WorldWideScience

Sample records for boundary character distribution

  1. Superplasticity and grain boundary character distribution in overaged Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic-Cingara, G.; Aust, K.T.; Perovic, D.D.; McQueen, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 8091 alloy were subjected to a thermomechanical processing (TMP) treatment that included the following stages: overaging before deformation, multistage deformation at 300 deg C and strain rate change tests for superplasticity. Torsional deformation was utilized both to develop the refined microstructure and to test for superplasticity. The strain rate sensitivity, m, of the material ranged between 0.30 and 0.45 at 450 deg C for strain rates between 8 x 10 -2 and 10 -3 s -1 . The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) of thermomechanically processed Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr (8091) alloy, which develops good superplastic response, has been determined by an electron backscattering diffraction technique (EBSD). All grain boundaries have been classified into one of three categories in terms of Σ values : low angle, coincidence site lattice and random high angle boundaries. Quantitative studies of grain boundary character were done after various processing stages to obtain evidence about structure evolution and indicate an increase in Σ boundary frequency following TMP. Selected area electron diffraction examination (SAD) gave evidence about the refined structure, in which the grain boundary misorientation increased EBSD how the grain boundary character was changed to high Σ values. TEM analyses indicate that the T 2 phase is responsible for substructure stabilization. There is no evidence of cavity formation during superplastic deformation by torsion, which suggests that cavity nucleation is strongly influenced by the nature of stress. (author). 32 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Grain boundary character distribution derived from three-dimensional microstructure reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirgazi, H; Kestens, L A I

    2015-01-01

    Manual serial sectioning which includes consecutive steps of sample preparation and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) measurement was employed to extract the twodimensional (2D) sections of a pure nickel sample and to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. A general alignment algorithm based on the minimization of misorientation between two adjacent sections has been developed to accurately align the sections. By employing this alignment algorithm, any in-plane (translational) and rotational misalignment as well as the planparallelity can be corrected. Surface triangulation technique was used to reconstruct the grain boundary surfaces. The Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) was derived from reconstructed grain boundaries. The results show that a smoother grain boundary plane can be obtained after precise translational and rotational alignment and correction of planparallelity.The relative grain boundary energy was computed as a function of the five grain boundary parameters based on equilibrium at triple lines. The results show that the grain boundary planes carrying a Σ 3 type misorientation are dominantly parallel to the {111} crystal plane, which indicates the presence of coherent twin boundaries. It was observed that coherent Σ 3 type boundaries exhibit the minimum relative grain boundary energy, which is approximately 57% smaller than the average of all Σ 3 boundaries, including also incoherent twin boundaries. (paper)

  3. Grain boundary character distribution derived from three-dimensional microstructure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgazi, H.; Kestens, L. A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Manual serial sectioning which includes consecutive steps of sample preparation and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) measurement was employed to extract the twodimensional (2D) sections of a pure nickel sample and to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. A general alignment algorithm based on the minimization of misorientation between two adjacent sections has been developed to accurately align the sections. By employing this alignment algorithm, any in-plane (translational) and rotational misalignment as well as the planparallelity can be corrected. Surface triangulation technique was used to reconstruct the grain boundary surfaces. The Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) was derived from reconstructed grain boundaries. The results show that a smoother grain boundary plane can be obtained after precise translational and rotational alignment and correction of planparallelity. The relative grain boundary energy was computed as a function of the five grain boundary parameters based on equilibrium at triple lines. The results show that the grain boundary planes carrying a Σ3 type misorientation are dominantly parallel to the {111} crystal plane, which indicates the presence of coherent twin boundaries. It was observed that coherent Σ3 type boundaries exhibit the minimum relative grain boundary energy, which is approximately 57% smaller than the average of all Σ3 boundaries, including also incoherent twin boundaries.

  4. Grain boundary character distributions of coincidence site lattice boundaries in WC-Co composites with different WC grain sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaokun, E-mail: yuanxiaokun@bjut.edu.cn

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •GBCDs of two kinds of CSL boundaries in cemented carbides are examined. •Carbide mean grain size is determinant in controlling the populations of CSL boundaries. •Rapid decrease of sigma2 boundaries occurs at higher speed than the coarsening of carbide grains. -- Abstract: The grain boundary character distributions of sigma2 and sigma13 boundaries were investigated in cemented carbide samples with different carbide grain sizes. Samples were prepared with average carbide grain sizes of about 0.5 μm, 1 μm and 2 μm, respectively. The electron backscattered diffraction measurements show that with the increase of the carbide grain size, populations of both sigma2 and sigma13 boundaries decrease; in the meantime, the sigma2 twist and sigma13 twist boundaries keep as the most common boundary types. The results suggest that the carbide grain size could be determinant in controlling the populations of coincidence site lattice boundaries in WC-Co composites.

  5. Improvement of corrosion resistance in austenitic stainless steel by grain boundary character distribution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun; Kaneda, Junya; Kasahara, Shigeki; Shigenaka, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    Strauss test, Coriou test and Huey test were conducted on a Type 316L austenitic stainless steel. Improvement in grain boundary corrosion resistance was verified after raising low Σ coincidence site lattice (CSL) grain boundary (GB) frequency by controlling grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). During crevice corrosion test under gamma-ray irradiation, initiation frequency of GB corrosion after GBCD controlled specimens decreased to 1/10 of GBCD uncontrolled counterpart along with lower depth of corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) propagation rate of GBCD controlled specimen decreased to less than 1/2 of GBCD uncontrolled specimen in high temperature and high pressure water. Based on these results, we expect that GBCD control will improve corrosion resistance of austenitic material in a wide range of application and environment. (author)

  6. Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Impact Toughness of 410NiMo Weld Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divya, M.; Das, Chitta Ranjan; Chowdhury, Sandip Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundary character distributions in 410NiMo weld metal were studied in the as-welded, first-stage, and second-stage postweld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions, and these were correlated with the Charpy-V impact toughness values of the material. The high impact toughness values in the weld...

  7. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  8. Secondary recrystallization in non-sag W filament wires -- On the possible role of relative grain boundary character distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Watte, P.; Mertens, F.

    1999-01-01

    Non-Sag tungsten (W) wire is indispensable for the lighting industry. For the necessary creep resistance, large elongated grains are considered as the desired microstructure. These large grains are obtained by primary and secondary recrystallization. In the present study an effort has been made to characterize and to understand the origin of such large elongated grains. In secondary recrystallization, often called abnormal grain growth, a few of the grains grow massive. The mechanisms of normal and abnormal grain growth are essentially the same, involving high angle boundary migration and driven by the reduction of surface energy. The abnormal grain growth can be visualized as a growth advantage for a few of the grains or growth disadvantage for the majority. Such an advantage/disadvantage may be caused by (1) differences in grain size and/or (2) differences in grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). In other words, a grain may grow massive if it has large size and/or possibilities of more favorable (i.e., of higher mobility) grain boundaries with the matrix grains

  9. Effects of annealing on grain-boundary character distribution and texture evolution in hot-rolled Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gokhman, Aleksandr; Wang, Wenhai; Zhang, Zhongwu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing on grain-boundary character distribution and texture evolution were investigated in hot-rolled Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel. An annealing treatment performed at different temperatures affected the recrystallization behavior and changed the volume fraction of low-angle and coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries. High frequencies of coincidence boundaries Σ3, Σ9, Σ13, and Σ27 were observed in all annealed samples, while the annealing temperature can lead to a large difference in frequencies for Σ13. The effect of crystallographic texture on the directional dependence of the specific magnetic energy in the rolling plane of investigated sheets was calculated and discussed. These results demonstrate the possibility of optimizing grain-boundary character distribution (GBCD) and texture to improve the magnetic and mechanical properties of Fe-6.5 wt% Si steel by controlling annealing temperature.

  10. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The digital age has seen the rise of service systems involving highly distributed, heterogeneous, and resource-integrating actors whose relationships are governed by shared institutional logics, standards, and digital technology. The cocreation of service within these service systems takes place...... in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  11. Influence of Grain Boundary Character and Annealing Time on Segregation in Commercially Pure Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shery L. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially pure nickel (Ni was thermomechanically processed to promote an increase in Σ3 special grain boundaries. Engineering the character and chemistry of Σ3 grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials can help in improving physical, chemical, and mechanical properties leading to improved performance. Type-specific grain boundaries (special and random were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction and the segregation behavior of elements such as Si, Al, C, O, P, Cr, Mg, Mn, B, and Fe, at the atomic level, was studied as a function of grain boundary character using atom probe tomography. These results showed that the random grain boundaries were enriched with impurities to include metal oxides, while Σ3 special grain boundaries showed little to no impurities at the grain boundaries. In addition, the influence of annealing time on the concentration of segregants on random grain boundaries was analyzed and showed clear evidence of increased concentration of segregants as annealing time was increased.

  12. Grain boundary character dependence of oxygen grain boundary diffusion in α-Al2O3 bicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsubasa; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Isao; Shibata, Naoya; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    We measured oxygen diffusion coefficients (D gb ) along five grain boundaries (GBs) in alumina bicrystals by tracing 18 O by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Although all boundaries are classified as coincident site lattice boundaries with relatively ordered structures, D gb varied up to 10 3 times among them. On the other hand, the boundaries with identical boundary planes had relatively similar diffusivities as well as similar structures, regardless of Σ values. These results suggest that D gb are related to GB atomic structures and hence the GB character, especially GB planes.

  13. Lognormal Behavior of the Size Distributions of Animation Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken

    This study investigates the statistical property of the character sizes of animation, superhero series, and video game. By using online databases of Pokémon (video game) and Power Rangers (superhero series), the height and weight distributions are constructed, and we find that the weight distributions of Pokémon and Zords (robots in Power Rangers) follow the lognormal distribution in common. For the theoretical mechanism of this lognormal behavior, the combination of the normal distribution and the Weber-Fechner law is proposed.

  14. Deconvolution estimation of mixture distributions with boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihee; Hall, Peter; Shen, Haipeng; Marron, J. S.; Tolle, Jon; Burch, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by an important problem in evolutionary biology, we develop two sieve type estimators for distributions that are mixtures of a finite number of discrete atoms and continuous distributions under the framework of measurement error models. While there is a large literature on deconvolution problems, only two articles have previously addressed the problem taken up in our article, and they use relatively standard Fourier deconvolution. As a result the estimators suggested in those two articles are degraded seriously by boundary effects and negativity. A major contribution of our article is correct handling of boundary effects; our method is asymptotically unbiased at the boundaries, and also is guaranteed to be nonnegative. We use roughness penalization to improve the smoothness of the resulting estimator and reduce the estimation variance. We illustrate the performance of the proposed estimators via our real driving application in evolutionary biology and two simulation studies. Furthermore, we establish asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. PMID:24009793

  15. Low-temperature fracture of high purity iron and its relationship to the grain boundary character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofuji, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Daido Special Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)); Suzuki, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Materials Research Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Takai, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Materials Research); Kimura, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Materials Research)

    1992-02-01

    Mode of fracture and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of high purity iron( 99.999% or higher ) was investigated by using two sets of specimens of different grain boundary character. The specimens having bamboo-type grain structure with high angle boundaries have fractured in the intergranular mode and their DBTT is between 110 and 125 K. Specimens with coarse grain structure have shown fractures in transgranular mode at and below 50 K. DBTT for intergranular fracture(IGF), if any, has been below 4.2 K and this has been in contrast with the the occurance of IGF even at 77K for less pure iron specimens(99.99 % or below). It has been concluded that DBTT for IGF, which has been the common fracture mode in pure iron depends strongly on the purity and grain boundary character of iron spocimens. DBTT has ranged from 125 to 4.2 K or below. Also, specimens of 99.99 % purity have been more susceptible to IGF than the specimens with 99.999 % purity. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Boundary feedback stabilization of distributed parameter systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author introduces the method of pseudo-differential stabilization. He notes that the theory of pseudo-differential boundary operators is a fruitful approach to problems arising in control and stabilization theory of distributed-parameter systems. The basic pseudo-differential calculus can...

  17. Non-destructive analysis of micro texture and grain boundary character from X-ray diffraction contrast tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A.; Herbig, M.; Ludwig, W.

    2010-01-01

    parameter description of the character of individual grain boundaries could previously be produced only by destructive characterization techniques. Statistical analysis of this kind of data can be expected to provide new insight into various physico-chemical processes, driven by the grain boundary energy...

  18. Singular boundary perturbations of distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Some problems arising in real-life control applications are addressed--namely, problems concerning non-smooth control inputs on the boundary of the spatial domain. The classical variational approach is extended, and sufficient conditions are given for the solutions to continuous functions of time...

  19. 26 CFR 1.735-1 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.735-1 Character... him in a distribution from a partnership shall be considered gain or loss from the sale or exchange of property other than a capital asset. (2) Inventory items. Any gain realized or loss sustained by a partner...

  20. Distributed resource management across process boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Lalith

    2017-09-27

    Multi-tenant distributed systems composed of small services, such as Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Micro-services, raise new challenges in attaining high performance and efficient resource utilization. In these systems, a request execution spans tens to thousands of processes, and the execution paths and resource demands on different services are generally not known when a request first enters the system. In this paper, we highlight the fundamental challenges of regulating load and scheduling in SOAs while meeting end-to-end performance objectives on metrics of concern to both tenants and operators. We design Wisp, a framework for building SOAs that transparently adapts rate limiters and request schedulers system-wide according to operator policies to satisfy end-to-end goals while responding to changing system conditions. In evaluations against production as well as synthetic workloads, Wisp successfully enforces a range of end-to-end performance objectives, such as reducing average latencies, meeting deadlines, providing fairness and isolation, and avoiding system overload.

  1. Distributions of electric and elastic fields at domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Josef; Fousek, Jan; Maryska, Jiri; Marvan, Milan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of the finite element method (FEM) in modelling spatial distributions of electric and elastic fields in a ferroelectric crystals with two domains separated by a 90 deg. domain wall. The domain boundary is idealized as a two-dimensional defect in an electro-elastic continuum. It represents the source of inhomogenity and internal distortion in both elastic and electric fields. The main results are distributions of electric field, strain and mechanical force along the domain boundary

  2. Sample path analysis and distributions of boundary crossing times

    CERN Document Server

    Zacks, Shelemyahu

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is focused on the derivations of exact distributions of first boundary crossing times of Poisson processes, compound Poisson processes, and more general renewal processes.  The content is limited to the distributions of first boundary crossing times and their applications to various stochastic models. This book provides the theory and techniques for exact computations of distributions and moments of level crossing times. In addition, these techniques could replace simulations in many cases, thus providing more insight about the phenomenona studied. This book takes a general approach for studying telegraph processes and is based on nearly thirty published papers by the author and collaborators over the past twenty five years.  No prior knowledge of advanced probability is required, making the book widely available to students and researchers in applied probability, operations research, applied physics, and applied mathematics. .

  3. Variable Mixed Orbital Character in the Photoelectron Angular Distribution of NO_{2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Benjamin A.; Cavanagh, Steven J.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Gibson, Stephen T.

    2017-06-01

    NO_{2} a key component of photochemical smog and an important species in the Earth's atmosphere, is an example of a molecule which exhibits significant mixed orbital character in the HOMO. In photoelectron experiments the geometric properties of the parent anion orbital are reflected in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD), an area of research that has benefited largely from the ability of velocity-map imaging (VMI) to simultaneously record both the energetic and angular information, with 100% collection efficiency. Photoelectron spectra of NO_{2}^{-}, taken over a range of wavelengths (355nm-520nm) with the ANU's VMI spectrometer, reveal an anomalous jump in the anisotropy parameter near threshold. Consequently, the orbital behavior of NO_{2}^{-} appears to be quite different near threshold compared to detachment at higher photon energies. This surprising effect is due to the Wigner Threshold law, which causes p orbital character to dominate the photodetachment cross-section near threshold, before the mixed s/d orbital character becomes significant at higher electron kinetic energies. By extending recent work on binary character models to form a more general expression, the variable mixed orbital character of NO_{2}^{-} is able to be described. This study provides the first multi-wavelength NO_{2} anisotropy data, which is shown to be in decent agreement with much earlier zero-core model predictions of the anisotropy parameter. K. J. Reed, A. H. Zimmerman, H. C. Andersen, and J. I. Brauman, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 1368, (1976). doi:10.1063/1.432404 D. Khuseynov, C. C. Blackstone, L. M. Culberson, and A. Sanov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 124312, (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4896241 W. B. Clodius, R. M. Stehman, and S. B. Woo, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 760, (1983). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.28.760 Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP160102585

  4. The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen from Chubut in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and Dean Amadon for certain notes on this group of birds that he had assembled.The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen

  5. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.

  6. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Armando Freitas da; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (s i ) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(e i ) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified s i . H(e i ) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources s i . This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(e i ) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.

  7. Low-Energy Dislocation Structure (LEDS) character of dislocation boundaries aligned with slip planes in rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    For the specific slip geometry of two sets of coplanar systems (a total of four systems) in fcc metals, the range of dislocation networks in boundaries aligned with one of the two active slip planes is predicted from the Frank equation for boundaries free of long-range elastic stresses. Detailed...... by dislocation reactions. Cross slip plays a role in the boundary formation process....

  8. [Distribution character of organochlorinated pesticides in the karst cavity atmosphere from Guilin City, south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-hui; Qi, Shi-hua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Jun-peng; Yuan, Dao-xian

    2010-03-01

    The investigation was performed on organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) pollution in karst cavity atmosphere in Guilin City, South China. The total concentrations of OCPs outside the cave atmosphere ranged from 1.82 to 2.01 ng x m(-1), were far more than those of inside cave (range of 0.27-0.83 ng x m(-3)). OCPs concentrations fell gradually from cave gate to inside, especially to HCH, which reflected outside atmospheric transportation contributed most of pollutants inside cave. OCPs concentrations inside cave equaled to those in South and North poles therefore could be considered as background for OCPs research. The concentrations distribution sequence of HCH isomers corresponded to degradation rates themselves and that might provide critical information on the exhibiting their inherent character differences of HCH pesticides well under peculiarly original surrounding. In addition, a possibly fresh introduction of discofol-type and a historical usage potential for HCH pesticides in studied area were identified by isomer percentage combined isomer ratios.

  9. Study On Seismic Identification And Distribution Characters Of Marine Gas Hydrate In Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Tang, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The paper studies the formation processes and distribution of marine gas hydrate, through systematically and thoroughly analyzing the geological setting, gas sources and distribution features of the most marine gas hydrate deposits around the world. Based on study of the geologic features in Okinawa Trough and adjacent area, it is showed that there exist favorable geological conditions for the formation of gas hydrate, and the seismic indicator -BSR has also been identified from multi-channel digit seismic data by re-processing and analyzing. This shows that Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area may distribute a mass of gas hydrate sedimentary deposit. Then the paper discusses the prospect of the gas hydrate resource in Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area, based on the calculating of the hydrate stability zone thickness. Main conclusions of the paper can be summed up as follows: Based on the systematically comparative analysis of the marine gas hydrate deposits in different marine gas hydrate accumulate belts, the paper summarizes the different geologic formation processes and characters of the gas hydrate. And the importance of the continuous supplementation of the gas source, the transporting and accumulating of the gaseous fluid during the formation processes of the gas hydrate, and the preservation conditions of the gas hydrate deposit are discussed. It is thought that the Okinawa Trough (especially the west slope of the Trough) has the favorable conditions for gas hydrate through the analysis of its geologic features. The geologic features of Okinawa Trough, such as water depth, low temperature of bottom water, very thick sediments with high organic matter content, a large amount of gas from deep parts induced by the upward of the high temperature mantle flow under the Trough, very developed fracture system, and lots of pore space in the under-compacted sediment induced by the rapid sedimentation-are beneficial to form gas hydrate. This provided the advantaged

  10. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  11. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  12. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, A.J.; Maschke, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  13. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Arjan; Maschke, B.M.

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  14. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  15. Generic boundaries and evolution of characters in the Arctium group: a nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Generic delineation within the Arctium group (Compositae, Carduceae-Carduinae, formed by the genera Arctium, Cousinia, Hypacanthium and Schamalhausenia, has proven a complicated task. In particular, the precise limits between Arctium and Cousinia are very difficult to establish. Therefore, we have carried out a molecular survey of DNA sequences of two regions, the chloroplast gene matK and the nuclear-ribosomal spacers ITS 1 and 2, of a representation of all the genera of the group (in the case of Cousinia, centered in the species more obviously related to Arctiium. Our results show a precise correlation between molecular phylogeny and two very important characters, pollen type and chromosome numbers: all the investigated species with the Arctiastrum pollen type and x= 18, characteristics of Arctium sensu stricto, form a monophyletic clade, sister of another monophyletic clade formed by all the investigated species of Cousinia sensu slricto. However, the resulting "Arctioid" clade cannot be defined on macroscopic morphologic characters, because the main trait for segregating Arctium and Cousinia, the spiny pinnatifid-pinnatisect leaves of Cousinia, is adaptative and of scarce systematic relevance. In fact, our results suggest that spines have appeared at least in two different lineages: the genera Hypacanthium and Schamalhausenia, spiny and thus morphologically closer to Cousinia, are unambiguously related to the unarmed genus Arctium. An hypothesis on the evolution of morphology, pollen and chromosome numbers in the group is formulated. The systematic implications of this incongruence between molecular, pollen and karyology, on the one hand, and morphology, on the other hand, are evaluated. Some possible solutions are proposed, but none of them is totally satisfactory: more studies are necessary with the inclusion

  16. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

  17. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: an experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C; Culberson, Lori M; Sanov, Andrei

    2014-09-28

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO(-) photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  18. Insight of the distribution and general characters of uranium deposits in the world (except France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1956-01-01

    It gives a large insight of uranium deposits and general characters of uranium deposits on the planet (except France). It gives a review of the mineralized area of the main uranium producers country with a geographic and geologic recall. Moreover, it brings together all the important prospecting results from countries which have presented a report at the international conference on the pacific uses of atomic energy in geneva (8-20 august 1955). All these countries are cited except France. It described not only the payable deposits as each deposit brings interesting indications for future prospecting and might also become payable in the future. It started with the geological survey of USA and Canada and the geographic description of their different uranium deposit sites as both country present the largest uranium resources. In the same way, geographic and geological surveys of South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, India, Brazil, Argentina, Rhodesia, Mozambia, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, Portugal, Yugoslavia, Italy, Austria and Switzerland are described. (M.P.)

  19. Temperature distribution in graphene doped with nitrogen and graphene with grain boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Erfan; Neek-Amal, M

    2017-06-01

    Graphene doped with nitrogen exhibits unique properties different than perfect graphene. The temperature distribution in nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) and in the graphene with grain boundary is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature distribution in nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon, containing two types of grain boundaries, was found to be sensitive to the number of dopants and grain boundary. We also found that there is a remarkable temperature gap in the temperature profile of N-graphene nanoribbon-containing a grain boundary. For any doping ratio N/C we found that the nitrogen atoms enhance roughness of N-graphene and decrease thermal conductivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Analysis of nitrogen distribution characters and their sources of the major input rivers of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Qin, Yan-Wen; Huang, Min-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    According to the survey conducted from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2005, the seasonal characters of nitrogen in the water of input rivers of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were discussed, and the forms and distributions of nitrogen among three major input rivers (Changjiang river, Jialingjiang river and Wujiang river) were studied. The results indicate that some primary hydrologic values of input rivers have seasonal characters, and they are in the danger range, which might bring algal bloom. The average contents per year of total nitrogen are 1.55-2.15 mg/L in the three monitor sections of input rivers of TGR, and Wulong monitor section is more severe than the others. The contents of total nitrogen in abundant water period are much higher than them in low water period, which displays the nonpoint source pollution has far-reaching influence upon total nitrogen. The total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is the major form of total nitrogen and further nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is dominant accounting for 70% or more of DIN. Ammoniacal nitrogen is the uppermost input form of nitrogen pollution of input rivers of TGR. Ammoniacal nitrogen was oxidated to nitroso-nitrogen, and then it was oxidated to nitrate nitrogen using up a lot of dissolved oxygen of water. Nitrate nitrogen sources include agricultural runoff, city pollution water, city runoff and slow-releasing from submersed soil, whenas nitrogen-ammonia (NH4(+)-N) origins are city pollution water, industrial pollution water, and a little source of living garbage and bilgewater.

  1. Character of the contact and biostratigraphical feature of distribution of the microfauna on border between productive series (PS) and underlying upper Miocene sediments of Absheron oil and gas bearing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhlinsky, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Productive Series (PS) is a basic hydrocarbon object and has a wide distribution in the Absheron Oil and Gas Bearing Region (AOGBR).In the normal stratigraphic sequences PS lays between Akchagylian and Pontian Regiostages (Pontian).From microfauna point of view, PS contains rare native ostracods , fish teeth, otolithes and forams.In situ, in PS, there are 34 of microfauna species present and more than half of them are transitional, which appear in the Upper Miocene and finish the existence in the Akchagylian-Apsheronian sediments.Others taxons are having the strict stratigraphical distribution and very important for the definition of the age of different lithostratones inside PS.Stratigraphical distribution of these species has been tested in numerous natural outcrops and well sections.The large interest for geologists is the boundary between PS and underlying Upper Miocene.The stratigraphic character of the given intermediate complex of sediments depends on paleotectonic conditions and different sections on the way it is expressed differently.In one section, in other-the gradual transition from Pontian to Kalinskaya Suite (KaS).The detailed study of the samples from the numerous old explorationwells drilled before 1972 and from new contract areas located in the Caspian sea, such as Karabakh, Dan Ulduzu, Ashrafi, where sampling was made very detailed, allowed us to discover the characteristic biomarkers and to specify the character of distribution of the microfauna on the Pontian-KaS boundary.The similar contact between KaC and Pontian is observed in the Karabakh field too.KaS here is represented by monotonous carbonated shale, clay and claystone, almost not distinguished from the black Potian shale, with increase at the contact with water.Despite of it, the boundary is precisely beaten by microfauna.In the Pontian sediments we have discovered a characteristic complex of Ostracoda and microscopic Pelecypoda.

  2. Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)

  3. Concerning initial and secondary character of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Specificity of radionuclide distribution in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) treated as local system of geochemically linked elementary terrestrial units (in toposequence: watershed-slope-closing depression), belongs to one of the less investigated but practically significant problems of current geochemistry. First measurements after the Chernobyl accident showed a considerable variation of Cs-137 distribution in all examined ELGS (Shcheglov et al, 2001; Romanov, 1989; Korobova, Korovaykov, 1990; Linnik, 2008). The results may be interpreted in frames of two alternative hypotheses: 1) irregularity of the initial contamination; 2) secondary redistribution of the initially regular level of fallout. But herewith only a disproof of the first hypothesis automatically justifies the second one. Factors responsible for initial irregularity of surface contamination included: 1) the presence of the so-called "hot" particles in the initial fallout; 2) interception of radionuclides by forest canopy; 3) irregular aerial particles deposition; 4) uneven initial precipitation. Basing on monitoring Cs-137 spatial distribution that has been performed since 2005, we demonstrate that the observed spatial irregularity in distribution of Cs-137 in ELGS reflects a purely secondary distribution of initial reserves of radionuclides in fallout matter due to its migration with water in local geochemical systems. This statement has some significant consequences. 1. Mechanism of migration of matter in ELGS is complicated and could not be reduced solely to a primitive moving from watershed to closing depression. 2. The control of migration of "labeled atoms" (Cs-137) permits to understand common mechanism of migration of water in all systems on the level of ELGS. 3. Understanding formation of the structure of contamination zones in ELGS permits to use mathematical model to solve the inverse problem of restoration of the initially equable level of their contamination. Performed

  4. [Distribution character of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the karst cavity, Guilin City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Li, Jie; Xing, Xin-Li

    2009-05-15

    We investigated the distribution characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of soils from Dayan cave, a karst cavity in Guilin City, South China. The total PAHs concentrations from the inner cave ranged from 7.22 to 117.29 ng x g(-1) were much lower than those of outside cave (range of 51.35-235.73 ng x g(-1)). PAHs in studied area polluted slightly compared with other area. PAHs contents outside the cave and near cave gate were much higher than those within the cave with a little concentration change. In outside cave soils, the heavy molecular weight PAH (HMW) concentrations were higher than those of the light molecular weight PAH (LMW) (mean value 69.25 ng x g(-1) > 38.81 ngx g(-1)) while it was reverse inside cave (mean value 3.93 ng x g(-1) < 7.41 ng x g(-1)),which indicated the inner PAHs might came from atmosphere introduction and rainwater filtering from the top of the cave too. PAHs concentration distribution in the soils presented "trap effect" near the cave gate and a concentration superposition from the slope in the north cave wicket. HMW concentration near the cave gate was even larger by three times than that outside cave gate and a positive relation was found between PAH molecular weight and its falling tendence (R2 = 0.49). Deducing from the analysed data, PAHs concentration contributed by the cave gate was about 17 times of that of the slope. Temperature and molecular weight diversity were important factors influencing PAH concentration distribution.

  5. On the distribution of interspecies correlation for Markov models of character evolution on Yule trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Willem H; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-01-07

    Efforts to reconstruct phylogenetic trees and understand evolutionary processes depend fundamentally on stochastic models of speciation and mutation. The simplest continuous-time model for speciation in phylogenetic trees is the Yule process, in which new species are "born" from existing lineages at a constant rate. Recent work has illuminated some of the structural properties of Yule trees, but it remains mostly unknown how these properties affect sequence and trait patterns observed at the tips of the phylogenetic tree. Understanding the interplay between speciation and mutation under simple models of evolution is essential for deriving valid phylogenetic inference methods and gives insight into the optimal design of phylogenetic studies. In this work, we derive the probability distribution of interspecies covariance under Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of phenotypic change on a Yule tree. We compute the probability distribution of the number of mutations shared between two randomly chosen taxa in a Yule tree under discrete Markov mutation models. Our results suggest summary measures of phylogenetic information content, illuminate the correlation between site patterns in sequences or traits of related organisms, and provide heuristics for experimental design and reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang

    1988-01-01

    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  7. SILICON CARBIDE GRAIN BOUNDARY DISTRIBUTIONS, IRRADIATION CONDITIONS, AND SILVER RETENTION IN IRRADIATED AGR-1 TRISO FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillo, T. M.; Rooyen, I. J.; Aguiar, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Precession electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope was used to map grain orientation and ultimately determine grain boundary misorientation angle distributions, relative fractions of grain boundary types (random high angle, low angle or coincident site lattice (CSL)-related boundaries) and the distributions of CSL-related grain boundaries in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO-coated fuel particles. Two particles from the AGR-1 experiment exhibiting high Ag-110m retention (>80%) were compared to a particle exhibiting low Ag-110m retention (<19%). Irradiated particles with high Ag-110m retention exhibited a lower fraction of random, high angle grain boundaries compared to the low Ag-110m retention particle. An inverse relationship between the random, high angle grain boundary fraction and Ag-110m retention is found and is consistent with grain boundary percolation theory. Also, comparison of the grain boundary distributions with previously reported unirradiated grain boundary distributions, based on SEM-based EBSD for similarly fabricated particles, showed only small differences, i.e. a greater low angle grain boundary fraction in unirradiated SiC. It was, thus, concluded that SiC layers with grain boundary distributions susceptible to Ag-110m release were present prior to irradiation. Finally, irradiation parameters were found to have little effect on the association of fission product precipitates with specific grain boundary types.

  8. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22518

  9. The Richness of Distributional Cues to Word Boundaries in Speech to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Gaja; Johnson, J. Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the information content of a wide range of distributional cues to word boundaries, individually and in combination, in naturally occurring child-directed speech across three languages (English, Polish, and Turkish). The paper presents a series of statistical analyses examining the relative predictive strength…

  10. A radial distribution function-based open boundary force model for multi-centered molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    We derive an expression for radial distribution function (RDF)-based open boundary forcing for molecules with multiple interaction sites. Due to the high-dimensionality of the molecule configuration space and missing rotational invariance, a computationally cheap, 1D approximation of the arising integral expressions as in the single-centered case is not possible anymore. We propose a simple, yet accurate model invoking standard molecule- and site-based RDFs to approximate the respective integral equation. The new open boundary force model is validated for ethane in different scenarios and shows very good agreement with data from periodic simulations. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and conductivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hyvönen, Nuutti

    2016-01-05

    The simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model and it is based on the Frechet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the body shape. The reconstruction problem is cast into the Bayesian framework, and maximum a posteriori estimates for the admittivity and the boundary geometry are computed. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements.

  12. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarski, Stephanie A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rohrer, Gregory S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  13. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  14. Influence of the Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Water Storage in Aquifers on the Character of Baseflow Recessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    The instantaneous groundwater discharge (Qgw) from a watershed is related to volume of drainable water stored (Sgw) within the watershed aquifer(s). The relation is hysteretic and the magnitude of the hysteresis is completely scale-dependent. In the research reported here we apply a previously calibrated (USGS) GSFLOW model to the simulation of surface and subsurface runoff for the Sagehen Creek watershed. This 29.3 km2 watershed is located in the eastern range of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and most of the precipitation falls in the form of snow. The GSFLOW model is composed of a surface water and shallow subsurface flow hydrology model, PRMS, and a groundwater flow component based on MODFLOW. PRMS is a semi-distributed watershed model, very similar in character to the well-known SWAT model. The PRMS model is coupled with the MODFLOW model in that deep percolation generated within the PRMS model feeds into the MODFLOW model. The simulated baseflow recessions, plotted as -dQ/dt vs Q, show a strong dependence to watershed topography and plot concave downward. These plots show a somewhat weaker dependence on the hydrologic fluxes of evapotranspiration and recharge, with the concave downward shape maintained but somewhat modified by these hydrologic fluxes. As expected the Qgw vs Sgw relation is markedly hysteretic. The cause for this hysteresis is related to the magnitude of water stored, and also the spatial distribution of water stored in the watershed, with the antecedent storage in upland areas controlling the recession flow in late time, while the valley area dominates the recession flow in the early time. Both the minimum streamflow (Qmin ; the flow at the transition between early time and late time uninterrupted recession) and the intercept (intercept of the regression line fit to the recession data on a log-log scale) show a strong relationship with antecedent streamflows. The minimum streamflow, Qmin, is found to be a valid normalizing parameter for

  15. Communication Reducing Algorithms for Distributed Hierarchical N-Body Problems with Boundary Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed

    2017-05-11

    Reduction of communication and efficient partitioning are key issues for achieving scalability in hierarchical N-Body algorithms like Fast Multipole Method (FMM). In the present work, we propose three independent strategies to improve partitioning and reduce communication. First, we show that the conventional wisdom of using space-filling curve partitioning may not work well for boundary integral problems, which constitute a significant portion of FMM’s application user base. We propose an alternative method that modifies orthogonal recursive bisection to relieve the cell-partition misalignment that has kept it from scaling previously. Secondly, we optimize the granularity of communication to find the optimal balance between a bulk-synchronous collective communication of the local essential tree and an RDMA per task per cell. Finally, we take the dynamic sparse data exchange proposed by Hoefler et al. [1] and extend it to a hierarchical sparse data exchange, which is demonstrated at scale to be faster than the MPI library’s MPI_Alltoallv that is commonly used.

  16. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A

    2017-10-20

    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  17. Fluctuations in the heliospheric hydrogen distribution induced by generalized and time-dependent interstellar boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.; Fahr, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that the neutral component of the local interstellar medium (LISM) can effectively pass through the plasma interface ahead of the solar system and can penetrate deeply into the inner heliosphere. Here we present a newly-developed theoretical approach to describe the distribution function of LISM neutral hydrogen in the heliosphere, also taking into account time-dependent solar and interstellar boundary conditions. For this purpose we start from a Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, Fourier-transformed with respect to space and time coordinates, in connection with correspondingly transformed solar radiation forces and ionization rates, and then arrive at semi-analytic solutions for the transformed hydrogen velocity distribution function. As interstellar boundary conditions we allow for very general, non-Maxwellian and time-dependent distribution functions to account for the case that some LISM turbulence patterns or non-linear wave-like shock structures pass over the solar system. We consider this theoretical approach to be an ideal instrument for the synoptic interpretation of huge data samples on interplanetary Ly-α resonance glow intensities registered from different celestial directions over extended periods of time. In addition we feel that the theoretical approach presented here, when applied to interplanetary resonance glow data, may permit the detection of genuine fluctuations in the local interstellar medium. (author)

  18. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Distributed Roughness and Acoustic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flows over smooth and rough seven-degree half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances is considered. The effects of three-dimensional isolated roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results for the smooth cone show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. Distributed roughness elements located near the nose region decreased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow acoustic wave by a small amount. Roughness elements distributed across the continuous spectrum increased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow and fast acoustic waves and the vorticity wave. The largest increase occurred for the vorticity wave. Roughness elements distributed across the synchronization point did not change the receptivity of the second modes generated by the acoustic waves. The receptivity of the second mode generated by the vorticity wave increased in this case, but the increase is lower than that occurred with the roughness elements located across the continuous spectrum. The simulations with an isolated roughness element showed that the second mode waves generated by the acoustic disturbances are not influenced by the small roughness element. Due to the interaction, a three-dimensional wave is generated. However, the amplitude is orders of magnitude smaller than the two-dimensional wave.

  19. Palomar-Leiden minor planets - Proper elements, frequency distributions, belt boundaries, and family memberships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Hierath, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations are presented for the proper elements of 1227 higher accuracy orbits of faint minor planets encompassing earth and deep Mars crossers, Trojans, and Hildas. The distribution of the closest approach distance to Mars drops off sharply near zero, while that for Jupiter vanishes near 1.1 AU; it is suggested that Mars and Jupiter have caused these boundaries, so that the asteroid belt must have been larger early in the solar system's history. Some 3.5 percent of the sample, primarily shallow crossers, can impact Mars; the fortuitous alignments required for impact occur with near-simultaneity for these objects, so that they will episodically bombard Mars.

  20. Distributed piezoelectric sensors for boundary force measurements in Euler–Bernoulli beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, S; Pezerat, C

    2011-01-01

    In many vibro-acoustic problems, in which structures are excited by their boundaries, the identification of boundary quantities such as bending moments and shear forces is not straightforward because these quantities are not readily accessible. Moreover, since they are proportional to the spatial derivatives of the structure's displacements, their quantification using methods based on post-processing remains very sensitive to uncertainties. In this paper, a new class of distributed piezoelectric sensors is proposed, using laminate theory and the weak forms of the equation of motion for a beam. Using this approach, it is shown that the bending moments or the shear forces can be determined at the boundaries, using spatial integrations generated by piezoelectric patches (or PVDF films) with specific shapes. Following a description of the general approach, this paper provides a description for the case of bending moment identification. In this example, the calculations used to determine the adequate shapes are presented. An analytical one-dimensional (1D) simulation, together with a numerical three-dimensional (3D) simulation, taking into account the influence of uncertainties, demonstrate the accuracy of the developed sensor. The same technique can be applied to shear force identification, as shown in the last section of this paper

  1. Australian Sphingidae--DNA barcodes challenge current species boundaries and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougerie, Rodolphe; Kitching, Ian J; Haxaire, Jean; Miller, Scott E; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae). We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758), a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90%) Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45%) or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%). Only seven species (10%) have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies.

  2. Australian Sphingidae--DNA barcodes challenge current species boundaries and distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Rougerie

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae. METHODS: We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. RESULTS: Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758, a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90% Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45% or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%. Only seven species (10% have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies.

  3. Australian Sphingidae – DNA Barcodes Challenge Current Species Boundaries and Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougerie, Rodolphe; Kitching, Ian J.; Haxaire, Jean; Miller, Scott E.; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae). Methods We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. Results Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758), a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90%) Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45%) or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%). Only seven species (10%) have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. Main Conclusions This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies. PMID:24987846

  4. A Note on Directional Wavelet Transform: Distributional Boundary Values and Analytic Wavefront Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Apolonio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a particular class of directional wavelets (namely, the conical wavelets, which are wavelets strictly supported in a proper convex cone in the k-space of frequencies, in this paper, it is shown that a tempered distribution is obtained as a finite sum of boundary values of analytic functions arising from the complexification of the translational parameter of the wavelet transform. Moreover, we show that for a given distribution f∈′(ℝn, the continuous wavelet transform of f with respect to a conical wavelet is defined in such a way that the directional wavelet transform of f yields a function on phase space whose high-frequency singularities are precisely the elements in the analytic wavefront set of f.

  5. Backscattered electron technique used for studying the grain boundary structure in polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Luiz Carlos Rolim; Thomson, Chris Boyd; Randle, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    In this work the electron backscatter diffraction technique has been used to study the grain boundary character distribution in a austenitic steel and a ordered intermetallic Fe Al. For the first material it has been found that the hot rolling and solubilization process produce grain boundary character distribution with 1/4 of Σ = 3 interface. For the intermetallic Fe Al it was found that Σ = 1 and Σ = 5 interfaces to do not show tendency to show intergranular cracking. (author)

  6. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  7. Geochemical character and petrogenesis of Pan-African Amspoort suite of the Boundary Igneous Complex in the Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, V.; Konopásek, J.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Erban, V.; Tajčmanová, L.; Jeřábek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 688-707 ISSN 1342-937X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : whole-rock geochemistry * Pan-African * Damara Orogeny * Boundary Igneous Complex * Kaoko Belt * Namibia Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 5.503, year: 2010

  8. An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height

  9. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  10. Vertical distribution of ozone and VOCs in the low boundary layer of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of ozone (O3 and 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the boundary layer of Mexico City was investigated during 2000–2004 to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between those trace gases and meteorological variables, and their influence on the air quality of a polluted megacity. A tethered balloon, fitted with electrochemical and meteorological sondes, was used to obtain detailed vertical profiles of O3 and meteorological parameters up to 1000 m above ground during part of the diurnal cycle (02:00–18:00 h. VOCs samples were collected up to 200 m by pumping air to canisters with a Teflon tube attached to the tether line. Overall, features of these profiles were found to be consistent with the formation of an upper residual layer during nighttime carrying over a fraction of the O3 from the previous day that contributes to the background concentration in surrounding regions. At the same time the release of heat stored in the urban surface forms a shallow unstable layer close to the ground, where the nocturnal emissions are trapped. After sunrise an O3 balance is determined by photochemical production, entrainment from the upper residual layer and destruction by titration with nitric oxide, delaying the ground-level O3 rise by 2 h. The subsequent evolution of the conductive boundary layer and vertical distribution of pollutants are discussed in terms of the energy balance, the presence of turbulence and the atmospheric stability.

  11. Geochemistry and magnetic sediment distribution at the western boundary upwelling system of southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Anna P. S.; Barbosa, Catia F.; Ayres-Neto, Arthur; Munayco, Pablo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Amorim, Nívea Santos; Albuquerque, Ana L. S.; Seoane, José C. S.

    2018-02-01

    In order to investigate the chemical and magnetic characteristics of sediments of the western boundary upwelling system of Southwest Atlantic we analyzed magnetic susceptibility, grain size distribution, total organic carbon, heavy mineral abundance, Fe associated with Mössbauer spectra, and Fe and Mn of pore water to evaluate the deposition patterns of sediments. Four box-cores were collected along a cross-shelf transect. Brazil Current and coastal plume exert a primary control at the inner and outer shelf cores, which exhibited similar depositional patterns characterized by a high abundance of heavy minerals (mean 0.21% and 0.08%, respectively) and very fine sand, whereas middle shelf cores presented low abundances of heavy minerals (mean 0.03%) and medium silt. The inner shelf was dominated by sub-angular grains, while in middle and outer shelf cores well-rounded grains were found. The increasing Fe3+:Fe2+ ratio from the inner to the outer shelf reflects farther distance to the sediment source. The outer shelf presented well-rounded minerals, indicating abrasive processes as a result of transport by the Brazil Current from the source areas. In the middle shelf, cold-water intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water contributes to the primary productivity, resulting in higher deposition of fine sediment and organic carbon accumulation. The high input of organic carbon and the decreased grain size are indicative of changes in the hydrodynamics and primary productivity fueled by the western boundary upwelling system, which promotes loss of magnetization due to the induction of diagenesis of iron oxide minerals.

  12. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home....

  13. The significance of a grassy field boundary for the spatial distribution of carabids within two cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saska, P.; Vodde, M.; Heijerman, Th.; Westerman, P.R.; Werf, van der W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated how distance from the field edge affects overall activity-density, species richness and distribution of individual carabid (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species. Carabid beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at six different locations: grassy field boundary, 0 (field edge), 4,

  14. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE)-Parametric Pressure Distribution Boundary Layer Stability Study and Wing Glove Design Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.

    1986-01-01

    The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  15. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  16. Temperature and stress distribution in pressure vessel by the boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alujevic, A.; Apostolovic, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of boundary element method for the solution of temperatures and thermal stresses in the body of reactor pressure vessel of the NPP Krsko . In addition to the theory of boundary elements for thermo-elastic continua (2D, 3D) results are given of a numerically evaluated meridional cross-section. (author)

  17. 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear Fuel: Effect of Oxygen Stoichiometry on Grain Boundary Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudman, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Byler, Darrin David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lim, H. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); McDonald, R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The initial microstructure of an oxide fuel can play a key role in its performance. At low burn-ups, the diffusion of fission products can depend strongly on grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics, which in turn depend on processing conditions and oxygen stoichiometry. Serial sectioning techniques using Focused Ion Beam were developed to obtain Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data for depleted UO2 pellets that were processed to obtain 3 different oxygen stoichiometries. The EBSD data were used to create 3D microstructure reconstructions and to gather statistical information on the grain and GB crystallography, with emphasis on identifying the character (twist, tilt, mixed) for GBs that meet the Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) criterion as well as GBs with the most common misorientation angles. Data on dihedral angles at triple points were also collected. The results were compared across different samples to understand effects of oxygen content on microstructure evolution.

  18. Chaotic oscillations of the Klein-Gordon equation with distributed energy pumping and van der Pol boundary regulation and distributed time-varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider the Klein-Gordon equation with variable coefficients, a van der Pol cubic nonlinearity in one of the boundary conditions and a spatially distributed antidamping term, we use a variable-substitution technique together with the analogy with the 1-dimensional wave equation to prove that for the Klein-Gordon equation chaos occurs for a class of equations and boundary conditions when system parameters enter a certain regime. Chaotic and nonchaotic profiles of solutions are illustrated by computer graphics.

  19. Grain-boundary type and distribution in silicon carbide coatings and wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Trejo, Felix; López-Honorato, Eddie; Walker, Ross C.; Ferrer, Romelia Salomon

    2018-03-01

    Silicon carbide is the main diffusion barrier against metallic fission products in TRISO (tristructural isotropic) coated fuel particles. The explanation of the accelerated diffusion of silver through SiC has remained a challenge for more than four decades. Although, it is now well accepted that silver diffuse through SiC by grain boundary diffusion, little is known about the characteristics of the grain boundaries in SiC and how these change depending on the type of sample. In this work five different types (coatings and wafers) of SiC produced by chemical vapor deposition were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The SiC in TRISO particles had a higher concentration of high angle grain boundaries (aprox. 70%) compared to SiC wafers, which ranged between 30 and 60%. Similarly, SiC wafers had a higher concentration of low angle grain boundaries ranging between 15 and 30%, whereas TRISO particles only reached values of around 7%. The same trend remained when comparing the content of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries, since SiC wafers showed a concentration of more than 30%, whilst TRISO particles had contents of around 20%. In all samples the largest fractions of CSL boundaries (3 ≤ Σ ≤ 17) were the Σ3 boundaries. We show that there are important differences between the SiC in TRISO particles and SiC wafers which could explain some of the differences observed in diffusion experiments in the literature.

  20. EBSD characterization of carbide-carbide boundaries in WC-Co composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, M U; Klement, U

    2004-03-01

    A sample of WC-6wt%Co was investigated for grain boundary character distribution and occurrence of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries on a statistical basis. For this purpose orientation measurements of the grains were carried out using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The dominant misorientation relationships were determined by complementary EBSD data representation tools such as orientation maps, misorientation angle distribution histograms and the sectioned three-dimensional misorientation space. It was found that the grain boundary character distribution of the material is nearly random and the CSL boundaries are not present in statistically significant amounts. It was also found that the amount of binder phase does not play a role in the formation of special boundaries. The paper focuses on the methodology of characterizing grain boundaries in a hexagonal material using EBSD.

  1. Study of magnetic field distribution in anisotropic single twin-boundary magnetic shape memory (MSM) element in actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdullin, N.; Khan, S. H.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic shape memory effect exhibited by certain alloys at room temperature is known for almost 20 years. The most studied MSM alloys are Ni-Mn-Ga alloys which exhibit up to 12% magnetic field-induced strain (change in shape) depending on microstructure. A multibillion cycle operation without malfunction along with their “smart” properties make them very promising for application in electromagnetic (EM) actuators and sensors. However, considerable twinning stress of MSM crystals resulting in magneto-mechanical hysteresis decreases the efficiency and output force of MSM actuators. Whereas twinning stress of conventional MSM crystals has been significantly decreased over the years, novel crystals with Type II twin boundaries (TBs) possess even lower twinning stress. Unfortunately, the microstructure of MSM crystals with very low twinning stress tends to be unstable leading to their rapid crack growth. Whilst this phenomenon has been studied experimentally, the magnetic field distribution in anisotropic single twin-boundary MSM elements has not been considered yet. This paper analyses the magnetic field distribution in two-variant single twin-boundary MSM elements and discusses its effects on magnetic field-induced stress acting on the twin boundary.

  2. Plasticity-induced restructuring of a nanocrystalline grain boundary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzarino, Jason F.; Pan, Zhiliang; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The grain boundary-mediated mechanisms that control plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals should cause evolution of the grain boundary network, since they directly alter misorientation relationships between crystals. Unfortunately, current experimental techniques are unable to track such evolution, due to limits on both spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study grain boundary restructuring in nanocrystalline Al during both monotonic tension and cyclic loading. This task is enabled by the creation of new analysis tools for atomistic datasets that allow for a complete characterization and tracking of microstructural descriptors of the grain boundary network. Quantitative measurements of grain boundary character distribution, triple junction type, grain boundary plane normal, and other interfacial network characteristics are extracted and analyzed. The results presented here show that nanocrystalline plasticity leads to an increase in special boundary fraction and disruption of two-dimensional boundary connectivity, with the most dramatic evolution occurring in the smallest grain sizes.

  3. Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Ho; Roy, Debananda; Oh, Joo-Sung; Back, Seung-Ki; Jang, Ha-Na; Kim, Seong-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Chong Bum; Han, Young-Ji

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of trans-boundary mercury (Hg) from China at different locations in South Korea was estimated from Hg anthropogenic emission distributions using the Hg dispersion model, CMAQ-Hg. This investigation quantifies the trans-boundary Hg emissions as contribution ratios. In addition, the long-range transportation frequency is also calculated, to verify inflow cases from China. The seasonal distribution of the Hg contribution ratio was found to be highest in winter (40%), followed by fall (16%). Seasonal observations of Hg inflow frequencies were estimated as 40%, 25%, 21%, and 4% in winter, fall, summer, and spring, respectively, at the same location. Such results would be produced by the wind generally blowing from the west and north-west with a speed of 5.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s, respectively, during winter and fall, around the study area. This study made an effort to quantify the trans-boundary Hg transport and to plot Hg anthropogenic emissions distribution in the region.

  4. Predicting criteria continuous concentrations of 34 metals or metalloids by use of quantitative ion character-activity relationships–species sensitivity distributions (QICAR–SSD) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yunsong; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Yuedan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Haiqing Liao; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Criteria continuous concentrations (CCCs) are useful for describing chronic exposure to pollutants and setting water quality standards to protect aquatic life. However, because of financial, practical, or ethical restrictions on toxicity testing, few data are available to derive CCCs. In this study, CCCs for 34 metals or metalloids were derived using quantitative ion character-activity relationships–species sensitivity distributions (QICAR–SSD) and the final acute-chronic ratio (FACR) method. The results showed that chronic toxic potencies were correlated with several physico-chemical properties among eight species chosen, where the softness index was the most predictive characteristic. Predicted CCCs for most of the metals, except for Lead and Iron, were within a range of 10-fold of values recommended by the U.S. EPA. The QICAR–SSD model was superior to the FACR method for prediction of data-poor metals. This would have significance for predicting toxic potencies and criteria thresholds of more metals or metalloids. - Highlights: • We investigate relationships between σp and log-NOEC in eight species. • The QICAR–SSD model, FACR, and CMC/CCC were used to predict CCCs. • They are as a supplement to screening for toxicities, criteria and standards. - CCCs for 34 metals/metalloids were predicted by use of QICAR–SSD model and FACR method

  5. Predicting criteria continuous concentrations of 34 metals or metalloids by use of quantitative ion character-activity relationships-species sensitivity distributions (QICAR-SSD) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yunsong; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Yuedan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Haiqing Liao; Giesy, John P

    2014-05-01

    Criteria continuous concentrations (CCCs) are useful for describing chronic exposure to pollutants and setting water quality standards to protect aquatic life. However, because of financial, practical, or ethical restrictions on toxicity testing, few data are available to derive CCCs. In this study, CCCs for 34 metals or metalloids were derived using quantitative ion character-activity relationships-species sensitivity distributions (QICAR-SSD) and the final acute-chronic ratio (FACR) method. The results showed that chronic toxic potencies were correlated with several physico-chemical properties among eight species chosen, where the softness index was the most predictive characteristic. Predicted CCCs for most of the metals, except for Lead and Iron, were within a range of 10-fold of values recommended by the U.S. EPA. The QICAR-SSD model was superior to the FACR method for prediction of data-poor metals. This would have significance for predicting toxic potencies and criteria thresholds of more metals or metalloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. A boundary element model for investigating the effects of eye tumor on the temperature distribution inside the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, E H; Ang, W T; Ng, E Y K

    2009-08-01

    A three-dimensional boundary element model of the human eye is developed to investigate the thermal effects of eye tumor on the ocular temperature distribution. The human eye is modeled as comprising several regions which have different thermal properties. The tumor is one of these regions. The thermal effects of the tumor are simulated by taking it to have a very high metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate. Inside the tumor, the steady state temperature is governed by the Pennes bioheat equation. Elsewhere, in normal tissues of the eye, the temperature satisfies the Laplace's equation. To compute the temperature on the corneal surface, the surface boundary of each region is divided into triangular elements.

  8. Effect of Grain Orientation and Boundary Distributions on Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in Low-Carbon-Content Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Coelho, Hana Livia Frota; Tavares, Sérgio Souto Maior; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) causes considerable economic losses in a wide range of steels exposed to corrosive environments. The effect of crystallographic texture and grain boundary distributions tailored by rolling at 850 °C in three different steels with a body-centered cube structure was investigated on HIC resistance. The x-ray and electron backscattered diffraction techniques were used to characterize texture evolutions during the rolling process. The findings revealed a significant improvement against HIC based on texture engineering. In addition, increasing the number of {111} and {110} grains, associated with minimizing the number of {001} grains in warm-rolled samples, reduced HIC susceptibility. Moreover, the results showed that boundaries associated with low {hkl} indexing and denser packing planes had more resistance against crack propagation.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of the role of symmetric tilt grain boundaries on the helium distribution in nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Pencer, J.

    2018-04-01

    Helium impurities, from either direct implantation or transmutation reactions, have been associated with embrittlement in nickel-based alloys. Helium has very low solubility in nickel, and has been found to aggregate at lattice defects such as vacancies, dislocations, and grain boundaries. The retention and precipitation of helium in nickel-based alloys have deleterious effects on the material mechanical properties. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to helium effects in the host metal are not fully understood. In the present work, we investigate the role of symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures on the distribution of helium in nickel using molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate the family of STGBs specific to the 〈 110 〉 tilt axis. The present results indicate that accumulation of helium at the grain boundary may be modulated by details of grain boundary geometry. A plausible correlation between the grain boundary energy and misorientation with the accumulation and mobility of helium is proposed. Small clusters with up to 6 helium atoms show significant interstitial mobility in the nickel bulk, but also become sites for nucleation and grow of more stable helium clusters. High-energy GBs are found mainly populated with small helium clusters. The high mobility of small clusters along the GBs indicates the role of these GBs as fast two-dimensional channels for diffusion. In contrast, the accumulation of helium in large helium clusters at low-energy STGB creates a favorable environment for the formation of large helium bubbles, indicating a potential role for low-energy STGB in promoting helium-induced GB embrittlement.

  10. Nonlinear Lyapunov-based boundary control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear Lyapunov-based boundary control for the temperature difference of a membrane distillation boundary layers. The heat transfer mechanisms inside the process are modeled with a 2D advection-diffusion equation. The model is semi-descretized in space, and a nonlinear state-space representation is provided. The control is designed to force the temperature difference along the membrane sides to track a desired reference asymptotically, and hence a desired flux would be generated. Certain constraints are put on the control law inputs to be within an economic range of energy supplies. The effect of the controller gain is discussed. Simulations with real process parameters for the model, and the controller are provided. © 2015 American Automatic Control Council.

  11. Global distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary: a new look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Hamza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New global maps of the depth to the boundary between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere are presented. The maps are based on updated global databases for heat flow and crustal structure. For continental regions the estimates of lithospheric thickness are based on determinations of subcrustal heat flow, after corrections for contributions of radiogenic heat in crustal layers. For oceanic regions the estimates of lithospheric thickness are based on the newly proposed finite half-space (FHS model. Unlike the half-space cooling (HSC and the plate models the FHS model takes into account effects of buffered solidification at the lower boundary of the lithosphere and assumes that the vertical domain for downward growth of the boundary layer have an asymptotic limit. Results of numerical simulations reveal that theoretical values derived from the FHS model provide vastly improved fits to observational data for heat flow and bathymetry than can be achieved with HSC and plate models. Also, the data fits are valid for the entire age range of the oceanic lithosphere. Hence estimates of depths to lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB based on the FHS model are believed to provide more reliable estimates than those reported in previous thermal models.

    The global maps of depths to LAB derived in the present work reveal several features in regional variations of lithosphere thicknesses that have not been identified in earlier studies. For example, regions of ocean floor with ages less than 55 Ma are characterized by relatively rapid thickening of the lithosphere. Also there is better resolution in mapping the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, as most of the latter ones are characterized by lithospheric thickness greater than 150 km. As expected the plate spreading centers in oceanic regions as well as areas of recent magmatic activity in continental regions are characterized by relatively thin lithosphere, with LAB depths of

  12. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  13. Rare and common macroinvertebrates: definition of distribution classes and their boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rarity of macroinvertebrates can be used in assessing the ecological quality or conservation value of freshwaters. To select target species for nature conservation and to compare rarity or commonness between regions a classification of species distributions is needed. A distribution classification

  14. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  15. Nonlinear observer-based Lyapunov boundary control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms for membrane distillation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-09-19

    This paper presents a nonlinear observer-based Lyapunov control for a membrane distillation (MD) process. The control considers the inlet temperatures of the feed and the permeate solutions as inputs, transforming it to boundary control process, and seeks to maintain the temperature difference along the membrane boundaries around a sufficient level to promote water production. MD process is modeled with advection diffusion equation model in two dimensions, where the diffusion and convection heat transfer mechanisms are best described. Model analysis, effective order reduction and parameters physical interpretation, are provided. Moreover, a nonlinear observer has been designed to provide the control with estimates of the temperature evolution at each time instant. In addition, physical constraints are imposed on the control to have an acceptable range of feasible inputs, and consequently, better energy consumption. Numerical simulations for the complete process with real membrane parameter values are provided, in addition to detailed explanations for the role of the controller and the observer. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Equilibrium distributions of free charged particles and molecules in systems with non-plane boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The equilibrium space-inhomogeneous distributions of free and pair bound charged particles are calculated in the dipole approximation for the plasma-molecular cylinder and sphere. It is shown that the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules in these systems are similar to those in the cases of plasma-molecular system restricted by one or two parallel planes. The influence of the parameters of outer medium and a plasma-molecular system on the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules is studied in detail

  17. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  18. Nonuniform Moving Boundary Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Intrathecal Cerebrospinal Flow Distribution in a Cynomolgus Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mohammadreza; Xing, Tao; Gibbs, Christina; Oshinski, John N; Stewart, Gregory R; Zeller, Jillynne R; Martin, Bryn A

    2017-08-01

    A detailed quantification and understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may improve detection and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and help optimize CSF system-based delivery of CNS therapeutics. This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that utilizes a nonuniform moving boundary approach to accurately reproduce the nonuniform distribution of CSF flow along the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) of a single cynomolgus monkey. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was developed and applied to quantify subject-specific CSF space geometry and flow and define the CFD domain and boundary conditions. An algorithm was implemented to reproduce the axial distribution of unsteady CSF flow by nonuniform deformation of the dura surface. Results showed that maximum difference between the MRI measurements and CFD simulation of CSF flow rates was <3.6%. CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a peak Reynolds number of ∼150 and average Womersley number of ∼5.4. Maximum CSF flow rate was present at the C4-C5 vertebral level. Deformation of the dura ranged up to a maximum of 134 μm. Geometric analysis indicated that total spinal CSF space volume was ∼8.7 ml. Average hydraulic diameter, wetted perimeter, and SAS area were 2.9 mm, 37.3 mm and 27.24 mm2, respectively. CSF pulse wave velocity (PWV) along the spine was quantified to be 1.2 m/s.

  19. Contrasting the surface ocean distribution of bromoform and methyl iodide; implications for boundary layer physics, chemistry and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C J, E-mail: carl.j.palmer@gmail.co [Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, 7701 (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    Bromoform and methyl iodide are both methane-like hydrocarbons with a halogen atom replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms. Both of these compounds occur naturally in the environment as a result of their production from seaweed and kelp. They are of interest to climate science as a result of their catalytic destruction of boundary layer ozone (a potent greenhouse gas) and, specifically for methyl iodide, the proposed role in the formation of new cloud condensation nuclei with implications for climate. In this paper, the currently available data on the distribution of bromoform and methyl iodide are analysed and contrasted to show that the concentrations of bromoform and methyl iodide do not correlate, that, in contrast to bromoform, the parameterization of sea surface methyl iodide concentrations demands only the sea surface temperature, and that the pelagic distribution of methyl iodide appears to follow the solar zenith angle. These three observations together suggest that, while the pelagic source of bromoform is mostly biogenic, the source of methyl iodide is photochemical. This has implications for the understanding of planetary boundary layer chemistry and potential organohalogen mediated feedbacks to climate.

  20. On the complexity of the boundary layer structure and aerosol vertical distribution in the coastal Mediterranean regions: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giandomenico Pace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer structure in the coastal areas, and particularly in complex orography regions such as the Mediterranean, is extremely intricate. In this study, we show the evolution of the planetary boundary layer based on in situ airborne measurements and ground-based remote sensing observations carried out during the MORE (Marine Ozone and Radiation Experiment campaign in June 2010. The campaign was held in a rural coastal Mediterranean region in Southern Italy. The study focuses on the observations made on 17 June. Vertical profiles of meteorological parameters and aerosol size distribution were measured during two flights: in the morning and in the afternoon. Airborne observations were combined with ground-based LIDAR, SODAR, microwave and visible radiometer measurements, allowing a detailed description of the atmospheric vertical structure. The analysis was complemented with data from a regional atmospheric model run with horizontal resolutions of 12, 4 and 1 km, respectively; back-trajectories were calculated at these spatial resolutions. The observations show the simultaneous occurrence of dust transport, descent of mid-tropospheric air and sea breeze circulation on 17 June. Local pollution effects on the aerosol distribution, and a possible event of new particles formation were also observed. A large variability in the thermodynamical structure and aerosol distribution in the flight region, extending by approximately 30 km along the coast, was found. Within this complex, environment-relevant differences in the back-trajectories calculated at different spatial resolutions are found, suggesting that the description of several dynamical processes, and in particular the sea breeze circulation, requires high-resolution meteorological analyses. The study also shows that the integration of different observational techniques is needed to describe these complex conditions; in particular, the availability of flights and their timing

  1. Risks and Transaction Costs of Distributed-Ledger Fintech: Boundary Effects and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kaivanto, Kim; Prince, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Fintech business models based on distributed ledgers -- and their smart-contract variants in particular -- offer the prospect of democratizing access to faster, anywhere-accessible, lower cost, reliable-and-secure high-quality financial services. In addition to holding great, economically transformative promise, these business models pose new, little-studied risks and transaction costs. However, these risks and transaction costs are not evident during the demonstration and testing phases of d...

  2. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  3. Influence of Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions on the global water isotope distribution in an atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharammal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the validity of δ18O proxy records as indicators of past temperature change, a series of experiments was conducted using an atmospheric general circulation model fitted with water isotope tracers (Community Atmosphere Model version 3.0, IsoCAM. A pre-industrial simulation was performed as the control experiment, as well as a simulation with all the boundary conditions set to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM values. Results from the pre-industrial and LGM simulations were compared to experiments in which the influence of individual boundary conditions (greenhouse gases, ice sheet albedo and topography, sea surface temperature (SST, and orbital parameters were changed each at a time to assess their individual impact. The experiments were designed in order to analyze the spatial variations of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecip in response to individual climate factors. The change in topography (due to the change in land ice cover played a significant role in reducing the surface temperature and δ18Oprecip over North America. Exposed shelf areas and the ice sheet albedo reduced the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature and δ18Oprecip further. A global mean cooling of 4.1 °C was simulated with combined LGM boundary conditions compared to the control simulation, which was in agreement with previous experiments using the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM3. Large reductions in δ18Oprecip over the LGM ice sheets were strongly linked to the temperature decrease over them. The SST and ice sheet topography changes were responsible for most of the changes in the climate and hence the δ18Oprecip distribution among the simulations.

  4. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  5. Environmental boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Atienza, Dacha

    2016-08-10

    We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the environmental limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Global distribution of minerals in arid soils as lower boundary condition in dust models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust eroded from arid soils affects the radiation budget of the Earth system, modifies ocean bioproductivity and influences human health. Dust aerosol is a complex mixture of minerals. Dust mineral composition has several potentially important impacts to environment and society. Iron and phosphorus embedded in mineral aerosol are essential for the primary marine productivity when dust deposits over the open ocean. Dust also acts as efficient agent for heterogeneous ice nucleation and this process is dependent on mineralogical structure of dust. Recent findings in medical geology indicate possible role of minerals to human health. In this study, a new 1-km global database was developed for several minerals (Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Quartz, Feldspar, Hematite and Gypsum) embedded in clay and silt populations of arid soils. For the database generation, high-resolution data sets on soil textures, soil types and land cover was used. Tin addition to the selected minerals, phosphorus was also added whose geographical distribution was specified from compiled literature and data on soil types. The developed global database was used to specify sources of mineral fractions in the DREAM dust model and to simulate atmospheric paths of minerals and their potential impacts on marine biochemistry and tropospheric ice nucleation.

  7. Validation and Spatiotemporal Distribution of GEOS-5-Based Planetary Boundary Layer Height and Relative Humidity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yidan; Li, Shenshen; Chen, Liangfu; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zifeng; Wang, Yang; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have specifically focused on the validation and spatiotemporal distribution of planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and relative humidity (RH) data in China. In this analysis, continuous PBLH and surface-level RH data simulated from GEOS-5 between 2004 and 2012, were validated against ground-based observations. Overall, the simulated RH was consistent with the statistical data from meteorological stations, with a correlation coefficient of 0.78 and a slope of 0.9. However, the simulated PBLH was underestimated compared to LIDAR data by a factor of approximately two, which was primarily because of poor simulation in late summer and early autumn. We further examined the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of two factors in four regions—North China, South China, Northwest China, and the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the annual PBLH trends in all regions were fairly moderate but sensitive to solar radiation and precipitation, which explains why the PBLH values were ranked in order from largest to smallest as follows: Tibetan Plateau, Northwest China, North China, and South China. Strong seasonal variation of the PBLH exhibited high values in summer and low values in winter, which was also consistent with the turbulent vertical exchange. Not surprisingly, the highest RH in South China and the lowest RH in desert areas of Northwest China (less than 30%). Seasonally, South China exhibited little variation, whereas Northwest China exhibited its highest humidity in winter and lowest humidity in spring, the maximum values in the other regions were obtained from July to September.

  8. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  9. Distribution and morphometric characters of the Mediterranean longnosed skate, Dipturus oxyrinchus (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate biometrics of Dipturus oxyrinchus (D. oxyrinchus, including length-weight relationships, total length (TL, disc width (DW, distance measured of snout tip to eye, width of the mouth, distance from snout tip to first dorsal, and the numeric characters in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: Monthly sampling was conducted commercial bottom-trawl during December 2006 and January 2007, operating at a depth of 80-185 m. The TL, DW, distance of snout tip to eye, width of the mouth, distance from snout tip to first dorsal were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and the weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 g. The parameters a and b were estimated by the least squares regression method. Results: A total of 520 D. oxyrinchus was ranged from 16.5 to 105.0 cm in TL and 30-5 300 g in total mass were analyzed during this study. The overall sex ratio was significantly different from the expected value of 1:16 (df=1, χ2 =3.38, P<0.05, and there was significant difference in the TL (t-test=16.53, df=520, P<0.05. There was significant difference in the regression slopes between sexes for the TL and DW relationship (t-test=17.53, df=520, P<0.05. The b value for the TL/ weight relationship for males D. oxyrinchus sampled in this study (3.01 was lower than that for female (3.23. Morphometric characters were strongly positively correlated for TL. Conclusions: This study reported the first description of biometric relationships for D. oxyrinchus, which would be useful for the sustainable conservation of this rear fishery in the Gulf of Gabes and also form the basis for their inclusion in a regional security programme.

  10. Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Bollinger, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.

  11. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  12. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T.R.; Busby, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic–martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys

  13. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  14. Sedimentation velocity analysis of heterogeneous protein-protein interactions: sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s) and asymptotic boundary profiles from Gilbert-Jenkins theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Julie; Schuck, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Interacting proteins in rapid association equilibrium exhibit coupled migration under the influence of an external force. In sedimentation, two-component systems can exhibit bimodal boundaries, consisting of the undisturbed sedimentation of a fraction of the population of one component, and the coupled sedimentation of a mixture of both free and complex species in the reaction boundary. For the theoretical limit of diffusion-free sedimentation after infinite time, the shapes of the reaction boundaries and the sedimentation velocity gradients have been predicted by Gilbert and Jenkins. We compare these asymptotic gradients with sedimentation coefficient distributions, c(s), extracted from experimental sedimentation profiles by direct modeling with superpositions of Lamm equation solutions. The overall shapes are qualitatively consistent and the amplitudes and weight-average s-values of the different boundary components are quantitatively in good agreement. We propose that the concentration dependence of the area and weight-average s-value of the c(s) peaks can be modeled by isotherms based on Gilbert-Jenkins theory, providing a robust approach to exploit the bimodal structure of the reaction boundary for the analysis of experimental data. This can significantly improve the estimates for the determination of binding constants and hydrodynamic parameters of the complexes.

  15. Investigation of Character and Spatial Distribution of Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers by High-Resolution Topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Topography image variation of threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in 4H-SiC epilayers has been investigated by grazing incidence high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six different images of TEDs resulting from an angle between the diffraction vector and the TED Burgers vector were confirmed by correlation between experimental topography images and simulation results. The TED-type distribution, dependent on the direction of the TED Burger vector, was examined on epitaxial wafers, while the spatial distribution of TEDs on a whole 2 in wafer along (1 1 2 0) and (1 1 0 0) was investigated.

  16. The Varieties of Character and Some Implications for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Jason

    2017-06-01

    The moral and civic dimensions of personal character have been widely recognized and explored. Recent work by philosophers, psychologists, and education theorists has drawn attention to two additional dimensions of character: intellectual character and "performance" character. This article sketches a "four-dimensional" conceptual model of personal character and some of the character strengths or "virtues" proper to each dimension. In addition to exploring how the dimensions of character are related to each other, the article also examines the implications of this account for character education undertaken in a youth or adolescent context. It is argued that "intellectual character education," which emphasizes the development of intellectual virtues like curiosity, open-mindedness, and intellectual courage, is an underexplored but especially promising approach in this context. The relationship between intellectual character education and traditional character education, which emphasizes the development of moral and civic virtues like kindness, generosity, and tolerance, is also explored.

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Kenton; Gustafson, David

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a simil...

  19. Magnetic form factor, field map and field distribution for a BCS type-II superconductor near its Bc2(T) phase boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Maisuradze, A.; Yaouanc, A.

    2013-01-01

    We review the magnetic form factor deduced by Delrieu from the Gorkov's equation for a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) type-II superconductor near its Bc2 phase boundary, i.e. when its magnetization is small. A numerical study of the form factor, field map, and field distribution follows. The characteristics of the transition from the low-temperature BCS to the high-temperature Ginzburg-Landau vortex lattices is studied. The exotic shape of the component field distribution and the form factor...

  20. Character development in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, G R; Ibrahim, F A; Kahn, H

    1986-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development, i.e., moral reasoning, ego development, and assertiveness of high school students. It was hypothesized that exposure to the experimental treatment would enhance the character development of high school students. Fifty-four high school seniors enrolled in three psychology classes were assigned randomly to two treatment groups and one control group. Assessment instruments were the Defining Issues Test, to measure moral reasoning, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, to measure ego development, and the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, to measure assertiveness. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between control and treatment posttest means with respect to the dependent variables--moral reasoning, ego development, and assertiveness. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.

  1. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  2. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  3. Character Development Is Nonnegotiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeau, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that Catholic educators have a proven and lasting program to guide character building in their students. States that the basis for this important moral development is teaching good habits, and that the values presented in the Gospel are integrated into all curriculum areas, providing opportunities for students and faculty to reflect,…

  4. of some generic characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-06-12

    Jun 12, 1986 ... The new species is closest to Homopholis fascists of East Africa and Ethiopia Some generic characters are discussed. 'n Nuwe geitjie-spesie, Homopholis mulleri, van Noord-Transvaal (Suid-Afrika), word beskryf. Dit word met die ander twee spesies van die genus in Afrika vergelyk. Die nuwe spesie is ...

  5. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C M; Goswami, J N; Clark, R N; Annadurai, M; Boardman, J; Buratti, B; Combe, J-P; Dyar, M D; Green, R; Head, J W; Hibbitts, C; Hicks, M; Isaacson, P; Klima, R; Kramer, G; Kumar, S; Livo, E; Lundeen, S; Malaret, E; McCord, T; Mustard, J; Nettles, J; Petro, N; Runyon, C; Staid, M; Sunshine, J; Taylor, L A; Tompkins, S; Varanasi, P

    2009-10-23

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  6. Distributed Active Folding across the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Derived from the Combined Analysis of Srtm Topography and Seismic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S. P.; McHugh, C. M.; Hornbach, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sinistral transpression across the northern Caribbean plate boundary is partitioned across Hispaniola between two subparallel transforms that accommodate strike-slip motion, and a wide swath of intervening NW-trending folds. These folds correspond to mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. The mapping of onshore flights of marine terraces exposed across these folds, combined with the dating of fossil corals, have constrained uplift rates for their emerged portions [Mann et al., 1995]. Slope maps produced from recently released SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data with a resolution of ~30 m highlight the full 3D geometry of the deformed marine terraces across these folds. Offshore multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles collected in 1982 by GSI / Western Geophysical constrain the broader geometry of the submerged anticline limbs. This combined dataset is used to investigate the deformation history of four folds whose emerged limbs are only moderately disrupted by mass wasting. One of the exposed structures (St Marc peninsula) displays both fold limbs, with the highest uplift predictably centered on the axial trace of the fold. Two others display terraces that remain planar and are progressively tilted away from the presumed anticline crests, indicating in each case that only one of the fold limbs is exposed above sea level and that it is subsiding relative to the crest. Lastly, the west end of Gonave Island, the WNW-trending island located between the north and south peninsulas of Haiti, displays nearly horizontal terraces. While prior investigation of the lowest ~125 ka terrace indicates that it has not uplifted since it was formed [Mann et al., 1995], nearshore MCS data reveal a ~350 m-deep horizontal erosional surface that truncates folded reflectors. This suggests that the submerged portion of the Gonave anticline crest is subsiding. Furthermore, progressive tilting of the seismic reflectors on the fold limbs requires that

  7. Improved polycrystalline Ni54Mn16Fe9Ga21 high-temperature shape memory alloy by γ phase distributing along grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Kaixin; Huang, Yangyang; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the shape recovery and mechanical properties of Ni 54 Mn 16 Fe 9 Ga 21 high-temperature shape memory alloy are improved simultaneously. This results from the low, about 4.4%, volume fraction of γ phase being almost completely distributed along grain boundaries. The recovery strain gradually increases with the increase in residual strain with a shape recovery rate of above 68%, up to a maximum value of 5.3%. The compressive fracture strain of Ni 54 Mn 16 Fe 9 Ga 21 alloy is about 35%. The results further reveal that when applying a high compression deformation two types of cracks form and propagate either within martensite grains (type I) or along the boundaries between martensite phase and γ phase (type II) in the present two-phase alloy.

  8. Stick–slip boundary friction mode as a second-order phase transition with an inhomogeneous distribution of elastic stress in the contact area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakov A. Lyashenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the dynamical contact between two atomically flat surfaces separated by an ultrathin lubricant film. Using a thermodynamic approach we describe the second-order phase transition between two structural states of the lubricant which leads to the stick–slip mode of boundary friction. An analytical description and numerical simulation with radial distributions of the order parameter, stress and strain were performed to investigate the spatial inhomogeneity. It is shown that in the case when the driving device is connected to the upper part of the friction block through an elastic spring, the frequency of the melting/solidification phase transitions increases with time.

  9. The Statistical Distribution of Turbulence Driven Velocity Extremes in the Atmosperic Boundary Layer cartwright/Longuet-Higgins Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2007-01-01

    associated with large excursions from the mean [2]. Thus, the more extreme turbulence excursions (i.e. the upper tail of the turbulence PDF) seem to follow an Exponential-like distribution rather than a Gaussian distribution, and a Gaussian estimate may under-predict the probability of large turbulence......The statistical distribution of extreme wind excursions above a mean level, for a specified recurrence period, is of crucial importance in relation to design of wind sensitive structures. This is particularly true for wind turbine structures. Based on an assumption of a Gaussian "mother......" distribution, Cartwright and Longuet-Higgens [1] derived an asymptotic expression for the distribution of the largest excursion from the mean level during an arbitrary recurrence period. From its inception, this celebrated expression has been widely used in wind engineering (as well as in off-shore engineering...

  10. An advanced process-based distributed model for the investigation of rainfall-induced landslides: The effect of process representation and boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Grigorios G.; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Extreme rainfall events are the major driver of shallow landslide occurrences in mountainous and steep terrain regions around the world. Subsurface hydrology has a dominant role on the initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, since changes in the soil water content affect significantly the soil shear strength. Rainfall infiltration produces an increase of soil water potential, which is followed by a rapid drop in apparent cohesion. Especially on steep slopes of shallow soils, this loss of shear strength can lead to failure even in unsaturated conditions before positive water pressures are developed. We present HYDROlisthisis, a process-based model, fully distributed in space with fine time resolution, in order to investigate the interactions between surface and subsurface hydrology and shallow landslides initiation. Fundamental elements of the approach are the dependence of shear strength on the three-dimensional (3-D) field of soil water potential, as well as the temporal evolution of soil water potential during the wetting and drying phases. Specifically, 3-D variably saturated flow conditions, including soil hydraulic hysteresis and preferential flow phenomena, are simulated for the subsurface flow, coupled with a surface runoff routine based on the kinematic wave approximation. The geotechnical component of the model is based on a multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis, which takes into account the basic principles of unsaturated soil mechanics. A series of numerical simulations were carried out with various boundary conditions and using different hydrological and geotechnical components. Boundary conditions in terms of distributed soil depth were generated using both empirical and process-based models. The effect of including preferential flow and soil hydraulic hysteresis was tested together with the replacement of the infinite slope assumption with the multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis. The results show that boundary conditions play

  11. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...... to different matters. This results in the inherent conflict of typefaces that they on one hand need to draw attention to themselves, and on the other hand need to let go of this attention for the content to be read....

  12. Morphological Characters, Occurrence and Distribution among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    unique to trichomes, it could also mean multi layers ... or razor. The cleared epidermal layers obtained were then washed in several changes of distilled water and stained with Alcian blue or safranin and temporarily mounted in aqueous .... The average number of stomata in the lower epidermis is more numerous than as.

  13. Character Education: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey; Tatman, Robert; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examined the history behind character education because we believe that character education an integral component of the educational enterprise. Major contributors to the importance of character education in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries were discussed. Then we focused on the highlights of the last five decades of the 20th…

  14. Character Education: An Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey; Tatman, Robert; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Character education is integral to the educational enterprise. Recent character education endeavors across the educational landscape have originated from a variety of different organizational sources. This article provides a review of the progress character education from the 18th century up through the 21st.

  15. Bring Character Education into Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Alex; Tsai, Kaun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order…

  16. The structure and composition of olivine grain boundaries: 40 years of studies, status and current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, K.; Faul, U. H.

    2018-02-01

    Interfaces in rocks, especially grain boundaries in olivine dominated rocks, have been subject to about 40 years of studies. The grain boundary structure to property relation is fundamental to understand the diverging properties of polycrystalline samples compared to those of single crystals. The number of direct structural observations is small, i.e. in range of 100 micrographs, and the number of measurements of properties directly linked to structural observations is even smaller. Bulk aggregate properties, such as seismic attenuation, rheology and electrical conductivity, are sensitive to grain size, and seem to show influences by grain boundary character distributions. In this context we review previous studies on grain boundary structure and composition and plausible relations to bulk properties. The grain boundary geometry is described using five independent parameters; generally, their structural width ranges between 0.4-1.2 nm and the commonly used 1 nm seems a good approximation. This region of enhanced disorder is often enriched in elements that are incompatible in the perfect crystal lattice. The chemical composition of grain boundaries depends on the bulk rock composition. We determined the 5 parameter grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) for polycrystaline Fo_{90} and studied structure and chemistry at the nm-scale to extend previous measurements. We find that grain boundary planes close to perpendicular to the crystallographic c-direction dominate the grain boundary network. We conclude that linking grain boundary structure in its full geometric parameter space to variations of bulk rock properties is now possible by GBCD determination using EBSD mapping and statistical analyses.

  17. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  18. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  19. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  20. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices.

  1. Distributed Blowing and Suction for the Purpose of Streak Control in a Boundary Layer Subjected to a Favorable Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgoston, Eric; Tumin, Anatoli; Ashpis, David E.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the optimal control by blowing and suction in order to generate stream- wise velocity streaks is presented. The problem is examined using an iterative process that employs the Parabolized Stability Equations for an incompressible uid along with its adjoint equations. In particular, distributions of blowing and suction are computed for both the normal and tangential velocity perturbations for various choices of parameters.

  2. Holocene distribution of woody taxa at the westernmost limit of the Circumboreal/Mediterranean boundary: Evidence from wood remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Juan M.; Ezquerra, Javier; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Génova, María M.; Gil, Luis; Ramil-Rego, Pablo; Gómez Manzaneque, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Macrofossils and megafossils of different genera, which were found in twelve localities in the mountains of northwest Iberia, provide spatially precise evidence of their distribution in the region during the Holocene. Macrofossils were recovered from mires, eroded peat bogs and lakes, identified by their wood anatomy and dated using radiocarbon methods. Conifers (Pinus), deciduous trees (Betula, Salix, Quercus) and shrubs (Erica, Fabaceae) were identified. The findings of Pinus gr. sylvestris/nigra have special biogeographical significance. The available palaeoecological data from the Cantabrian Range and nearby mountains (Ancares and Courel) indicate that pines have grown during the Holocene over the highlands of the western part of the Cantabrian Range area as a natural vegetation element. Nevertheless, Pinus sylvestris is the only pine species that is currently present in the Cantabrian Mountains, and its natural distribution area is now limited to a few enclaves. In this study, we provide a number of conclusive findings demonstrating that the past distribution of Pinus gr. sylvestris/nigra in this region suffered an important range contraction during the last two millennia. Historical data also support this idea, as they strongly suggest that this species survived well into the historical period.

  3. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived which incorporate additional physical effects as higher order terms for the case when the sonic line is very close to the wall. The functional form used for the undisturbed velocity profile is described to indicate how various parameters will be calculated for later comparison with experiment. The basic solutions for the pressure distribution are derived. Corrections are added for flow along a wall having longitudinal curvature and for flow in a circular pipe, and comparisons with available experimental data are shown.

  4. Heterogeneous distribution of pelagic sediments incoming the Japan Trench possibly controlling slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Fukuchi, R.; Kurano, H.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Arai, K.; Usami, K.; Ashi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was triggered by large coseismic slip reached to the Japan Trench axis (e.g. Fujiwara et al., 2011, Science; Kodaira et al., 2012, Nature Geoscience). Results of the IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST) suggest that small friction of smectite-rich pelagic clay caused slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault (Ujiie et al., 2013, Science; Kameda et al., 2015, Geology; Moore et al., 2015, Geosphere). On the other hand, JAMSTEC high-resolution seismic profiles show that incoming sediments have large heterogeneities in thicknesses, and two areas of extremely thin sediments on the Pacific Plate (thickness less than 100 m) were found at around 39°N (Nakamura et al., AGU 2017, this session). To reconcile whether the smectite-rich pelagic clay even exists in these areas, we sampled surface sediments during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-15-3 cruise. Seven piston cores were retrieved from seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge. Core lithologies are mainly diatomaceous ooze/clay including tephra layers, not resemble to pelagic clays discovered in JFAST. Ages of tephra layers were estimated by correlating mineral assemblages and refractive indices of volcanic glasses to Japanese widespread tephras. Averaged sedimentation rates of seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge are estimated to be 25-30, 6.5-20, 45, 0.9 cm/kyr, respectively. These sedimentation rates imply that sediments on seaward trench slope and horst have been deposited in the last 160-500 kyr, suggesting that entire pelagic sediments, including smectite-rich pelagic clay, have been removed by some reasons in the last 0.5 million years. Possible reason for such modification of sediment is near-trench igneous activity known as petit-spot volcanism (Hirano et al., 2006, Science). The lack of smectite-rich pelagic clay near 39°N of the Japan Trench is consistent with results of tsunami inversions proposing shallow large coseismic slip propagated

  5. Ecological thresholds at the savanna-forest boundary: how plant traits, resources and fire govern the distribution of tropical biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William A; Geiger, Erika L; Gotsch, Sybil G; Rossatto, Davi R; Silva, Lucas C R; Lau, On Lee; Haridasan, M; Franco, Augusto C

    2012-07-01

    Fire shapes the distribution of savanna and forest through complex interactions involving climate, resources and species traits. Based on data from central Brazil, we propose that these interactions are governed by two critical thresholds. The fire-resistance threshold is reached when individual trees have accumulated sufficient bark to avoid stem death, whereas the fire-suppression threshold is reached when an ecosystem has sufficient canopy cover to suppress fire by excluding grasses. Surpassing either threshold is dependent upon long fire-free intervals, which are rare in mesic savanna. On high-resource sites, the thresholds are reached quickly, increasing the probability that savanna switches to forest, whereas low-resource sites are likely to remain as savanna even if fire is infrequent. Species traits influence both thresholds; saplings of savanna trees accumulate bark thickness more quickly than forest trees, and are more likely to become fire resistant during fire-free intervals. Forest trees accumulate leaf area more rapidly than savanna trees, thereby accelerating the transition to forest. Thus, multiple factors interact with fire to determine the distribution of savanna and forest by influencing the time needed to reach these thresholds. Future work should decipher multiple environmental controls over the rates of tree growth and canopy closure in savanna. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Spatial distribution and offshore export of total organic carbon along the eastern boundary of the Subtropical North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data collected in February, 2003, along the upper continental slope of western North America between Monterey Bay, California (37°N, 122°W, and Cabo San Lucas, Mexico (23°N, 118°W, document, for the first time, the alongshore distribution of total organic carbon (TOC. Highest TOC concentrations (>70 µM were observed for waters above the nitracline and associated with both California Current and southern surface waters. The northward advection of tropical waters in the California Undercurrent did not have any discernible impact on TOC distributions. An estimate of the average rate at which TOC in surface waters was exported offshore by Ekman transport in February 2003 was 1.73 × 103 kg C yr−1 for each meter of coastline. The offshore flux estimate is thought to be conservative with respect to the annual mean offshore flux because the offshore Ekman transport and primary production increase in late spring and early summer and the contribution of upwelling filaments has not been considered. Analysis of TOC contributions to pelagic respiration suggested that TOC accounted for 45% of the oxygen decrease in southern oxic waters. In California Current and oxygen minimum zone waters, TOC did not contribute to pelagic respiration.

  7. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level.  ...

  8. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key boundary in the P cycle, they also suggest it's not a Rubicon moment. The inefficiencies in P use that motivate these boundary debates are also clear targets for improvement, and some world regions may be on a trajectory towards greater P use efficiency (Vitousek et al 2009). This is a critical step for society, because even absent concerns over freshwater eutrophication or marine anoxic events, accelerating rates of P mining and inefficiencies in agricultural P use would still pose very real threats. There is legitimate debate over when readily accessible P reserves may run out (Cordell et al 2009, Van Kauenbergh 2010), but nobody argues with their finite nature. Sooner or later, we will be forced to keep P out of our waterways, if only because we will have to keep it on our farms. Without such a shift, we may face severe P constraints to food security within just a few human generations. As current P reserves decline, rising economic values of low concentration P stores may catalyze their harvest, but without considerable policy interventions, that price hike would exacerbate already strong global inequities in the distribution and use of chemical fertilizers (Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005). The harvest of low concentration P reserves would also create substantial collateral damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, even without exhaustion of high-concentration P reserves, their location in only a few countries creates geopolitical risks from the demand for an increasingly valuable resource (Cordell et al 2009). Policies aimed at lowering P inputs to aquatic environments will not only reduce the eutrophication risks explored by Carpenter and Bennett, they will increase P retention in agricultural landscapes and slow the decline of finite P reserves. Shifts in human diets can also make a profound difference in the amount of P (and N) required to meet caloric needs. Society

  9. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  10. On the character of host-island grain interfaces in Fe-1%Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, T.A.; Kalu, P.N.; Rollett, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The character of the boundaries surrounding island grains embedded in abnormally growing grains in a Fe-1%Si alloy was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy techniques. The grain boundary misorientation is the primary method used for this characterization. It was found that the island grains were most frequently misoriented by 55-60 o about directions from their respective host abnormally large grains. Host-island grain interfaces were predominantly of Σ3 character and low-angle grain boundaries, which have typically been associated with low mobility. It is reasonable to conclude that these boundaries were 'left behind' by the faster growing abnormally large grains

  11. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  12. First Steps in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patty Smith

    2017-01-01

    For many centuries, there has been theoretical statements asserting faith in character as the main objective in education, but it is only comparatively recently enough has been known about character and the scientific conditions for its development to make an honored place for it in the curricula. Today, it is creeping into curricula under new…

  13. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  14. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. A set of command line-based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion.

  15. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  16. A distributed air index based on maximum boundary rectangle over grid-cells for wireless non-flat spatial data broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seokjin; Choi, JinTak

    2014-06-17

    In the pervasive computing environment using smart devices equipped with various sensors, a wireless data broadcasting system for spatial data items is a natural way to efficiently provide a location dependent information service, regardless of the number of clients. A non-flat wireless broadcast system can support the clients in accessing quickly their preferred data items by disseminating the preferred data items more frequently than regular data on the wireless channel. To efficiently support the processing of spatial window queries in a non-flat wireless data broadcasting system, we propose a distributed air index based on a maximum boundary rectangle (MaxBR) over grid-cells (abbreviated DAIM), which uses MaxBRs for filtering out hot data items on the wireless channel. Unlike the existing index that repeats regular data items in close proximity to hot items at same frequency as hot data items in a broadcast cycle, DAIM makes it possible to repeat only hot data items in a cycle and reduces the length of the broadcast cycle. Consequently, DAIM helps the clients access the desired items quickly, improves the access time, and reduces energy consumption. In addition, a MaxBR helps the clients decide whether they have to access regular data items or not. Simulation studies show the proposed DAIM outperforms existing schemes with respect to the access time and energy consumption.

  17. Analysis and interpretation of residence time distribution experimental curves in FM01-LC reactor using axial dispersion and plug dispersion exchange models with closed-closed boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Diaz, Martin R., E-mail: mcruz@tese.edu.m [Division de Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnologico S/N Esq. Av. Hank Gonzalez, Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55120, Ecatepec, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Rivero, Eligio P. [Departamento de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Av. Primero de Mayo, Cuautitlan Izcalli, C.P. 54740, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The liquid phase mixing flow pattern at low (20 < Re < 120) and intermediate liquid flow rate (120 < Re < 400) was studied by means of residence time distribution (RTD) experimental curve in an up-flow Filter Press electrochemical reactor (FM01-LC) bench scale. For this purpose, a plastic turbulence promoter was used with stainless-steel and platinised titanium structural meshes as electrodes in channel configuration. To visualize and determine the mixing flow pattern in the liquid phase, the stimulus-response technique was employed using dextran blue (D{sub M} = 1.058 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 25 {sup o}C, in water) as model tracer. A theoretical analysis and approximation RTD experimental curves with axial dispersion model (ADM) and plug dispersion exchange model (PDE), with 'closed-closed vessel' boundary conditions were used in order to establish a better approximation of the axial dispersion, stagnant zones, channelling and by-pass (preference flow) effects present at low and intermediate Re. RTD curves show that the liquid flow pattern in the FM01-LC deviates considerably from axial dispersion model at low Re, where the FM01-LC exhibits large channelling, stagnant zones, and dead zone. The PDE model represents fairly this deviation from ideal flow (less dead zone).

  18. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  20. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  1. Influence of orographically induced transport process on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the distribution of trace gases; Einfluss orographisch induzierter Transportprozesse auf die Struktur der atmosphaerischen Grenzschicht und die Verteilung von Spurengasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossmann, M.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of terrain on the structure of the atmospheric boundary-layer and the distribution of trace gases during periods of high atmospheric pressure was studied by means of meteorological and air-chemical data collected in September 1992 during the TRACT experiment in the transition area between the upper Rhine valley and the northern Black Forest. The emphasis was on the investigation of the development of the convective boundary layer, the formation of thermally induced circulation systems, and the orographic exchange between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere. Thanks to the extensive measurements, phenomena not yet described in literature could be verified by case studies, and processes that had only been established qualitatively could be quantified. (orig.)

  2. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  3. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  4. An Historical Analysis of Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What is termed "character education" in today's world has been called many things throughout the history of education in this country. Character education has been both a formal and informal part of schools. Much of character education in the United States can be closely tied in its roots to the education of character in Europe, which…

  5. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  6. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  7. An Analysis of The Feminist Characters in Kate Chopin’s “The Awakening”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Rahman Nur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns with the analysis of feminist characters in Kate Chopin’s work. The purpose of the research is to describe the feminist characters of Kate Chopin’s The Awakening short stories by analyzing the main female characters as feminist characters and the contribution of the feminist characters to the development of the plot. The research question of this research are: how is the feminist character reflected on Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, and how do the feminist characters affect the development of the plot in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening short stories. The design of the research is a descriptive design. The finding of this research showed that from the characters existed in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, feminist characters is Edna Pontellier. She was considered feminist from her conversation, actions of disregarding patriarchy and social boundaries toward women, an effort to complete self-rights, self-needs, and her inner thought about freedom and self-autonomy. Also, this research showed that Edna Pontellier feminist characters have a contribution to the development of the plot of the stories. Her feminist characteristics and behavior affect to the plot. The feminist characters’ thought and attitude play important in changing the mood of the characters’ action so that making the plot developed

  8. Effects of Ca doping and O deficiency on the charge distribution in the vicinity of a 45° [001] grain boundary in YBa2Cu3O7

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-02-01

    The charge redistribution at grain boundaries is critical for the applicability of high-T c superconductors in electronic devices, because it determines the transport across the material. We investigate the charge transfer and the alterations of the electronic states due to local doping of a normal-state 45°-tilted [001] grain boundary in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 by means of first-principles calculations. Considering Ca doping and O deficiency as prototypical modifications we demonstrate that the redistribution of the charge carriers in the CuO 2 planes displays a very complex spatial pattern, which deviates even qualitatively from the naive expectation. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  9. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  10. SIMMAP: Stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollback Jonathan P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Character mapping on phylogenies has played an important, if not critical role, in our understanding of molecular, morphological, and behavioral evolution. Until very recently we have relied on parsimony to infer character changes. Parsimony has a number of serious limitations that are drawbacks to our understanding. Recent statistical methods have been developed that free us from these limitations enabling us to overcome the problems of parsimony by accommodating uncertainty in evolutionary time, ancestral states, and the phylogeny. Results SIMMAP has been developed to implement stochastic character mapping that is useful to both molecular evolutionists, systematists, and bioinformaticians. Researchers can address questions about positive selection, patterns of amino acid substitution, character association, and patterns of morphological evolution. Conclusion Stochastic character mapping, as implemented in the SIMMAP software, enables users to address questions that require mapping characters onto phylogenies using a probabilistic approach that does not rely on parsimony. Analyses can be performed using a fully Bayesian approach that is not reliant on considering a single topology, set of substitution model parameters, or reconstruction of ancestral states. Uncertainty in these quantities is accommodated by using MCMC samples from their respective posterior distributions.

  11. SIMMAP: stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollback, Jonathan P

    2006-02-23

    Character mapping on phylogenies has played an important, if not critical role, in our understanding of molecular, morphological, and behavioral evolution. Until very recently we have relied on parsimony to infer character changes. Parsimony has a number of serious limitations that are drawbacks to our understanding. Recent statistical methods have been developed that free us from these limitations enabling us to overcome the problems of parsimony by accommodating uncertainty in evolutionary time, ancestral states, and the phylogeny. SIMMAP has been developed to implement stochastic character mapping that is useful to both molecular evolutionists, systematists, and bioinformaticians. Researchers can address questions about positive selection, patterns of amino acid substitution, character association, and patterns of morphological evolution. Stochastic character mapping, as implemented in the SIMMAP software, enables users to address questions that require mapping characters onto phylogenies using a probabilistic approach that does not rely on parsimony. Analyses can be performed using a fully Bayesian approach that is not reliant on considering a single topology, set of substitution model parameters, or reconstruction of ancestral states. Uncertainty in these quantities is accommodated by using MCMC samples from their respective posterior distributions.

  12. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Yan

    Full Text Available We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  13. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  14. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. For a compactly generated LCA group G, it is shown that the set H (G) of all generalized characters on G equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and H (G) = ̂G (the dual group of G) if and only if G is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if G is second countable, then the ...

  15. Linear discriminant analysis of character sequences using occurrences of words

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-02-01

    Classification of character sequences, where the characters come from a finite set, arises in disciplines such as molecular biology and computer science. For discriminant analysis of such character sequences, the Bayes classifier based on Markov models turns out to have class boundaries defined by linear functions of occurrences of words in the sequences. It is shown that for such classifiers based on Markov models with unknown orders, if the orders are estimated from the data using cross-validation, the resulting classifier has Bayes risk consistency under suitable conditions. Even when Markov models are not valid for the data, we develop methods for constructing classifiers based on linear functions of occurrences of words, where the word length is chosen by cross-validation. Such linear classifiers are constructed using ideas of support vector machines, regression depth, and distance weighted discrimination. We show that classifiers with linear class boundaries have certain optimal properties in terms of their asymptotic misclassification probabilities. The performance of these classifiers is demonstrated in various simulated and benchmark data sets.

  16. Altitudinal variation of some morphological characters of Scots pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the altitudinal variation within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in Turkey using 23 morphological characters. Seeds were collected from 149 open-pollinated parents (trees) from five populations sampled from different altitudes in the natural distribution ...

  17. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  18. Boundary controllability of integrodifferential systems in Banach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [6] discussed the general theory of boundary control systems. Barbu and Precupanu [4] studied a class of convex control problems governed by linear evolution systems covering the principal boundary control systems of parabolic type. In [5] Barbu investigated a class of boundary-distributed linear control systems in ...

  19. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-04-01

    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  20. Bleeding boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Møller; Petersen, Michael Nebeling

    2018-01-01

    Hook-up apps such as Grindr and Scruff have become important sites for the negotiation of sex between men, in that they shape the ways intimacy cultures are practised and become visible (Mowlabocus, 2010; Race, 2014; Duguay et al., 2016). While such apps enable different intimacy cultures......, they also come paired with anxieties. In the epigraph the interview participant James1 expresses concerns about the how the hook-up app Scruff might restructure the boundaries of privacy and make him vulnerable to exposure. Such technological ambivalence is central to domestication theory, which focuses...

  1. Breaking Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . As a fundamental human experience, liminality transmits cultural practices, codes, rituals, and meanings in-between aggregate structures and uncertain outcomes. As a methodological tool it is well placed to overcome disciplinary boundaries, which often direct attention to specific structures or sectors of society....... Its capacity to provide explanatory accounts of seemingly unstructured situations provides an opportunity to link experience-based and culture-oriented approaches not only to contemporary problems but also to undertake comparisons across historical periods. From a perspective of liminality...

  2. Mixed basin boundary structures of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E. Jr.; Ott, E.

    1999-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical observations on a four-dimensional continuous-time dynamical system, we consider different types of basin boundary structures for chaotic systems. These general structures are essentially mixtures of the previously known types of basin boundaries where the character of the boundary assumes features of the previously known boundary types at different points arbitrarily finely interspersed in the boundary. For example, we discuss situations where an everywhere continuous boundary that is otherwise smooth and differentiable at almost every point has an embedded uncountable, zero Lebesgue measure set of points at which the boundary curve is nondifferentiable. Although the nondifferentiable set is only of zero Lebesgue measure, the curve close-quote s fractal dimension may (depending on parameters) still be greater than one. In addition, we discuss bifurcations from such a mixed boundary to a 'pure' boundary that is a fractal nowhere differentiable curve or surface and to a pure nonfractal boundary that is everywhere smooth. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kamaruddin, Syamsu

    2012-01-01

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these tw...

  4. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  5. Chinese license plate character segmentation using multiscale template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangmin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo; Xia, Yuanchun

    2016-09-01

    Character segmentation (CS) plays an important role in automatic license plate recognition and has been studied for decades. A method using multiscale template matching is proposed to settle the problem of CS for Chinese license plates. It is carried out on a binary image integrated from maximally stable extremal region detection and Otsu thresholding. Afterward, a uniform harrow-shaped template with variable length is designed, by virtue of which a three-dimensional matching space is constructed for searching of candidate segmentations. These segmentations are detected at matches with local minimum responses. Finally, the vertical boundaries of each single character are located for subsequent recognition. Experiments on a data set including 2349 license plate images of different quality levels show that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy at comparable time cost and is robust to images in poor conditions.

  6. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  7. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  8. Is There a Place for Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, Kim L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends in school curricula place a heavy focus on the improvement of basic skills test scores. As a result, the role of character education has been diminished. This article provides a rationale for the incorporation of a character education program within the school curricula, a working definition of character education, and the role of…

  9. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  10. AMHARIC CHARACTER GENERATOR Gebre Amanuel Gessesse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually a visual display terminal (VDT); file storage ... character code into a visual image of the character. Several techniques ... Memory ll 7'. In the second alternative considered, the complete syllabary with punctuation marks and numerals is put within one character generator. The font selected is show in Fig. 1. The matrix.

  11. Effects of processing optimisation on microstructure, texture, grain boundary and mechanical properties of Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jian, E-mail: jh595@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China)

    2014-10-20

    The relationships between microstructure, texture, grain boundary and tensile strength, Charpy impact toughness of (Nb+Ti+V) stabilised Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plates were investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, tensile and Charpy impact testing. The results show that for Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plate, the addition of warm rolling procedure leads to refinement of grain size, modification of texture, and then optimisation of grain boundary, including grain boundary character distribution and grain boundary connectivity. Meanwhile, the mechanical testing results indicate that optimal transformation that warm rolling procedure brings to Fe–17Cr ferritic steel thick plate is beneficial to its mechanical properties.

  12. Group discriminatory power of handwritten characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomai, Catalin I.; Kshirsagar, Devika M.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2003-12-01

    Using handwritten characters we address two questions (i) what is the group identification performance of different alphabets (upper and lower case) and (ii) what are the best characters for the verification task (same writer/different writer discrimination) knowing demographic information about the writer such as ethnicity, age or sex. The Bhattacharya distance is used to rank different characters by their group discriminatory power and the k-nn classifier to measure the individual performance of characters for group identification. Given the tasks of identifying the correct gender/age/ethnicity or handedness, the accumulated performance of characters varies between 65% and 85%.

  13. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  14. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  15. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  16. Professional Development for Character Education: An Evaluation of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Alice T.

    2011-01-01

    Today's teachers and administrators must educate students for character. But, teachers are inconsistently prepared for this challenge. This descriptive study examined teachers' sense of efficacy for character education among pre-K-12 teachers based on their type of character education training. The Character Education Efficacy Belief Instrument…

  17. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  18. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  19. Animal Distribution and Habitat, Other, The intended application of the refuge boundary data is for use as a spatial reference with other data layers in GIS and mapping applications., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Animal Distribution and Habitat, Other dataset current as of 2001. The intended application of the refuge boundary data is for use as a spatial reference with other...

  20. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  1. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  2. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  3. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  4. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  5. Analysis and interpretation of residence time distribution experimental curves in FM01-LC reactor using axial dispersion and plug dispersion exchange models with closed-closed boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Fernando F.; Cruz-Diaz, Martin R.; Rivero, Eligio P.; Gonzalez, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    The liquid phase mixing flow pattern at low (20 M = 1.058 x 10 -11 m 2 s -1 , 25 o C, in water) as model tracer. A theoretical analysis and approximation RTD experimental curves with axial dispersion model (ADM) and plug dispersion exchange model (PDE), with 'closed-closed vessel' boundary conditions were used in order to establish a better approximation of the axial dispersion, stagnant zones, channelling and by-pass (preference flow) effects present at low and intermediate Re. RTD curves show that the liquid flow pattern in the FM01-LC deviates considerably from axial dispersion model at low Re, where the FM01-LC exhibits large channelling, stagnant zones, and dead zone. The PDE model represents fairly this deviation from ideal flow (less dead zone).

  6. Precession electron diffraction for SiC grain boundary characterization in unirradiated TRISO fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillo, T.M.; Rooyen, I.J. van; Wu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SiC grain orientation determined by TEM-based precession electron diffraction. • Orientation data improved with increasing TEM sample thickness. • Fraction of low angle grain boundaries lower from PED data than EBSD data. • Fractions of high angle and CSL-related boundaries similar to EBSD data. - Abstract: Precession electron diffraction (PED), a transmission electron microscopy-based technique, has been evaluated for the suitability for evaluating grain boundary character in the SiC layer of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. This work reports the effect of transmission electron microscope (TEM) lamella thickness on the quality of data and establishes a baseline comparison to SiC grain boundary characteristics, in an unirradiated TRISO particle, determined previously using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based technique. In general, it was determined that the lamella thickness produced using the standard focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication process (∼80 nm), is sufficient to provide reliable PED measurements, although thicker lamellae (∼120 nm) were found to produce higher quality orientation data. Also, analysis of SiC grain boundary character from the TEM-based PED data showed a much lower fraction of low-angle grain boundaries compared to SEM-based EBSD data from the SiC layer of a TRISO-coated particle made using the same fabrication parameters and a SiC layer deposited at a slightly lower temperature from a surrogate TRISO particle. However, the fractions of high-angle and coincident site lattice (CSL)-related grain boundaries determined by PED are similar to those found using SEM-based EBSD. Since the grain size of the SiC layer of TRSIO fuel can be as small as 250 nm (Kirchhofer et al., 2013), depending on the fabrication parameters, and since grain boundary fission product precipitates in irradiated TRISO fuel can be nano-sized, the TEM-based PED orientation data

  7. A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Didier, Gilles

    2016-09-07

    Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deformed Neogene basins, active faulting and topography in Westland: Distributed crustal mobility west of the Alpine Fault transpressive plate boundary (South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisetti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.; Hamling, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic activity in the South Island of New Zealand is dominated by the Alpine Fault component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. West of the Alpine Fault deformation is recorded by Paleogene-Neogene basins coeval with the evolution of the right-lateral/transpressive plate margin. Initial tectonic setting was controlled by N-S normal faults developed during Late Cretaceous and Eocene-early Miocene rifting. Following inception of the Alpine Fault (c. 25 Ma) reverse reactivation of the normal faults controlled tectonic segmentation that became apparent in the cover sequences at c. 22 Ma. Based on restored transects tied to stratigraphic sections, seismic lines and wells, we reconstruct the vertical mobility of the Top Basement Unconformity west of Alpine Fault. From c. 37-35 Ma to 22 Ma subsidence was controlled by extensional faulting. After 22 Ma the region was affected by differential subsidence, resulting from eastward crustal flexure towards the Alpine Fault boundary and/or components of transtension. Transition from subsidence to uplift started at c. 17 Ma within a belt of basement pop-ups, separated by subsiding basins localised in the common footwall of oppositely-dipping reverse faults. From 17 to 7-3 Ma reverse fault reactivation and uplift migrated to the WSW. Persistent reverse reactivation of the inherited faults in the present stress field is reflected by the close match between tectonic block segmentation and topography filtered at a wavelength of 25 km, i.e. at a scale comparable to crustal thickness in the region. However, topography filtered at wavelength of 75 km shows marked contrasts between the elevated Tasman Ranges region relative to regions to the south. Variations in thickness and rigidity of the Australian lithosphere possibly control N-S longitudinal changes, consistent with our estimates of increase in linear shortening from the Tasman Ranges to the regions located west of the Alpine Fault bend.

  9. Postural instability detection: aging and the complexity of spatial-temporal distributional patterns for virtually contacting the stability boundary in human stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP or center-of-mass (COM fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC, a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a

  10. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  11. Distortion Analysis Of Tamil Language Characters Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gowri N.; R. Bhaskaran

    2011-01-01

    This research work demonstrates how character recognition can be done with a back propagation network and shows how to implement this using the MATLAB Neural Network toolbox. This is a slightly enhanced version of the character recognition application based on the MATLAB Neural Network toolbox. In this research article we are focusing on the distortion analysis of Tamil Language Characters in order to recognize them effectively using the neural network we have developed. We have used the comm...

  12. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  13. A note on a kind of character sums over the short interval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let p be a prime, χ denote the Dirichlet character modulo p and L(p) = {a ∈ Z+|(a, p) = 1, a¯a ≡ 1(mod p), |a − ¯a| ≤ H}. We study the distribution of elements in the set L(p) in character over the short interval. In this paper, we use the analytic method and show the distribution property of. ∑ n≤N n∈L(p) χ(n),.

  14. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  15. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  16. Boundary layer aerosol size distribution, mass concentration and mineralogical composition in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. Two major field experiments were performed: A first joint field campaign took place at Ouarzazate and near Zagora, southern Morocco, from May 13 to June 7, 2006. Aircraft and ground based measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out to collect a data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information within a major dust source. This data set combined with satellite data provides the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust. A second field experiment was conducted during January-February 2008, in the Cape Verde Islands region, where about 300 Tg of mineral dust are transported annually from Western Africa across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea and the Amazon basin. Along its transport path, the mineral dust is expected to influence significantly the radiation budget - by direct and indirect effects - of the subtropical North Atlantic. We are lacking a radiative closure in the Saharan air plume. One focus of the investigation within the trade wind region is the spatial distribution of mixed dust/biomass/sea salt aerosol and their physical and chemical properties, especially with regard to radiative effects. We report on measurements of size distributions, mass concentrations and mineralogical composition conducted at the Zagora (Morocco) and Praia (Cape Verde islands) ground stations. The aerosol size distribution was measured from 20 nm to 500

  17. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  18. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  19. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  20. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions about Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Melek; Özmat, Demet; Elgün, Imgehan Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of primary school teachers about character education. In this descriptive study, data were collected by using a survey questionnaire which required descriptive analysis. Based on the findings, it was revealed that primary school teachers (n = 60) defined the character education as moral values…

  1. Virtue and Character in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent concern with the possibilities of moral character education in elementary schooling and professional training, the university and higher educational prospects of such education have only lately received much attention. This paper begins by considering--and largely endorsing--the general case for character education in contexts…

  2. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  3. Improving Social Competence through Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Lee, Tak-yan

    2010-01-01

    Character education is supposed to meet early adolescents' need (i.e., eighth and ninth graders) for strengthening social competence. Moreover, adolescents' engagement in character education is integral to their learning from the education. The engagement and deficit in social competence are therefore plausible conditions for the effectiveness of…

  4. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  5. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  6. THE CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaswidi Al Hamdani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the concept of character and moral education according to the terminology, approaches, and methods of learning from the point of view of Islamic education. The approach used in this paper is a discussion of the linguistic (al-lughah. The results showed that the conceptual basis of character education in the curriculum in Indonesia too much because it has a number of terminological problems. The concept of morals, values, and characters have a special meaning that may be different from one another. As a result, the concept of the character presented in the curriculum subject is far from the actual context of the moral and less with actually happening in the community. Character education is also too much use of the approach and methods indoctrinasi than critical, reflective and empirical and is not integrated with the system and school culture. 

  7. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  8. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  9. Anorectic family dynamics: temperament and character data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Svrakic, Dragan; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Leombruni, Paolo; Amianto, Federico; Stanic, Stana; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo

    2002-01-01

    Modern psychobiologic research conceptualizes personality as a complex adaptive system involving a bidirectional interaction between heritable neurobiologic dispositions (temperament) and social learning (character). In this study, we evaluated temperament and character traits of patients with anorexia nervosa and their mothers and fathers, and we analyzed the correlation of temperament and character traits among family members in anorectic families. Finally, we tested the ability of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to discriminate between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and their families. Temperament and character features of 50 restricter anorectic patients and their parents (23 fathers and 25 mothers) were analyzed and then compared with a control group of 60 women and their 20 fathers and 20 mothers using the TCI. Data suggest that both temperament and character factors are involved in anorexia nervosa (AN). Anorectic individuals were high in harm avoidance (HA), low in novelty seeking (NS), and high in persistence (P) ("obsessive temperament type"). Their character was remarkable for low self-directedness (SD). Their mothers were distinguished by low SD. The fathers were high in HA, but also low in P, and high in reward dependence (RD). Again, they were low in SD. The anorectic family had low SD as a common denominator observed in all family members. This finding indicates that the psychopathology of AN extends beyond obsessiveness, but combines obsessiveness with low character development. None of the above temperament and character profiles is pathognomic of restricter anorectics. The observation that both temperament and character have an important role in the etiopathogenesis of AN has important treatment ramifications. The TCI was useful in discriminating between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and the whole anorectic family.

  10. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  11. Investigation of Boundary Condition and Field Distribution Effects on the Cycle-to-Cycle Variability of a Turbocharged GDI Engine Using LES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports some preliminary results of a numerical activity aiming at characterizing cycle-to-cycle variability of a highlydownsized turbocharged DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine for high-performance car applications, using a customized version of the commercial software Star-CD licensed by CD-adapco. During experimental investigations at the engine testbed, high cycle to cycle dispersion was detected even for relatively stable peak-power/full-load operations of the engine, thus limiting the overall engine performance. Despite the complex architecture of the V-8 engine, the origin of such cyclic variability could not be related to cyclic fluctuations of the gas-dynamics within the intake and exhaust pipes. Several subsequent acquisitions of the instantaneous pressure traces were measured at both the intake port entrance and exhaust port junction, showing almost negligible differences in terms of both amplitude and phasing compared to those within the cylinder. In order to explore the potentials of the LES application to the analysis and understanding of the cycle-to-cycle variability, which notoriously strongly limits the overall engine performance, a numerical activity is carried out using full-cycle LES simulations over several subsequent engine cycles. Despite the very early stage of the investigation, two main issues are addressed in the paper: the analysis of the possible causes originating the high cycle to cycle variability and the influence of the boundary conditions on the predicted cyclic dispersion. Concerning the former aspect, a detailed investigation of local and global instantaneous fields is carried out aiming at identifying both a possible hierarchy of responsibilities on one side and limitations and possible improvements of the adopted numerical procedure on the other side. Concerning the latter aspect, a set of simulations, performed applying cycle-independent averaged experimental conditions, is compared to

  12. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  13. The character bill and migration rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    Many foreigners apply for visas to visit or live in Australia. A small proportion of these applications are refused, however, because they are judged to be of bad character and a danger to Australian society. Some have their visas canceled after they have been issued. Australia's executive branch and judiciary have been struggling for a decade and a half to see who should have the final say on questions of immigration control. The Character Bill is the most recent development in this struggle. The Bill aims to protect communities from non-citizens who may be of bad character, especially those who may be criminals, when they apply for visas. It does this by making such people prove that they are of good character, by limiting their capacity to seek review of character-based decisions to deny them visas or to cancel already issued visas, and by restricting their access to information about them provided by law enforcement agencies. In some cases, non-citizens who are refused or deprived of visas on the basis of character will not have access to proper justice. The political and legal backgrounds to the Character Bill are described, as well as the substance and status of, and responses to the new bill.

  14. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. Methods and Results: A set of command line–based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. Conclusions: WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion. PMID:26949580

  15. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  16. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  17. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset ca...

  18. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  19. A Study on the Effect of Nudging on Long-Term Boundary Layer Profiles of Wind and Weibull Distribution Parameters in a Rural Coastal Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Floors, Rogier

    2013-01-01

    By use of 1 yr of measurements performed with a wind lidar up to 600-m height, in combination with a tall meteorological tower, the impact of nudging on the simulated wind profile at a flat coastal site (Høvsøre) in western Denmark using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research...... the scatter between the simulated and measured wind speeds, expressed by the root-mean-square error, by about 20% between altitudes of 100 and 500 m. The root-mean-square error was nearly constant with height for the nudged case (~2.2 m s−1) and slightly increased with height for the nonnudged one, reaching 2.......8 m s−1 at 300 and 500 m. In studying the long-term wind speed variability with the Weibull distribution, it was found that nudging had a minor effect on the scale parameter profile, which is closely connected to the mean wind speed. Improvement by nudging was seen on the profile of the shape...

  20. The flux-based PIN allocation mechanism can generate either canalyzed or diffuse distribution patterns depending on geometry and boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Luke Walker

    Full Text Available Growth and morphogenesis in plants require controlled transport of the plant hormone auxin. An important participant is the auxin effluxing protein PIN, whose polarized subcellular localization allows it to effectively transport auxin large distances through tissues. The flux-based model, in which auxin flux through a wall stimulates PIN allocation to that wall, is a dominant contender among models determining where and in what quantity PIN is allocated to cell walls. In this paper we characterise the behaviour of flux-based PIN allocation models in various tissues of the shoot apical meristem. Arguing from both mathematical analysis and computer simulations, we describe the natural behaviours of this class of models under various circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate the important dichotomy between sink- and source- driven systems, and show that both diffuse and canalized PIN distributions can be generated simultaneously in the same tissue, without model hybridization or variation of PIN-related parameters. This work is performed in the context of the shoot apical and floral meristems and is applicable to the construction of a unified PIN allocation model.

  1. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  2. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, D.V.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  3. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2011-01-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...... atmosphere. To date, this region of the atmosphere has been studied directly, by instrumented lander spacecraft, and from orbital remote sensing, though not to the extent that is necessary to fully constrain its character and behavior. Current data strongly suggest that as for the Earth's PBL, classical...... of the modeling techniques used for the PBL on Earth are also being applied to the Martian PBL, including novel uses of very high resolution large eddy simulation methods. We conclude with those aspects of the PBL that require new measurements in order to constrain models and discuss the extent to which...

  4. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  5. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  6. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  7. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written

  8. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  9. Stage character of the oxidation of dialkylthiophenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M.N.; Kazakova, O.A.

    1988-07-20

    The reasons for the stage character of the oxidation of dialkylthiophenes catalyzed by a cobalt bromide catalyst are examined. The stage character of oxidation is due to the deactivation of the catalyst by the corresponding alcohol formed during oxidation. At the first stage of the process only the products from oxidation of the /alpha/-alkyl group, i.e., the corresponding ketone, ester, and thiophenecarboxylic acid, are formed. The rate constants for their formation were calculated.

  10. Diradical character dependences of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-06-28

    The static first and second hyperpolarizabilities (referred to as β and γ, respectively) of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems have been investigated using the asymmetric two-site diradical model within the valence configuration interaction level of theory in order to reveal the effect of the asymmetric electron distribution on the diradical character and subsequently on β and γ. It is found that the increase of the asymmetric electron distribution causes remarkable changes in the amplitude and the sign of β and γ, and that their variations are intensified with the increase of the diradical character. These results demonstrate that the asymmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters can exhibit further enhancements of β and γ as compared to conventional asymmetric closed-shell systems and also to symmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters.

  11. Strengthening Islamic character through Mathematics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Istiqlal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mathematics learning which is integrated with Islamic character education is still limited; this is one of logical reasons why this research is conducted. The basic motivation of carrying out this research is to describe a concept of mathematics learning which is contextualized with Islamic character education. This research aims at describing concept of mathematics learning which is integrated with Islamic character education. This research uses a qualitative approach by emphasizing its analysis on the comparative inference process as well as on phenomena relationship dynamics observed by using scientific logic. Qualitative research is an approach that produces descriptive data in the form of written words from observed people that are not written in terms used in quantitative research. Research method used in this study is case study in which the researcher is trying to find out how the process of strengthening Islamic character through mathematics learning. This research was carried out at MA Nurul Ummah Kotagede Yogyakarta which has innovatively implemented mathematics learning using various methods through interactive learning multimedia which is integrated with strengthening Islamic character. Research finding showed that strengthening Islamic character through mathematics learning at MA Nurul Ummah is integrated into several aspects, namely learning methods, learning materials, and all aspect directly related to learning process in the classroom including putting statement of honesty on the answer sheet and giving reward and punishment to students.

  12. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  13. Multimodal character viewpoint in quoted dialogue sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmiri Stec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multimodal production of character viewpoint in spoken American English narratives by performing complementary qualitative and quantitative analyses of two quoted dialogues, focusing on the storyteller’s use of character viewpoint gestures, character intonation, character facial expression, spatial orientation and gaze. A micro-analysis revealed that the extent of multimodal articulation depends on (i the quoted speaker, with different multimodal articulatory patterns found for quotes by the speaker’s past self vs. a third-person character, and (ii the position of the quoted utterance within the quoted dialogue, with mid-dialogue utterances garnering less co-articulation than initial or final utterances within the quoted dialogue. We further investigated these observations using a quantitative approach, which was based on 'generalized additive modeling' (GAM. The GAM analysis revealed different multimodal patterns for each quoted character, as indicated by the number of co-produced multimodal articulators. These patterns were found to hold regardless of the quote’s position within the narrative. We discuss these findings with respect to previous work on multimodal quotation. This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  14. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... on which boundary condition produces the best results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal and random incidence absorption coefficients, and normal incidence surface impedances are used in a phased beam tracing model, and simulated results are validated with boundary element...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  15. On being of good character: nurse education and the assessment of good character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, Derek

    2007-10-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council sets good character as a condition not only of entry to the UK register of nurses but also for entry to and continuation on pre-registration nursing programmes in the UK. This requires education providers to assess the character of potential and actual nursing students yet the guidance offered by the NMC for making such assessments is insufficiently developed and serves to provide criteria by which determination can be made of good character only in a narrow sense. Assessment of character requires making value judgements about others and lends support to the idea that nurse education has an explicit moral component. This paper outlines some of the difficulties in assessing character, explores the idea that good character can be assessed in both a thin and a thick sense, and considers some of the consequent implications for nurse educationalists.

  16. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  17. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  18. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  19. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  20. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  1. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  2. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  3. Implementation of Boundary Condition to THALES Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Beomjun; Chun, Chong Kuk; Park, Ho Young; Woo, Hae-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    The boundary condition of momentum equation of THALES code utilizes the exit pressure boundary to solve the elliptic partial difference momentum equations. This method is the same as the most of the subchannel analysis codes. Other codes such as VIPRE utilize the uniform pressure distribution as outlet boundary condition. In this case, uniform inlet flow rate is assumed. In order to test the core flow field regarding the boundary conditions, analysis was performed for two core conditions. One condition is nominal plant operating condition. In this paper, generic THALES power distribution is used. For nominal operation case, there are no different results depending on the type of outlet pressure boundary condition. But low-power and high-peaking case, density difference for lateral direction becomes large due to high peaking power of core. Since density change causes pressure change, In this case, uniform outlet pressure distribution can't be assumed anymore. Design outlet pressure distribution is measured at nominal core condition. Therefore, design outlet pressure distribution also can't be used due to the difference in core power and flow rate. As a result, it is reasonable that neumann boundary condition is applied in low-power and high peaking core condition including various accident condition

  4. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  5. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2009-03-16

    Mar 16, 2009 ... Environmentalists without Boundaries. Setting Boundaries is a popular strategy in child development programs. But as children mature into young adults, it dawns on many that certain boundaries must be crossed to explore rich opportunities outside the safe closet of their teachers or parents' watchful eyes.

  6. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  7. Online Farsi Character Recognition Using Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghods

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, grouping and recognition of online Farsi discrete characters are presented according to their structural features. The letters are divided into 9 groups based on the form and structure of their main bodies. After feature extraction, grouping is performed using a decision tree. Final recognition of letters is carried out in each group by delayed strokes. The proposed method is a rapid method in character recognition because time-consuming methods have not been used. Our proposed method was tested on TMU-OFS dataset, and a recognition rate of 94% and 92% was achieved for character grouping and recognition, respectively. The mean processing time for recognizing a letter was 3ms.

  8. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  9. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  10. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  11. The Character of Achievement: An Analysis of Teachers' Instructional Practices for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Kraft, Claire; Austin, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    From kindergarten classrooms to college campuses, educators are becoming increasingly invested in developing students' character in addition to their intellect. Despite a growing body of scholarship that demonstrates the positive association of character and life outcomes, findings related to the efficacy of programs designed to develop character…

  12. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin

    2016-01-01

    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  13. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  14. Reading Character in Children's Literature A Character Trait Study of Newbery Medal Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Dorothy J.; Glascock, Catherine H.; Mitchell, Deirdre; Wasserman, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    Selects and evaluates a sampling of great children's literature to ascertain what values and character messages were being communicated to readers. Indicates that Newbery books are indeed "a compelling vision of the goodness of goodness itself." Notes that character trait analysis and discussion can be a fruitful forum for increased…

  15. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  16. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  17. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... between competencies within the organisation; and boundaries between various physical locations of work, in particular between what is done in the office and what is done on site. Maintaining and changing boundaries are the processes through which a particular community sustains its identity and practice...... on the one hand, and where it is confronted with the identity and practices on the other.The organisation being studied employs a multitude of IT systems that support and maintain these boundaries in a particular manner that are in many ways inappropriate to the current needs of the organisation...

  18. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes the...

  19. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... fairly well fleshed. (2) Pieces; macerated. The character may be variable throughout the units or mass...

  1. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  2. DIALOGUE AND CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION IN WOLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . In an essay entitled “The Power Triangle in. Soyinka's Kongi's Harvest”, Okpure Obuke examines the power posts of the three major characters and their conflicts in the play (132-143). In yet another thematic study, Tunde Adeniran says that ...

  3. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  4. On the Prospects for Aristotelian Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for Aristotelian character education (ACE) is considered. Seven important claims that should win wide acceptance are reviewed; and also two challenges that are impediments. I argue many of the assumptions of ACE turn out not to be distinctive. The conflation of realism and naturalism is ill-considered, and the account of…

  5. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  6. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  7. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  8. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  9. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  10. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  11. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  12. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five- Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 2.011, year: 2013

  13. Character Education: It's a Joint Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Young children's beliefs about what is right and wrong traditionally have been strongly influenced by their families. However, in today's American family and current culture, children often are coming to school with problematic behaviors and attitudes. Therefore, character education has become a necessity in schools. As children enter school,…

  14. Aristotelian Character Education: A Response to Commentators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2016-01-01

    This article contains the responses of the author of Aristotelian Character Education (Routledge, 2015), Kristján Kristjánsson, to responses by three commentators, Randall Curren, Daniel Laspley and Christian Miller, published in this same issue of "JME."

  15. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  16. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  17. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  18. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... correlation matrix between the characters was generated using the Xlstat Version 7.5.2 software. The genotypic and phenotypic variances (VG and VP), the coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic variation (PCV and GCV), the broad- sense heritability (H2) and expected genetic gain. (GA) accessions were ...

  19. Integrating cultural resources and wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Cowley; Peter Landres; Melissa Memory; Doug Scott; Adrienne Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Cultural resources are an integral part of wilderness and wilderness character, and all wilderness areas have a human history. This article develops a foundation for wilderness and cultural resource staffs to continue communicating with one another in order to make better decisions for wilderness stewardship. Following a discussion of relevant legislative history, we...

  20. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  1. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  2. Redefining the magic square on numerical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sawaluddin

    2018-02-01

    As a number system, the magic square is different from the others. Characteristic depends not only on size but also depends on numerical character in computation. This paper has redefined the term of magic square formally, by exposing the inductive general characteristics of cases to numerical ordering of numbers.

  3. Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    David and Adam, 1988). The plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae and the genus Hibiscus ... The varieties in relation to the character studied are as follows: NRG-NG-R5: Pink flowers with resistance to root ...

  4. Amharic Character Generator | Gessesse | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Amharic Character Generator. GA Gessesse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  5. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  6. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  7. Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Buckley, Thomas R

    2007-02-01

    macrofungi. Cycad feeding is scattered in more deeply diverged taxa and may have preceded the evolution of angiosperm feeding in some groups. Preliminary analysis of diet mapped onto higher beetle phylogenies suggests that about half of the major Coleoptera lineages may have had fungus-feeding ancestors. We discuss the roles of stochastic models and prior distributions of the reconstruction of ancestral character states in the context of the current data.

  8. BSLIC: SLIC Superpixels Based on Boundary Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for better superpixel generation based on simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC is presented and named BSLIC in this paper. By initializing cluster centers in hexagon distribution and performing k-means clustering in a limited region, the generated superpixels are shaped into regular and compact hexagons. The additional cluster centers are initialized as edge pixels to improve boundary adherence, which is further promoted by incorporating the boundary term into the distance calculation of the k-means clustering. Berkeley Segmentation Dataset BSDS500 is used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the proposed BSLIC method. Experimental results show that BSLIC achieves an excellent compromise between boundary adherence and regularity of size and shape. In comparison with SLIC, the boundary adherence of BSLIC is increased by at most 12.43% for boundary recall and 3.51% for under segmentation error.

  9. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. 3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe was submerged in a water container, such that the

  11. Additive recovery at lateral boundaries of grains under electronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, S.V.; Postnikov, D.V.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental investigation of additive re-distribution under electronic beam revealed a recovery of the additive at grain boundaries. Additive accumulation mainly takes place at the boundaries that are perpendicular to material surface, whereas there is no an observed recovery of additive at the boundaries that are parallel to the surface. To construe the processes of additive recovery at grain boundaries, we may use the kinetic diffusion equation describing the mass transfer processes in the presence of temperature gradients and non-equilibrium vacancies. The additive recovery is caused by spot fault gradients near the grain boundary. The grain boundary is an intensive run-off region of vacancies. Therefore, the average vacancy distribution profile near the grain boundary changes its pattern. The above case indicates that there are two additive fluxes. One of them is vectored perpendicular to the surface, and the other one is parallel to it, i.e. it is vectored to the grain boundary. A study of the perpendicular and parallel boundaries shows that there is no additive settling at the boundaries that are parallel to the surface, since the general flux is vectored to the parallel boundaries. There is no such kind of phenomenon at the grain boundaries that are perpendicular to the surface. Besides, the perpendicular boundaries are more effective run-off regions for vacancies, since there is a slower build-up of the region with vacancies due to displacement of the vacancies to the surface

  12. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  13. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  14. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  15. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    Avatars are a commonly used mechanism for representing the player within the world of a game. The avatar forms the main point of interaction between the player and the game, and thus the avatar is an important game design feature. Character-based games combine the concept of an avatar...... with that of a character, enhancing the avatar with specific features that commonly are changeable, and which can be defined within or outside the framework of the game rules. Within digital games, the rules-based features have received comparatively more attention than, for example, the personalities and background...... histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...

  16. Orchestra of Change: Strategically Harmonizing National Character, Military Forces, and the Character of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    89 Jason Healey , ed., A Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012 (Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013), 70–72. 90... A Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013. Hoffman, David E. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story...ORCHESTRA OF CHANGE: STRATEGICALLY HARMONIZING NATIONAL CHARACTER, MILITARY FORCES, AND THE CHARACTER OF WAR BY SCOTT GUNN A THESIS

  17. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi

    2018-01-01

    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  18. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  19. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  20. [Iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V M; Grinev, M V; Demko, A E; Povzun, S A

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyzed the data of 281 cases of iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery in order to investigate the circumstances and character of origin. There were 187 cases of operative confirmation and 84 cases of unintentional intraoperative retained foreign bodies. It was detected, that primary planned intervention of higher category of complexity should be related to the high risk group of the development of the operative confirmation. Retained foreign bodies with soft fabric base were diagnosed in early postoperative period as the result of the beginning of postoperative complications. The retained foreign bodies with tough backer material as a rule didn't cause the complications in early postoperative period. They were diagnosed in long-term postoperative period in majority of cases.

  1. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz) character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  2. Target locations in visual field and character recognition by students of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2003-02-01

    The potential influence of target location in a visual field on search should be considered in layouts of control panels and advertisements. This investigation was done to verify the assumption that the upper-left portion of a page or its equivalent naturally attracts the attention of the viewer. Exp. 1 used a tachistoscope to test which of eight Chinese characters first attracted the attention of viewers. The eight Chinese characters are arranged in a square and a circular configuration. In the square layout, a large square (18 cm x 18 cm) was first conceptually subdivided into nine equal parts (6 cm x 6 cm). Then, the eight Chinese characters were put in the center of each part, leaving the central part blank. In the circular layout, the same Chinese characters were symmetrically placed on the conceptual circumference (r = 6 cm) of a circle within a large square. Exp. 2 was a paper-and-pencil test. An embedded-fault-character-search was used to examine the location of the first faulty character discovered by the subjects. 60 college students and 36 schoolchildren were selected as subjects for the tachistoscopic experiment and paper-and-pencil test. Finally, five graduate students participated in Exp. 3 in which an eye camera registered subjects' eye movements to measured distribution of durations of looking over eight locations. The measurements indicated a slight predominance of the upper-left portion for college students and graduate students, and a slight predominance of the upper-right portion for schoolchildren.

  3. Asperger syndrome in childhood - personality dimensions in adult life: temperament, character and outcome trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helles, Adam; Wallinius, Märta; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades. Temperament and character were assessed in 40 adult males with a childhood diagnosis of ASD. Results were analysed by the stability of ASD diagnosis over time and current psychiatric comorbidity. Three distinct temperament and character profiles emerged from the data. Those no longer meeting criteria for ASD had high reward dependence while those with a stable ASD diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity showed elevated harm avoidance and low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Finally, those with a stable ASD and no comorbidity showed low novelty seeking and somewhat elevated harm avoidance. Temperament and character are important factors correlated with long-term diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity in males diagnosed with ASD in childhood. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  4. The effect of real-time auditory feedback on learning new characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Fontaine, Maureen; Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Gondre, Charles; Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of handwriting sonification on graphomotor learning. Thirty-two adults, distributed in two groups, learned four new characters with their non-dominant hand. The experimental design included a pre-test, a training session, and two post-tests, one just after the training sessions and another 24h later. Two characters were learned with and two without real-time auditory feedback (FB). The first group first learned the two non-sonified characters and then the two sonified characters whereas the reverse order was adopted for the second group. Results revealed that auditory FB improved the speed and fluency of handwriting movements but reduced, in the short-term only, the spatial accuracy of the trace. Transforming kinematic variables into sounds allows the writer to perceive his/her movement in addition to the written trace and this might facilitate handwriting learning. However, there were no differential effects of auditory FB, neither long-term nor short-term for the subjects who first learned the characters with auditory FB. We hypothesize that the positive effect on the handwriting kinematics was transferred to characters learned without FB. This transfer effect of the auditory FB is discussed in light of the Theory of Event Coding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gas corrosion on the character of phase boundaries in Ni3Al / WC composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of quite specific physico-chemical and performance properties, the composite based on an intermetallic Ni3Al compoundreinforced with tungsten carbides (WC was selected for investigations. The said composite is characterised by very good mechanical and tribological properties within a wide range of temperatures, combined with good corrosion resistance. In fabrication of the Ni3Al/WC composite, a modified variant of the SHS process was applied. It is the SHSB process, i.e. the Self- Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in Bath. The said method enables obtaining pure products of reaction, unoxidised and free from the precipitates of alien phases.The main goal of this study has been determination of the susceptibility of the Ni3Al/WC composite to gas corrosion. To examine the microstructure and chemical composition of both the composite and the scale, the metallographic and structural examinations were made,using optical and scanning microscopy.

  6. Exponential Boundary Observers for Pressurized Water Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermine Som, Idellette Judith; Cocquempot, Vincent; Aitouche, Abdel

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with state estimation on a pressurized water pipe modeled by nonlinear coupled distributed hyperbolic equations for non-conservative laws with three known boundary measures. Our objective is to estimate the fourth boundary variable, which will be useful for leakage detection. Two approaches are studied. Firstly, the distributed hyperbolic equations are discretized through a finite-difference scheme. By using the Lipschitz property of the nonlinear term and a Lyapunov function, the exponential stability of the estimation error is proven by solving Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Secondly, the distributed hyperbolic system is preserved for state estimation. After state transformations, a Luenberger-like PDE boundary observer based on backstepping mathematical tools is proposed. An exponential Lyapunov function is used to prove the stability of the resulted estimation error. The performance of the two observers are shown on a water pipe prototype simulated example.

  7. Fermionic expressions for minimal model virasoro characters

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Trevor A

    2005-01-01

    Fermionic expressions for all minimal model Virasoro characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ are stated and proved. Each such expression is a sum of terms of {\\em fundamental fermionic form} type. In most cases, all these terms are written down using certain trees which are constructed for $s$ and $r$ from the Takahashi lengths and truncated Takahashi lengths associated with the continued fraction of $p'/p$. In the remaining cases, in addition to such terms, the fermionic expression for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ contains a different character $\\chi^{\\hat p, \\hat p'}_{\\hat r,\\hat s}$, and is thus recursive in nature. Bosonic-fermionic $q$-series identities for all characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ result from equating these fermionic expressions with known bosonic expressions. In the cases for which $p=2r$, $p=3r$, $p'=2s$ or $p'=3s$, Rogers-Ramanujan type identities result from equating these fermionic expressions with known product expressions for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$. The fermionic expressions are proved by first obta...

  8. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  9. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  10. CT study of branching characters of pulmonary small vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Runming; Guo Yuomin; Yang Jian; Niu Gang; Liu Jihan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the branching geometry of the pulmonary small vessels in vivo by using imaging and branching geometrical methods, and to explore the branching configuration of pulmonary vessels. Methods: 2008 sets of dichotomous small pulmonary vessels were measured in chest helical CT of 63 normal cases. The expansion and asymmetrical factors were calculated, and their characteristics and correlation with the mother branches were studied. Results: The two factors in vivo had significant differences and different trends compared with those in the specimens; the average of the expansion factor was 1.0022, there was negative linear correlation between the diameter of mother branches. The asymmetrical factor had the median of 1.4938, there was a positive linear correlation between this factor and the diameter of mother branches, and this trend was most apparent when the diameter of mother branch was blow 4 mm. The asymmetrical factor became not evident when the diameter of mother branch was above 6.0 mm. when the diameter of mother branch was equal to 2.5 mm, the expansion factor quickly increased to 1.622 and the asymmetrical factor decreased to about 1.500. Conclusion: The study of the branching character of the pulmonary small vessels by using branching geometry method not only contributed to realize the configuration and distribution characters of pulmonary vessels but also had potential theoretical and practical value in setting up the mathematic and physical model of blood stream and pressure

  11. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidun, John B.; Robinson, Allen C.; Weatherby, Joe R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given

  12. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  13. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Allograph based writer identification, handwriting analysis and character recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niels, R.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, techniques and features are described that were developed for the automatic comparison of handwritten characters by first matching them to prototypical character shapes (allographs). These techniques and features were evaluated in experiments simulating different real-world

  15. Character and Dimension Formulae for Queer Lie Superalgebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yucai; Zhang, R. B.

    2015-02-01

    Closed formulae are constructed for the characters and dimensions of the finite dimensional simple modules of the queer Lie superalgebra . This is achieved by refining Brundan's algorithm for computing simple -characters.

  16. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  17. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  18. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation...... as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of "circumventing" the science-industry food chain and "sequestering" biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating...

  19. Character trees from transcriptome data: Origin and individuation of morphological characters and the so-called "species signal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P

    2015-11-01

    We elaborate a framework for investigating the evolutionary history of morphological characters. We argue that morphological character trees generated by phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes provide a useful tool for identifying causal gene expression differences underlying the development and evolution of morphological characters. They also enable rigorous testing of different models of morphological character evolution and origination, including the hypothesis that characters originate via divergence of repeated ancestral characters. Finally, morphological character trees provide evidence that character transcriptomes undergo concerted evolution. We argue that concerted evolution of transcriptomes can explain the so-called "species signal" found in several recent comparative transcriptome studies. The species signal is the phenomenon that transcriptomes cluster by species rather than character type, even though the characters are older than the respective species. We suggest the species signal is a natural consequence of concerted gene expression evolution resulting from mutations that alter gene regulatory network interactions shared by the characters under comparison. Thus, character trees generated from transcriptomes allow us to investigate the variational independence, or individuation, of morphological characters at the level of genetic programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  1. The Strategy Of Character Education In Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fatoni

    2017-01-01

    Education can determine the formation of learners character personality and manners. Therefore education is considered to be the most responsible for juvenile delinquency among students like brawl drugs and free sex. Those deviances and crime indicate the low moral manner and character of the nation. responding that phenomenon the government through the Ministry of National Education made a new effort of establishing character education model to improve the character and manner of learners. T...

  2. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  3. Sensitivity to volcanic field boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Melody; Bebbington, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Lindsay, Jan; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazard analyses are desirable where there is potential for future volcanic activity to affect a proximal population. This is frequently the case for volcanic fields (regions of distributed volcanism) where low eruption rates, fertile soil, and attractive landscapes draw populations to live close by. Forecasting future activity in volcanic fields almost invariably uses spatial or spatio-temporal point processes with model selection and development based on exploratory analyses of previous eruption data. For identifiability reasons, spatio-temporal processes, and practically also spatial processes, the definition of a spatial region is required to which volcanism is confined. However, due to the complex and predominantly unknown sub-surface processes driving volcanic eruptions, definition of a region based solely on geological information is currently impossible. Thus, the current approach is to fit a shape to the known previous eruption sites. The class of boundary shape is an unavoidable subjective decision taken by the forecaster that is often overlooked during subsequent analysis of results. This study shows the substantial effect that this choice may have on even the simplest exploratory methods for hazard forecasting, illustrated using four commonly used exploratory statistical methods and two very different regions: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, and Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For Harrat Rahat, sensitivity of results to boundary definition is substantial. For the Auckland Volcanic Field, the range of options resulted in similar shapes, nevertheless, some of the statistical tests still showed substantial variation in results. This work highlights the fact that when carrying out any hazard analysis on volcanic fields, it is vital to specify how the volcanic field boundary has been defined, assess the sensitivity of boundary choice, and to carry these assumptions and related uncertainties through to estimates of future activity and

  4. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  5. Implementation of Korean and Chinese Characters through Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the Korean ministry of Education suggested that 1,800 Chinese characters be learned and used for educational purposes [Ref. 3]. In this study, the...Duplicate Code character acrcnym sound c a- and meanin code racter codel character code ------ -I ------S 1 ,980- 7.57 2.3% 18 I 3. 16-hit Code for Roman

  6. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  7. Physical Education Teachers' Views about Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkun, Erkut; Görgüt, Ilyas; Erdemir, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the views of teachers of physical education about how they define character education, whether they think national education curriculum and the curriculum of private schools are suitable for character education and whether they think character education can be applied in physical education lessons. Case…

  8. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  9. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  10. School-Based Character Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Character education has been a part of schooling in the United States since the early years of its public education system. Starting with a religious emphasis on moral development, character education eventually transformed into more secular approaches, like the values clarification model, character word-of-the-month approach, performance…

  11. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  12. Development of Comprehensive Devnagari Numeral and Character Database for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas J. Dongre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In handwritten character recognition, benchmark database plays an important role in evaluating the performance of various algorithms and the results obtained by various researchers. In Devnagari script, there is lack of such official benchmark. This paper focuses on the generation of offline benchmark database for Devnagari handwritten numerals and characters. The present work generated 5137 and 20305 isolated samples for numeral and character database, respectively, from 750 writers of all ages, sex, education, and profession. The offline sample images are stored in TIFF image format as it occupies less memory. Also, the data is presented in binary level so that memory requirement is further reduced. It will facilitate research on handwriting recognition of Devnagari script through free access to the researchers.

  13. An interpolation boundary treatment for the Lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deladisma, Marnico D.; Smith, Marc K.

    2003-11-01

    A new boundary condition for the Lattice Boltzmann method based on bounce-back and spatial interpolations is presented. The boundary condition allows for the placement of a boundary at any position between nodes and tracks the exact position of that boundary. Multi-dimensional interpolation of streaming and bounce-back particle distribution functions from surrounding boundary nodes is used to solve for new distribution values. This allows more information from surrounding nodes to be incorporated into the boundary treatment calculation. Calculations of flow within a 2D rotating annulus (with and without an obstacle placed in the flow) using the present boundary condition are compared with calculations done with the commercial CFD solver Fluent. Results show that the boundary condition is accurate and robust for these cases. The boundary condition also allows for moving boundaries and is easily extended to 3D, which facilitates the simulation of moving 3D particles. The new boundary condition will allow a Lattice Boltzmann simulation of a rotating wall vessel bioreactor with freely suspended tissue constructs whose length scale is about 1 cm.

  14. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  15. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  16. Allegheny County Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  17. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  18. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  19. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  20. Relationships, not boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2002-01-01

    The authors find it more useful to pay attention to relationships than to boundaries. By focusing attention on bounded, individual psychological issues, the metaphor of boundaries can distract helping professionals from thinking about inequities of power. It oversimplifies a complex issue, inviting us to ignore discourses around gender, race, class, culture, and the like that support injustice, abuse, and exploitation. Making boundaries a central metaphor for ethical practice can keep us from critically examining the effects of distance, withdrawal, and non-participation. The authors describe how it is possible to examine the practical, moral, and ethical effects of our participation in relationships by focusing on just relationships rather than on boundaries. They give illustrations and clinical examples of relationally-focused ethical practices that derive from a narrative approach to therapy.

  1. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  2. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  3. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  4. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  5. Attraction, with Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Avik; Krishnan, Chethan

    2012-01-01

    We study the basin of attraction of static extremal black holes, in the concrete setting of the STU model. By finding a connection to a decoupled Toda-like system and solving it exactly, we find a simple way to characterize the attraction basin via competing behaviors of certain parameters. The boundaries of attraction arise in the various limits where these parameters degenerate to zero. We find that these boundaries are generalizations of the recently introduced (extremal) subtracted geomet...

  6. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    complexion transitions occur often in doped titanates, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, and have been utilized to tailor microstructural develop- ment [275,276...Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 Despite decades of research, efforts to identify grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals via...evidence suggesting grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals has existed for decades. For example, researchers have reported anomalies and

  7. Boundary Migration in Rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, S.R.; Ravishankar, N.; Farrer, J.K.; Carter, C.B.

    2003-08-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a vital material in several technologies including, photocatalysis, gas sensing, biomaterials and optical coatings. Among the several crystal structures of this oxide, rutile has the highest density and microhardness, the highest index of refraction and the highest temperature stability. The processing of dense polycrystalline materials often includes the addition of a liquid-forming phase at higher temperatures. This technique is known as liquid-phase sintering and has been studied extensively. Rutile boundaries containing an amorphous phase have been used to study boundary migration and grain-boundary grooving. Visible-light (VLM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in addition to electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a focused-ion beam (FIB) tool were used to characterize boundary migration in rutile. EBSD analysis was carried out on a Philips XL30 FEG SEM equipped with a DigiView 1612 high-resolution, high-speed CCD camera. A 2.5 cm sample-to-camera distance was used and {approx}70{sup o} sample tilt. A Philips CM30 operated at 300 kV was used for TEM characterization and an FEI DB235 was used for FIB work. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has been used to deposit thin films ({approx}100 nm thick) of silica glass on single-crystals of rutile. The film/substrate assembly is then fabricated into bicrystals of known boundary-plane orientation by hot pressing. Bicrystals were fabricated with boundary planes of nominal surface orientation of (001) and (110). After diffusion bonding a surface perpendicular to the interface is cut and polished. Bicrystals are then heat treated in air at 1650 C for varying lengths of time. Figure 1 is a VLM image of a rutile bicrystal which as been heat treated for 4 hours. During this heat treatment migration of the boundary initiates at parallel grooves contained in the crystal on the right-hand side. EBSD analysis shows that this parallel set of grooves is due to the presence of 3{sup

  8. Integrating Character Education Model With Spiral System In Chemistry Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartutik; Rusdarti; Sumaryanto; Supartono

    2017-04-01

    Integrating character education is the responsibility of all subject teachers including chemistry teacher. The integration of character education is just administrative requirements so that the character changes are not measurable. The research objective 1) describing the actual conditions giving character education, 2) mapping the character integration of chemistry syllabus with a spiral system, and 3) producing syllabus and guide system integrating character education in chemistry lessons. Of the eighteen value character, each character is mapped to the material chemistry value concepts of class X and repeated the system in class XI and class XII. Spiral system integration means integrating the character values of chemistry subjects in steps from class X to XII repeatedly at different depth levels. Besides developing the syllabus, also made the integration of characters in a learning guide. This research was designed with research and development [3] with the scope of 20 chemistry teachers in Semarang. The focus of the activities is the existence of the current character study, mapping the character values in the syllabus, and assessment of the integration guides of character education. The validity test of Syllabus and Lesson Plans by experts in FGD. The data were taken with questionnaire and interviews, then processed by descriptive analysis. The result shows 1) The factual condition, in general, the teachers designed learning one-time face-to-face with the integration of more than four characters so that behaviour changes and depth of character is poorly controlled, 2) Mapping each character values focused in the syllabus. Meaning, on one or two basic competence in four or five times, face to face, enough integrated with the value of one character. In this way, there are more noticeable changes in students behaviour. Guidance is needed to facilitate the integration of character education for teachers integrating systems. Product syllabus and guidelines

  9. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  10. Regularity of pointwise boundary control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    We will in these notes address some problems arising in "real-life" control application, namely problems concerning distributional control inputs on the boundary of the spatial domain. We extend the classical variational approach and give easily checkable sufficient conditions for the solutions...

  11. Model Pembelajaran Character Building dan Implikasinya Terhadap Perilaku Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Masrukhin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Character Building Subject is required for students in preparation to face the world outside the campus, workplace, society, peers, and even family. Character Building is a process or efforts done to develop, improve and/or to shape characters, dispositions, psychological nature, morals (manners of human beings (people that indicate attitudes and good behaviors. Values and factors that influence the Character Building are spirit, togetherness, and caring. The concept of Character Building which could be obtained in formal institutions (campus, informal institutions (family, and non-formal institutions (courses, student spiritual clubs has an influence and impact on the character of students, whether intentional or not. Nevertheless, it will not happen if there is no self-consciousness in the student. Good Character Building will also be a benchmark in the workplace. Learning Character Building that students get apparently contributes to the formation of student character, of which influences their behaviors. The effect can be seen from the attitude of students such as honesty, trustworthiness in maintaining trust and job given. Character Building is a subject that imparts the values of good behavior to students; and therefore when they jump into the workplace, there will no longer happen the cases of corruption and fraud resulting from the dishonesty because people like that do not have a good character.  

  12. The Strategy Of Character Education In Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fatoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Education can determine the formation of learners character personality and manners. Therefore education is considered to be the most responsible for juvenile delinquency among students like brawl drugs and free sex. Those deviances and crime indicate the low moral manner and character of the nation. responding that phenomenon the government through the Ministry of National Education made a new effort of establishing character education model to improve the character and manner of learners. This does not mean that previously there was no character education however todays government emphasizes systematic character education. In this regard teacher is the key factor of the successful implementation of character education because teacher makes direct interaction with learners. Teacher is required to prepare learning device and he then implement character education in the classroom. However most of teachers still do not understand how to prepare Lesson Plan of character education let alone to carry it out. On the other hand an education system that is supposed to be successful in establishing character building is the educational system in pesantren or madrasa. In principle implanting characters is more effective through habituation and good example that is more likely pesantren or boarding school that is directly supervised by the teacher.

  13. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  14. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  15. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  16. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  17. No-Excuses for Character: A Critique of Character Education in No-Excuses Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon; Goodman, Joan F.

    2017-01-01

    The "no-excuses" model of education has become one of the most prominent educational alternatives for urban youth. Recently, notable no-excuses charter schools have begun a concerted effort to develop students' character strengths, striving to increase their chances of future success. In this article, we situate the no-excuses approach…

  18. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  19. Grain boundaries in bcc-Fe: a density-functional theory and tight-binding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingliang; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Drautz, Ralf

    2018-02-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) have a significant influence on material properties. In the present paper, we calculate the energies of eleven low-Σ ({{Σ }}≤slant 13) symmetrical tilt GBs and two twist GBs in ferromagnetic bcc iron using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results demonstrate the importance of a sufficient sampling of initial rigid body translations in all three directions. We show that the relative GB energies can be explained by the miscoordination of atoms at the GB region. While the main features of the studied GB structures were captured by previous empirical interatomic potential calculations, it is shown that the absolute values of GB energies calculated were substantially underestimated. Based on DFT-calculated GB structures and energies, we construct a new d-band orthogonal tight-binding (TB) model for bcc iron. The TB model is validated by its predictive power on all the studied GBs. We apply the TB model to block boundaries in lath martensite and demonstrate that the experimentally observed GB character distribution can be explained from the viewpoint of interface energy.

  20. Phylogenetic disassembly of species boundaries in a widespread group of Australian skinks (Scincidae: Ctenotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hutchinson, Mark N; Donnellan, Stephen C; Talaba, Amanda L; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-08-01

    Scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus represent one of Australia's most species-rich vertebrate clades, with more than 100 recognized species. Formal diagnoses of many species have relied on qualitative assessments of adult color pattern, but the validity of many such species has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to perform the first phylogenetic analysis of species in the Ctenotus inornatus group, a complex of at least 11 nominal forms that are distributed widely across the Australian continent. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies support the presence of multiple species in the group, but these clades largely fail to match species boundaries as currently defined. Multivariate analyses of color pattern indicate that extreme intraspecific morphological variation in this character has created a significant impediment to understanding taxonomic diversity in the group. Our results suggest that nearly all species in the C. inornatus group require substantial taxonomic revision, and several geographically widespread forms ("C. saxatilis" and "C. robustus") appear to be polyphyletic taxa drawn from phenotypically similar but genetically distinct lineages. We describe one new species and provide redescriptions for three additional species. We synonymize names applied to a number of genetically incoherent or otherwise poorly-defined forms. The results of our study highlight an acute need for population genetic studies of species boundaries in Australian skinks, many of which are recognized by morphological traits that vary greatly within and between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Song; Xie Erqing; Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhou Lihong; Ma YiZhong; Yao Cunfeng; Zang Hang; Liu Chunbao; Sheng Yanbin; Gou Jie

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire implanted with 180 keV Xe and irradiated with 308 MeV Xe ions was studied. The virgin, implanted and irradiated samples were investigated by PL and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra measurements. The obtained PL spectra showed the maximum emission bands at 2.75, 3.0 and 3.26 eV for the implanted fluence of 1.0 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 and at 2.4 and 3.47 eV for the irradiated fluence of 1.0 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The FTIR spectra showed a broaden absorption band between 460 and 630 cm -1 , indicating that strong damaged region formed in Al 2 O 3

  2. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Song [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: songyin@impcas.ac.cn; Xie Erqing [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhou Lihong; Ma YiZhong; Yao Cunfeng; Zang Hang; Liu Chunbao; Sheng Yanbin; Gou Jie [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the present work the photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire implanted with 180 keV Xe and irradiated with 308 MeV Xe ions was studied. The virgin, implanted and irradiated samples were investigated by PL and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra measurements. The obtained PL spectra showed the maximum emission bands at 2.75, 3.0 and 3.26 eV for the implanted fluence of 1.0 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and at 2.4 and 3.47 eV for the irradiated fluence of 1.0 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The FTIR spectra showed a broaden absorption band between 460 and 630 cm{sup -1}, indicating that strong damaged region formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  3. Temperament and character as determinants of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Vierck, Esther; Pearson, John F; Joyce, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality measures on well-being scores in a sample of 49-51 year old New Zealanders. Previous research has linked high self-directedness (SD) and low harm avoidance (HA) with well-being. We hypothesised that SD and HA would have predictive power for Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) well-being. We anticipated that character profiles with high SD and cooperativeness (CO) would be associated with higher well-being scores while high self transcendence (ST) scores would have less of an influence on well-being in a secular population such as New Zealand. Additionally we aimed to describe and assess the performance of a well-being measure, the WEMWBS and we intended to clarify the factors that underlie the questionnaire. A cohort of 404 randomly selected participants in a study of ageing had WEMWBS means calculated and with principal component analysis used to investigate the factors that underlie the WEMWBS. Multiple hierarchical regression was used to predict WEMWBS scores from socio-demographic and TCI personality variables. ANOVA were used to explore the non-linear effects of personality profiles on well-being. Principal components analysis revealed one significant factor which explained 54.34% of the variance. After initial univariate analysis current depression, marital status and standard of living were entered at the first step of the multivariate regression. They explained 20% of the variance. In step two the seven TCI personality variables were added to the model, explaining a total of 49% (R(2) change=0.29). Low HA, high SD and the absence of current depression were the main predictors of WEMWBS scores. Character profiles featuring high SD produced significantly higher scores on the WEMWBS. Total WEMWBS scores were normally distributed, and the mean was 52.83 (95% CI 51.96-53.70). The key determinants of well-being were absence of current depression and

  4. Effective velocity boundary condition at a mixed slip surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbragaglia, M.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the nature of the effective velocity boundary condition for liquid flow over a plane boundary on which small free-slip islands are randomly distributed. It is found that an effective Navier partial-slip condition for the velocity emerges from a statistical analysis valid for

  5. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  6. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of circumventing the science-industry food chain and sequestering biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating......Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation....... Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center in plant biology, this article argues that biology and biotech are symbionts. In order to be viable and productive, symbiosis needs to be carefully managed and given room for divergence within mutual dependence. This process does not take place...

  7. The fractal character of radiation defects aggregation in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylbekov, A.; Akimbekov, E.; Baktybekov, K.; Vasil'eva, I.

    2002-01-01

    In processes of self-organization, which characterize open systems, the source of ordering is a non-equilibrium. One of the samples of ordering system is radiation-stimulated aggregation of defects in solids. In real work the analysis of criterions of ordering defects structures in solid, which is continuously irradiate at low temperature is presented. The method of cellular automata used in simulation of irradiation. It allowed us to imitate processes of defects formation and recombination. The simulation realized on the surfaces up to 1000x1000 units with initial concentration of defects C n (the power of dose) 0.1-1 %. The number of iterations N (duration of irradiation) mounted to 10 6 cycles. The single centers, which are the sources of formation aggregates, survive in the result of probabilistic nature of formation and recombination genetic pairs of defects and with strictly fixed radius of recombination (the minimum inter anionic distance). For determination the character of same type defects distribution the potential of their interaction depending of defects type and reciprocal distance is calculated. For more detailed study of processes, proceeding in cells with certain sizes of aggregates, the time dependence of potential interaction is constructed. It is shown, that on primary stage the potential is negative, then it increase and approach the saturation in positive area. The minimum of interaction potential corresponds to state of physical chaos in system. Its increasing occurs with formation of same type defects aggregates. Further transition to saturation and 'undulating' character of curves explains by formation and destruction aggregates. The data indicated that - these processes occur simultaneously in cells with different sizes. It allows us to assume that the radiation defects aggregation have a fractal nature

  8. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  9. THE CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF GLEN HANSARD IN ONCE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  10. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  11. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  12. Joined at the hip: linked characters and the problem of missing data in studies of disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Rosario, Michael V; Eiting, Thomas P; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2014-08-01

    Paleontological investigations into morphological diversity, or disparity, are often confronted with large amounts of missing data. We illustrate how missing discrete data affect disparity using a novel simulation for removing data based on parameters from published datasets that contain both extinct and extant taxa. We develop an algorithm that assesses the distribution of missing characters in extinct taxa, and simulates data loss by applying that distribution to extant taxa. We term this technique "linkage." We compare differences in disparity metrics and ordination spaces produced by linkage and random character removal. When we incorporated linkage among characters, disparity metrics declined and ordination spaces shrank at a slower rate with increasing missing data, indicating that correlations among characters govern the sensitivity of disparity analysis. We also present and test a new disparity method that uses the linkage algorithm to correct for the bias caused by missing data. We equalized proportions of missing data among time bins before calculating disparity, and found that estimates of disparity changed when missing data were taken into account. By removing the bias of missing data, we can gain new insights into the morphological evolution of organisms and highlight the detrimental effects of missing data on disparity analysis. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. The boundary is mixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Haggard, Hal M.; Rovelli, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    We show that in Oeckl's boundary formalism the boundary vectors that do not have a tensor form represent, in a precise sense, statistical states. Therefore the formalism incorporates quantum statistical mechanics naturally. We formulate general-covariant quantum statistical mechanics in this language. We illustrate the formalism by showing how it accounts for the Unruh effect. We observe that the distinction between pure and mixed states weakens in the general covariant context, suggesting that local gravitational processes are naturally statistical without a sharp quantal versus probabilistic distinction.

  14. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributio...

  15. Direct characterization of boron segregation at random and twin grain boundaries*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiang-Long; Wu Ping; Yang Rui-Jie; Zhang Shi-Ping; Chen Sen; Wang Xue-Min; Huai Xiu-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Boron distribution at grain boundaries in hot-deformed nickel is directly characterized by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The segregations of boron are observed at both the random and twin grain boundaries. Two types of segregations at random grain boundaries are observed. The first type of segregation has a high intensity and small width. Its formation is attributed to the incorporating of dislocations into the moving grain boundaries. The second type of segregation arises from the cooling induced segregation at the dislocations associated with the grain boundaries. The segregation at twin boundary is similar to the second type of segregation at random grain boundaries. (paper)

  16. Additive recovery of lateral boundaries of grains under electronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, D.V.; Plotnikov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental investigation of additive re-distribution under electronic beam revealed a recovery of the additive at grain boundaries. Additive accumulation mainly takes place at the boundaries that are perpendicular to material surface, whereas there is no an observed recovery of additive at the boundaries that are parallel to the surface. The additive recovery is caused by spot fault gradients near the grain boundary. The grain boundary is an intensive run-off region of vacancies. Therefore, the average vacancy distribution profile near the grain boundary changes its pattern. The above case indicates that there are two additive fluxes. One of them is vectored perpendicular to the surface, and the other one is parallel to it, i. e. it is vectored to the grain boundary. A study of the perpendicular and parallel boundaries shows that there is no additive settling at the boundaries that are parallel to the surface, since the general flux is vectored to the parallel boundaries. There is no such kind of phenomenon at the grain boundaries that are perpendicular to the surface. Besides, the perpendicular boundaries are more effective run-off regions for vacancies, since there is a slower build-up of the region with vacancies due to displacement of the vacancies to the surface. To compute concentration of vacancies we will consider a grain of the surface as a model. The computations indicate the presence of vacancy gradients vectored to the surface and grain boundaries, which are perpendicular to the surface. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical outcomes shows a good agreement between the theoretical model and actual processes occurring under the exposure. This theory disclose wide potentials for application of diffusion processes in alloys

  17. Morphometry and Distribution of Senecio Nemorensis agg. Species (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Kaja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric analysis based on 316 herbarium specimens of Senecio nemorensis agg. indicated the occurrence of the following four species in Poland: S. germanicus Wallr., S. hercynicus Herborg, S. ovatus (G. Gaertn. et al. Willd. and S. ucranicus Hodálová. Principal component analysis (PCA, analysis of variance (ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis test and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA were applied. Quantitative characters such as supplementary bract length, leaf base width, ligule length and the supplementary/involucral bract length ratio clearly discriminated taxa within S. nemorensis agg. Included is a distribution map of the investigated species based on the examined material, with particular emphasis on the course of the northeastern boundary of S. hercynicus and the northwestern boundary of S. ucranicus. Also given is a determination key for species within S. nemorensis agg. in Poland, together with morphological descriptions of particular species

  18. Development of pressure boundaries leak detection technology for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    The leak detection for the pressure boundaries is an important safeguard in nuclear reactor operation. In the paper, the status and the characters on the development of the pressure boundaries leak detection technology for the nuclear reactor were reviewed, especially, and the advance of the radiation leak detection technology and the acoustic emission leak detection technology were analyzed. The new advance trend of the leak detection technology was primarily explored. According to the analysis results, it is point out that the advancing target of the leak detection technology is to enhance its response speed, sensitivity, and reliability, and to provide effective information for operator and decision-maker. The realization of the global leak detection and the whole life cycle health monitoring for the nuclear boundaries is a significant advancing tendency of the leak detection technology. (authors)

  19. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  20. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning: wh...

  1. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  2. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  3. Transport, boundary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18 th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of transport and boundary physics will be summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: H-mode physics, Internal Transport Barrier formation, transport studies, Radiative Improved modes and impurity seeding, divertor and He exhaust, new configurations. (author)

  4. Analysis of hydrogen distribution on Mg-Ni alloy surface by scanning electron-stimulated desorption ion microscope (SESDIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaga, Atsushi; Hibino, Kiyohide; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamada, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and behavior on a Mg-Ni alloy surface are studied by using a time-of-flight electron-stimulated desorption (TOF-ESD) microscopy and a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The desorbed hydrogen ions are energy-discriminated and distinguished into two characters in the adsorbed states, which belong to Mg 2 Ni grains and the other to oxygen-contaminated Mg phase at the grain boundaries. Adsorbed hydrogen is found to be stable up to 150 deg. C, but becomes thermally unstable around at 200 deg. C

  5. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D

    2006-01-01

    Background Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. Objective To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Design and methods Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. Results The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, pmovies rated R (restricted, people aged movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG‐13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters was higher than that in the US adult population in the year of release. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among major adolescent and adult movie characters is declining, with the downward trend among adult characters weakest for PG‐13‐rated movies. Although many movies depict no adult smoking, more than one third depict smoking as more prevalent than that among US adults at the time of release. PMID:17130372

  6. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D

    2006-12-01

    Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, pmovies rated R (restricted, people aged movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG-13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters was higher than that in the US adult population in the year of release. Smoking prevalence among major adolescent and adult movie characters is declining, with the downward trend among adult characters weakest for PG-13-rated movies. Although many movies depict no adult smoking, more than one third depict smoking as more prevalent than that among US adults at the time of release.

  7. Convolutional Neural Networks for Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dewa, Chandra Kusuma; Fadhilah, Amanda Lailatul; Afiahayati, A

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN) is state-of-the-art method in object recognition task. Specialized for spatial input data type, CNN has special convolutional and pooling layers which enable hierarchical feature learning from the input space. For offline handwritten character recognition problem such as classifying character in MNIST database, CNN shows better classification result than any other methods. By leveraging the advantages of CNN over character recognition task, in this paper we ...

  8. The protective effect of character maturity in child aggressive antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Nóra; Falk, Örjan; Brändström, Sven; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Råstam, Maria; Hofvander, Björn

    2017-07-01

    Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Their parents rated them according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory following a telephone interview during which information about the children's development and mental health was assessed with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. Scores on the CD module significantly and positively correlated with scores on the Novelty Seeking temperament dimension and negatively with scores on character maturity (Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness). In the group of children with either neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems, the prevalence of low or very low character maturity was 50%, while when these two problems coexisted the prevalence of low or very low character maturity increased to 70%. Neurodevelopmental problems (such as: oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder) and low scores on character maturity emerged as independently significant predictors of CD; in a multivariable model, only oppositional defiant symptoms and impulsivity significantly increased the risk for coexisting CD while a mature self-agency in a child (Self-Directedness) remained a significant protective factor. These results suggest that children's willpower, the capacity to achieve personally chosen goals may be an important protective factor - even in the presence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems - against

  9. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia; assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  10. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  11. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia); assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William G

    2016-01-01

    Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs) that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  12. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Handwritten Character Recognition Based on the Specificity and the Singularity of the Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Boulid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A good Arabic handwritten recognition system must consider the characteristics of Arabic letters which can be explicit such as the presence of diacritics or implicit such as the baseline information (a virtual line on which cursive text are aligned and/join. In order to find an adequate method of features extraction, we have taken into consideration the nature of the Arabic characters. The paper investigate two methods based on two different visions: one describes the image in terms of the distribution of pixels, and the other describes it in terms of local patterns. Spatial Distribution of Pixels (SDP is used according to the first vision; whereas Local Binary Patterns (LBP are used for the second one. Tested on the Arabic portion of the Isolated Farsi Handwritten Character Database (IFHCDB and using neural networks as a classifier, SDP achieve a recognition rate around 94% while LBP achieve a recognition rate of about 96%.

  14. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger P Hellens

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates.We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  15. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellens, Roger P; Moreau, Carol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Schwinn, Kathy E; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark W E J; Frew, Tonya J; Murray, Sarah R; Hofer, Julie M I; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Davies, Kevin M; Allan, Andrew C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M; Ellis, T H Noel

    2010-10-11

    The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea. We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates. We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  16. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yin; Xie Erqing; Li Yuhong; Zhang Chonghong; Zhou Lihong; Yang Yitao; Yao Cunfeng; Li Bingsheng; Ma Yizhun; Hou Jie

    2008-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire irradiated with 460 keV, 3 MeV and 308 MeV Xe ions were studied. The PL measurements show that the absorption peaks located at 380, 413, and 450 nm are increased, and new peaks are appeared at 390 and 564 nm in irradiated samples with 460 keV Xe ions. The PL measurements also show that the absorption peaks located at 516 and 564 nm appear in irradiated samples with 3 MeV Xe ions, and w hen the Xe ions fluency is increased to 1 × 10 16 cm -2 , the peak at 564 nm is disappeared. The PL measurements show that the absorption peaks are appeared at 357 and 516 nm for the irradiated samples with 308 MeV Xe ions, and the peak become more and more strong with increase of Xe ions fluencies. Infrared spectra show a broadening of the absorption band between 460 cm -1 and 630 cm -1 indicating strongly damaged regions formed in the Al 2 O 3 samples and position shift of the absorption band in 1000-1300 cm -1 towards to low wavenumber. (authors)

  17. The Changing Character of Orientation in Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    observation and orientation with an attack ( virus , worm, Trojan horse , backdoor, denial of service, phishing, spoofing, etc.) , then a faster OODA loop...Enter the cyber domain. Cyber is a human-made venue consisting of the binary code generated, processed and distributed by computers , and organized...use advances in computer processing, information distribution, intelligence analysis and stealth to create nth-order effects that themselves become

  18. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  19. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  20. CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL- BASED SMA AMANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  1. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  2. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  3. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training ...

  4. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  5. Morality predicts enjoyment but not appreciation of morally ambiguous characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Johnson, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of morally ambiguous characters such as anti-heroes in entertainment experiences has become a central concern for media researchers. Some have argued that different character schemas or tropes may vary along specific moral domains, whereas others promote a linear progression

  6. Mapping wilderness character in Denali National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Burrows; James Tricker; Dan Abbe; Peter Landres; Jon Paynter; David Schirokauer; Philip Hooge

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of an interagency strategy to monitor wilderness character allows on-the-ground managers and decision-makers to assess whether stewardship actions for an individual wilderness are fulfilling the legislative mandate to "preserve wilderness character." By using credible data that are consistently collected, one can assess how wilderness...

  7. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  8. Dialogue and character classification in Wole Soyinka's Kongi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Wole Soyinka's use of dialogue-one of the major elements of drama to paint portraits of various characters in his play, Kongi's Harvest. It explores the playwright's artistic realisation of characters that can be identified and classified by what they say and what is said of them. The study concludes that with ...

  9. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  10. Heterosis of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters in Sweet Gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heterotic effects and genetic components of variation for qualitative and quantitative characters were estimated in sweet gourd. The phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters indicating that environment played a considerable role on the expression of ...

  11. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  12. dramatization of character in selected nigerian short stories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization in the short story endears the short story genre more to the conventions of the stage because of its dramatization of character. By paying strict attention to the manipulation of action and dialogue, the short story writer creates dramatic characters who illuminate setting, promote the plot and ultimately realize ...

  13. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing aspect ratio, position of centroid and ratio of pixels on the vertical halves of a character image. The recognition accuracy of 99.78% was achieved with minimum computational and storage requirement. Keywords. Gradient; RLC; handwritten character recognition; quadratic classi- fiers; MLP. 1. Introduction. Recognition ...

  14. The Relationship Between Personalities and Faces of Manga Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Mangaka' ('manga' artists are limited to portraying the personalities of characters through static images and limited changes in facial expression. It is imperative that the personality and appearance of a character complement each other.  In this study, we found that participants rely heavily on facial features to identify the personalities of characters. However, we also found that their first impressions are inclined towards two out of a total of sixteen specific personality types. This preference for specific personality types may be a unique feature of manga. Perhaps because readers are entirely reliant on the visual presentation of manga, facial features provide a relatively rich source of information when determining the personality of a character. The physical appearance of characters is somewhat limited by the stylization typical of manga. Possibly the facial features of characters have become restricted to a few select types, enforcing stereotypical images in the minds of readers.  This encapsulation of personalities is important to the development of manga. Simplifying personality types helps readers to identify with characters and understand the plot. However, over-simplification can make characters dull or indistinguishable from each other

  15. Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    "Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal" is a transdisciplinary faculty handbook to enhance the quality of learning and teaching. The author applies six multicultural virtues and 24 character strengths from Positive Psychology research to the tasks of course design, managing critical incidents, and…

  16. High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

  17. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  18. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but as a result of reaching a point of absolute desperation in their lives or because of having to be loyal to ...

  19. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Handwriting recognition is a technique that converts handwritten characters into a machine-processable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of research in this area has been carried out for English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Research is also ...

  20. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  1. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  2. Character Education in the Inner City: Making It Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Constance

    2016-01-01

    St. HOPE (Helping Others Pursue Excellence) has embraced the character education movement and worked tirelessly to become a National School of Character. There is a commitment to relevant, student-driven service learning that develops every facet of their scholars' burgeoning identities, experiences that truly cultivate the whole child. St. HOPE…

  3. Widening the Lens to Teach Character Education Alongside Standards Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Williams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article challenges policymakers, school leaders, and teachers to implement wide-scale and systematic teaching of character education in every classroom. In support of the idea that student character development should be a priority in all classes, I explain that youth need "decision-filters" to negotiate life's challenges. Further,…

  4. Fostering Character Education in an Urban Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszka, Carla; Smith, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the character education program in Donald Stewart School No. 51, in Elizabeth, NJ, a dual-language preschool serving 300 students that first opened its doors in 2004. Over the years this school has been committed to laying the foundation of character development with its preschoolers. Their pillar "Friends Care, Friends…

  5. The Effects of Character Education in South Carolina's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the use of Character Education in South Carolina's public high schools. Every high school in South Carolina is given a yearly survey from the South Carolina Department of Education that deals with both character education and violence in the school. This quantitative study used public accessed data,…

  6. "Reel" Character Education: Using Film to Promote Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William Benedict, III; Waters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using films to spark moral dilemma discussions and thereby promote critical thinking and character education for global citizenship in elementary classrooms. After clarifying some of the basic concepts associated with the fields of character education and global citizenship, and the interrelationship between the two, the…

  7. Christianity and Character Education: Faith in Core Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Character education is important within the Christian tradition but tends to be viewed with suspicion by educators who privilege autonomy as the aim of a liberal education. Equally, Christians may have concerns that character education places too great an emphasis upon good works rather than God's grace. This article reasons that character…

  8. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  9. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  10. College Access, Student Success, and the "New" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Madora; Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in--and reconceptualizing of-- character education in primary and secondary schools across the United States. An important question, then, is how this new emphasis on character development at the K-12 level impacts the work of university faculty and student affairs professionals.…

  11. The Implementation of Character Education through Scout Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislia; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Manda, Darman

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing the factors influencing the extracurricular activities especially scouting. This research also aims at describing the Scouts skills that can form the students' character. This research is also to describe the strategies for the formation of the students' character through scout activities. This research was a…

  12. Character Development among Youth: Linking Lives in Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2018-01-01

    This article embeds the study of character development within the two-decades-long research program framed by the Lerner and Lerner model of positive youth development. Character development involves attaining the feelings, thoughts, and skills needed to act coherently across time and place to serve self and others in mutually beneficial, positive…

  13. Representations of Deaf Characters in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…

  14. Mapping wilderness character: New tools for new concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of an interagency strategy to monitor wilderness character (Landres et al. 2008) allows on-the-ground managers and decision makers to assess whether stewardship actions for an individual wilderness are fulfilling the mandate to "preserve wilderness character." Since nearly all wilderness monitoring data depict spatial features, a recent...

  15. Character Reversal in Children: The Prominent Role of Writing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has established that 5- to 6-year-old typically developing children in a left-right writing culture spontaneously reverse left-oriented characters (e.g., they write a [reversed J] instead of J) when they write single characters. Thus, children seem to implicitly apply a right-writing rule (RWR: see Fischer & Koch, 2016a). In…

  16. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  17. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    p) variance, genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation, heritability (h2 b) and genetic advance (GA) as percentage of mean for 12 characters are presented in. Table 1. The range of variation was much pronounced in most of the characters. The phenotypic variance and phenotypic coefficient of variation ...

  18. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  19. Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, D; Stickgold, R; Pace-Schott, E F; Hobson, J A

    2000-12-01

    The formal features of dream characters were studied in a sample of 320 dream reports submitted by 33 adult subjects (13 male, 20 female) of varying ages in a university extension course. Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting. It was found that 48% of characters represented a named personage known to the dreamer, 35% were generically identified by their social role (e.g., policeman) or abstract relation to the dreamer (e.g., a friend) while only 16% were wholly novel. Seventy-seven percent of characters were pseudosensorily present in the dream whereas 23% were present only by mention or thought. Subjects were allowed to endorse one or more of four bases of recognition and, among named characters, 32% were identified by 'appearance', 21% by 'behavior', 45% by 'face', and 44% by 'just knowing' (with the respective percentages for generic characters being 39%, 38%, 9% and 40%). Fourteen percent of named and generic characters had associated some element of bizarreness most frequently consisting of an incongruous feature. Comparing the 25 longest and 25 shortest reports, named subjects were significantly more common in the shortest reports whereas generic and unknown characters were more common in the longest reports. Results are interpreted in neurocognitive terms as possibly reflecting a decrease during dreaming relative to waking in the exchange of information between inferotemporal face identification areas and prefrontal areas subserving logic and working memory.

  20. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nansook

    2009-01-01

    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  1. character association and path coefficient analysis between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    some growth characters and grain yield in Soybean, a basis of selection for further improvement. Treatments consisted of two levels ... number of leaves as criteria for selection of Soybean for increased grain yield. Keywords: Correlation, Grain ... objective of observing the mutual relationship of different characters and also ...

  2. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter

    2013-12-15

    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have defined fuzzy sets on the Hough transform of character pattern pixels from which additional fuzzy sets are ...... tion permits the definition of automata representations and algorithms over a broad class of weight sets .... Bangla characters, In: Joint Workshop on Multilingual OCR and Analytics for Noisy Unstructured Text.

  4. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  5. Teaching Character Education to College Students Using Bildungsromans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, Nita

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a study on the teaching of character education in higher education using English Bildungsroman, "Jane Eyre." The participants were 35 sixth-semester students of English Literature program in an Indonesian state university. Guided by the approach to teaching character education exemplified by Ryan & Bohlin (1999),…

  6. The Development of Leader Character through Crucible Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…

  7. Topographic changes in event-related potentials because of learning of meaningful Kanji characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Haruo; Skrandies, Wolfgang

    2013-07-10

    Japanese Kanji constitutes meaningful logograms, and its processing shows interhemispheric features. In the present study, human semantic learning of Kanji characters in 18 healthy native German adults was examined. Twenty Kanji characters were presented before and after a learning phase of about 20 min, and the electroencephalographic activity was recorded from 30 electrodes and averaged for each condition. Twenty different Kanji characters served as control stimuli. Successful learning was observed in all participants. The evoked potential maps showed the largest component occurring over occipital areas at latencies between 100 and 130 ms. Significant differences in the field strength (global field power) were observed for this component before and after learning. After learning, the distribution between the left and the right hemispheres significantly changed the negative centroid location from the left to the right hemisphere and from the posterior to the anterior area in each hemisphere. These effects were observed only after successful learning, and our findings suggest that the acquisition of meaning of Kanji characters following intensive short-term learning is related to neurophysiological changes at an early stage of processing. The topographical changes in electrical brain activity reflect plasticity presumably in primary sensory areas during learning of meaningful materials that is related to top-down information processing.

  8. Phylogeny of kemenyan (Styrax sp.) from North Sumatra based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Kholibrina, C. R.; Rachmat, H. H.; Munthe, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Kemenyan is the most famous local tree species from North Sumatra. Kemenyan is known as rosin producer that very valuable for pharmacheutical, cosmetic, food preservatives and vernis. Based on its history, there were only two species of kemenyan those were kemenyan durame and toba, but in its the natural distribution we also found others species showing different characteristics with previously known ones. The objectives of this research were:The objectives of this research were: (1). To determine the morphological diversity of kemenyan in North Sumatra and (2). To determine phylogeny clustering based on the morphological characters. Data was collected from direct observation and morphological characterization, based on purposive sampling technique to those samples trees atPakpak Bharat, North Sumatra. Morphological characters were examined using descriptive analysis, phenotypic variability using standard deviation, and cluster analysis. The result showed that there was a difference between 4 species kemenyen (batak, minyak, durame and toba) according to 75 observed characters including flower, fruits, leaf, stem, bark, crown type, wood and the resin. Analysis and both quantitative and qualitative characters kemenyan clustered into two groups. In which, kemenyan toba separated with other clusters.

  9. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  10. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  11. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer.

  12. Character displacement in the fighting colours of Hetaerina damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher N; Grether, Gregory F

    2010-12-07

    Aggression between species is a seldom-considered but potentially widespread mechanism of character displacement in secondary sexual characters. Based on previous research showing that similarity in wing coloration directly influences interspecific territorial aggression in Hetaerina damselflies, we predicted that wing coloration would show a pattern of character displacement (divergence in sympatry). A geographical survey of four Hetaerina damselfly species in Mexico and Texas showed evidence for character displacement in both species pairs that regularly occurs sympatrically. Hetaerina titia, a species that typically has large black wing spots and small red wing spots, shifted to having even larger black spots and smaller red wing spots at sites where a congener with large red wing spots is numerically dominant (Hetaerina americana or Hetaerina occisa). Hetaerina americana showed the reverse pattern, shifting towards larger red wing spots where H. titia is numerically dominant. This pattern is consistent with the process of agonistic character displacement, but the ontogenetic basis of the shift remains to be demonstrated.

  13. The General Factor of Personality and Character: A Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; van der Linden, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality. The results lend some support to this contention and are discussed in relation to the growing interest in covariation among multiple personality traits.

  14. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  15. Visual Antipriming Effect: Evidence from Chinese Character Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsolek et al. (2006 have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006 paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i.e., the priming effect, while identification accuracy of novel characters was significantly lower than baseline measurements (i.e., the antipriming effect. This study demonstrates for the first time the effect of visual antipriming in Chinese character identification. It further provides new evidence for the overlapping representation theory of knowledge, and supports generalizability of the phenomenon to Chinese characters.

  16. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  17. Structural characters of leaf epidermis in Neolepisorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface structure of the foliar epidermis of 5 species, 2 forms and 8 populations in Neolepisorus was investigated under light microscopes. The result shows that their stomata are distributed in the lower leaf epidermis and parallel to the veins. The types of stomata found were polocytic, axilloctytic, copolocytic, ...

  18. Structural characters of leaf epidermis in Neolepisorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... The surface structure of the foliar epidermis of 5 species, 2 forms and 8 populations in Neolepisorus was investigated under light microscopes. The result shows that their stomata are distributed in the lower leaf epidermis and parallel to the veins. The types of stomata found were polocytic, axilloctytic,.

  19. Character Building with Students in Learning Science Approach scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmaweti ,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Building character, especially the younger generation of learners is very important and very urgent, if we look at the phenomena that occur and future challenges more complex. Characters such as honest, disimplin, obey the rules, responsibility, etc. are getting lost. The problems of this paper outlines "build character fantasize learners with scientific approach to learning science." Characters can be seen as a way of thinking and behaving that are typical of every individual to live, socialize, and work together in the family, community, nation, and state. The characters are well demonstrated with morals, budipekerti, and commendable behavior and become role models in the family, community, nation. Character education in school settings as learning that lead to the strengthening and development of the child's behavior as a whole is based on a certain value that is referenced by the school "which means that character education is integrated in all subjects were directed to develop the behavior of learners in their entirety. Learning the scientific approach to learning science is able to apply those values by providing exemplary, build and develop kreaktivitas willingness of learners in the learning process. Learning activities not only in the classroom, but also can be done outside the classroom and school environment with the use of information technology. Common characters such as honesty, discipline, obey the rules, or responsible, respectful, thorough, communicative, collaboration can be built through a scientific approach to the learning activities during work. It can be concluded that the learning process can build character scientifik approach learners.Keywords: , Pembelajaran , sains, character scientific, approach.

  20. Korean and Japanese as Chinese-Characters Cultural Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya OKIMORI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea and Japan belong to Chinese-characters cultural spheres. In the time of Han Dynasty and thereafter, tributary states connected with the monarchy of Chinese Kingdom and its surrounding countries. They imported Chinese state regulations, accepted and developed many thoughts and cultures by bringing in Chinese characters of Chinese classics. However, there have been some different points in the treatment of Chinese characters in each nation. The Korean modern writing system does not use Chinese characters in general, while on the contrary in Japanese, there is a tendency to increase the number of regularly-used Chinese characters, for example in the official list of jōyō kanji 常用漢字 announced by the Ministry of Education, with the latest increase in 2010. Therefore, it is necessary to observe more about some aspects of the languages to know why this different treatment occurred. The oldest Korean document is the History of the Three Kingdoms, Samguk Sagi 『三国史記』 that contains geographical proper names. The Buyeo-Kingdom languages were recorded there, including place names. It is no doubt that the use of Chinese characters of Silla have significantly affected Goguryeo and Paekche. The Silla and Buyeo-Kingdom languages have closed syllables with a consonant at the end of each syllable, while in Japanese, the syllables end with vowels as open syllables. There are further phonological characteristics as well. This article discusses how each language encountered Chinese characters, and how they related to their specific languages, and also how Chinese characters particularly reflected syllable structures of different languages. It can be said that the use of Chinese characters in proper names estranged the futures of Korean and Japanese in history. Focus is laid on the history of Korean and Japanese through Chinese characters, with their falsely similar language dispositions.

  1. Boundary layer structure of an explosive cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Steeley, Glen D.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A detailed analysis of the horizontal boundary layer structure of the warm front of an open ocean explosive cyclone in Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 2 of the Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones in the Atlantic (ERICA) is conducted. Data for this study consists of aircraft data averaged over one minute supplimented by satellite and drifting buoy observations. Analysis of surface winds and fluxes was done using the Brown-Liu...

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN CHARACTERS AND NATIONAL/AUTOCHTHONOUS CHARACTERS IN SPANISH TELEVISION FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  3. The Effect of Realistic Appearance of Virtual Characters in Immersive Environments - Does the Character's Personality Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrek, Katja; Kokkinara, Elena; Mcdonnell, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games. We were particularly interested in whether different render styles (realistic, cartoon, etc.) would directly influence appeal, or if a character's personality was the most important indicator of appeal. We used a number of perceptual metrics such as subjective ratings, proximity, and attribution bias in order to test our hypothesis. Our main result shows that affinity towards virtual characters is a complex interaction between the character's appearance and personality, and that realism is in fact a positive choice for virtual characters in virtual reality.

  4. Children's Contemporary Realistic Fiction Portraying Dyslexic Characters: An Examination of the Issues Confronted and the Gender of the Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-seven contemporary realistic fiction children's books portraying a dyslexic character were published in the United States between 1993 and 2003. This study examined the texts to determine what types of issues the reading difficulty posed for the character. Texts were analyzed to determine if there was a relationship between the gender of…

  5. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  6. Assessing Leaders’ Character. Character and Leadership: A Theoretical Integration of Two Emerging Concepts. Implications for Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership : Development and validation of a theory ...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0053 Assessing Leader’s Character Character and Leadership : A Theoretical Integration... Leadership and Communication Studies Casern Birmensdorf, Switzerland 8903 EOARD GRANT 10-3099 November 2011 Final Report for 14 September

  7. Temperament and character profile of eating disorders: a controlled study with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Amianto, Federico; Leombruni, Paolo; Boggio, Sonia; Rovera, Gian Giacomo

    2002-12-01

    The question whether anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are different disorders or the extremes of a psychopathologic spectrum still has no definite answer. A way to face this problem is to examine the personality traits underlying these disorders. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 141 anorectics (70 Restrictor and 71 Binge-purging), to 102 bulimics, and to 100 controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory main scales are Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence. The personality profiles that emerged are characterized by low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, high Persistence, and low Self-Directedness in AN, and by high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, and low Self-Directedness in BN. Binge-purging anorectics showed a personality profile midway between anorectics and bulimics. The dimensional study of personality through the TCI and its facets seems effective in discriminating the personality traits underlying the different subtypes of Eating Disorders. The hypothesis of an Eating Disorders spectrum and its clinical implications are discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 412-425, 2002.

  8. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  9. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sdiff data sets are presented for paths that run parallel to the African and the Pacific superplume boundaries. Objective clustering of waveforms illustrates sharp changes across these boundaries. The African plume shows a sharp offset in travel times in the SHdiff phase, while a more gradual offset towards slower arrivals is seen in the case of the Pacific superplume. Additionally, Pdiff phases display no offset around the African plume and a weak one around the Pacific plume. Here we focus mainly on another striking feature observed in both cases: outside of the superplume the Sdiff particle motion is strongly elliptical, but becomes linear within the superplume (first noticed by To et al. 2005 in the African superplume case). For the African plume we argue that these observations of delayed SV at large distances (~120 degrees) are indicative of the occurrence of azimuthal anisotropy. The SV arrivals have similar polarity as SH, opposite from what their radiation pattern predicts. Azimuthal anisotropy causes SH energy to be converted to SV (Maupin, 1994), explaining the travel time, polarity and amplitude. Forward modeling through different isotropic and anisotropic models supports this statement, although there are trade-offs between direction and magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy. The strong elliptical particle motions are also observed outside the Pacific plume, but at shorter distances (95-105 degrees). Elliptical motions can occur in the absence of anisotropy when strong velocity deviations or layering occurs close to the CMB, which, based on velocity profiles with depth in global tomographic models would be more likely within the superplume rather than on the fast side. The elliptical particle motions here can be modelled with a simple transverse isotropic model with VSH>VSV, but azimuthal anisotropy cannot be ruled out. The complexities within the Pacific superplume, including strong amplitude drop and existence of a post-cursor, are likely caused by an

  10. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  11. Recognition of handprinted characters in Italian cadastral maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Buono, Monica; Boatto, L.; Consorti, Vincenzo; Eramo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Alessandra; Melcarne, F.; Tucci, M.

    1993-04-01

    Automatic understanding of line drawings is a fundamental task in order to feed a Geographic Information System. Furthermore, the amount of alphanumeric data in engineering drawings and maps makes it necessary to automatically process characters and to provide efficient interactive tools for recognition validation. In this paper, we present the character recognition subsystem implemented within a larger system for the automatic interpretation of Italian cadastral maps (A0 format monochrome drawings representing land properties by means of continuous lines, dashed lines, shading patterns, characters, and special symbols). The system relies upon quite general methodologies, and experiments are now in progress on different kinds of line drawings. The character recognition subsystem consists of a sequence of steps -- from the detection of characters within the raster image to the reconstruction of text strings by grouping single characters, from character recognition to the placement of recognized texts in the vector image. Fully automatic steps are followed by interactive sessions, during which an operator checks and corrects the results provided by the system. The system is currently running on two different platforms: (1) S/370 or S/390 architecture running VM/CMS, equipped with IBM 5080 graphic stations, (2) IBM RS/6000 workstation running AIX.

  12. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  13. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary...... of responsibilities entailed in shared care projects. Rather than seeking to connect all actors in an unbounded space, shared care might instead suggest a space for patients and professionals to experiment with new roles and responsibilities. Practical implications – When designing coordination tools for health care...

  14. Interfacial state and potential barrier height associated with grain boundaries in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Kido, Kota; Watanabe, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    Importance of polycrystalline silicon has been recognized in the electronic device technology. The interfacial states in the band-gap and potential barrier associated with grain boundaries in polycrystalline silicon can exert their detrimental influence on electrical conductivity and then on device performance. However, all grain boundaries are not similarly potential sites for electrical activity because individual grain boundaries have their own character depending on the orientation relation between two adjoining grains. We apply the electron-beam-induced current technique and the Kelvin probe force microscopy to observe the carrier recombination intensity and the potential barrier height, respectively, at well-characterized grain boundaries in semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon. The results are compared with the previously observed ones in solar-grade silicon to examine the factors affecting electrical activity of grain boundaries

  15. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  16. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...... been authored to allow developers to design either for or against the uncanny for antipathetic or empathetic-type characters. This research is relevant to embodied conversational agents used in a wider context such as therapeutic and e-learning applications and has an outreach to the disciplines...... of psychology, social psychology, game studies, animation and graphics, and human computer interaction....

  17. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle bone characters for animals from a “cognitive” point of view. After some general remarks on oracle-bone characters presented in Sec. 1 and a short outline of the paper in Sec. 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Sec. 3. In the next section, we begin analyzing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from www.zdic.net, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Sec. 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Sec. 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterized distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighborNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the “animal world” in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the third century BC, the Er Ya, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle bone characters for animals in Appendix A. In Appendix B, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. 甲骨文编, A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published by the Zhonghua Book Company in 1965). We recall the frequencies of the 521 most frequent oracle bone characters in Appendix C as reported in [T. Chen, Yin-Shang Jiaguwen Zixing

  18. Statistical Distributions of Electron Avalanches and Streamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ficker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new theoretical concept of fractal multiplication of electron avalanches has resulted in forming a generalized distribution function whose multiparameter character has been subjected to detailed discussion. 

  19. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  20. The influence of role-players on the character-development and character-building of South African college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Ebrihiam Freeks

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present world is in a moral crisis and it seems as though educational institutions experience both challenges and enormous behavioural problems. Statistics prove that there is a drastic decline in morals, values, standards, ethics, character and behaviour and schools, where colleges and even universities seem to indulge in crisis after crisis. It is perceived that behavioural problems such as substance and drug abuse, violence, theft, vandalism, bullying, aggression, immorality, examination fraud, amongst others, are increasing among students. The goal of this article is to determine how college students' lives are influenced by involved role-players in character-development and in character-building. Value and character education provides the building blocks for the inherent preservation of a healthy society. It is the art of life that keeps the environment friendly, free and safe, allowing earth's inhabitants to work, live and play together in peace. The influence of relevant role-players and institutions with regard to values and character-developmentare likely to be able to ensure the provision of a successful life and future for South African college students. The conclusions arrived at in this research indicate parents, lecturers and other specific individuals to be important role-players when it comes to character-development and character-building.