeling decisions.

  4. Spectral boundary conditions and solitonic solutions in a classical Sellmeier dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgiorno, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Milan (Italy); INdAM-GNFM, Rome (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L. [Universita dell' Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology, Como (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Vigano, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Electromagnetic field interactions in a dielectric medium represent a longstanding field of investigation, both at the classical level and at the quantum one. We propose a 1+1 dimensional toy-model which consists of an half-line filling dielectric medium, with the aim to set up a simplified situation where technicalities related to gauge invariance and, as a consequence, physics of constrained systems are avoided, and still interesting features appear. In particular, we simulate the electromagnetic field and the polarization field by means of two coupled scalar fields φ, ψ, respectively, in a Hopfield-like model. We find that, in order to obtain a physically meaningful behavior for the model, one has to introduce spectral boundary conditions depending on the particle spectrum one is dealing with. This is the first interesting achievement of our analysis. The second relevant achievement is that, by introducing a nonlinear contribution in the polarization field ψ, with the aim of mimicking a third order nonlinearity in a nonlinear dielectric, we obtain solitonic solutions in the Hopfield model framework, whose classical behavior is analyzed too. (orig.)

  5. Dispersion estimates for spherical Schrödinger equations: the effect of boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Holzleitner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dependence of the \\(L^1\\to L^{\\infty}\\ dispersive estimates for one-dimensional radial Schrödinger operators on boundary conditions at \\(0\\. In contrast to the case of additive perturbations, we show that the change of a boundary condition at zero results in the change of the dispersive decay estimates if the angular momentum is positive, \\(l\\in (0,1/2\\. However, for nonpositive angular momenta, \\(l\\in (-1/2,0]\\, the standard \\(O(|t|^{-1/2}\\ decay remains true for all self-adjoint realizations.

  6. On Operating a Nanofiltration Membrane for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification at Sub- and Super-Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Marco; Field, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, membrane processes have gained a significant share of the market for wastewater purification. Although the product (i.e., purified water) is not of high added value, these processes are feasible both technically and from an economic point of view, provided the flux is relatively high and that membrane fouling is strongly inhibited. By controlling membrane fouling, the membrane may work for years without service, thus dramatically reducing operating costs and the need for membrane substitution. There is tension between operating at high permeate fluxes, which enhances fouling but reduces capital costs, and operating at lower fluxes which increases capital costs. Operating batch membrane processes leads to increased difficulties, since the feed fed to the membrane changes as a function of the recovery value. This paper is concerned with the operation of such a process. Membrane process designers should therefore avoid membrane fouling by operating membranes away from the permeate flux point where severe fouling is triggered. The design and operation of membrane purification plants is a difficult task, and the precision to properly describe the evolution of the fouling phenomenon as a function of the operating conditions is a key to success. Many reported works have reported on the control of fouling by operating below the boundary flux. On the other hand, only a few works have successfully sought to exploit super-boundary operating conditions; most super-boundary operations are reported to have led to process failures. In this work, both sub- and super-boundary operating conditions for a batch nanofiltration membrane process used for olive mill wastewater treatment were investigated. A model to identify a priori the point of transition from a sub-boundary to a super-boundary operation during a batch operation was developed, and this will provide membrane designers with a helpful tool to carefully avoid process failures. PMID:28708120

  7. Boundary element model for uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1998-01-01

    A BEM model covering the frequency range up to dimensionless frequency 40 but restricted to axial symmetry has been developed. A brief account of the theory is given, and various test cases for validation are described....

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in Parallel Plate Microchannel with Viscous Dissipation and Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Hari Mohan; Sahu, Santosh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed, laminar, incompressible, forced convective heat transfer characteristics of gaseous flows through a parallel plate microchannel with different constant heat flux boundary conditions. The first order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered in the analysis. Here, three different thermal boundary conditions such as: both plates kept at different constant heat fluxes, both plates kept at equal constant heat fluxes and one plate kept at constant heat flux and other one insulated are considered for the analysis. The deviation in Nusselt number between the model that considers both first order velocity slip and temperature jump and the one that considers only velocity slip is reported. Also, the effect of various heat flux ratios on the Nusselt number is reported in this analysis. In addition, the deviation in Nusselt number between first and second order slip model is discussed in this study.

  9. The Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahira Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with velocity, thermal, and solutal slip boundary conditions is studied. Numerical solutions to the governing equations were obtained using a shooting method. The skin friction coefficient and the local Sherwood number increase as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. However, the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the stretching/shrinking parameter. The range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the shrinking sheet, the skin friction coefficient increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the stretching sheet, it decreases when the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. The local Nusselt number diminishes as the thermal slip parameter increases while the local Sherwood number decreases with increasing the solutal slip parameter. The local Nusselt number is lower for higher values of Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, and thermophoresis parameter.

  10. Free vibration of functionally graded parabolic and circular panels with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this content is to investigate the free vibration of functionally graded parabolic and circular panels with general boundary conditions by using the Fourier-Ritz method. The first-order shear deformation theory is adopted to consider the effects of the transverse shear and rotary inertia of the panel structures. The functionally graded panel structures consist of ceramic and metal which are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness according to the power-law distribution, and two types of power-law distributions are considered for the ceramic volume fraction. The improved Fourier series method is applied to construct the new admissible function of the panels to surmount the weakness of the relevant discontinuities with the original displacement and its derivatives at the boundaries while using the traditional Fourier series method. The boundary spring technique is adopted to simulate the general boundary condition. The unknown coefficients appearing in the admissible function are determined by using the Ritz procedure based on the energy functional of the panels. The numerical results show the present method has good convergence, reliability and accuracy. Some new results for functionally graded parabolic and circular panels with different material distributions and boundary conditions are provided, which may serve as benchmark solutions.

  11. Effect of remote field electromagnetic boundary conditions on microwave-induced plasma torches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Diaz, M.; van Dijk, J.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2011-04-01

    A flexible versatile electromagnetic model constructed with the PLASIMO platform is employed to explore electromagnetic features of microwave-induced plasma torches. The bases, formed by a full-vector formulation of the Maxwell equations, provide the possibility to formulate the boundary conditions in a natural way. Together with the use of a direct matrix solver this gives a convergence speed-up of more than a factor of 100 when compared with a scalar formulation on an azimuthal magnetic field that uses an iterative solver. As a result, this electromagnetic model is ready to act in future studies as part of the self-consistent description of plasma-electromagnetic coupling. With the electromagnetic model three types of configuration were studied: the closed, semi-open and open configurations, all three based on the same simplified model plasmas. It is found that the closed configuration, acting as a cavity for which (de)tuning is extremely sensitive for the plasma conditions, is less suitable for applications in which changes in plasma compositions can be expected. The semi-open configuration can be seen as a model for the practice often used in laboratories to place microwave-induced plasma torches in a grid that aims at protecting the environment against microwave electromagnetic radiation. Calculations show that this is good practice provided the radius of this cylindrical grid is in the order of 90 mm. For the most often used configuration, the open version, we found that the power balance as expressed by the coefficients of absorption, transmission and reflection depends on the electron density of the plasma. The reason is that the plasma acts as an antenna, which converts the electromagnetic waves from the coaxial structure to that of the expansion region, and that this antenna function depends on the electron density. The influence of various other antenna elements is investigated as well.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF THERMAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND THERMO-METALLURGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF X10CrMoVNb9-1 STEEL DURING SIMPLE TIG WELDING TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Guilhem; Billardon, René

    2006-01-01

    International audience; To validate the thermo-metallurgical models that are used during finite element simulations of multi-pass TIG welding, two simple experiments – called "disk-spot" and "disk-cycle" TIG welding tests- have been designed. A procedure has been developed to identify the thermal boundary conditions that are imposed to the specimen during these experiments. These boundary conditions include the heat source that is equivalent to the TIG torch as well as the heat flux by convec...

  13. Canonical functions, differential graded symplectic pairs in supergeometry, and Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky sigma models with boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Noriaki; Xu, Xiaomeng

    2014-11-01

    Consistent boundary conditions for Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) sigma models and the corresponding boundary theories are analyzed. As their mathematical structures, we introduce a generalization of differential graded symplectic manifolds, called twisted QP manifolds, in terms of graded symplectic geometry, canonical functions, and QP pairs. We generalize the AKSZ construction of topological sigma models to sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms and show that all the twisted Poisson-like structures known in the literature can actually be naturally realized as boundary conditions for AKSZ sigma models.

  14. The importance of the boundary condition in the transport of intensity equation based phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialin; Chen, Qian; Li, Jiaji; Zuo, Chao

    2017-02-01

    The transport of intensity equation (TIE) is a powerful tool for direct quantitative phase retrieval in microscopy imaging. However, there may be some problems when dealing with the boundary condition of the TIE. The previous work introduces a hard-edged aperture to the camera port of the traditional bright field microscope to generate the boundary signal for the TIE solver. Under this Neumann boundary condition, we can obtain the quantitative phase without any assumption or prior knowledge about the test object and the setup. In this paper, we will demonstrate the effectiveness of this method based on some experiments in practice. The micro lens array will be used for the comparison of two TIE solvers results based on introducing the aperture or not and this accurate quantitative phase imaging technique allows measuring cell dry mass which is used in biology to follow cell cycle, to investigate cell metabolism, or to address effects of drugs.

  15. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  16. Nonperiodic stochastic boundary conditions for molecular dynamics simulations of materials embedded into a continuum mechanics domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Karimi-Varzaneh, Hossein Ali; Böhm, Michael C; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Pfaller, Sebastian; Possart, Gunnar; Steinmann, Paul

    2011-04-21

    A scheme is described for performing molecular dynamics simulations on polymers under nonperiodic, stochastic boundary conditions. It has been designed to allow later the embedding of a particle domain treated by molecular dynamics into a continuum environment treated by finite elements. It combines, in the boundary region, harmonically restrained particles to confine the system with dissipative particle dynamics to dissipate energy and to thermostat the simulation. The equilibrium position of the tethered particles, the so-called anchor points, are well suited for transmitting deformations, forces and force derivatives between the particle and continuum domains. In the present work the particle scheme is tested by comparing results for coarse-grained polystyrene melts under nonperiodic and regular periodic boundary conditions. Excellent agreement is found for thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic properties.

  17. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  18. Oracle estimation of parametric models under boundary constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin Yau; Goldberg, Yair; Fine, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    In many classical estimation problems, the parameter space has a boundary. In most cases, the standard asymptotic properties of the estimator do not hold when some of the underlying true parameters lie on the boundary. However, without knowledge of the true parameter values, confidence intervals constructed assuming that the parameters lie in the interior are generally over-conservative. A penalized estimation method is proposed in this article to address this issue. An adaptive lasso procedure is employed to shrink the parameters to the boundary, yielding oracle inference which adapt to whether or not the true parameters are on the boundary. When the true parameters are on the boundary, the inference is equivalent to that which would be achieved with a priori knowledge of the boundary, while if the converse is true, the inference is equivalent to that which is obtained in the interior of the parameter space. The method is demonstrated under two practical scenarios, namely the frailty survival model and linear regression with order-restricted parameters. Simulation studies and real data analyses show that the method performs well with realistic sample sizes and exhibits certain advantages over standard methods. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Estimation of Soil Electrical Properties in a Multilayer Earth Model with Boundary Element Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, T.; Z. Chik; M. M. Mustafa; H. Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient model for estimation of soil electric resistivity with depth and layer thickness in a multilayer earth structure. This model is the improvement of conventional two-layer earth model including Wenner resistivity formulations with boundary conditions. Two-layer soil model shows the limitations in specific soil characterizations of different layers with the interrelationships between soil apparent electrical resistivity (ρ) and several soil physical or chemical p...

  20. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  1. On the strongly damped wave equation and the heat equation with mixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio F. Neves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two one-dimensional equations: the strongly damped wave equation and the heat equation, both with mixed boundary conditions. We prove the existence of global strong solutions and the existence of compact global attractors for these equations in two different spaces.

  2. Boundary lubrication by brushed salivary conditioning films and their degree of glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeregowda, Deepak H; van der Mei, Henderina; de Vries, Jacob; Rutland, Mark W; Valle-Delgado, Juan J; Sharma, Prashant K; Busscher, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Toothbrushing, though aimed at biofilm removal, also affects the lubricative function of adsorbed salivary conditioning films (SCFs). Different modes of brushing (manual, powered, rotary-oscillatory or sonically driven) influence the SCF in different ways. Our objectives were to compare boundary

  3. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of the thermal plume above a heat source has been reported in the literature as being influenced by a large number of factors. The objective of the present study is to identify the impact of the boundary conditions on the characteristics and development of the thermal plume above...

  4. OpenCL-Based FPGA Accelerator for 3D FDTD with Periodic and Absorbing Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference time domain (FDTD method is a very poplar way of numerically solving partial differential equations. FDTD has a low operational intensity so that the performances in CPUs and GPUs are often restricted by the memory bandwidth. Recently, deeply pipelined FPGA accelerators have shown a lot of success by exploiting streaming data flows in FDTD computation. In spite of this success, many FPGA accelerators are not suitable for real-world applications that contain complex boundary conditions. Boundary conditions break the regularity of the data flow, so that the performances are significantly reduced. This paper proposes an FPGA accelerator that computes commonly used absorbing and periodic boundary conditions in many 3D FDTD applications. Accelerator is designed using a “C-like” programming language called OpenCL (open computing language. As a result, the proposed accelerator can be customized easily by changing the software code. According to the experimental results, we achieved over 3.3 times and 1.5 times higher processing speed compared to the CPUs and GPUs, respectively. Moreover, the proposed accelerator is more than 14 times faster compared to the recently proposed FPGA accelerators that are capable of handling complex boundary conditions.

  5. Application of impedance boundary conditions to numerical solution of corrugated circular horns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskander, K; Shafai, L; Frandsen, Aksel

    1982-01-01

    An integral equation method is used to formulate the problem of scattering by rotationally symmetric horn antennas. The excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitesimal dipole antenna, while the secondary field is obtained by assuming anisotropic impedance boundary conditions on the horn surface...

  6. Multiplicity of solutions for Dirichlet boundary conditions of second-order quasilinear equations with impulsive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Shen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiplicity of solutions for Dirichlet boundary conditions of second-order quasilinear equations with impulsive effects. By using critical point theory, a new result is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the main result.

  7. Existence and Uniqueness Theorem of Fractional Mixed Volterra-Fredholm Integrodifferential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma Adil Murad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of mixed Volterra-Fredholm type integral equations with integral boundary condition in Banach space. Our analysis is based on an application of the Krasnosel'skii fixed-point theorem.

  8. An inherently stable boundary-condition-transfer algorithm for muffler analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, T.; Munjal, M. L.

    2005-07-01

    Wave coupling exists in the wave propagation in multiple interacting ducts within a waveguide. One may use the segmentation approach, decoupling approach, eigenvalue approach, or the matrizant approach to derive the overall transfer matrix for the muffler section with interacting ducts, and then apply the terminal boundary conditions to obtain a two-by-two transfer matrix. In such instances, a boundary condition applied to a vector is given as a linear combination of its components. Spatial dimensions along with parameters like impedance of the perforated interface may yield numerical instability during computation leading to inaccurate prediction of the acoustic performance of mufflers. Here, an inherently stable boundary-condition-transfer approach is discussed to analyze the plane wave propagation in suchlike mufflers and applied to waveguides of variable cross-sectional area. The concept of pseudo boundary conditions applied to the state vector at an intermediate point is outlined. The method is checked for self-consistency and shown to be stable even for extreme geometries.

  9. Numerical solution to inverse elliptic problem with Neumann type overdetermination and mixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charyyar Ashyralyyev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the numerical solution of inverse problems for the multidimensional elliptic equation with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions and Neumann type overdetermination. We present first and second order accuracy difference schemes. The stability and almost coercive stability inequalities for the solution are obtained. Numerical examples with explanation on the implementation illustrate the theoretical results.

  10. Nonlinear parabolic problems with Neumann-type boundary conditions and L^1-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane El Hachimi

    2007-11-01

    $$ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t}-\\triangle_{p}u+\\alpha(u=f \\quad \\text{in } ]0,\\ T[\\times\\Omega, $$ with Neumann-type boundary conditions and initial data in $L^1$. Our approach is based essentially on the time discretization technique by Euler forward scheme.

  11. Nonlinear Fredholm alternative for the p-Laplacian under nonhomogeneous Neumann boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferron Madeira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Fredholm alternative for the p-Laplacian in higher dimensions is established when nonhomogeneous terms appear in the equation and in the Neumann boundary condition. Further, the geometry of the associated energy functional is described and compared with the Dirichlet counterpart. The proofs require only variational methods.

  12. Transformational leadership climate : Performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions at the organizational level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menges, J.; Walter, F.; Vogel, B.; Bruch, H.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TFL) climate describes the degree to which leaders throughout an organization engage in TFL behaviors. In this study, we investigate performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions of TFL climate at the organizational level of analysis. In a sample of 158

  13. On the Solvability of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations with Antiperiodic Boundary Value Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Romanovski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence results for second-order impulsive differential equations with antiperiodic boundary value conditions in the presence of classical fixed point theorems. We also obtain the expression of Green's function of related linear operator in the space of piecewise continuous functions.

  14. Boundary conditions for the use of personal ventilation over mixing ventilation in open plan offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the boundary conditions for choosing a combined Personal Ventilation (PV) and Mixing Ventilation (MV) over conventional mixing ventilation in an office with multiple workers. A simplified procedure for annual performance assessment of PV/MV systems in terms of air quality,...

  15. Optimal trajectory generation for generalization of discrete movements with boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Sebastian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Kulvicius, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory generation methods play an important role in robotics since they are essential for the execution of actions. In this paper we present a novel trajectory generation method for generalization of accurate movements with boundary conditions. Our approach originates from optimal control the...

  16. Semilinear Evolution Problems with Ventcel-Type Conditions on Fractal Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Lancia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A semilinear parabolic transmission problem with Ventcel's boundary conditions on a fractal interface S or the corresponding prefractal interface Sh is studied. Regularity results for the solution in both cases are proved. The asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of the approximating problems to the solution of limit fractal problem is analyzed.

  17. On the Solvability of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations with Antiperiodic Boundary Value Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanovski Valery

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence results for second-order impulsive differential equations with antiperiodic boundary value conditions in the presence of classical fixed point theorems. We also obtain the expression of Green's function of related linear operator in the space of piecewise continuous functions.

  18. A stable penalty method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations: I. Open boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan; Gottlieb, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present asymptotically stable open boundary conditions for the numerical approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. The treatment uses the conservation form of the Navier-Stokes equations and utilizes linearization...

  19. Positivity for perturbations of polyharmonic operators with Dirichlet boundary conditions in two dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunau, H.-Ch.; Sweers, G.

    1995-01-01

    Higher order elliptic partial dierential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions in general do not satisfy a maximum principle. Polyharmonic operators on balls are an exception. Here it is shown that in IR2 small perturbations of polyharmonic operators and of the domain preserve the maximum

  20. Null exact controllability of the parabolic equations with equivalued surface boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to showing the null exact controllability for a class of parabolic equations with equivalued surface boundary condition. Our method is based on the duality argument and global Carleman-type estimate for a parabolic operator.

  1. In-Plane Vibration Analysis of Annular Plates with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjie Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.

  2. Evidence for Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary bolide “impact winter” conditions from New Jersey, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, J.; Esmeray-Senlet, S.; Miller, K.G.; Browning, J.V.; Sluijs, A.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt and short-lived “impact winter” conditions have commonly been implicated as the main mechanism leading to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (ca. 66 Ma), marking the end of the reign of the non-avian dinosaurs. However, so far only limited evidence has been

  3. Evidence for Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary bolide "impact winter" conditions from New Jersey, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, J.; Esmeray-Senlet, S.; Miller, K.G.; Browning, J.V.; Sluijs, A.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt and short-lived “impact winter” conditions have commonly been implicated as the main mechanism leading to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (ca. 66 Ma), marking the end of the reign of the non-avian dinosaurs. However, so far only limited evidence has been

  4. Finite Element Simulation of Photoacoustic Pressure in a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell Using Lossy Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lopes, Natasha; Willatzen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) is used to simulate the photoacoustic signal in a cylindrical resonant photoacoustic cell. Simulations include loss effects near the cell walls that appear in the boundary conditions for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation governing the acoustic pressure. Reasonab...

  5. On Nonlinear Fractional Sum-Difference Equations via Fractional Sum Boundary Conditions Involving Different Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowaluk Chasreechai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study existence and uniqueness results for Caputo fractional sum-difference equations with fractional sum boundary value conditions, by using the Banach contraction principle and Schaefer’s fixed point theorem. Our problem contains different numbers of order in fractional difference and fractional sums. Finally, we present some examples to show the importance of these results.

  6. Modelization of a large wind farm, considering the modification of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, A.; Gomez-Elvira, R. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Madrid (Spain); Frandsen, S.; Larsen, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A method is presented to adapt existing models of wind farms to very large ones that may affect the whole planetary boundary layer. An internal boundary layer is considered that starts developing at the leading edge of the farm until it reaches, sufficiently far downstream, the top of the planetary boundary layer, and a new equilibrium region is reached. The wind farm is simulated by an artificial roughness that is function of the turbine spacing, drag and height. From this model the flow conditions are calculated at a certain reference height and then are used as boundary conditions for a numerical code used to model a wind farm. Three-dimensional effects are considered by applying appropriate conditions at the sides of the farm. Calculations are carried out to estimate the energy production in large wind farms, and it is found that additional losses due to modification of the planetary boundary layer may be of importance for wind farms of size larger than about 100 km. (au)

  7. Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in

  8. Subjective surfaces: a geometric model for boundary completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarti, Alessandro; Malladi, Ravi; Sethian, J.A.

    2000-06-01

    We present a geometric model and a computational method for segmentation of images with missing boundaries. In many situations, the human visual system fills in missing gaps in edges and boundaries, building and completing information that is not present. Boundary completion presents a considerable challenge in computer vision, since most algorithms attempt to exploit existing data. A large body of work concerns completion models, which postulate how to construct missing data; these models are often trained and specific to particular images. In this paper, we take the following, alternative perspective: we consider a reference point within an image as given, and then develop an algorithm which tries to build missing information on the basis of the given point of view and the available information as boundary data to the algorithm. Starting from this point of view, a surface is constructed. It is then evolved with the mean curvature flow in the metric induced by the image until a piecewise constant solution is reached. We test the computational model on modal completion, amodal completion, texture, photo and medical images. We extend the geometric model and the algorithm to 3D in order to extract shapes from low signal/noise ratio medical volumes. Results in 3D echocardiography and 3D fetal echography are presented.

  9. On a third order parabolic equation with a nonlocal boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Bouziani

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence of a strong solution upon the data, for a mixed problem which combine classical boundary conditions and an integral condition, such as the total mass, flux or energy, for a third order parabolic equation. We present a functional analysis method based on an a priori estimate and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the studied problem.

  10. Euler–Lagrange simulation of gas–solid pipe flow with smooth and rough wall boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulation of upward turbulent particle-laden pipe flow is performed with the intention to reveal the influence of surface roughness on the velocity statistics of the particle phase. A rough wall collision model, which models the surface as being sinusoidal, is proposed to account...... for the wall boundary condition ranging for smooth surfaces to very rough surfaces. This model accounts for the entire range of possible surface roughness found in pipes and industrial pneumatic equipment from smooth plastic pipes over machined steel pipes to cast iron surfaces. The model is based...... profiles as the mean motion changes from motion mainly in the axial direction for the smooth surface condition to bouncing motion between the pipe sides for the fully rough surface condition....

  11. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  12. POSITIVE SOLUTIONS OF A NONLINEAR THREE-POINT EIGENVALUE PROBLEM WITH INTEGRAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOUZI HADDOUCHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions of a three-point integral boundary value problem (BVP for the following second-order differential equation u''(t + \\lambda a(tf(u(t = 0; 0 0 is a parameter, 0 <\\eta < 1, 0 <\\alpha < 1/{\\eta}. . By using the properties of the Green's function and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem on cones, the eigenvalue intervals of the nonlinear boundary value problem are considered, some sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solutions are established.

  13. Analytical solution of the second Stokes problem for rarefied gas with Cercignani boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The second Stokes problem concerning the behavior of a rarefied gas in the half-space bounded over a plate undergoing harmonic in-plane oscillations is solved analytically using the Bhat-nagar-Gross-Krook equation with Cercignani boundary conditions for gas molecules reflecting from the wall. The distribution function of the gas molecules is constructed. The gas velocity in the half-space and near the wall, the drag force exerted by the gas on the boundary, and the energy dissipation rate per unit area of the oscillating plate are found.

  14. Green's Function for Discrete Second-Order Problems with Nonlocal Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a second-order discrete problem with two additional conditions which are described by a pair of linearly independent linear functionals. We have found the solution to this problem and presented a formula and the existence condition of Green's function if the general solution of a homogeneous equation is known. We have obtained the relation between two Green's functions of two nonhomogeneous problems. It allows us to find Green's function for the same equation but with different additional conditions. The obtained results are applied to problems with nonlocal boundary conditions.

  15. Emden equation involving the critical Sobolev exponent with the third-kind boundary condition in S3

    OpenAIRE

    Kosaka, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    We consider a positive solution of the Emden equation with the critical Sobolev exponent on a geodesic ball in S3. In the case of the Dirichlet boundary condition, Bandle and Peletier [2] proved the precise result on the existence of a positive radial solution. We investigate the same equation with the third kind boundary condition and obtain a more general result. Namely we prove that the existence and the nonexistence of solutions depend on the geodesic radius and the boundary condition. Mo...

  16. Evaluating weather research and forecasting (WRF) model predictions of turbulent flow parameters in a dry convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, J.A.; Fedorovich, E.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2011-01-01

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions using different boundary layer schemes and horizontal grid spacings were compared with observational and numerical large-eddy simulation data for conditions corresponding to a dry atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) over the southern

  17. Sensitivity of regional ensemble data assimilation spread to perturbations of lateral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachida El Ouaraini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a regional ensemble data assimilation and forecasting system requires the specification of appropriate perturbations of lateral boundary conditions (LBCs, in order to simulate associated errors. The sensitivity of analysis and 6-h forecast ensemble spread to these perturbations is studied here formally and experimentally by comparing three different LBC configurations for the ensemble data assimilation system of the ALADIN-France limited-area model (LAM. While perturbed initial LBCs are provided by the perturbed LAM analyses in each ensemble, the three ensemble configurations differ with respect to LBCs used at 3- and 6-h forecast ranges, which respectively correspond to: (1 perturbed LBCs provided by the operational global ensemble data assimilation system (GLBC, which is considered as a reference configuration; (2 unperturbed LBCs (ULBC obtained from the global deterministic model; (3 perturbed LBCs obtained by adding random draws of an error covariance model (PLBC to the global deterministic system. A formal analysis of error and perturbation equations is first carried out, in order to provide an insight of the relative effects of observation perturbations and of LBC perturbations at different ranges, in the various ensemble configurations. Horizontal variations of time-averaged ensemble spread are then examined for 6-h forecasts. Despite the use of perturbed initial LBCs, the regional ensemble ULBC is underdispersive not only near the lateral boundaries, but also in approximately one-third of the inner area, due to advection during the data assimilation cycle. This artefact is avoided in PLBC through the additional use of non-zero LBC perturbations at 3- and 6-h ranges, and the sensitivity to the amplitude scaling of the covariance model is illustrated for this configuration. Some aspects of the temporal variation of ensemble spread and associated sensitivities to LBC perturbations are also studied. These results

  18. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 1. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and derivation of atmospheric electrical profiles, eddy diffusion coeffcient and scales of electrode layer. Madhuri N Kulkarni. Volume 119 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 75-86 ...

  19. A grain boundary sliding model for cavitation, crack growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model is presented for cavity growth, crack propagation and fracture resulting from grain boundary sliding (GBS) during high temperature creep deformation. The theory of cavity growth by GBS was based on energy balance criteria on the assumption that the matrix is sufficiently plastic to accommodate misfit strains ...

  20. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions for one-component liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal solid substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, liquid-gas flows related to droplets, bubbles, and thin films on solid surfaces with thermal and wettability gradients have attracted widespread attention because of the many physical processes involved and their promising potential applications in biology, chemistry, and industry. Various new physical effects have been discovered at fluid-solid interfaces by experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, e.g., fluid velocity slip, temperature slip (Kapitza resistance), mechanical-thermal cross coupling, etc. There have been various models and theories proposed to explain these experimental and numerical observations. However, to the best of our knowledge,a continuum hydrodynamic model capable of predicting the temperature and velocity profiles of liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal, heterogeneous solid substrates is still absent. The purpose of this work is to construct a continuum model for simulating the liquid-gas flows on solid surfaces that are flat and rigid, and may involve wettability gradients and thermal gradients. This model is able to describe fluid velocity slip, temperature slip, and mechanical-thermal coupling that may occur at fluid-solid interfaces. For this purpose, we first employ the diffuse interface modeling to formulate the hydrodynamic equations for one-component liquid-gas flows in the bulk region. This reproduces the dynamic van der Waals theory of Onuki [Phys. Rev. Lett., 94: 054501, 2005]. We then extendWaldmann\\'s method [Z. Naturforsch. A, 22: 1269-1280, 1967] to formulate the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface that match the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk. The effects of the solid surface curvature are also briefly discussed in the appendix. The guiding principles of our model derivation are the conservation laws and the positive definiteness of entropy production together with the Onsager reciprocal relation. The derived model is self-consistent in the sense that the boundary conditions are

  1. Success of spiral wave unpinning from the heterogeneity in a cardiac tissue depends on its boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. N.; Tsvelaya, V. A.; Kudryashova, N. N.; Agladze, K. I.

    2017-11-01

    The mechanism of the low voltage defibrillation is based on the drift of the spiral wave induced by high frequency wave-train. In the process, it is first necessary to unpin the wave from the stabilizing obstacle. We study the conditions of unpinning of rotating wave anchored to the defect by posing the main accent on the boundary conditions of it. The computer simulations performed using Korhonen model showed that the fluxes through the border of the defect in the cardiac tissue can significantly modify the excitation pattern, and the working frequency gap for the unpinning of reentry waves could be substantially reduced, making overdrive pacing procedure less effective or practically inapplicable.

  2. From Becker-Döring to Lifshitz-Slyozov: deriving the non-local boundary condition of a non-linear transport equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvinec Romain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the connection between two classical models of phase transition phenomena, the (discrete size, Markov chain or infinite set of ODE Becker-Döring equations and the (continuous size, PDE Lifshitz-Slyozov equation. Contrary to previous studies, we use a weak topology that includes the boundary of the state space, allowing us to rigorously derive a boundary value for the Lifshitz-Slyozov model. This boundary condition depends on a particular scaling and is the result of a separation of time scales.

  3. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning, the electrostatic limit, and potential boundary conditions for particle-in-cell codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Munz, C.-D.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-08-01

    In a numerical solution of the Maxwell-Vlasov system, the consistency with the charge conservation and divergence conditions has to be kept solving the hyperbolic evolution equations of the Maxwell system, since the vector identity ∇ ṡ (∇ × u →) = 0 and/or the charge conservation of moving particles may be not satisfied completely due to discretization errors. One possible method to force the consistency is the hyperbolic divergence cleaning. This hyperbolic constraint formulation of Maxwell's equations has been proposed previously, coupling the divergence conditions to the hyperbolic evolution equations, which can then be treated with the same numerical method. We pick up this method again and show that electrostatic limit may be obtained by accentuating the divergence cleaning sub-system and converging to steady state. Hence, the electrostatic case can be treated by the electrodynamic code with reduced computational effort. In addition, potential boundary conditions as often given in practical applications can be coupled in a similar way to get appropriate boundary conditions for the field equations. Numerical results are shown for an electric dipole, a parallel-plate capacitor, and a Langmuir wave. The use of potential boundary conditions is demonstrated in an Einzel lens simulation.

  4. METHOD OF GREEN FUNCTIONS IN MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Dikareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In many applied problems of control, optimization, system theory, theoretical and construction mechanics, for problems with strings and nods structures, oscillation theory, theory of elasticity and plasticity, mechanical problems connected with fracture dynamics and shock waves, the main instrument for study these problems is a theory of high order ordinary differential equations. This methodology is also applied for studying mathematical models in graph theory with different partitioning based on differential equations. Such equations are used for theoretical foundation of mathematical models but also for constructing numerical methods and computer algorithms. These models are studied with use of Green function method. In the paper first necessary theoretical information is included on Green function method for multi point boundary-value problems. The main equation is discussed, notions of multi-point boundary conditions, boundary functionals, degenerate and non-degenerate problems, fundamental matrix of solutions are introduced. In the main part the problem to study is formulated in terms of shocks and deformations in boundary conditions. After that the main results are formulated. In theorem 1 conditions for existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved. In theorem 2 conditions are proved for strict positivity and equal measureness for a pair of solutions. In theorem 3 existence and estimates are proved for the least eigenvalue, spectral properties and positivity of eigenfunctions. In theorem 4 the weighted positivity is proved for the Green function. Some possible applications are considered for a signal theory and transmutation operators.

  5. Structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for twist boundaries in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, P.D.; Balluffi, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The systematics of (001) twist boundary structure is presented formally in terms of a structural unit/grain boundary dislocation hierarchical model and the earlier model of Sutton is generalized. By comparison with experimental observation and atomistic calculation using pair-potential models the physical significance of the individual members of the hierarchy is determined. Comparison which experiment indicates a strong <110> type primary relaxation for theta less than or equal to 36.9/sup 0/ and a significant secondary relaxation near ..sigma..5 which must result from oblique perturbations in the array of primary GBD's. On the other hand, comparison with available calculated results indicates a strong <110> type primary relaxation at low angles but a progressively weaker relaxation at higher angles. Also, no evidence is found for any significant secondary relaxations when at least one pair potential is employed. However, very recent studies indicate stronger secondary relaxations with other potentials, and this, in future work, should lead to better agreement between calculations and experiment.

  6. An unstructured direct simulation Monte Carlo methodology with Kinetic-Moment inflow and outflow boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Chamberlin, Ryan E.; Averkin, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical and computational aspects of the direct simulation Monte Carlo on unstructured tetrahedral grids (U3DSMC) with a Kinetic-Moment (KM) boundary conditions method are presented. The algorithms for particle injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are presented. The KM method applicable to a subsonic or supersonic inflow/outflow boundary, couples kinetic (particle) U3DSMC properties with fluid (moment) properties. The KM method obtains the number density, temperature and mean velocity needed to define the equilibrium, drifting Maxwellian distribution at a boundary. The moment component of KM is based on the local one dimensional inviscid (LODI) boundary conditions method consistent with the 5-moment compressible Euler equations. The kinetic component of KM is based on U3DSMC for interior properties and the equilibrium drifting Maxwellian at the boundary. The KM method is supplemented with a time-averaging procedure, allows for choices in sampling-cell procedures, minimizes fluctuations and accelerates the convergence in subsonic flows. Collision sampling in U3DSMC implements the no-time-counter method and includes elastic and inelastic collisions. The U3DSMC with KM boundary conditions is validated and verified extensively with simulations of subsonic nitrogen flows in a cylindrical tube with imposed inlet pressure and density and imposed outlet pressure. The simulations cover the regime from slip to free-molecular with inlet Knudsen numbers between 0.183 and 18.27 and resulting inlet Mach numbers between 0.037 and 0.027. The pressure and velocity profiles from U3DSMC-KM simulations are compared with analytical solutions obtained from first-order and second-order slip boundary conditions. Mass flow rates from U3DSMC-KM are compared with validated analytical solutions for the entire Knudsen number regime considered. Error and sensitivity analysis is performed and numerical fractional errors are in agreement with theoretical

  7. Evaluation of WRF Boundary Layer Profiles against Radiosoundings in Northern Greenland in winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirova, Hristina; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The boundary-layer processes in High Arctic area are studied based on consecutive radiosoundings and numerical simulations with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.3.1 during a late winter period. The measurements consist of about 30 radiosondings performed every 12 hours...

  8. Approximate analytical solution to diurnal atmospheric boundary-layer growth under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The system of governing equations of a simplified slab model of the uniformly-mixed, purely convective, diurnal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is shown to allow immediate solutions for the potential temperature and specific humidity as functions of the ABL height and net radiation when expressed i...

  9. Conditions for the appearance of boundary modes in topological phases of Heisenberg spin ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neil; Atland, Alexander; Egger, Reinhold; Gergs, Nkilas; Konik, Robert; Li, Wei; Schuricht, Dirk; Tsvelik, Alexei; Weichselbaum, Andreas

    We consider the problem of delineating the necessary conditions for the appearance of boundary modes in extended SU (2) Heisenberg spin ladders. Specifically, we study Heisenberg ladders with rung exchange, J⊥, and ring exchange, JX, that admit a field theoretic description in terms of Majorana fermions in the continuum limit. In this description there are four Majorana fermions, arranged in a triplet and a singlet. This suggests there are four distinct phases, corresponding to the configurations of the signs of the triplet mt and singlet ms masses. We label these phases as: Haldane (mt > 0 ,ms 0), VBS+ (mt ,ms > 0) and VBS- (mt ,ms VBS+ phase, where all the Majorana fermions have gapless boundary modes. The absence of a gapless boundary mode in the rung singlet phase is surprising; we find that the singlet mode can become gapless if open boundary conditions are replaced with a continuous change in lattice parameters. We suggest a symmetry-allowed modification to the low-energy effective theory which may be responsible for this behavior.

  10. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  11. Adaptive numerical algorithms to simulate the dynamical Casimir effect in a closed cavity with different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Paula I.; Soba, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach to compute the number of particles created inside a cavity due to time-dependent boundary conditions. The physical model consists of a rectangular cavity, where a wall always remains still while the other wall of the cavity presents a smooth movement in one direction. The method relies on the setting of the boundary conditions (Dirichlet and Neumann) and the following resolution of the corresponding equations of modes. By a further comparison between the ground state before and after the movement of the cavity wall, we finally compute the number of particles created. To demonstrate the method, we investigate the creation of particle production in vibrating cavities, confirming previously known results in the appropriate limits. Within this approach, the dynamical Casimir effect can be investigated, making it possible to study a variety of scenarios where no analytical results are known. Of special interest is, of course, the realistic case of the electromagnetic field in a three-dimensional cavity, with transverse electric (TE)-mode and transverse magnetic (TM)-mode photon production. Furthermore, with our approach we are able to calculate numerically the particle creation in a tuneable resonant superconducting cavity by the use of the generalized Robin boundary condition. We compare the numerical results with analytical predictions as well as a different numerical approach. Its extension to three dimensions is also straightforward.

  12. System-size effects in ionic fluids under periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff P.; Sanchez, Isaac C.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the system-size dependence of the thermodynamic properties of ionic fluids under periodic boundary conditions. Following an approach previously developed in the context of quantum Monte Carlo simulations of many-electron systems, we show that the leading-order finite-size artifact in the Coulomb energy per particle of a classical fluid of N structureless ions at given density and temperature is simply -kBT (2N ) -1 . Analytical approximations for the periodicity-induced size dependence of the excess thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the weak-coupling regime are obtained within the linearized Debye-Hückel theory. Theoretical results are compared with published simulations of the one-component plasma and our own simulations of a primitive-model electrolyte solution. Our work is directly relevant to estimating finite-size corrections in simulations of charged fluids comprising structureless ions embedded in continuous media. We outline in the Appendix how some of our formal results may be generalized to molecular fluids with mobile ions; e.g., electrolyte solutions with explicit solvent.

  13. Boundary conditions and formation of pure spin currents in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliashvili, Merab; Tsitsishvili, George

    2017-09-01

    Schrödinger equation for an electron confined to a two-dimensional strip is considered in the presence of homogeneous orthogonal magnetic field. Since the system has edges, the eigenvalue problem is supplied by the boundary conditions (BC) aimed in preventing the leakage of matter away across the edges. In the case of spinless electrons the Dirichlet and Neumann BC are considered. The Dirichlet BC result in the existence of charge carrying edge states. For the Neumann BC each separate edge comprises two counterflow sub-currents which precisely cancel out each other provided the system is populated by electrons up to certain Fermi level. Cancelation of electric current is a good starting point for developing the spin-effects. In this scope we reconsider the problem for a spinning electron with Rashba coupling. The Neumann BC are replaced by Robin BC. Again, the two counterflow electric sub-currents cancel out each other for a separate edge, while the spin current survives thus modeling what is known as pure spin current - spin flow without charge flow.

  14. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF THERMOELASTIC VIBRATION OF A PLATE IN SPECIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions of uneven non-stationary heating can cause changes in physical and mechanical properties of materials. The awareness of the value and nature of thermal stresses is needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of structural strength. The authors provide their solution to the problem of identification of natural frequencies of vibrations of rectangular plates, whenever a thermal factor is taken into account. In the introductory section of the paper, the authors provide the equation describing the thermoelastic vibration of a plate and set the initial and boundary conditions. Furthermore, the authors provide a frequency equation derivation for the problem that has an analytical solution available (if all edges are simply supported at zero temperature. The equation derived by the authors has no analytical solution and can be solved only numerically. In the middle of the paper, the authors describe a method of frequency equation derivation for plates exposed to special boundary conditions, if the two opposite edges are simply supported at zero temperature, while the two other edges have arbitrary types of fixation and arbitrary thermal modes. For this boundary condition derived as a general solution, varying fixation of the two edges makes it possible to obtain transcendental trigonometric equations reducible to algebraic frequency equations by using expending in series. Thus, the obtaining frequency equations different from the general solution becomes possible for different types of boundary conditions. The final section of the paper covers the practical testing of the described method for the problem that has an analytical solution (all edges are simply supported at zero temperature as solved above. An approximate equation provided in the research leads to the analytical solution that is already available.

  15. The Impact of Local Microclimate Boundary Conditions on Building Energy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local environmental boundaries play an important role in determining microclimate conditions affecting thermal-energy behavior of buildings. In this scenario, the purpose of the present work is to investigate how residential buildings are affected by different local microclimate conditions. To this aim, the continuous microclimate monitoring of (i a rural area; (ii a suburban area; and (iii an urban area is carried out, and the comparative analysis of the different boundary conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of the presence of a large lake in the rural area on building energy demand for heating and cooling is evaluated, both in winter and summer. Coupled degree hour method and numerical analysis are performed in order to predict the energy requirement of buildings subject to local microclimate boundary conditions. The main results show higher air temperature and relative humidity values for the rural area. No significant mitigation effect due to the lake presence is found in urban and suburban areas because of the peculiar wind regime of the region. Additionally, the dynamic thermal-energy simulation shows a decrease of 14% and 25% in the heating consumption and an increase of 58% and 194% in cooling requirements of buildings situated in the rural area around the lake compared to the urban and suburban areas, respectively.

  16. Modification of the Riemann problem and the application for the boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Martin; Pelant, Jaroslav

    We work with the system of partial differential equations describing the non-stationary compressible turbulent fluid flow. It is a characteristic feature of the hyperbolic equations, that there is a possible raise of discontinuities in solutions, even in the case when the initial conditions are smooth. The fundamental problem in this area is the solution of the so-called Riemann problem for the split Euler equations. It is the elementary problem of the one-dimensional conservation laws with the given initial conditions (LIC - left-hand side, and RIC - right-hand side). The solution of this problem is required in many numerical methods dealing with the 2D/3D fluid flow. The exact (entropy weak) solution of this hyperbolical problem cannot be expressed in a closed form, and has to be computed by an iterative process (to given accuracy), therefore various approximations of this solution are being used. The complicated Riemann problem has to be further modified at the close vicinity of boundary, where the LIC is given, while the RIC is not known. Usually, this boundary problem is being linearized, or roughly approximated. The inaccuracies implied by these simplifications may be small, but these have a huge impact on the solution in the whole studied area, especially for the non-stationary flow. Using the thorough analysis of the Riemann problem we show, that the RIC for the local problem can be partially replaced by the suitable complementary conditions. We suggest such complementary conditions accordingly to the desired preference. This way it is possible to construct the boundary conditions by the preference of total values, by preference of pressure, velocity, mass flow, temperature. Further, using the suitable complementary conditions, it is possible to simulate the flow in the vicinity of the diffusible barrier. On the contrary to the initial-value Riemann problem, the solution of such modified problems can be written in the closed form for some cases. Moreover

  17. Influence of bidisperse self-assembled monolayer structure on the slip boundary condition of thin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Joshua D; Klos, Mischa; Bridet, Antoine; Hähl, Hendrik; Paulus, Michael; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Horsch, Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2017-05-28

    Alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are often used as model substrates for their ease of preparation and hydrophobic properties. We have observed that these atomically smooth monolayers also provide a slip boundary condition for dewetting films composed of unentangled polymers. This slip length, an indirect measure of the friction between a given liquid and different solids, is switchable and can be increased [R. Fetzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127801 (2005); O. Bäumchen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 325102 (2012)] if the alkyl chain length is changed from 18 to 12 backbone carbons, for example. Typically, this change in boundary condition is affected in a quantized way, using one or the other alkyl chain length, thus obtaining one or the other slip length. Here, we present results in which this SAM structure is changed in a continuous way. We prepare bidisperse mixed SAMs of alkyl silanes, with the composition as a control parameter. We find that all the mixed SAMs investigated show an enhanced slip boundary condition as compared to the single-component SAMs. The slip boundary condition is accessed using optical and atomic force microscopy, and we describe these observations in the context of X-ray reflectivity measurements. The slip length, varying over nearly two orders of magnitude, of identical polymer melts on chemically similar SAMs is found to correlate with the density of exposed alkyl chains. Our results demonstrate the importance of a well characterized solid/liquid pair, down to the angstrom level, when discussing the friction between a liquid and a solid.

  18. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  19. Multilevel model of polycrystalline materials: grain boundary sliding description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullina, E.; Shveykin, A.; Trusov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Material behavior description in a wide range of thermomechanical effects is one of the topical areas in mathematical modeling. Inclusion of grain boundary sliding as an important mechanism of polycrystalline material deformation at elevated temperatures and predominant deformation mechanism of metals and alloys in structural superplasticity allows to simulate various deformation regimes and their transitions (including superplasticity regime with switch-on and switch-off regimes). The paper is devoted to description of grain boundary sliding in structure of two-level model, based on crystal plasticity, and relations for determination the contribution of this mechanism to inelastic deformation. Some results are presented concerning computational experiments of polycrystalline representative volume deformation using developed model.

  20. Transition of MHD kink-stability properties between line-tied and non-line-tied boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Intrator, T P; Dorf, L; Furno, I; Lapenta, G

    2008-05-23

    Magnetic flux tubes or flux ropes in plasmas are important in nature and the laboratory. Axial boundary conditions strongly affect flux rope behavior, but this has never been systematically investigated. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time axial boundary conditions that are continuously varied between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) line-tied (fixed) and non-line-tied (free). In contrast with the usual interpretation that mechanical plasma motion is MHD line-tied to a conducting boundary, we constrain boundary plasma motion to cause the line-tied condition.

  1. A methodology to determine boundary conditions from forced convection experiments using liquid crystal thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study to estimate the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient using liquid crystal thermography and Bayesian inference in a heat generating sphere, enclosed in a cubical Teflon block. The geometry considered for the experiments comprises a heater inserted in a hollow hemispherical aluminium ball, resulting in a volumetric heat generation source that is placed at the center of the Teflon block. Calibrated thermochromic liquid crystal sheets are used to capture the temperature distribution at the front face of the Teflon block. The forward model is the three dimensional conduction equation which is solved within the Teflon block to obtain steady state temperatures, using COMSOL. Match up experiments are carried out for various velocities by minimizing the residual between TLC and simulated temperatures for every assumed loss coefficient, to obtain a correlation of average Nusselt number against Reynolds number. This is used for prescribing the boundary condition for the solution to the forward model. A surrogate model obtained by artificial neural network built upon the data from COMSOL simulations is used to drive a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Metropolis Hastings algorithm to generate the samples. Bayesian inference is adopted to solve the inverse problem for determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient from the measured temperature field. Point estimates of the posterior like the mean, maximum a posteriori and standard deviation of the retrieved heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient are reported. Additionally the effect of number of samples on the performance of the estimation process has been investigated.

  2. Border control! Capillary pressure / saturation relationships in a diphasic flow in a random medium: Influence of the boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Moura, Marcel; Jankov, Mihailo; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2013-04-01

    Solving problems involving biphasic flows in porous media, at a scale larger than the pore one, normally requires the use of relationships between pressure and saturation. These allow the closure of generalized Darcy flow models for two phases, commonly used in hydrology or large scale problems of diphasic flow in porous media. There are mathematical models which approximate experimental records with curve-fitting equations. The two most common models are the Brooks-Corey and van Genüchten ones, they are used to complete a system of generalized Darcy equations. The purpose of the current study is the influence of the boundary conditions on the relationship between pressure and saturation. We perform numerical simulations of drainage experiments. Water is the wetting fluid and air is the non wetting fluid. The results highlight the fact that a filter which allows only water to flow at the exit face of the system modifies both the shape of the curve and the value of the residual saturation. The pressure of the models that are commonly used does not match with the pressure of real flows since there is no filter to cross, to flow from an elementary volume to another. Experiments performed in transparent Hele-Shaw cells exhibit the same features, showing the influence of the semi permeable boundary conditions on the pressure-saturation measures obtained. This effect corresponding to the formation of localized plugging clusters at the boundaries, is obtained in slow flow conditions, and is independent of any dynamic fingering, also known to affect such relations (1,2,3). Modeling flows in open media thus would require to use the central part of the curves pressure saturation where the effect of the boundaries is the least important, or to modify properly these relationships to extract the behavior unaffected by boundaries. References: (1) Two-phase flow: structure, upscaling, and consequences for macroscopic transport properties Renaud Toussaint ; Knut Jørgen M

  3. Sea slugs, subliminal pictures and vegetative state patients: Boundaries of consciousness in classical conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A Bekinschtein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical (trace conditioning is a specific variant of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus leads to the subsequent prediction of an emotionally charged or noxious stimulus after a temporal gap. When conditioning is concurrent with a distraction task, only participants who can report the relationship (the contingency between stimuli explicitly show associative learning. This suggests that consciousness is a prerequisite for trace conditioning. We review and question three main controversies concerning this view. Firstly, virtually all animals, even invertebrate sea slugs, show this type of learning; secondly, unconsciously perceived stimuli may elicit trace conditioning; and thirdly, some vegetative state patients show trace learning. We discuss and analyze these seemingly contradictory arguments to find the theoretical boundaries of consciousness in classical conditioning. We conclude that trace conditioning remains one of the best measures to test conscious processing in the absence of explicit reports.

  4. Lattice QCD with open boundary conditions and twisted-mass reweighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Lattice QCD simulations at small lattice spacings and quark masses close to their physical values are technically challenging. In particular, the simulations can get trapped in the topological charge sectors of field space or may run into instabilities triggered by accidental near-zero modes of the lattice Dirac operator. As already noted in ref. [1], the first problem is bypassed if open boundary conditions are imposed in the time direction, while the second can potentially be overcome through twisted-mass determinant reweighting [2]. In this paper, we show that twisted-mass reweighting works out as expected in QCD with open boundary conditions and 2+1 flavours of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Further algorithmic improvements are tested as well and a few physical quantities are computed for illustration.

  5. Performance advantages of CPML over UPML absorbing boundary conditions in FDTD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdic, Branko D.; Djurdjevic, Dusan Z.

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of absorbing boundary condition (ABC) has a very important role in simulation performance and accuracy in finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is the most efficient type of ABC. The aim of this paper is to give detailed insight in and discussion of boundary conditions and hence to simplify the choice of PML used for termination of computational domain in FDTD method. In particular, we demonstrate that using the convolutional PML (CPML) has significant advantages in terms of implementation in FDTD method and reducing computer resources than using uniaxial PML (UPML). An extensive number of numerical experiments has been performed and results have shown that CPML is more efficient in electromagnetic waves absorption. Numerical code is prepared, several problems are analyzed and relative error is calculated and presented.

  6. MHD Natural Convection with Convective Surface Boundary Condition over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the one parameter continuous group method to investigate similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD heat and mass transfer flow of a steady viscous incompressible fluid over a flat plate. By using the one parameter group method, similarity transformations and corresponding similarity representations are presented. A convective boundary condition is applied instead of the usual boundary conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux. In addition it is assumed that viscosity, thermal conductivity, and concentration diffusivity vary linearly. Our study indicates that a similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer related to the hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is directly proportional to (x--1/2 where x- is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by the Keller Box method for different values of the controlling parameters associated with the problem.

  7. Reflected forward-backward SDEs and obstacle problems with boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a class of forward-backward stochastic differential equations with reflecting boundary conditions (FBSDER for short. More precisely, we consider the case in which the forward component of the FBSDER is restricted to a fixed, convex region, and the backward component will stay, at each fixed time, in a convex region that may depend on time and is possibly random. The solvability of such FBSDER is studied in a fairly general way. We also prove that if the coefficients are all deterministic and the backward equation is one-dimensional, then the adapted solution of such FBSDER will give the viscosity solution of a quasilinear variational inequality (obstacle problem with a Neumann boundary condition. As an application, we study how the solvability of FBSDERs is related to the solvability of an American game option.

  8. Blow-up analysis for a system of heat equations coupled through a nonlinear boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Lin, Zhigui

    2001-01-01

    Consider the system of heat equations uit - Δui = 0 (i = 1 , . . . , k, uk+i := u1) in Ω x (0, T) coupled through nonlinear boundary conditions ∂ui/∂η = up1i+1 on ∂Ω x [0, T). The upper and lower bounds of the blow-up rate is derived. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Consider the system of heat equations uit - Δui = 0 (i = 1 , . . . , k, uk+i := u1) in Ω x (0, T) coupled through nonlinear boundary conditions ∂ui/∂η = up1i+1 on ∂Ω x [0, T). The upper and lower bounds of the blow-up rate is derived. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. A Monte Carlo method for solving the one-dimensional telegraph equations with boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebrón, Juan A.; Ribeiro, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm is derived to solve the one-dimensional telegraph equations in a bounded domain subject to resistive and non-resistive boundary conditions. The proposed numerical scheme is more efficient than the classical Kac's theory because it does not require the discretization of time. The algorithm has been validated by comparing the results obtained with theory and the Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method for a typical two-wire transmission line terminated at both ends with general boundary conditions. We have also tested transmission line heterogeneities to account for wave propagation in multiple media. The algorithm is inherently parallel, since it is based on Monte Carlo simulations, and does not suffer from the numerical dispersion and dissipation issues that arise in finite difference-based numerical schemes on a lossy medium. This allowed us to develop an efficient numerical method, capable of outperforming the classical FDTD method for large scale problems and high frequency signals.

  10. Variable separation for time fractional advection-dispersion equation with initial and boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, variable separation method combined with the properties of Mittag-Leffler function is used to solve a variable-coefficient time fractional advection-dispersion equation with initial and boundary conditions. As a result, a explicit exact solution is obtained. It is shown that the variable separation method can provide a useful mathematical tool for solving the time fractional heat transfer equations.

  11. Stokes system with solution-dependent threshold slip boundary conditions: Analysis, approximation and implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, October 2017 (2017), s. 1-14 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Stokes system * threshold slip boundary conditions * solution dependent slip function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286517716222

  12. Initial-boundary value problem with a nonlocal condition for a viscosity equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Bouziani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the proof of the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of a strong solution upon the data, for an initial-boundary value problem which combine Neumann and integral conditions for a viscosity equation. The proof is based on an energy inequality and on the density of the range of the linear operator corresponding to the abstract formulation of the studied problem.

  13. The Existence of Positive Solution to a Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hanying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression and properties of Green's function for a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations with integral boundary conditions are studied and employed to obtain some results on the existence of positive solutions by using fixed point theorem in cones. The proofs are based on the reduction of the problem considered to the equivalent Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results significantly extend and improve many known results even for integer-order cases.

  14. The Fourier transform and convolutions generated by a differential operator with boundary condition on a segment

    OpenAIRE

    Kanguzhin, Baltabek; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concepts of the Fourier transform and convolution generated by an arbitrary restriction of the differentiation operator in the space $L_{2}(0,b).$ In contrast to the classical convolution, the introduced convolution explicitly depends on the boundary condition that defines the domain of the operator $L.$ The convolution is closely connected to the inverse operator or to the resolvent. So, we first find a representation for the resolvent, and then introduce the required convol...

  15. A locking-free nonconforming triangular element for planar elasticity with pure traction boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqin; Chen, Shaochun

    2010-03-01

    A new nonconforming triangular element for the equations of planar linear elasticity with pure traction boundary conditions is considered. By virtue of construction of the element, the discrete version of Korn's second inequality is directly proved to be valid. Convergence rate of the finite element methods is uniformly optimal with respect to [lambda]. Error estimates in the energy norm and L2-norm are O(h2) and O(h3), respectively.

  16. The Kramers problem with accommodative boundary conditions for quantum Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikov, A. A.; Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    The Kramers problem of isothermal slip of a quantum Fermi gas with Cercignani boundary conditions is solved analytically. The velocity of isothermal slip is obtained as a function of the accommodation coefficient and the reduced chemical potential—the ratio of the chemical potential to the product of Boltzmann's constant and the absolute temperature. The distribution function of the molecules is presented in explicit form.

  17. Additional Boundary Condition for a Wire Medium Connected to a Metallic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Silveirinha, Mário G.; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Costa, Jorge R.

    2007-01-01

    WOS:000255793900001 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) In this work, we demonstrate that the interaction of electromagnetic waves with a microstructured material formed by metallic wires connected to a metallic surface can be described using homogenization methods provided an additional boundary condition (ABC) is considered. The ABC is derived by taking into account the specific microstructure of the wire medium. To illustrate the application of the result, we characterize a substrate formed b...

  18. A Boundary Value Problem with Multivariables Integral Type Condition for Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marhoune

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a boundary value problem with multivariables integral type condition for a class of parabolic equations. We prove the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of the solution upon the data in the functional wieghted Sobolev spaces. Results are obtained by using a functional analysis method based on two-sided a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the linear operator generated by the considered problem.

  19. Masses, decay constants and electromagnetic form-factors with twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss some of the effects of twisted boundary conditions in finite volume using continuum SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory. We point out how broken cubic symmetry affects the definitions of quantities such as form-factors. Using the $\\pi^+$ as an example, we give one loop results for the mass, decay constants and electromagnetic form-factor and illustrate how the relevant Ward identities are satisfied.

  20. Debye potentials, electromagnetic reciprocity and impedance boundary conditions for efficient analytic approximation of coupling impedances in complex heterogeneous accelerator pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petracca, S. [Salerno Univ. (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    Debye potentials, the Lorentz reciprocity theorem, and (extended) Leontovich boundary conditions can be used to obtain simple and accurate analytic estimates of the longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances of (piecewise longitudinally uniform) multi-layered pipes with non simple transverse geometry and/or (spatially inhomogeneous) boundary conditions. (author)