The bound state problem and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.
1980-01-01
A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)
Scattering theory methods for bound state problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raphael, R.B.; Tobocman, W.
1978-01-01
For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)
Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, it is shown that Stieltjes electrostatic model and quantum Hamilton Jacobi formalism are analogous to each other. This analogy allows the bound state problem to mimic as unit moving imaginary charges i ℏ , which are placed in between the two fixed imaginary charges arising due to the classical turning ...
On the problem of bound states of pions and neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudima, K.K.; Karnaukhov, V.A.
1992-01-01
The problem of existence of the bound states of negative pions and neutrons has been widely discussed for the last years. It is considered possibilities of the experimental observation of pion-neutron clusters, if they do exist, in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The yields of exotic fragments π -Z n A in the interactions of 12 C and 56 Fe with 208 Pb at the energies from 0.3 to 3.7 GeV per nucleon are calculated. For 40 Ar+ 238 U and 139 La+ 238 U collisions the calculations were performed at the energied of 1.8 GeV and 1.3 GeV per nucleon, respectively. These calculations were performed in the framework of the coalescence mechanism with the differential cross sections for pion and neutron production generated by firestreak model. The differential cross sections for production of π -1 n -2 , π -2 N 2 , π - n 4 , π -4 n 6 , and π -12 n 6 were calculated. It is shown that the use of very heavy projectiles like 56 Fe and 139 La has a great advantage in the experimental search for the exotic clusters. 20 refs.; 8 figs
Applications of the infinite momentum method to quantum electrodynamics and bound state problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1973-01-01
It is shown that the infinite momentum method is a valid and useful calculational alternative to standard perturbation theory methods. The most exciting future applications may be in bound state problems in quantum electrodynamics
Relativistic bound-state problem of a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, H.; Tamura, K.
1991-01-01
A Poincare-covariant description of the two-body bound-state problem in one-dimensional space is studied by using the relativistic Schrodinger equation. We derive the many-body Hamiltonian, electromagnetic current and generators of the Poincare group in the framework of one-boson exchange. Our theory satisfies Poincare algebra within the one-boson-exchange approximation. We numerically study the relativistic effects on the bound-state wavefunction and the elastic electromagnetic form factor. The Lorentz boost of the bound-state wavefunction and the two-body exchange current are shown to play an important role in guaranteeing the Lorentz invariance of the form factor. (author)
Application of the N-quantum approximation method to bound state problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, A.
1977-01-01
The N-quantum approximation (NQA) method is examined in the light of its application to bound state problems. Bound state wave functions are obtained as expansion coefficients in a truncated Haag expansion. From the equations of motion for the Heisenberg field and the NQA expansion, an equation satisfied by the wave function is derived. Two different bound state systems are considered. In one case, the bound state problem of two identical scalars by scalar exchange is analyzed using the NQA. An integral equation satisfied by the wave function is derived. In the nonrelativistic limit, the equation is shown to reduce to the Schroedinger equation. The equation is solved numerically, and the results compared with those obtained for this system by other methods. The NQA method is also applied to the bound state of two spin 1/2 particles with electromagnetic interaction. The integral equation for the wave function is shown to agree with the corresponding Bethe Salpeter equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Using the Dirac (4 x 4) matrices the wave function is expanded in terms of structure functions and the equation for the wave function is reduced to two disjoint sets of coupled equation for the structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hwasung; Lee, Y J
2007-01-01
We derive analytic expressions of the recursive solutions to Schroedinger's equation by means of a cutoff-potential technique for one-dimensional piecewise-constant potentials. These solutions provide a method for accurately determining the transmission probabilities as well as the wavefunction in both classically accessible regions and inaccessible regions for any barrier potentials. It is also shown that the energy eigenvalues and the wavefunctions of bound states can be obtained for potential-well structures by exploiting this method. Calculational results of illustrative examples are shown in order to verify this method for treating barrier and potential-well problems
Gauge-invariant, nonperturbative approach to the infrared-finite bound-state problem in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogokhia, V.Sh.
1989-09-01
Gauge invariant, nonperturbative approach to the bound state problem within the infrared finite Bethe-Salpeter equation is presented. Condition of cancellation of the nonperturbative infrared divergences is derived. Solutions for the quark propagator and corresponding quark gluon vertex function are written down which can be directly applied to the Bethe-Salpeter equation, in particular to the 'generalized ladder' approximation of this equation. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs
Light-Front Hamiltonian Approach to the Bound-State Problem in Quantum Electrodynamics
Jones, Billy D.
1997-10-01
Why is the study of the Lamb shift in hydrogen, which at the level of detail found in this paper was largely completed by Bethe in 1947, of any real interest today? While completing such a calculation using new techniques may be very interesting for formal and academic reasons, our primary motivation is to lay groundwork for precision bound-state calculations in QCD. The Lamb shift provides an excellent pedagogical tool for illustrating light-front Hamiltonian techniques, which are not widely known; but more importantly it presents three of the central dynamical and computational problems that we must face to make these techniques useful for solving QCD: How does a constituent picture emerge in a gauge field theory? How do bound-state energy scales emerge non-perturbatively? How does rotational symmetry emerge in a non-perturbative light-front calculation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orzalesi, C.A.
1979-01-01
In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
Scattering integral equations and four nucleon problem. Four nucleon bound states and scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narodetskij, I.M.
1981-01-01
Existing results from the application of integral equation technique four-nucleon bound states and scattering are reviewed. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear and elementary introduction in the integral equation method and to demonstrate its usefulness in physical applications. Developments in the actual numerical solutions of Faddeev-Yakubovsky type equations are such that a detailed comparison can be made with experiment. Bound state calculations indicate that a nonrelativistic description with pairwise nuclear forces does not suffice and additional degrees of freedom are noted [ru
Bound states of 'dressed' particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
1994-01-01
A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zouzou, S.
1986-01-01
In the framework of simple non-relativistic potential models, we examine the system consisting of two quarks and two antiquarks with equal or unequal masses. We search for possible bound states below the threshold for the spontaneous dissociation into two mesons. We solve the four body problem by empirical or systematic variational methods and we include the virtual meson-meson components of the wave function. With standard two-body potentials, there is no proliferation of multiquarks. With unequal quark masses, we obtain however exotic (anti Qanti Qqq) bound states with a baryonic antidiquark-quark-quark structure very analogous to the heavy flavoured (Q'qq) baryons. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, Burke
2006-01-01
The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V>0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V 2 . Usually solutions are found in the regime E=mc 2 +ε , where except for high Z, ε 2 . Here it is shown that for V>0 the attractive magnetic term and the linear repulsive term combine to support a bound state near E=0.5mc 2 corresponding to a binding energy E b =-ε =0.5mc 2
Bound-state problem in the light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation: Numerical study in 1+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harindranath, A.; Perry, R.J.; Shigemitsu, J.
1992-01-01
Numerical solutions to the two-fermion bound-state problem in the (1+1)-dimensional Yukawa model are presented within the lowest-order light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation (i.e., keeping only two-fermion and two-fermion--one-boson sectors). Our motivation is twofold. First, we want to understand the dynamics of the model from the very-weak-coupling domain, where the system is governed by nonrelativistic dynamics, to moderate and strong-coupling domains where retardation and self-energy effects become important. Second, we want to develop techniques for solving coupled Tamm-Dancoff integral equations, in particular, methods that can be generalized to higher-order Tamm-Dancoff approximations. To achieve the first goal we first simplify the problem considerably (from a numerical point of view) by the explicit elimination of the higher Fock-space sector. The resulting integral equation, whose kernel depends upon the invariant mass of the state, is solved for the coupling constant, for a given set of the invariant mass and fermion and boson mass parameters. To achieve the second goal we solve the coupled set of equations using both basis functions and direct-discretization techniques. Results from these more general techniques are compared with the explicit-elimination method
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien
2016-11-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
Bounds in the location-allocation problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....
Rizov, V A; Todorov, I T
1975-01-01
A recently proposed local quasipotential equation is reviewed and applied to the electromagnetic interaction of a spin-0 and a spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ particle. The Dirac particle is treated in a covariant two- component formalism in the neighbourhood of the mass shell. The fine structure of the bound state energy levels and the main part of the Lamb shift (of order alpha /sup 5/In(1/ alpha ) are evaluated with full account of relativistic recoil effects (without using any inverse mass expansion). Possible relevance of the techniques developed in this paper to fine structure calculations for meso-atomic systems is pointed out. (14 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, F.S.; Krueger, H.
1977-01-01
We propose in this article that the non-Hermitian equations typical of some many-body scattering theories be used to help solve many-body bound-state problems. The basic idea is to exploit the channel nature of many-body bound states that must exist because bound states are obvious negative-energy extensions of scattering states. Since atomic, molecular, and nuclear systems all display multichannel effects for E > 0, at least through Pauli-principle effects if not through mass-transfer reactions, this use of positive-energy methods for solving bound-state problems could have wide applicability. The development used here is based on the channel-component-state method of the channel-coupling-array theory, recently described in detail for the E > 0 case, and various aspects of the formalism are discussed. Detailed calculations using simple approximations are discussed for H 2 + , one of the simplest systems displaying channel structure. Comparison with the exact, Born-Oppenheimer results of Wind show that the non-Hermitian-equation, channel-component values of the equilibrium separation and total binding energy are accurate to within 2%, while the dissociation energy is accurate to 10%. The resulting wave function is identical to that arising from the simplest MO calculation, for which these numbers are less accurate than the preceding by at least a factor of 3. We also show that identical particle symmetry for the H 2 + case reduces the pair of coupled (two-channel) equations to a single equation with an exchange term. Similar reductions will occur for larger numbers of identical particles, thus suggesting application of the formalism to atomic structure problems. A detailed analysis of the present numerical results, their general implications, and possible applications is also given
Relativistic bound state wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is
Binding energies of two deltas bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.
1982-06-01
Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)
Spectrum of gluino bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanowitz, M.; Sharpe, S.; California Univ., Berkeley
1983-01-01
Using the bag model to first order in αsub(s) we find that if light gluinos exist they will appear as constituents of electrically charged bound states which are stable against strong interaction decay. We review the present experimental constraints and conclude that light, long-lived charged hadrons containing gluinos might exist with lifetimes between 2x10 - 8 and 10 - 14 s. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Namba, Chusei
2003-08-01
A program to solve the quantum-mechanical collinear three-body Coulomb problem is described and illustrated by calculations for a number of representative systems and processes. In the internal region, the Schroedinger equation is solved in hyperspherical coordinates using the slow/smooth variable discretization method. In asymptotic regions, the solution is obtained in Jacobi coordinates using the asymptotic package GAILIT from the CPC library. Only bound states and scattering processes below the three-body disintegration threshold are considered here; resonances and fragmentation processes will be discussed in subsequent parts of this series. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh; Amiri, Maghsoud
2012-01-01
In this paper, a procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proposed for solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem (MORAP). In first module, a set of qualified non-dominated solutions on Pareto front of binary-state MORAP is generated using an efficient epsilon-constraint method. In order to test the quality of generated non-dominated solutions in this module, a multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm is also proposed for MORAP. The performance of both procedures is compared using different metrics on well-known benchmark instance. The statistical analysis represents that not only the proposed efficient epsilon-constraint method outperform the multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm but also it improves the founded upper bound of benchmark instance. Then, in second module, a DEA model is supplied to prune the generated non-dominated solutions of efficient epsilon-constraint method. This helps reduction of non-dominated solutions in a systematic manner and eases the decision making process for practical implementations. - Highlights: ► A procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and DEA was proposed for solving MORAP. ► The performance of proposed procedure was compared with a multi-start PBEA. ► Methods were statistically compared using multi-objective metrics.
Closed form bound-state perturbation theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ollie J. Rose
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.
Bound states in weakly disordered spin ladders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arlego, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: arlego@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Cabra, D.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Honecker, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Rossini, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)
2005-04-30
We study the appearance of bound states in the spin gap of spin-12 ladders induced by weak bond disorder. Starting from the strong-coupling limit, i.e., the limit of weakly coupled dimers, we perform a projection on the single-triplet subspace and derive the position of bound states for the single impurity problem of one modified coupling as well as for small impurity clusters. The case of a finite concentration of impurities is treated with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the strong-coupling limit and compared with numerical results. Further, we analyze the details in the structure of the density of states and relate their origin to the influence of impurity clusters.
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Y.; Leggett, A. J.
2014-01-01
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.
Similarity problems and completely bounded maps
Pisier, Gilles
2001-01-01
These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Quasi-bound states in continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio
2007-08-01
We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)
Exchange interaction in scattering on the bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipov, A.A.; Savrin, V.I.
1975-01-01
In the framework of the one-time formulation of three-body problem in quantum field theory, the problem of scattering on the bound state is considered for the case when one of the incident particles is identical to one of the particles of the target. It is shown that due to the identical nature of these particles the exchange interaction takes place which can be connected with the mechanism of scattering on the bound state with the rearrangement
Bound States in the Mirror TBA
Arutyunov, G.E.; Frolov, S.; van Tongeren, S.J.
2012-01-01
The spectrum of the light-cone AdS_5 \\times S^5 superstring contains states composed of particles with complex momenta including in particular those which turn into bound states in the decompactification limit. We propose the mirror TBA description for these states. We focus on a three-particle
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.
Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)
2017-05-01
We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Alonso-Izquierdo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
2016-02-10
In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
Bound states in curved quantum waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)
Quarks as quasiparticles of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyapkin, A.A.
1977-01-01
Interpretation of quarks as strongly bound subsystems of the baryon structure, being in various states with integer the quantum numbers Q and B, is considered. Three original quark states, distinguished by Q, B, and J, are unambiguously determined from the condition that the quarks have the corresponding fractional quantum numbers while the integer quantum numbers for the whole system are known. With this in view the new quantum number ''colour'' is interpreted as a quantity, specifying the appearance of the subsystems in various eigen-states. Basing on the generalized Sakata model, the self-consistency of change of the colour states in the three-quark system is explained
New approach to calculate bound state eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerck, E.; Gallas, J.A.C.
1983-01-01
A method of solving the radial Schrodinger equation for bound states is discussed. The method is based on a new piecewise representation of the second derivative operator on a set of functions that obey the boundary conditions. This representation is trivially diagonalised and leads to closed form expressions of the type E sub(n)=E(ab+b+c/n+...) for the eigenvalues. Examples are given for the power-law and logarithmic potentials. (Author) [pt
Bounds and estimates for the linearly perturbed eigenvalue problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raddatz, W.D.
1983-01-01
This thesis considers the problem of bounding and estimating the discrete portion of the spectrum of a linearly perturbed self-adjoint operator, M(x). It is supposed that one knows an incomplete set of data consisting in the first few coefficients of the Taylor series expansions of one or more of the eigenvalues of M(x) about x = 0. The foundations of the variational study of eigen-values are first presented. These are then used to construct the best possible upper bounds and estimates using various sets of given information. Lower bounds are obtained by estimating the error in the upper bounds. The extension of these bounds and estimates to the eigenvalues of the doubly-perturbed operator M(x,y) is discussed. The results presented have numerous practical application in the physical sciences, including problems in atomic physics and the theory of vibrations of acoustical and mechanical systems
Infinite Horizon Discrete Time Control Problems for Bounded Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We establish Pontryagin Maximum Principles in the strong form for infinite horizon optimal control problems for bounded processes, for systems governed by difference equations. Results due to Ioffe and Tihomirov are among the tools used to prove our theorems. We write necessary conditions with weakened hypotheses of concavity and without invertibility, and we provide new results on the adjoint variable. We show links between bounded problems and nonbounded ones. We also give sufficient conditions of optimality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, K.W.
2001-01-01
The mathematical tools to restore Galilei invariance in the nuclear many-body problem with the help of projection techniques are presented. For simple oscillator configurations recursion relations for the various elementary contractions are derived. The method is then applied to simple configurations for the ground states of 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca as well as to the corresponding one-hole and one-particle states. As a first application the spectral functions and spectroscopic factors for the above-mentioned doubly even nuclei are investigated. It turns out that the conventional picture of an uncorrelated system underestimates the single-particle strengths of the hole states from the last occupied shell while that of the higher excited hole states is overestimated considerably. These results are in complete agreement with those derived by Dieperink and de Forest using different methods. Similar effects are seen for the particle states which have not been studied before. All the calculations presented here are performed analytically and thus can be checked explicitly by the interested reader. (orig.)
Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.
1992-06-01
The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)
Surface-bound states in nanodiamonds
Han, Peng; Antonov, Denis; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Bester, Gabriel
2017-05-01
We show via ab initio calculations and an electrostatic model that the notoriously low, but positive, electron affinity of bulk diamond becomes negative for hydrogen passivated nanodiamonds and argue that this peculiar situation (type-II offset with a vacuum level at nearly midgap) and the three further conditions: (i) a surface dipole with positive charge on the outside layer, (ii) a spherical symmetry, and (iii) a dielectric mismatch at the surface, results in the emergence of a peculiar type of surface state localized just outside the nanodiamond. These states are referred to as "surface-bound states" and have consequently a strong environmental sensitivity. These type of states should exist in any nanostructure with negative electron affinity. We further quantify the band offsets of different type of nanostructures as well as the exciton binding energy and contrast the results with results for "conventional" silicon quantum dots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oset, E.; Cabrera, D.; Li, Q.B.; Magas, V.K.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.
2005-01-01
We study the binding energy and the width of the Θ + in nuclei, associated to the KN and KπN components. The first one leads to negligible contributions while the second one leads to a sizeable attraction, enough to bind the Θ + in nuclei. Pauli blocking and binding effects on the KN decay reduce considerably the Θ + decay width in nuclei and medium effects associated to the KπN component also lead to a very small width, as a consequence of which one finds separation between the bound levels considerably larger than the width of the states
Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)
2017-04-15
This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)
A cluster expansion for bound three-alpha particles as a three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1981-08-01
A three-body model is proposed to study the nuclear bound states. The nucleus is described as a bound state of three clusters. A cluster expansion is introduced for the three cluster bound state problem. The present integral equations are treated by simple approximate solutions, which lead to effective potentials by using the present cluster expansion. The 12 C nucleus is described as a three-alpha particle bound state. The binding energy of 12 C is calculated numerically using the present cluster expansion as bound three-alpha clusters. The present three-body cluster expansion calculations are very near to the exact three-body calculations using separable potentials. The present theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. (author)
Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states
Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán
2018-04-01
The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.
Models for light QCD bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaCourse, D.P.
1992-01-01
After a brief overview of Regge, tower, and heavy-quark experimental data, this thesis examines two massless wave equations relevant to quark bound states. We establish general conditions on the Lorentz scalar and Lorentz vector potentials which yield arbitrary leading Regge trajectories for the case of circular classical motion. A semi-classical approximation which includes radial motion reproduces remarkably well the exact solutions. Conditions for tower structure are examined, and found to be incompatible with conditions which give a Nambu stringlike Regge slope. The author then proposes a generalization of the usual potential model of quark bound states in which the confining flux tube is a dynamical object carrying both angular momentum and energy. The Q bar Q-string system with spinless quarks is quantized using an implicit operator technique and the resulting relativistic wave equation is solved. For heavy quarks the usual Schroedinger valence-quark model is recovered. The Regge slope with light quarks agree with the classical rotating-string result and is significantly larger and the effects of short-range forces are also considered. A relativistic generalization of the quantized flux tube model predicts the glueball ground state mass to be √3/α' ≅ 1.9 GeV where α' is the normal Regge slope. The groundstate as well as excited levels like considerably above the expectations of previous models and also above various proposed experimental candidates. The glueball Regge slope is only about three-eighths that for valence quark hadrons. A semi-classical calculation of the Regge slope is in good agreement with a numerically exact value
Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.
2009-01-01
In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1/2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6) P and SU(9) G . This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.
Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungho Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.
Crossover from bound to free states in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, Alexander V; Norman, Genri E
2009-01-01
A self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states in strongly coupled plasmas is presented. The existence of two problems is emphasized. The first one is a well-known restriction of the number of atomic excited states. Another one is a description of the smooth crossover from bound pair electron-ion excited states to collective excitations of free electrons. The fluctuation approach is developed to study the spectrum domain intermediate between low-lying excited atoms and free electron continuous energy levels. The molecular dynamics method is applied to study the plasma model since the method is able to distinguish all kinds of fluctuations. The electron-ion interaction is described by the temperature-independent cut-off Coulomb potential. The diagnostics of pair electron-ion fluctuations is developed. The concept of pair fluctuations elucidates the smooth vanishing of atomic states near the ionization limit. The approach suggested removes the artificial break of the electron state density at the ionization limit: atomic state density divergent at the negative energy side and free electron state density starting from zero density at the positive energy side
Charged boson bound states in the kerr-newman metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yuanjie; Zhang Duanming
1986-01-01
Charged boson bound states in Kerr-Newman metric are discussed. It is found that massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr-Newman black hole to form bound states. For the massive boson, the condition of the nonbound states when 0 2 - Q 2 and both the condition and wave functions of the bound states when a = √M 2 - Q 2 are obtained. The energy mode of the bound states is single, E = (m√M 2 - Q 2 + eQM)/(2M 2 - Q 2 ). When Q = 0 or e = 0, the conclusion is in agreement with that of Zhang Shiwei and Su Rukeng
Bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric local uncertainty relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, Holger F.
2003-01-01
As a consequence of having a positive partial transpose, bound entangled states lack many of the properties otherwise associated with entanglement. It is therefore interesting to identify properties that distinguish bound entangled states from separable states. In this paper, it is shown that some bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric class of local uncertainty relations [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. This result indicates that the asymmetry of nonclassical correlations may be a characteristic feature of bound entanglement
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx
2001-09-14
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Yafei; Zhan, Mingsheng; Feng, Jian
2003-01-01
We compare remote quantum information concentration by a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with an unlockable bound entangled state. We find that in view of communication security the bound entangled state works better than the GHZ state
Dark-matter bound states from Feynman diagrams
Petraki, K.; Postma, M.; Wiechers, M.
2015-01-01
If dark matter couples directly to a light force mediator, then it may form bound states in the early universe and in the non-relativistic environment of haloes today. In this work, we establish a field-theoretic framework for the computation of bound-state formation cross-sections, de-excitation
Proximity effect tunneling into virtual bound state alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, I.M.; Roongkkeadsakoon, S.
1984-01-01
The effects of a narrow virtual bound state formed by transition metal impurities dissolved in the normal layer of a superconducting proximity effect sandwich are studied. Using standard renormalization techniques, we obtain the changes in the transition temperatures and the jumps in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer, of the widths of the virtual bound states, and of the impurity concentrations. It is seen that narrow virtual bound states lead to decrease in the transition temperatures, while broad virtual bound states do not. It if further seen that the narrow virtual bound state causes the reduced specific heat jump at T/sub c/ to deviate from the BCS behavior expected of the pure sandwich
Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1977-06-01
Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented
Two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behera, S.N.; Samsur, Sk.
1980-01-01
The question of the occurrence of two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals is investigated. It is shown that the anharmonicity mediated two-phonon bound state which is present in perfect crystals gets modified due to the presence of impurities. Moreover, the possibility of the occurrence of a purely impurity mediated two-phonon bound state is demonstrated. The bound state frequencies are calculated using the simple Einstein oscillator model for the host phonons. The two-phonon density of states for the imperfect crystal thus obtained has peaks at the combination and difference frequencies of two host phonons besides the peaks at the bound state frequencies. For a perfect crystal the theory predicts a single peak at the two-phonon bound state frequency in conformity with experimental observations and other theoretical calculations. Experimental data on the two-phonon infrared absorption and Raman scattering from mixed crystals of Gasub(1-c)Alsub(c)P and Gesub(1-c)Sisub(c) are analysed to provide evidence in support of impurity-mediated two-phonon bound states. The relevance of the zero frequency (difference spectrum) peak to the central peak, observed in structural phase transitions, is conjectured. (author)
Relativistic bound states: a mass formula for vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard, J.L.; Sorba, P.
1975-07-01
In the framework of a relativistic description of two particles bound states, a mass formula for vector mesons considered as quark-antiquark systems bound by harmonic oscillator like forces is proposed. Results in good agreement with experimental values are obtained [fr
Effect of Bound Entanglement on the Convertibility of Pure States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2004-01-01
I show that bound entanglement strongly influences the quantum entanglement processing of pure states: If N distant parties share appropriate bound entangled states with positive partial transpose, all N-partite pure entangled states become inter-convertible by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) at the single copy level. This implies that the Schmidt rank of a bipartite pure entangled state can be increased, and that two incomparable tripartite entanglement of the GHZ and W type can be inter-converted by the assistance of bound entanglement. Further, I propose the simplest experimental scheme for the demonstration of the corresponding bound-entanglement-assisted SLOCC. This scheme does not need quantum gates and is feasible for the current experimental technology of linear optics
Deeply bound pionic states and modifications of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirenzaki, S.
2000-01-01
We have studied the structure and formation of mesic atoms and mesic nuclei theoretically. The latest results on the deeply bound pionic atoms, the kaonic atoms and the sigma states are reported. (author)
Improved Rosen's conditions on bound states of Schroedinger operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.
1984-01-01
We derive a necessary condition on a Schroedinger operator H=-Δ+V on Lsup(2)(Rsup(d)), d>=3 to have a bound state below a given energy epsilon, and a lower bound to the ground-state energy of H. These conditions are expressed in terms of the potential V alone, and generalize the recent results of Rosen to the dimensions d>3 and to the potentials that are not necessarily rapidly decreasing. Some examples are given
Microscopic observation of magnon bound states and their dynamics.
Fukuhara, Takeshi; Schauß, Peter; Endres, Manuel; Hild, Sebastian; Cheneau, Marc; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian
2013-10-03
The existence of bound states of elementary spin waves (magnons) in one-dimensional quantum magnets was predicted almost 80 years ago. Identifying signatures of magnon bound states has so far remained the subject of intense theoretical research, and their detection has proved challenging for experiments. Ultracold atoms offer an ideal setting in which to find such bound states by tracking the spin dynamics with single-spin and single-site resolution following a local excitation. Here we use in situ correlation measurements to observe two-magnon bound states directly in a one-dimensional Heisenberg spin chain comprising ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. We observe the quantum dynamics of free and bound magnon states through time-resolved measurements of two spin impurities. The increased effective mass of the compound magnon state results in slower spin dynamics as compared to single-magnon excitations. We also determine the decay time of bound magnons, which is probably limited by scattering on thermal fluctuations in the system. Our results provide a new way of studying fundamental properties of quantum magnets and, more generally, properties of interacting impurities in quantum many-body systems.
Effects of QCD bound states on dark matter relic abundance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liew, Seng Pei [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Luo, Feng [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
2017-02-17
We study scenarios where there exists an exotic massive particle charged under QCD in the early Universe. We calculate the formation and dissociation rates of bound states formed by pairs of these particles, and apply the results in dark matter (DM) coannihilation scenarios, including also the Sommerfeld effect. We find that on top of the Sommerfeld enhancement, bound-state effects can further significantly increase the largest possible DM masses which can give the observed DM relic abundance, by ∼30–100% with respect to values obtained by considering the Sommerfeld effect only, for the color triplet or octet exotic particles we consider. In particular, it indicates that the Bino DM mass in the right-handed stop-Bino coannihilation scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) can reach ∼2.5 TeV, even though the potential between the stop and antistop prior to forming a bound state is repulsive. We also apply the bound-state effects in the calculations of relic abundance of long-lived or metastable massive colored particles, and discuss the implications on the BBN constraints and the abundance of a super-weakly interacting DM. The corrections for the bound-state effect when the exotic massive colored particles also carry electric charges, and the collider bounds are also discussed.
Do bound color octet states of liberated quarks exist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1979-01-01
In models where quarks are liberated and color can be excited, the three-quark color-octet state is shown to be unbound and unstable against breakup into free quarks and diquarks. The signature for color excitation in deep inelastic processes will not be a bound three-quark state which decays electromagnetically but a final state containing free quarks. (author)
Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
analysis of bound states below the threshold energy E = 0 and continuum above the threshold .... p are time reversal states of each other. Similarly, the ... are occurring at above-barrier energies and we do not treat them as QB states. They can ...
Unified description of bound, resonant and scattering states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konya, B.; Levai, G.; Papp, Z.
2000-01-01
Recently we have introduced a general method for calculating the discrete Hilbert-space basis representation of the Green's operators of those Hamiltonians which have infinite symmetric tridiagonal matrix forms. The elements of this matrix are used in the calculation of the Green's matrix in terms of a three-term recurrence relation and continued fractions. We specified our general approach to the case of the Coulomb problem and the Coulomb-Sturmian basis associated with it. As a further step, we can combine this new way of calculating the Coulomb-Green's matrix with a technique of solving integral equations in discrete Hilbert-space-basis representations. This provides us with a quantum mechanical approximation method which is rather general in the sense that it is equally applicable to solving bound-, resonant- and scattering-state problems with practically any potential of physical relevance. The method is especially suited to problems where Coulomb-like asymptotics have to be treated, but the formalism also contains the case of the free Green's operator as a special case. (author)
Three-body Coulomb bound states
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1987-01-01
The binding energies of three-particle systems containing two electrons and one positive particle of mass M are reexamined in an attempt to understand the approximate proportionality of the 1Se ground-state binding energies of the reduced masses, as pointed out by Botero and Green (1986). The contribution to the energy of the mass-polarization term is evaluated. No fundamental principle is involved, since the mass polarization merely decreases somewhat as the mass of the positive particle is reduced below the proton mass. In the case of the excited 3Pe state, this reduction is not sufficient to allow binding when M approaches the electron mass. Some properties of the recently observed negative muonium ion (e/-/ mu/+/ e/-/) are also computed.
A simple but usually fast branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas
2012-01-01
This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. To guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the Lagrangean...... subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much faster and more robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....
Gravitationally self-bound quantum states in unstable potentials
Jääskeläinen, Markku
2018-04-01
Quantum mechanics at present cannot be unified with the theory of gravity at the deepest level, and to guide research towards the solution of this fundamental problem, we need to look for ways to observe or refute predictions originating from attempts to combine quantum theory with gravity. The influence of the gravitational field created by the material density given by the wave function itself gives rise to nontrivial phenomena. In this study I consider the wave function for the center-of-mass coordinate of a spherical mass distribution under the influence of the self-interaction of Newtonian gravity. I solve numerically for the ground state in the presence of an unstable potential and find that the energy of the free-space bound state can be lowered despite the nontrapping character of the potential. The center-of-mass ground state becomes increasingly localized for the used unstable potentials, although only in a limited parameter regime. The feebleness of the energy shift makes the observation of these effects demanding and requires further developments in the cooling of material particles. In addition, the influence of gravitational perturbations that are present in typical laboratory settings necessitates the use of extremely quiet and controlled environments such as those provided by recently proposed space-borne experiments.
Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Higginbotham, Andrew Patrick; Albrecht, Sven Marian; Kirsanskas, Gediminas
2015-01-01
Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic...... superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound...
Two-nucleon bound states in quenched lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, T.; Kuramashi, Y.; Ukawa, A.
2011-01-01
We address the issue of bound state in the two-nucleon system in lattice QCD. Our study is made in the quenched approximation at the lattice spacing of a=0.128 fm with a heavy quark mass corresponding to m π =0.8 GeV. To distinguish a bound state from an attractive scattering state, we investigate the volume dependence of the energy difference between the ground state and the free two-nucleon state by changing the spatial extent of the lattice from 3.1 fm to 12.3 fm. A finite energy difference left in the infinite spatial volume limit leads us to the conclusion that the measured ground states for not only spin triplet but also singlet channels are bounded. Furthermore the existence of the bound state is confirmed by investigating the properties of the energy for the first excited state obtained by a 2x2 diagonalization method. The scattering lengths for both channels are evaluated by applying the finite volume formula derived by Luescher to the energy of the first excited states.
M Barketau; H Kopfer; E Pesch
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider the container transshipment problem at a railway hub. A simple lower bound known for this problem will be improved by a new Lagrangian relaxation lower bound. Computational tests show that this lower bound outperforms the simple one and decreases substantially the run time of the branch-and-bound algorithm.
Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friar, J.L.; Frois, B.
1986-04-01
A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed
Maximum and minimum entropy states yielding local continuity bounds
Hanson, Eric P.; Datta, Nilanjana
2018-04-01
Given an arbitrary quantum state (σ), we obtain an explicit construction of a state ρɛ * ( σ ) [respectively, ρ * , ɛ ( σ ) ] which has the maximum (respectively, minimum) entropy among all states which lie in a specified neighborhood (ɛ-ball) of σ. Computing the entropy of these states leads to a local strengthening of the continuity bound of the von Neumann entropy, i.e., the Audenaert-Fannes inequality. Our bound is local in the sense that it depends on the spectrum of σ. The states ρɛ * ( σ ) and ρ * , ɛ (σ) depend only on the geometry of the ɛ-ball and are in fact optimizers for a larger class of entropies. These include the Rényi entropy and the minimum- and maximum-entropies, providing explicit formulas for certain smoothed quantities. This allows us to obtain local continuity bounds for these quantities as well. In obtaining this bound, we first derive a more general result which may be of independent interest, namely, a necessary and sufficient condition under which a state maximizes a concave and Gâteaux-differentiable function in an ɛ-ball around a given state σ. Examples of such a function include the von Neumann entropy and the conditional entropy of bipartite states. Our proofs employ tools from the theory of convex optimization under non-differentiable constraints, in particular Fermat's rule, and majorization theory.
A subgradient-based branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas
This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the L......This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. In order to guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions...... to the Lagrangean subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much more faster and robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....
Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morsch H.P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.
Large impedances and Majorana bound states in superconducting circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulrich, Jascha
2017-01-01
Superconducting circuits offer the opportunity to study quantum mechanics on mesoscopic scales unimpeded by dissipation. This fact and the nonlinearity of the Josephson inductance make it possible to use superconducting circuits as artificial atoms whose long-lived states can be selectively addressed and studied. A pronounced nonlinearity of the energy spectrum, however, requires quantum fluctuations of the flux across the Josephson junction which are large on the scale of the superconducting flux quantum Φ Q =h/2e. This implies charge fluctuations below the single Cooper-pair limit via flux-charge duality. The localization of charge leads to a strong susceptibility to interactions with charges in the environment which has motivated the search for schemes to decouple charges from their environment. This thesis is concerned with theoretical challenges arising from two complementary approaches to this problem: the realization of large impedances and the fractionalization of electrons by means of Majorana bound states. In recent years, the decoupling of charges from the environment through reactive large impedances, so-called ''superinductances'' L, has attracted much interest. These inductances feature small parasitic capacitance C such that the characteristic impedance √(L/C) is much larger than the superconducting resistance quantum R Q =h/4e 2 . Superinductances have various applications ranging from qubit designs such as the 0-π qubit or the fluxonium to impedance matching, Bloch oscillations and the stabilization of phase slips in superconducting nanowires. Although there exists a well-established formalism for the quantization of superconducting circuits in terms of node fluxes, this formalism is ill-suited for the description of fast flux transport with localized charges in large-impedance environments. In particular, the nonlinear capacitive behavior of phase slip junctions cannot be modeled in a straightforward way using node fluxes
Universal extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.; Sher, Marc; Turan, Ismail
2004-01-01
We study the bound states of the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of quarks in certain models of universal extra dimensions. Such bound states may be detected at future lepton colliders in the cross section for the pair production of KK quarks near threshold. For typical values of model parameters, we find that 'KK quarkonia' have widths in the 10-100 MeV range, and production cross sections of the order of a few picobarns for the lightest resonances. Two body decays of the constituent KK quarks lead to distinctive experimental signatures. We point out that such KK resonances may be discovered before any of the higher KK modes
Usefulness of bound-state approximations in reaction theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1981-01-01
A bound-state approximation when applied to certain operators, such as the many-body resolvent operator for a two-body fragmentation channel, in many-body scattering equations, reduces such equations to equivalent two-body scattering equations which are supposed to provide a good description of the underlying physical process. In this paper we test several variants of bound-state approximations in the soluble three-boson Amado model and find that such approximations lead to weak and unacceptable kernels for the equivalent two-body scattering equations and hence to a poor description of the underlying many-body process
New approximation to the bound states of Schroedinger operators with coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunez, M.A.; Izquierdo B., G.
1994-01-01
In this work, the authors present a mathematical formulation of the physical fact that the bound states of a quantum system confined into a box Ω (with impenetrable walls) are similar to those of the unconfined system, if the box Ω is sufficiently large, and it is shown how the bound states of atomic and molecular Hamiltonians can be approximated by those of the system confined for a box Ω large enough (Dirichlet eigenproblem in Ω). Thus, a method for computing bound states is obtained which has the advantage of reducing the problem to the case of compact operators. This implies that a broad class of numerical and analytic techniques used for solving the Dirichlet problem, may be applied in full strength to obtain accurate computations of energy levels, wave functions, and other physical properties of interest
Nucleon Viewed as a Borromean Bound-State
Segovia, Jorge; Mezrag, Cédric; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.
2018-05-01
We explain how the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking ensures that Poincaré covariant analyses of the three valence-quark scattering problem in continuum quantum field theory yield a picture of the nucleon as a Borromean bound-state, in which binding arises primarily through the sum of two separate contributions. One involves aspects of the non-Abelian character of Quantum Chromodynamics that are expressed in the strong running coupling and generate tight, dynamical color-antitriplet quark-quark correlations in the scalar-isoscalar and pseudovector-isotriplet channels. This attraction is magnified by quark exchange associated with diquark breakup and reformation, which is required in order to ensure that each valence-quark participates in all diquark correlations to the complete extent allowed by its quantum numbers. Combining these effects, we arrive at a properly antisymmetrised Faddeev wave function for the nucleon and calculate, e.g. the flavor-separated versions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors and the proton's leading-twist parton distribution amplitude. We conclude that available data and planned experiments are capable of validating the proposed picture.
Recoil effects in the hyperfine structure of QED bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.; Gregorio, M.A.
1985-01-01
The authors give a general discussion of the derivation from field theory of a formalism for the perturbative solution of the relativistic two-body problem. The lowest-order expression for the four-point function is given in terms of a two-particle three-dimensional propagator in a static potential. It is obtained by fixing the loop energy in the four-dimensional formalism at a point which is independent of the loop momentum and is symmetric in the two particle variables. This method avoids awkward positive- and negative-energy projectors, with their attendant energy square roots, and allows one to recover the Dirac equation straightforwardly in the nonrecoil limit. The perturbations appear as a variety of four-dimensional kernels which are rearranged and regrouped into convenient sets. In particular, they are transformed from the Coulomb to the Feynman gauge, which greatly simplifies the expressions that must be evaluated. Although the approach is particularly convenient for the precision analysis of QED bound states, it is not limited to such applications. The authors use it to give the first unified treatment of all presently known recoil corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure and also to verify the corresponding contributions through order α 2 lnαE/sub F/ in positronium. The required integrals are evaluated analytically
Majorana bound states in a disordered quantum dot chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, P; Nori, Franco
2016-01-01
We study Majorana bound states in a disordered chain of semiconductor quantum dots proximity-coupled to an s -wave superconductor. By calculating its topological quantum number, based on the scattering-matrix method and a tight-binding model, we can identify the topological property of such an inhomogeneous one-dimensional system. We study the robustness of Majorana bound states against disorder in both the spin-independent terms (including the chemical potential and the regular spin-conserving hopping) and the spin-dependent term, i.e., the spin-flip hopping due to the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We find that the Majorana bound states are not completely immune to the spin-independent disorder, especially when the latter is strong. Meanwhile, the Majorana bound states are relatively robust against spin-dependent disorder, as long as the spin-flip hopping is of uniform sign (i.e., the varying spin-flip hopping term does not change its sign along the chain). Nevertheless, when the disorder induces sign-flip in spin-flip hopping, the topological-nontopological phase transition takes place in the low-chemical-potential region. (paper)
Hyperon polarizabilities in the bound-state soliton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gobbi, C.; Scoccola, N.N.
1996-01-01
A detailed calculation of electric and magnetic static polarizabilities of octet hyperons is presented in the framework of the bound-state soliton model. Both seagull and dispersive contributions are considered, and the results are compared with different model predictions. (orig.)
On resonances and bound states of Smilansky Hamiltonian
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Tater, Miloš
2016-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 5 (2016), s. 789-802 ISSN 2220-8054 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Smilansky Hamiltonian * resonances * resonance free region * weak coupling asymptotics * Riemann surface * bound states Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics
K-nuclear bound states in a dynamical model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2006-01-01
Roč. 770, 1/2 (2006), s. 84-105 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : kaonic atoms * K-nuclear bound states * K-nucleus interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.155, year: 2006
First observation of bound-state β-decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, M.; Bosch, F.; Beckert, K.; Eickhoff, H.; Folger, H.; Franzke, B.; Kienle, P.; Klepper, O.; Koenig, W.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mann, R.; Moshammer, R.; Nolden, F.; Schaaf, U.; Soff, G.; Spaedtke, P.; Steck, M.; Stoehlker, T.; Suemmerer, K.
1992-06-01
Bound-state Β - decay was observed for the first time by storing bare 66 163 Dy 66+ ions in a heavy-ion storage ring. From the number of 67 163 Ho 66+ daughter ions, measured as a function of the storage time, a half-life of 47 4 +5 - d was derived. By comparing this result with reported half-lives for electron capture (EC) from the M 1 and M 2 shells of neutral 67 163 Ho, bounds for both the Q EC value of neutral 67 163 Ho and for the electron neutrino mass were set. (orig.)
Localized bound states of fermions interacting via massive vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, D.C.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.
1988-11-01
A model for composite consisting of fermions with internal degrees of freedom interacting via intermediate vector bosons (IVB) is constructed. We find highly localized, low-mass bound states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We investigate the dependence of these states as function of the coupling constant and vector boson mass. In the limit of infinite vector boson mass the interaction is described by Fermi-type contact forces. (orig.)
Volume dependence of N-body bound states
König, Sebastian; Lee, Dean
2018-04-01
We derive the finite-volume correction to the binding energy of an N-particle quantum bound state in a cubic periodic volume. Our results are applicable to bound states with arbitrary composition and total angular momentum, and in any number of spatial dimensions. The only assumptions are that the interactions have finite range. The finite-volume correction is a sum of contributions from all possible breakup channels. In the case where the separation is into two bound clusters, our result gives the leading volume dependence up to exponentially small corrections. If the separation is into three or more clusters, there is a power-law factor that is beyond the scope of this work, however our result again determines the leading exponential dependence. We also present two independent methods that use finite-volume data to determine asymptotic normalization coefficients. The coefficients are useful to determine low-energy capture reactions into weakly bound states relevant for nuclear astrophysics. Using the techniques introduced here, one can even extract the infinite-volume energy limit using data from a single-volume calculation. The derived relations are tested using several exactly solvable systems and numerical examples. We anticipate immediate applications to lattice calculations of hadronic, nuclear, and cold atomic systems.
Reduced conservatism in stability robustness bounds by state transformation
Yedavalli, R. K.; Liang, Z.
1986-01-01
This note addresses the issue of 'conservatism' in the time domain stability robustness bounds obtained by the Liapunov approach. A state transformation is employed to improve the upper bounds on the linear time-varying perturbation of an asymptotically stable linear time-invariant system for robust stability. This improvement is due to the variance of the conservatism of the Liapunov approach with respect to the basis of the vector space in which the Liapunov function is constructed. Improved bounds are obtained, using a transformation, on elemental and vector norms of perturbations (i.e., structured perturbations) as well as on a matrix norm of perturbations (i.e., unstructured perturbations). For the case of a diagonal transformation, an algorithm is proposed to find the 'optimal' transformation. Several examples are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.
Four-body problem for four bound alpha particles in 16O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1980-02-01
The alpha cluster model is used in considering the 16 O nucleus as a bound state of four alpha particles. This problem is represented by integral equations which are exact effective two-particle equations. These equations have the form of two-particle Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The separable expressions are used in approximating the scattering amplitudes in the separable potential model to include also few and small non-separable rest parts of the interactions. The integral equations obtained are manageable and suitable for computations. Numerical calculations are carried out for the 16 O nucleus, with the structure of four bound alpha particles. The obtained binding energy of 16 O with that structure is 16.86 MeV which is in good agreement with the experimental value. (author)
Probing Andreev bound states in one-atom superconducting contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pothier, Hugues; Janvier, Camille; Tosi, Leandro; Girit, Caglar; Goffman, Marcelo; Esteve, Daniel; Urbina, Cristian [Quantronics Group, SPEC, CEA-Saclay (France)
2015-07-01
Superconductors are characterized by a dissipationless current. Since the work of Josephson 50 years ago, it is known that a supercurrent can even flow through tunnel junctions between superconductors. This Josephson effect also occurs through any type of ''weak links'' between superconductors: non-superconducting materials, constrictions,.. A unified understanding of the Josephson effect has emerged from a mesoscopic description of weak links. It relies on the existence of doublets of localized states that have energies below the superconducting gap: the Andreev bound states. I will present experiments performed on the simplest conductor possible, a single-atom contact between superconductors, that illustrate these concepts. The most recent work demonstrates time-domain manipulation of quantum superpositions of Andreev bound states.
Topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems using the hybrid finite element-wave based method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goo, Seongyeol; Wang, Semyung; Kook, Junghwan
2017-01-01
This paper presents an alternative topology optimization method for bounded acoustic problems that uses the hybrid finite element-wave based method (FE-WBM). The conventional method for the topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems is based on the finite element method (FEM), which...
Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)
2014-12-15
A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.
The Goodness of Covariance Selection Problem from AUC Bounds
Khajavi, Navid Tafaghodi; Kuh, Anthony
2016-01-01
We conduct a study of graphical models and discuss the quality of model selection approximation by formulating the problem as a detection problem and examining the area under the curve (AUC). We are specifically looking at the model selection problem for jointly Gaussian random vectors. For Gaussian random vectors, this problem simplifies to the covariance selection problem which is widely discussed in literature by Dempster [1]. In this paper, we give the definition for the correlation appro...
Some problems in operator theory on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
2004-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2004), s. 51-71 ISSN 0167-8019. [Representations of Lie groups, harmonic analysis on homogeneous spaces and quantization. Leiden, 07.12.2002-13.12.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : homogeneous multiplication operators * bounded symmetric domains Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2004
Bound states and scattering in four-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narodetsky, I.M.
1979-01-01
It is the purpose of this review to provide the clear and elementary introduction in the integral equation method and to demonstrate explicitely its usefulness for the physical applications. The existing results concerning the application of the integral equation technique for the four-nucleon bound states and scattering are reviewed.The treatment is based on the quasiparticle approach that permits the simple interpretation of the equations in terms of quasiparticle scattering. The mathematical basis for the quasiparticle approach is the Hilbert-Schmidt theorem of the Fredholm integral equation theory. This paper contains the detailed discussion of the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion as applied to the 2-particle amplitudes and to the 3 + 1 and 2 + 2 amplitudes which are the kernels of the four-body equations. The review contains essentially the discussion of the four-body quasiparticle equations and results obtained for bound states and scattering
Possible Existence of (cc¯)–Nucleus Bound States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokota, Akira; Oka, Makoto; Hiyama, Emiko
2014-01-01
Charmonium (cc¯) bound states in few-nucleon systems, 2 H, 4 He and 8 Be, are studied via Gaussian Expansion Method (GEM). We adopt a Gaussian potential as an effective (cc¯)–nucleon (N) interaction. The relation between two-body (cc¯)–N scattering length a cc¯−N and the binding energies B of (cc¯)–nucleus bound states are given. Recent lattice QCD data of a cc¯−N corresponds to B≃0.5 MeV for (cc¯)− 4 He and 2 MeV for (cc¯)− 8 Be in our results. (author)
Bound states in strongly correlated magnetic and electronic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trebst, S.
2002-02-01
A novel strong coupling expansion method to calculate two-particle spectra of quantum lattice models is developed. The technique can be used to study bosonic and fermionic models and in principle it can be applied to systems in any dimension. A number of strongly correlated magnetic and electronic systems are examined including the two-leg spin-half Heisenberg ladder, the dimerized Heisenberg chain with a frustrating next-nearest neighbor interaction, coupled Heisenberg ladders, and the one-dimensional Kondo lattice model. In the various models distinct bound states are found below the two-particle continuum. Quantitative calculations of the dispersion, coherence length and binding energy of these bound states are used to describe spectroscopic experiments on (Ca,La) 14 Cu 24 O 41 and NaV 2 O 5 . (orig.)
Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Leenen, L
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...
The ordering of low-lyiing bound states of three identical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.
1990-01-01
New results are presented on the ordering of bound states of three identical particles, a problem inspired by baryon spectroscopy. We first study the case of a perturbed harmonic oscillator and relate the splitting pattern to the level spacings in the two-body problem. We also obtain much more general results, valid for almost any symmetric potential, not necessarily pairwise. The proof is given in the framework of the hyperspherical formalism. (orig.)
R-matrix calculations for few-quark bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalchi, M.A.; Hadizadeh, M.R.
2016-01-01
The R-matrix method is implemented to study the heavy charm and bottom diquark, triquark, tetraquark, and pentaquarks in configuration space, as the bound states of quark-antiquark, diquark-quark, diquark-antidiquark, and diquark-antitriquark systems, respectively. The mass spectrum and the size of these systems are calculated for different partial wave channels. The calculated masses are compared with recent theoretical results obtained by other methods in momentum and configuration spaces and also by available experimental data. (orig.)
Bound and resonant states in Coulomb-like potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papp, Z.
1985-12-01
The potential separable expansion method was generalized for calculating bound and resonant states in Coulomb-like potentials. The complete set of Coulomb-Sturmian functions was taken as the basis to expand the short-range potential. On this basis the matrix elements of the Coulomb-Green functions were given in closed form as functions of the (complex) energy. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example. (author)
QCD bound states at finite temperature and baryon number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalinovsky, Yu.L.; Muenchow, L.
1991-04-01
Quark-antiquark bound states are described within the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a class of quark models with instantaneous 4-quark interaction at finite temperature. Thereby decompositions of the Bethe-Salpeter vertex and wave functions according to their Lorentz structures and the particles content are used. As an application of general scheme, we determine the mass spectrum of low-lying mesons for a special Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model inspired by QCD for hadrons. (orig.)
Relativistic treatment of fermion-antifermion bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Rupprecht, H.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1990-01-01
We discuss the relativistic treatment of fermion-antifermion bound states by an effective-Hamiltonian method which imitates their description in terms of nonrelativistic potential models: the effective interaction potential, to be used in a Schroedinger equation which incorporates relativistic kinematics, is derived from the underlying quantum field theory. This approach is equivalent to the instantaneous approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation called Salpeter equation but comes closer to physical intuition than the latter one. (Author) 14 refs
Capacitated Bounded Cardinality Hub Routing Problem: Model and Solution Algorithm
Gelareha, Shahin; Monemic, Rahimeh Neamatian; Semetd, Frederic
2017-01-01
In this paper, we address the Bounded Cardinality Hub Location Routing with Route Capacity wherein each hub acts as a transshipment node for one directed route. The number of hubs lies between a minimum and a maximum and the hub-level network is a complete subgraph. The transshipment operations take place at the hub nodes and flow transfer time from a hub-level transporter to a spoke-level vehicle influences spoke- to-hub allocations. We propose a mathematical model and a branch-and-cut algor...
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
Bound-state perturbation theory and annihilation effects in positronium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbasabadi, A.; Repko, W.W.
1987-01-01
Working in Coulomb gauge and using the lowest-order equation proposed by Barbieri and Remiddi it is calculated, in the one-loop order of perturbation theory, the decay rate and the energy shift of the ground states of parapositronium and orthopositronium, respectively. Our result for the decay rate agrees with that of Harris and Brown. For contribution of one-photon-annihilation channel to the energy shift, it is confirmed the result of Karplus and Klein. These results are derived completely within the bound-state formalism and avoid the necessity of performing on-mass-shell wave function and vertex renormalization subtractions
Hunt for the 11P1 bound state of charmonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, F.C.
1982-02-01
Using the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR, we have looked for evidence of the isospin-violating decay psi' → π 01 P 1 , where 1 P 1 is the predicted spin-singlet p-wave bound state of charmonium. For a 1 P 1 state at the predicted mass (approx. 3520 MeV), we obtain the 95% confidence level limits: BR(psi' → π 01 P 1 ) 01 P 1 )BR( 1 P 1 → γn/sub c/ < 0.14%. These limits are compared with simple theoretical predictions
Right-Hand Side Dependent Bounds for GMRES Applied to Ill-Posed Problems
Pestana, Jennifer
2014-01-01
© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014. In this paper we apply simple GMRES bounds to the nearly singular systems that arise in ill-posed problems. Our bounds depend on the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix, the right-hand side vector and the nonnormality of the system. The bounds show that GMRES residuals initially decrease, as residual components associated with large eigenvalues are reduced, after which semi-convergence can be expected because of the effects of small eigenvalues.
Pair condensation and bound states in fermionic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedrakian, Armen; Clark, John W.
2006-01-01
We study the finite temperature-density phase diagram of an attractive fermionic system that supports two-body (dimer) and three-body (trimer) bound states in free space. Using interactions characteristic for nuclear systems, we obtain the critical temperature T c2 for the superfluid phase transition and the limiting temperature T c3 for the extinction of trimers. The phase diagram features a Cooper-pair condensate in the high-density, low-temperature domain which, with decreasing density, crosses over to a Bose condensate of strongly bound dimers. The high-temperature, low-density domain is populated by trimers whose binding energy decreases toward the density-temperature domain occupied by the superfluid and vanishes at a critical temperature T c3 >T c2
Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandon, Drew; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)
2014-07-21
This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar{sub 3}), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar{sub 3} rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar{sub 3} are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar{sub 3} is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar{sub 3} may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations.
The Balloon Popping Problem Revisited: Lower and Upper Bounds
Jung, Hyunwoo; Chwa, Kyung-Yong
We consider the balloon popping problem introduced by Immorlica et al. in 2007 [13]. This problem is directly related to the problem of profit maximization in online auctions, where an auctioneer is selling a collection of identical items to anonymous unit-demand bidders. The auctioneer has the full knowledge of bidders’ private valuations for the items and tries to maximize his profit. Compared with the profit of fixed price schemes, the competitive ratio of Immorlica et al.’s algorithm was in the range [1.64, 4.33]. In this paper, we narrow the gap to [1.659, 2].
Dipole-bound states as doorways in (dissociative) electron attachment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommerfeld, Thomas
2005-01-01
This communication starts with a comparison of dissociative recombination and dissociative attachment placing emphasis on the role of resonances as reactive intermediates. The main focus is then the mechanism of electron attachment to polar molecules at very low energies (100 meV). The scheme considered consists of two steps: First, an electron is captured in a diffuse dipole-bound state depositing its energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom, in other words, a vibrational Feshbach resonance is formed. Then, owing to the coupling with a valence state, the electron is transferred into a compact valence orbital, and depending on the electron affinities of the valence state and possible dissociation products, as well as on the details of the intramolecular redistribution of vibrational energy, long-lived anions can be generated or dissociation reactions can be initiated. The key property in this context is the electronic coupling strength between the diffuse dipole-bound and the compact valence states. We describe how the coupling strength can be extracted from ab initio data, and present results for Nitromethane, Uracil and Cyanoacetylene
A narrow quasi-bound state of the DNN system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doté, A.; Bayar, M.; Xiao, C.W.; Hyodo, T.; Oka, M.; Oset, E.
2013-01-01
We have investigated a charmed system of DNN (composed of two nucleons and a D meson) by a complementary study with a variational calculation and a Faddeev calculation with fixed-center approximation (Faddeev-FCA). In the present study, we employ a DN potential based on a vector–meson exchange picture in which a resonant Λ c (2595) is dynamically generated as a DN quasi-bound state, similarly to the Λ(1405) as a K ¯ N one in the strange sector. As a result of the study of variational calculation with an effective DN potential and three kinds of NN potentials, the DNN(J π =0 − ,I=1/2) is found to be a narrow quasi-bound state below Λ c (2595)N threshold: total binding energy ∼225 MeV and mesonic decay width ∼25 MeV. On the other hand, the J π =1 − state is considered to be a scattering state of Λ c (2595) and a nucleon. These results are essentially supported by the Faddeev-FCA calculation. By the analysis of the variational wave function, we have found a unique structure in the DNN(J π =0 − ,I=1/2) such that the D meson stays around the center of the total system due to the heaviness of the D meson
Covalently bound molecular states in beryllium and carbon isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolfram von, Oertzen; Hans-Gerhard, Bohlen; Wolfram von, Oertzen
2003-01-01
Nuclear clustering in N=Z nuclei has been studied since many decades. States close to the decay thresholds, as described by the Ikeda diagram, are of particular interest. Recent studies in loosely bound systems, as observed with neutron-rich nuclei has revived the interest in cluster structures in nuclei, with additional valence neutrons, which give rise to pronounced covalent molecular structures. The Beryllium isotopes represent the first example of such unique states in nuclear physics with extreme deformations. In the deformed shell model these are referred to as super- and hyper-deformation. These states can be described explicitly by molecular concepts, with neutrons in covalent binding orbits. Examples of recent experiments performed at the HMI-Berlin demonstrating the molecular structure of the rotational bands in Beryllium isotopes are presented. Further work on chain states (nuclear polymers) in the carbon isotopes is in progress, these are the first examples of deformed structures in nuclei with an axis ratio of 3:1. A threshold diagram with clusters bound via neutrons in covalent molecular configurations can be established, which can serve as a guideline for future work. (authors)
Exploring L1 model space in search of conductivity bounds for the MT problem
Wheelock, B. D.; Parker, R. L.
2013-12-01
Geophysical inverse problems of the type encountered in electromagnetic techniques are highly non-unique. As a result, any single inverted model, though feasible, is at best inconclusive and at worst misleading. In this paper, we use modified inversion methods to establish bounds on electrical conductivity within a model of the earth. Our method consists of two steps, each making use of the 1-norm in model regularization. Both 1-norm minimization problems are framed without approximation as non-negative least-squares (NNLS) problems. First, we must identify a parsimonious set of regions within the model for which upper and lower bounds on average conductivity will be sought. This is accomplished by minimizing the 1-norm of spatial variation, which produces a model with a limited number of homogeneous regions; in fact, the number of homogeneous regions will never be greater than the number of data, regardless of the number of free parameters supplied. The second step establishes bounds for each of these regions with pairs of inversions. The new suite of inversions also uses a 1-norm penalty, but applied to the conductivity values themselves, rather than the spatial variation thereof. In the bounding step we use the 1-norm of our model parameters because it is proportional to average conductivity. For a lower bound on average conductivity, the 1-norm within a bounding region is minimized. For an upper bound on average conductivity, the 1-norm everywhere outside a bounding region is minimized. The latter minimization has the effect of concentrating conductance into the bounding region. Taken together, these bounds are a measure of the uncertainty in the associated region of our model. Starting with a blocky inverse solution is key in the selection of the bounding regions. Of course, there is a tradeoff between resolution and uncertainty: an increase in resolution (smaller bounding regions), results in greater uncertainty (wider bounds). Minimization of the 1-norm of
Ebrahimnejad, Ali
2015-08-01
There are several methods, in the literature, for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems (fuzzy linear programming in which the right-hand-side vectors and decision variables are represented by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers). In this paper, the shortcomings of some existing methods are pointed out and to overcome these shortcomings a new method based on the bounded dual simplex method is proposed to determine the fuzzy optimal solution of that kind of fuzzy variable linear programming problems in which some or all variables are restricted to lie within lower and upper bounds. To illustrate the proposed method, an application example is solved and the obtained results are given. The advantages of the proposed method over existing methods are discussed. Also, one application of this algorithm in solving bounded transportation problems with fuzzy supplies and demands is dealt with. The proposed method is easy to understand and to apply for determining the fuzzy optimal solution of bounded fuzzy variable linear programming problems occurring in real-life situations.
Upper bound on the non-colorability threshold of the 2+p-COL problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, R.
2004-10-01
The 2p-COL problem introduced by Walsh, smoothly interpolates between P and NP by mixing together the polynornial 2-coloring problem and the NP complete 3-coloring problem. A natural upper bound on the non colorability of the 2+p-COL problem in min {r-bar 2 /(1 - p)r-bar 3 }, where r-bar 2 and r-bar 3 are the upper bounds on 2-COL and 3-COL thresholds respectively. In this paper we improve this upper-bound for each 0.73 ≤ p 1. This means that for p ≥ 0.73 the 2+p-COL problem does not behave like the 2-COL problem. We use the method developed by Kaporis et al., which combines the concept of legal rigid colorings introduced by Achlioptas and Molloy with the occupancy problem for random allocations of balls into bins. (author)
Optimality Bounds for a Variational Relaxation of the Image Partitioning Problem
Lellmann, Jan
2012-11-09
We consider a variational convex relaxation of a class of optimal partitioning and multiclass labeling problems, which has recently proven quite successful and can be seen as a continuous analogue of Linear Programming (LP) relaxation methods for finite-dimensional problems. While for the latter several optimality bounds are known, to our knowledge no such bounds exist in the infinite-dimensional setting. We provide such a bound by analyzing a probabilistic rounding method, showing that it is possible to obtain an integral solution of the original partitioning problem from a solution of the relaxed problem with an a priori upper bound on the objective. The approach has a natural interpretation as an approximate, multiclass variant of the celebrated coarea formula. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds
Bansal, N.; Khandekar, R.; Könemann, J.; Nagarajan, V.; Peis, B.
2013-01-01
Iterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in the minimum
On generalizations of network design problems with degree bounds
N. Bansal (Nikhil); R. Khandekar; J. Könemann (Jochen); V. Nagarajan; B. Peis
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIterative rounding and relaxation have arguably become the method of choice in dealing with unconstrained and constrained network design problems. In this paper we extend the scope of the iterative relaxation method in two directions: (1) by handling more complex degree constraints in
Influence of low-energy scattering on loosely bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Capel, Pierre; Baye, Daniel
2010-01-01
Compact algebraic equations are derived that connect the binding energy and the asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) of a subthreshold bound state with the effective-range expansion of the corresponding partial wave. These relations are established for positively charged and neutral particles, using the analytic continuation of the scattering (S) matrix in the complex wave-number plane. Their accuracy is checked on simple local potential models for the 16 O+n, 16 O+p, and 12 C+α nuclear systems, with exotic nuclei and nuclear astrophysics applications in mind.
Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.
2015-01-01
We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.
Static and dynamic properties of QCD bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubrak, Stanislav
2015-01-01
The QCD phenomenology can be faced with the framework of the coupled quark DSE, meson BSE and baryon Faddeev equation, providing non-perturbative, continuum and Poincare invariant scientific approach. The research performed throughout this thesis is twofold. From one perspective we focus on the investigation of mass spectra for mesons with total spin quantum number J=3 and arising Regge-trajectory for natural parity states J PC =1 -- ,2 ++ ,3 -- within rainbow-ladder single gluon exchange model. The other findings are concerning the impact of the pion cloud effect on J>2 meson states, baryon masses, namely on Nucleon and Delta three-body bound states and meson dynamical properties like the pion form factor.
The search for deeply bound kaonic states with FOPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, P.; Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.
2006-01-01
Full text: New formation mechanisms for the creation of dense, exotic nuclear systems involving strangeness were recently proposed by Y. Akaishi and T. Yamazaki. Their calculations show that a K - might form deeply bound states in light nuclei - so called kaonic clusters - with central densities of several times the normal nuclear density. In the presentation a short overview of these exotic nuclear systems will be given and a new experiment with FOPI at GSI will be discussed. The aim of this experiment was to search for the simplest cluster - a ppK - state. This state is produced at GSI in the following high energy reaction: p + ''d'' → ppK - + K + + n'' with incident energies of 3.5 GeV. The experimental set-up will be presented in detail. (author)
Minimization under entropy conditions, with applications in lower bound problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toft, Joachim
2004-01-01
We minimize the functional f->∫ afdμ under the entropy condition E(f)=-∫ f log fdμ≥E, ∫ fdμ=1 and f≥0, where E is a member of R is fixed. We prove that the minimum is attained for f=e -sa /∫ e -sa dμ, where s is a member of R is chosen such that E(f)=E. We apply the result on minimizing problems in pseudodifferential calculus, where we minimize the harmonic oscillator
Meson bound states and inclusive hardon scattering in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beavis, D.R.
1980-01-01
In the first part we study the charmonium and UPSILON systems with a simple Coulomb plus linear potential. The parameters of the potential are determined by the charmonium states other than 1 S 0 states. We successfully predict that the states X(2830) and x(3450) are not the 1 S 0 partners of J/psi and psi'. The same effective potential also gives a good description of the UPSILON system. The Lorentz nature of the confinement potential is determined to be an equal mixture of vector and scalar. In the second part we extend a method for obtaining bound states and wavefunctions for relativistic confined systems. The important aspect of this treatment is the input of the asymptotic expansion of the two-point functions. We test the bound state approximation for a system defined by an equivalent potential V(r) = lambda 2 tanh 2 (g 2 r/lambda). Excellent results are obtained, even though a threshold is present. Finally, in the third section, we analyze the 100 GeV/c π - p→π 0 X data of Barnes et al. for moderate t, 1.5 less than or equal to -t less than or equal to 4.0 (GeV/c) 2 with the constituent scattering models. We obtain very good agreement in normalization and the x and t behavior of dsigma/dtdx using the FF1 model. The analysis of π - p→etaX gives additional support to this interpretation. The predictions of perturbative QCD and FF1 for π - p→π 0 X are given
A lower bound for the node, edge, and arc routing problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Lukas; Hasle, Geir; Wøhlk, Sanne
2013-01-01
The Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem (NEARP) was defined by Prins and Bouchenoua in 2004, although similar problems have been studied before. This problem, also called the Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem (MCGRP), generalizes the classical Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP......), the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP), and the General Routing Problem. It captures important aspects of real-life routing problems that were not adequately modeled in previous Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) variants. The authors also proposed a memetic algorithm procedure and defined a set of test instances...... called the CBMix benchmark. The NEARP definition and investigation contribute to the development of rich VRPs. In this paper we present the first lower bound procedure for the NEARP. It is a further development of lower bounds for the CARP. We also define two novel sets of test instances to complement...
Bound states in quantum field theory and coherent states: A fresh look
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misra, S.P.
1986-09-01
We consider here bound state equations in quantum field theory where the state explicitly includes radiation quanta as constituents with the number of such quanta not fixed. The fully interacting system is dealt with through equal time commutators/anticommutators of field operators. The multiparticle channel for the radiation field is approximated through coherent state representations. (author)
What can Andreev bound states tell us about superconductors?
Millo, Oded; Koren, Gad
2018-08-06
Zero-energy Andreev bound states, which manifest themselves in the tunnelling spectra as zero-bias conductance peaks (ZBCPs), are abundant at interfaces between superconductors and other materials and on the nodal surface of high-temperature superconductors. In this review, we focus on the information such excitations can provide on the properties of superconductor systems. First, a general introduction to the physics of Andreev bound states in superconductor/normal metal interfaces is given with a particular emphasis on why they appear at zero energy in d -wave superconductors. Then, specific spectroscopic tunnelling studies of thin films, bilayers and junctions are described, focusing on the corresponding ZBCP features. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies show that the ZBCPs on the c -axis YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ (YBCO) films are correlated with the surface morphology and appear only in proximity to (110) facets. STS on c -axis La 1.88 Sr 0.12 CuO 4 (LSCO) films exhibiting the 1/8 anomaly shows spatially modulated peaks near zero bias associated with the anti-phase ordering of the d -wave order parameter predicted at this doping level. ZBCPs were also found in micrometre-size edge junctions of YBCO/SrRuO 3 /YBCO, where SrRuO 3 is ferromagnetic. Here, the results are consistent with a crossed Andreev reflection effect (CARE) at the narrow domain walls of the SrRuO 3 ZBCPs measured in STS studies of manganite/cuprate bilayers could not be attributed to CARE because the manganite's domain wall is much larger than the coherence length in YBCO, and instead are attributed to proximity-induced triplet-pairing superconductivity with non-conventional symmetry. And finally, ZBCPs found in junctions of non-intentionally doped topological insulator films of Bi 2 Se 3 and the s -wave superconductor NbN are attributed to proximity-induced p x + ip y triplet order parameter in the topological material.This article is part of the theme issue 'Andreev bound states'.
A priori bounds for solutions of two-point boundary value problems using differential inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidossich, G.
1979-01-01
Two point boundary value problems for systems of differential equations are studied with a new approach based on differential inequalities of first order. This leads to the following results: (i) one-sided conditions are enough, in the sense that the inner product is substituted to the norm; (ii) the upper bound exists for practically any kind of equations and boundary value problem if the interval is sufficiently small since it depends on the Peano existence theorem; (iii) the bound seems convenient when the equation has some singularity in t as well as when sigular problems are considered. (author)
The existence and the stability of solutions for equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Congjun Zhang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study a class of equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds. We obtain some existence results of solutions for equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds by employing some classical fixed-point theorems. We investigate the stability of the solution sets for the problems, and establish sufficient conditions for the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity and continuity of the solution set mapping $S:Lambda_1imesLambda_2o2^{X}$ in a Hausdorff topological vector space, in the case where a set $K$ and a mapping $f$ are perturbed respectively by parameters $lambda$ and $mu.$
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongchun Sun
2012-01-01
Full Text Available For the extended mixed linear complementarity problem (EML CP, we first present the characterization of the solution set for the EMLCP. Based on this, its global error bound is also established under milder conditions. The results obtained in this paper can be taken as an extension for the classical linear complementarity problems.
Resource-constrained project scheduling: computing lower bounds by solving minimum cut problems
Möhring, R.H.; Nesetril, J.; Schulz, A.S.; Stork, F.; Uetz, Marc Jochen
1999-01-01
We present a novel approach to compute Lagrangian lower bounds on the objective function value of a wide class of resource-constrained project scheduling problems. The basis is a polynomial-time algorithm to solve the following scheduling problem: Given a set of activities with start-time dependent
Existence of bounded solutions of Neumann problem for a nonlinear degenerate elliptic equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvatore Bonafede
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We prove the existence of bounded solutions of Neumann problem for nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations of second order in divergence form. We also study some properties as the Phragmen-Lindelof property and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of Dirichlet problem associated to our equation in an unbounded domain.
Tight bounds on the size of neural networks for classification problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pauw, T. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Mathematique
1997-06-01
This paper relies on the entropy of a data-set (i.e., number-of-bits) to prove tight bounds on the size of neural networks solving a classification problem. First, based on a sequence of geometrical steps, the authors constructively compute an upper bound of O(mn) on the number-of-bits for a given data-set - here m is the number of examples and n is the number of dimensions (i.e., R{sup n}). This result is used further in a nonconstructive way to bound the size of neural networks which correctly classify that data-set.
Impurity bound states in mesoscopic topological superconducting loops
Jin, Yan-Yan; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping
2018-06-01
We study numerically the effect induced by magnetic impurities in topological s-wave superconducting loops with spin-orbit interaction based on spin-generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the case of a single magnetic impurity, it is found that the midgap bound states can cross the Fermi level at an appropriate impurity strength and the circulating spin current jumps at the crossing point. The evolution of the zero-energy mode can be effectively tuned by the located site of a single magnetic impurity. For the effect of many magnetic impurities, two independent midway or edge impurities cannot lead to the overlap of zero modes. The multiple zero-energy modes can be effectively realized by embedding a single Josephson junction with impurity scattering into the system, and the spin current displays oscillatory feature with increasing the layer thickness.
An improved error bound for linear complementarity problems for B-matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Gao
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract A new error bound for the linear complementarity problem when the matrix involved is a B-matrix is presented, which improves the corresponding result in (Li et al. in Electron. J. Linear Algebra 31(1:476-484, 2016. In addition some sufficient conditions such that the new bound is sharper than that in (García-Esnaola and Peña in Appl. Math. Lett. 22(7:1071-1075, 2009 are provided.
Bound states and molecular structure of systems with hyperons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akaishi, Y.
1992-01-01
Microscopic calculations are done for Σ-hypernuclear few-body systems by a method named ATMS. Among two- to five-body systems, only the Σ 4 He(0 + ) and Σ 4 H(0 + ) hypernuclei are expected to be bound: The binding energy and the width of the former are calculated to be 3.7 ∼ 4.6 MeV and 4.5 ∼ 7.9 MeV, respectively. The observation of Σ 4 He at KEK is in good agreement with the above prediction. The nucleus-Σ potential has a strong Lane term and a repulsive bump at short distance. The Lane term makes the system bound and the bump suppresses the ΣN → ΛN conversion. X-ray measurement of level shifts in the 4 He-Σ - , 3 He-Σ - and 3 H-Σ - atoms can provide another information on the Lane term. In 208 Pb, there may exist a peculiar state, Coulomb-assisted (atomnucleus) hybrid state, where Σ - is trapped in the surface region by the strong interaction with the aid of the inner centrifugal repulsion and the outer Coulomb attraction. An analysis is given for new data of Ξ -.12 C atomic or nuclear systems from the emulsion-counter experiment at KEK. The double-Λ hypernucleus formation rate is calculated for a stopped Ξ - on 4 He. A high branching ratio of 37% is obtained for the ΛΛ 4 H formation from a Ξ -.4 He atom. The detection of about 2.3 MeV neutron is proposed to search for lightest double-Λ hypernucleus ΛΛ 4 H. (author)
Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.
An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue
2016-04-15
A model of the dark sector where O(few GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.
Covariant equations for the three-body bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stadler, A.; Gross, F.; Frank, M.
1997-01-01
The covariant spectator (or Gross) equations for the bound state of three identical spin 1/2 particles, in which two of the three interacting particles are always on shell, are developed and reduced to a form suitable for numerical solution. The equations are first written in operator form and compared to the Bethe-Salpeter equation, then expanded into plane wave momentum states, and finally expanded into partial waves using the three-body helicity formalism first introduced by Wick. In order to solve the equations, the two-body scattering amplitudes must be boosted from the overall three-body rest frame to their individual two-body rest frames, and all effects which arise from these boosts, including Wigner rotations and p-spin decomposition of the shell-particle, are treated exactly. In their final form, the equations reduce to a coupled set of Faddeev-like double integral equations with additional channels arising from the negative p-spin states of the off-shell particle
Interaction of D0-brane bound states and Ramond-Ramond photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatollahi, Amir H.
2002-01-01
We consider the problem of the interaction between a D0-brane bound state and one-form Ramond-Ramond (RR) photons using the world-line theory. Based on the fact that in the world-line theory the RR gauge fields depend on the matrix coordinates of D0-branes, the gauge fields also appear as matrices in the formulation. At the classical level, we derive the Lorentz-like equations of motion for D0-branes, and it is observed that the center of mass is colorless with respect to the SU(N) sector of the background. Using the path integral method, the perturbation theory for the interaction between the bound state and the RR background is developed. Qualitative considerations show that the possibility of the existence of a map between the world-line theory and the non-Abelian gauge theory is very considerable
A Branch and Bound Approach for Truss Topology Design Problems with Valid Inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerveira, Adelaide; Agra, Agostinho; Bastos, Fernando; Varum, Humberto
2010-01-01
One of the classical problems in the structural optimization field is the Truss Topology Design Problem (TTDP) which deals with the selection of optimal configuration for structural systems for applications in mechanical, civil, aerospace engineering, among others. In this paper we consider a TTDP where the goal is to find the stiffest truss, under a given load and with a bound on the total volume. The design variables are the cross-section areas of the truss bars that must be chosen from a given finite set. This results in a large-scale non-convex problem with discrete variables. This problem can be formulated as a Semidefinite Programming Problem (SDP problem) with binary variables. We propose a branch and bound algorithm to solve this problem. In this paper it is considered a binary formulation of the problem, to take advantage of its structure, which admits a Knapsack problem as subproblem. Thus, trying to improve the performance of the Branch and Bound, at each step, some valid inequalities for the Knapsack problem are included.
Andreev bound states probed in three-terminal quantum dots
Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C.
2017-11-01
Andreev bound states (ABSs) are well-defined many-body quantum states that emerge from the hybridization of individual quantum dot (QD) states with a superconductor and exhibit very rich and fundamental phenomena. We demonstrate several electron transport phenomena mediated by ABSs that form on three-terminal carbon nanotube (CNT) QDs, with one superconducting (S) contact in the center and two adjacent normal-metal (N) contacts. Three-terminal spectroscopy allows us to identify the coupling to the N contacts as the origin of the Andreev resonance (AR) linewidths and to determine the critical coupling strengths to S, for which a ground state (or quantum phase) transition in such S-QD systems can occur. In addition, we ascribe replicas of the lowest-energy ABS resonance to transitions between the ABS and odd-parity excited QD states, a process we call excited state ABS resonances. In the conductance between the two N contacts we find a characteristic pattern of positive and negative differential subgap conductance, which we explain by considering two nonlocal processes, the creation of Cooper pairs in S by electrons from both N terminals, and a transport mechanism we call resonant ABS tunneling, possible only in multiterminal QD devices. In the latter process, electrons are transferred via the ABS without effectively creating Cooper pairs in S. The three-terminal geometry also allows spectroscopy experiments with different boundary conditions, for example by leaving S floating. Surprisingly, we find that, depending on the boundary conditions and the device parameters, the experiments either show single-particle Coulomb blockade resonances, ABS characteristics, or both in the same measurements, seemingly contradicting the notion of ABSs replacing the single-particle states as eigenstates of the QD. We qualitatively explain these results as originating from the finite time scale required for the coherent oscillations between the superposition states after a single
Error bounds on block Gauss-Seidel solutions of coupled multiphysics problems
Whiteley, J. P.
2011-05-09
Mathematical models in many fields often consist of coupled sub-models, each of which describes a different physical process. For many applications, the quantity of interest from these models may be written as a linear functional of the solution to the governing equations. Mature numerical solution techniques for the individual sub-models often exist. Rather than derive a numerical solution technique for the full coupled model, it is therefore natural to investigate whether these techniques may be used by coupling in a block Gauss-Seidel fashion. In this study, we derive two a posteriori bounds for such linear functionals. These bounds may be used on each Gauss-Seidel iteration to estimate the error in the linear functional computed using the single physics solvers, without actually solving the full, coupled problem. We demonstrate the use of the bound first by using a model problem from linear algebra, and then a linear ordinary differential equation example. We then investigate the effectiveness of the bound using a non-linear coupled fluid-temperature problem. One of the bounds derived is very sharp for most linear functionals considered, allowing us to predict very accurately when to terminate our block Gauss-Seidel iteration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Error bounds on block Gauss-Seidel solutions of coupled multiphysics problems
Whiteley, J. P.; Gillow, K.; Tavener, S. J.; Walter, A. C.
2011-01-01
Mathematical models in many fields often consist of coupled sub-models, each of which describes a different physical process. For many applications, the quantity of interest from these models may be written as a linear functional of the solution to the governing equations. Mature numerical solution techniques for the individual sub-models often exist. Rather than derive a numerical solution technique for the full coupled model, it is therefore natural to investigate whether these techniques may be used by coupling in a block Gauss-Seidel fashion. In this study, we derive two a posteriori bounds for such linear functionals. These bounds may be used on each Gauss-Seidel iteration to estimate the error in the linear functional computed using the single physics solvers, without actually solving the full, coupled problem. We demonstrate the use of the bound first by using a model problem from linear algebra, and then a linear ordinary differential equation example. We then investigate the effectiveness of the bound using a non-linear coupled fluid-temperature problem. One of the bounds derived is very sharp for most linear functionals considered, allowing us to predict very accurately when to terminate our block Gauss-Seidel iteration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Detection of a π-μ coulomb bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coombes, R.; Flexer, R.; Hall, A.
1977-01-01
The detection of hydrogen-like atoms is reported consisting of a negative (or positive) pion and a positive (or negative) muon in a coulomb bound state. These π-μ atoms are formed when the PI and μ from the decay have sufficiently small relative momentum to bind. Only the evidence related to the detection of these atoms is discussed. The Ksub(L)sup(0) particles which give rise to ''atomic beam'' are produced by 30 GeV proton beam striking a 10 cm beryllium target. From analysis of data 33 events are chosen. For each of these events the parameter α = Psub(π)-Psub(μ)/Psub(π)+Psub(μ) is plotted, where PPI is the pion momentum, and Pμ is the muon momentum. A study of this parameter through an examination of e + e - pairs indicates that the acceptance of apparatus is flat within 30%. The data shows a clear peak at the predicted point containing a total of 21 events with an estimated background of 3 events. The width of the peak is consistent with that expected from measurement errors
Variational energy for Θ+ - 2H bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoeb, Mohammad; Naz, Tabassum; Siddiqah, Mariyah
2015-01-01
Pentaquark is considered to be a exotic particle with valency structure of four quarks and antiquark. Diakonov et. al. have made a prediction for the existence of strangeness S= +1 and isospin zero pentaquark Θ + (uudds¯) of mass 1.54 GeV with a narrow width and j p = 1/2 + which is a member of an antidecuplet. Small width is assumed to be a consequence of even parity. We may point out that many experimental searches for the existence of Θ + that have been made in the past have remained inconclusive. Miller has proposed a schematic model where coherent interaction of us¯ and ds¯ pairs leads to very large attractive residual interaction which in turn produces a strongly attractive Θ-nucleon spin-independent local potential, sufficient to produce a bound state of Θ-nuclear matter that is stable against strong decay. In the model under discussion the Θ has been regarded as a collective vibration of nucleon
Threshold energy dependence as a function of potential strength and the nonexistence of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aronson, I.; Kleinman, C.J.; Spruch, L.
1975-01-01
The difficulty in attempting to prove that a given set of particles cannot form a bound state is the absence of a margin of error; the possibility of a bound state of arbitrarily small binding energy must be ruled out. At the sacrifice of rigor, one can hope to bypass the difficulty by studying the ground-state energy E(lambda) associated with H(lambda) identical with H/sub true/ + lambda/sub ν/, where H/sub true/ is the true Hamiltonian, ν is an artificial attractive potential, and lambda greater than 0. E(lambda) can be estimated via a Rayleigh-Ritz calculation. If H/sub true/ falls just short of being able to support a bound state, H(lambda) for lambda ''not too small'' will support a bound state of some significant binding. A margin of error is thereby created; the inability to find a bound state for lambda ''not too small'' suggests not only that H(lambda) can support at best a weakly bound state but that H/sub true/ cannot support a bound state at all. To give the argument real substance, one studies E(lambda) in the neighborhood of lambda = lambda 0 , the (unknown) smallest value for lambda for which H(lambda) can support a bound state. A comparison of E(lambda) determined numerically with the form of E(lambda) obtained with the use of a crude bound-state wave function in the Feynman theorem gives a rough self-consistency check. One thereby obtains a believable lower bound on the energy of a possible bound state of H/sub true/ or a believable argument that no such bound state exists. The method is applied to the triplet state of H -
The Laplace equation boundary value problems on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains
Medková, Dagmar
2018-01-01
This book is devoted to boundary value problems of the Laplace equation on bounded and unbounded Lipschitz domains. It studies the Dirichlet problem, the Neumann problem, the Robin problem, the derivative oblique problem, the transmission problem, the skip problem and mixed problems. It also examines different solutions - classical, in Sobolev spaces, in Besov spaces, in homogeneous Sobolev spaces and in the sense of non-tangential limit. It also explains relations between different solutions. The book has been written in a way that makes it as readable as possible for a wide mathematical audience, and includes all the fundamental definitions and propositions from other fields of mathematics. This book is of interest to research students, as well as experts in partial differential equations and numerical analysis.
Bound state and localization of excitation in many-body open systems
Cui, H. T.; Shen, H. Z.; Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.
2018-04-01
We study the exact bound state and time evolution for single excitations in one-dimensional X X Z spin chains within a non-Markovian reservoir. For the bound state, a common feature is the localization of single excitations, which means the spontaneous emission of excitations into the reservoir is prohibited. Exceptionally, the pseudo-bound state can be found, for which the single excitation has a finite probability of emission into the reservoir. In addition, a critical energy scale for bound states is also identified, below which only one bound state exists, and it is also the pseudo-bound state. The effect of quasirandom disorder in the spin chain is also discussed; such disorder induces the single excitation to locate at some spin sites. Furthermore, to display the effect of bound state and disorder on the preservation of quantum information, the time evolution of single excitations in spin chains is studied exactly. An interesting observation is that the excitation can stay at its initial location with high probability only when the bound state and disorder coexist. In contrast, when either one of them is absent, the information of the initial state can be erased completely or becomes mixed. This finding shows that the combination of bound state and disorder can provide an ideal mechanism for quantum memory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, J.D.
1994-01-01
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is used as an exploratory tool to study bound states, quasibound states, and scattering resonances in muon (μ)--hydrogen (x)--hydrogen (y) molecular ions. Our purpose is to comment on the existence and nature of the narrow states reported in three-body calculations, for L=0 and 1, at approximately 55 eV above threshold and the family of states in the same partial waves reported about 1.9 keV above threshold. We first discuss the motivation for study of excited states beyond the well-known and well-studied bound states. Then we reproduce the energies and other properties of these well-known states to show that, despite the relatively large muon mass, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation gives a good, semiquantitative description containing all the essential physics. Born-Oppenheimer calculations of the s- and p-wave scattering of d-(dμ), d-(tμ), and t-(tμ) are compared with the accurate three-body results, again with general success. The places of disagreement are understood in terms of the differences in location of slightly bound (or unbound) states in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation compared to the accurate three-body calculations
Majorana bound states in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, M. T.; Vaitiekenas, S.; Hansen, E. B.
2016-01-01
Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using...... with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system....
Observations of bound and unbound states of Ce−
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walter, C W; Li, Y-G; Matyas, D J; Alton, R M; Lou, S E; III, R L Field; Gibson, N D; Hanstorp, D
2012-01-01
The negative ion of cerium has been investigated with tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy over selected photon energy ranges between 0.56 − 0.70 eV. The spectrum reveals several sharp peaks due to negative ion resonances and possible bound-bound transitions in Ce − . The newly observed transitions, together with our previous measurements, provide insight into the rich near-threshold spectrum of this lanthanide negative ion.
Bound Electron States in Skew-symmetric Quantum Wire Intersections
2014-01-01
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 29 proper normalization, the H = 32 ma2 γ 2 + 2γ + 3 6 + 11γ (2.29) Consequently, we are looking to the variational parameter γ...E0 = H = 32 ma2 3(γ + 1) 11 = 6 11 2 mγ2 (γ + 1) = 1.058 2 ma2 (2.33) This result is obviously an approximation. The true value of the ground...state energy is less than E0. However, the obtained energy values is below the threshold energy obtained in the previous section: Ecr = π 2 8 2 ma2
Bound states of Dirac fermions in monolayer gapped graphene in the presence of local perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Zareyan, Malek
2016-01-01
In graphene, conductance electrons behave as massless relativistic particles and obey an analogue of the Dirac equation in two dimensions with a chiral nature. For this reason, the bounding of electrons in graphene in the form of geometries of quantum dots is impossible. In gapless graphene, due to its unique electronic band structure, there is a minimal conductivity at Dirac points, that is, in the limit of zero doping. This creates a problem for using such a highly motivated new material in electronic devices. One of the ways to overcome this problem is the creation of a band gap in the graphene band structure, which is made by inversion symmetry breaking (symmetry of sublattices). We investigate the confined states of the massless Dirac fermions in an impured graphene by the short-range perturbations for “local chemical potential” and “local gap”. The calculated energy spectrum exhibits quite different features with and without the perturbations. A characteristic equation for bound states (BSs) has been obtained. It is surprisingly found that the relation between the radial functions of sublattices wave functions, i.e., , , and , , can be established by SO (2) group. (paper)
Systematic assignment of Feshbach resonances via an asymptotic bound state model
Goosen, M.; Kokkelmans, SJ.J.M.F.
2008-01-01
We present an Asymptotic Bound state Model (ABM), which is useful to predict Feshbach resonances. The model utilizes asymptotic properties of the interaction potentials to represent coupled molecular wavefunctions. The bound states of this system give rise to Feshbach resonances, localized at the
Bound states and scattering coefficients of the -aδ(x)+bδ'(x) potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadella, M.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.
2009-01-01
We show that a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in which the potential is a delta well plus a δ ' interaction at the same point has a bound state, and we obtain the energy of this bound state in terms of the parameters. In addition, the expression of the reflection and transmission coefficients is also fully determined
A study of the bound states for square potential wells with position-dependent mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganguly, A.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.
2006-01-01
A potential well with position-dependent mass is studied for bound states. Applying appropriate matching conditions, a transcendental equation is derived for the energy eigenvalues. Numerical results are presented graphically and the variation of the energy of the bound states are calculated as a function of the well-width and mass
Two-vibron bound states in the β–Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Xinguang; Tang Yi
2008-01-01
This paper studies the two-vibron bound states in the β–Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model by means of the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method. The results indicate that on-site, adjacent-site and mixed two-vibron bound states may exist in the model. Specially, wave number has a significant effect on such bound states, which may be considered as the quantum effects of the localized states in quantum systems. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miserev, D. S., E-mail: d.miserev@student.unsw.edu.au, E-mail: erazorheader@gmail.com [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia)
2016-06-15
The problem of localized states in 1D systems with a relativistic spectrum, namely, graphene stripes and carbon nanotubes, is studied analytically. The bound state as a superposition of two chiral states is completely described by their relative phase, which is the foundation of the variable phase method (VPM) developed herein. Based on our VPM, we formulate and prove the relativistic Levinson theorem. The problem of bound states can be reduced to the analysis of closed trajectories of some vector field. Remarkably, the Levinson theorem appears as the Poincaré index theorem for these closed trajectories. The VPM equation is also reduced to the nonrelativistic and semiclassical limits. The limit of a small momentum p{sub y} of transverse quantization is applicable to an arbitrary integrable potential. In this case, a single confined mode is predicted.
Bound states embedded into continuous spectrum as 'gathered' (compactified) scattering waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakhar'ev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.
1995-01-01
It is shown that states of continuous spectrum (the half-line case) can be considered as bound states normalized by unity but distributed on the infinite interval with vanishing density. Then the algorithms of shifting the range of primary localization of a chosen bound state in potential well of finite width appear to be applicable to scattering functions. The potential perturbations of the same type (but now on half-axis) concentrate the scattering wave in near vicinity of the origin, which leads to creation of bound state embedded into continuous spectrum. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs
Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
moving imaginary charges i¯h is given by the logarithm of the wave function. For an exactly solvable potential, this system attains stable equilibrium position at the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials depending upon the interval of the classical turning points. Keywords. Orthogonal polynomials; quantum Hamilton Jacobi ...
Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Komarov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.
Fano-type coupling of a bound paramagnetic state with 2D continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lähderanta, E.
2013-01-01
We analyze an effect of a bound impurity state located at a tunnel distance from a quantum well (QW). The study is focused on the resonance case when the bound state energy lies within the continuum of the QW states. Using the developed theory we calculate spin polarization of 2D holes induced by paramagnetic (Mn) delta-layer in the vicinity of the QW and indirect exchange interaction between two impurities located at a tunnel distance from electron gas
A nonlinear programming approach to lower bounds for the ground-state energy of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porras, I.; Feldmann, D.M.; King, F.W.
1999-01-01
Lower-bound estimates for the ground-state energy of the helium atom are determined using nonlinear programming techniques. Optimized lower bounds are determined for single-particle, radially correlated, and general correlated wave functions. The local nature of the method employed makes it a very severe test of the accuracy of the wave function
Accidental bound states in the continuum in an open Sinai billiard
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pilipchuk, A.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660080 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sadreev, A.F., E-mail: almas@tnp.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)
2017-02-19
The fundamental mechanism of the bound states in the continuum is the full destructive interference of two resonances when two eigenlevels of the closed system are crossing. There is, however, a wide class of quantum chaotic systems which display only avoided crossings of eigenlevels. As an example of such a system we consider the Sinai billiard coupled with two semi-infinite waveguides. We show that notwithstanding the absence of degeneracy bound states in the continuum occur due to accidental decoupling of the eigenstates of the billiard from the waveguides. - Highlights: • Bound states in the continuum in open chaotic billiards occur to accidental vanishing of coupling of eigenstate of billiard with waveguides.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortescue, Ben; Lo, H.-K.
2005-01-01
We derive lower limits on the inefficiency and classical communication costs of dilution between two-term bipartite pure states that are partially entangled. We first calculate explicit relations between the allowable error and classical communication costs of entanglement dilution using a previously described protocol, then consider a two-stage dilution from singlets with this protocol followed by some unknown protocol for conversion between partially entangled states. Applying overall lower bounds on classical communication and inefficiency to this two-stage protocol, we derive bounds for the unknown protocol. In addition we derive analogous (but looser) bounds for general pure states
Hidri, Lotfi; Gharbi, Anis; Louly, Mohamed Aly
2014-01-01
We focus on the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines and removal times. The job removal time is the required duration to remove it from a machine after its processing. The objective is to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). A heuristic and a lower bound are proposed for this NP-Hard problem. These procedures are based on the optimal solution of the parallel machine scheduling problem with release dates and delivery times. The heuristic is composed of two phases. The first one is a constructive phase in which an initial feasible solution is provided, while the second phase is an improvement one. Intensive computational experiments have been conducted to confirm the good performance of the proposed procedures.
Tunable hybridization of Majorana bound states at the quantum spin Hall edge
Keidel, Felix; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Björn
2018-02-01
Confinement at the helical edge of a topological insulator is possible in the presence of proximity-induced magnetic (F) or superconducting (S) order. The interplay of both phenomena leads to the formation of localized Majorana bound states (MBS) or likewise (under certain resonance conditions) the formation of ordinary Andreev bound states (ABS). We investigate the properties of bound states in junctions composed of alternating regions of F or S barriers. Interestingly, the direction of magnetization in F regions and the relative superconducting phase between S regions can be exploited to hybridize MBS or ABS at will. We show that the local properties of MBS translate into a particular nonlocal superconducting pairing amplitude. Remarkably, the symmetry of the pairing amplitude contains information about the nature of the bound state that it stems from. Hence this symmetry can in principle be used to distinguish MBS from ABS, owing to the strong connection between local density of states and nonlocal pairing in our setup.
Bound states of Dipolar Bosons in One-dimensional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
G. Volosniev, A.; R. Armstrong, J.; V. Fedorov, D.
2013-01-01
that in the weakly-coupled limit the inter-tube interaction is similar to a zero-range term with a suitable rescaled strength. This allows us to address the corresponding many-body physics of the system by constructing a model where bound chains with one molecule in each tube are the effective degrees of freedom......We consider one-dimensional tubes containing bosonic polar molecules. The long-range dipole-dipole interactions act both within a single tube and between different tubes. We consider arbitrary values of the externally aligned dipole moments with respect to the symmetry axis of the tubes. The few....... This model can be mapped onto one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which exact solutions are known....
Composite models of hadrons and relativistic bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, A.T.
1977-01-01
The following problems are considered: what the constituents of the hadrons are; what their quantum numbers and their broken and unbroken symmetries are; what the dynamics of the constituents (equations, binding forces and the origin of symmetry violations) is. The most puzzling question is: why the constituents ''escape from freedom'' and are confined inside the hadrons; what experimentalists can report about the hadron constituents and their dynamics if not finding them. There are no final answers to all these questions. The achievements of quark model are described, some problems concerning the comparison of the quark model with experiment are considered. The attempt is also made to present alternative views on the same problems
Marandi, Ahmadreza; de Klerk, Etienne; Dahl, Joachim
The sparse bounded degree sum-of-squares (sparse-BSOS) hierarchy of Weisser, Lasserre and Toh [arXiv:1607.01151,2016] constructs a sequence of lower bounds for a sparse polynomial optimization problem. Under some assumptions, it is proven by the authors that the sequence converges to the optimal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O’Carroll, Michael
2012-01-01
We consider the interaction of particles in weakly correlated lattice quantum field theories. In the imaginary time functional integral formulation of these theories there is a relative coordinate lattice Schroedinger operator H which approximately describes the interaction of these particles. Scalar and vector spin, QCD and Gross-Neveu models are included in these theories. In the weakly correlated regime H=H o +W where H o =−γΔ l , 0 l is the d-dimensional lattice Laplacian: γ=β, the inverse temperature for spin systems and γ=κ 3 where κ is the hopping parameter for QCD. W is a self-adjoint potential operator which may have non-local contributions but obeys the bound ‖W(x, y)‖⩽cexp ( −a(‖x‖+‖y‖)), a large: exp−a=β/β o (1/2) (κ/κ o ) for spin (QCD) models. H o , W, and H act in l 2 (Z d ), d⩾ 1. The spectrum of H below zero is known to be discrete and we obtain bounds on the number of states below zero. This number depends on the short range properties of W, i.e., the long range tail does not increase the number of states.
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in T-shape double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calle, A.M.; Pacheco, M.; Orellana, P.A.
2013-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot coupled to two normal metal leads left and right and a superconducting lead. Analytical expressions of Andreev transmission and local density of states of the system at zero temperature have been obtained. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot. We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. Our results show that as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect, the transmission from normal to normal lead exhibits Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states. We find that this interference effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. - Highlights: • Transport properties of a double quantum dot coupled in T-shape configuration to conducting and superconducting leads are studied. • We report Fano antiresonances in the normal transmission due to the Andreev reflections in the superconducting lead. • We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. • Fano effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. • Andreev bound states survives even for strong dot-superconductor coupling
Contribution of Bound States to the Harmonic Generation in Hydrogen at Moderate Laser Intensities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Davis, Jack
2002-01-01
.... The disappearance of bound parabolic states with large electric dipole moments in moderately strong fields leads to the simplification of the expression for the total time-dependent dipole moment of the atom...
The generalized pseudospectral approach to the bound states of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics [6,7], solid-state physics [8,9], chemical physics [10], etc. ... coupling region and for the lower states, there is a lack of good quality ... relativistic framework for solving the radial Schrödinger equation (SE) of a single- ... throughout this article. ... the usual radial and angular momentum quantum numbers respectively.
Connection between bound-states of bosons moving in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutinho, F.A.B.
1982-06-01
It is shown that when a system of two identical bosons moving in one dimension have a bound state of energy ν sub(o), then the N body system will also have a bound state at a specific energy given by equation W(N+1) = 2N/1-N ]W(N)] - N+1/1-N ]W(N-1)]. (Author) [pt
On bound states of photons in noncommutative U(1) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatollahi, A.H.; Jafari, A.
2006-01-01
We consider the possibility that photons of noncommutative U(1) gauge theory can make bound states. Using the potential model, developed based on the constituent gluon picture of QCD glue-balls, arguments are presented in favor of the existence of these bound states. The basic ingredient of the potential model is that the self-interacting massless gauge particles may get mass by the inclusion of non-perturbative effects. (orig.)
Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, V.S.; Gomes, M.
1994-01-01
This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated
Σ hypernuclear bound state observed in stopped K- reaction on 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Outa, H.; Takada, E.; Tamura, H.; Sakaguchi, A.; Aoki, M.; Yamazaki, T.
1988-12-01
Results are presented of inclusive measurements of π ± momentum spectra from K - absorption at rest in liquid helium. We found a peak in the π - spectrum. The (K - , π + ) spectrum does not exhibit a clear peak in the Σ - bound region. Comparison of these two spectra suggests that the peak in the π - spectrum is due to the formation of the S = 0, I = 1/2 ground state of Σ-nucleus bound state. (J.P.N.)
Coexistence of a bound state and scattering at the same energy value: a quantum paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabanov, V.M.; Zakhar'ev, B.N.
1998-01-01
The example of a multi-channel system which possesses both bound (not quasi-bound !) and scattering states at the same energy value E is demonstrated. A special interaction has ability to confine waves near the origin and simultaneously admit scattering (even with transparency) at the fixed spectral point. These interaction matrices and wave functions can be continued to the whole axis. As another multi-channel peculiarity having no one-channel analogues was found a class of absolutely transparent interaction matrices without bound states
Quantum Bocce: Magnon–magnon collisions between propagating and bound states in 1D spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longo, Paolo; Greentree, Andrew D.; Busch, Kurt; Cole, Jared H.
2013-01-01
The dynamics of two magnons in a Heisenberg spin chain under the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field is investigated by means of a numerical wave-function-based approach using a Holstein–Primakoff transformation. The magnetic field is localized in space such that it supports exactly one single-particle bound state. We study the interaction of this bound mode with an incoming spin wave and the interplay between transmittance, energy and momentum matching. We find analytic criteria for maximizing the interconversion between propagating single-magnon modes and true propagating two-magnon states. The manipulation of bound and propagating magnons is an essential step towards quantum magnonics.
Quark-antiquark bound-state spectroscopy and QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloom, E.D.
1982-11-01
The discussion covers quarks as we know them, the classification of ordinary mesons in terms of constituent quarks, hidden charm states and charmed mesons, bottom quarks, positronium as a model for quarti q, quantum chromodynamics and its foundation in experiment, the charmonium model, the mass of states, fine structure and hyperfine structure, classification, widths of states, rate and multipolarity of gamma transitions, questions about bottom, leptonic widths and the determination of Q/sub b/, the mass splitting of the n 3 S 1 states, the center of gravity of the masses of the n 3 P; states, n 3 P; fine structure and classification, branching ratios for upsilon' → tau chi/sub 6j/ and the tau cascade reactions, hyperfine splitting, and top
Quark-antiquark bound-state spectroscopy and QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloom, E.D.
1982-11-01
The discussion covers quarks as we know them, the classification of ordinary mesons in terms of constituent quarks, hidden charm states and charmed mesons, bottom quarks, positronium as a model for quarti q, quantum chromodynamics and its foundation in experiment, the charmonium model, the mass of states, fine structure and hyperfine structure, classification, widths of states, rate and multipolarity of gamma transitions, questions about bottom, leptonic widths and the determination of Q/sub b/, the mass splitting of the n/sup 3/S/sub 1/ states, the center of gravity of the masses of the n/sup 3/P; states, n/sup 3/ P; fine structure and classification, branching ratios for upsilon' ..-->.. tau chi/sub 6j/ and the tau cascade reactions, hyperfine splitting, and top. (GHT)
Lower and Upper Bounds for the Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Lukas; Wøhlk, Sanne; Hasle, Geir
The Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem (NEARP) was defined by Prins and Bouchenoua in 2004. They also proposed a memetic algorithm procedure and defined a set of test instances: the so-called CBMix benchmark. The NEARP generalizes the classical CVRP, the CARP, and the General Routing Problem...... for the CARP. We also define two novel sets of test instances to complement the CBMix benchmark. The first is based on well-known CARP instances; the second consists of real life cases of newspaper delivery routing. We provide numerical results in the form 1 of lower and best known upper bounds for all...... instances of all three benchmarks. For two of the instances, the gap is closed....
Preconditioners for state-constrained optimal control problems with Moreau-Yosida penalty function
Pearson, John W.; Stoll, Martin; Wathen, Andrew J.
2012-01-01
Optimal control problems with partial differential equations as constraints play an important role in many applications. The inclusion of bound constraints for the state variable poses a significant challenge for optimization methods. Our focus here
Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.
1985-01-01
The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)
Fluid phases of hydrogen-bound states and thermodynamical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebeling, W.; Kraeft, W.D.
1985-08-01
The fluid phases of hydrogen and especially the existence of two critical points, the density dependence of the two - particle states and the effective interactions are discussed. An effective Schroedinger equation and a Saha equation are given. (author)
Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1990-08-01
One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: ''intrinsic'' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and ''extrinsic'' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discussed several aspects of deep inelastic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; the separation of the quark structure function of the proton onto intrinsic ''bound-valence'' and extrinsic ''non-valence'' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. 49 refs., 5 figs
Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1991-01-01
One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: 'intrinsic' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and 'extrinsic' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discuss several aspects of deep inealstic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: (1) the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; (2) the separation of the quark structure function of the proton into intrinsic 'bound-valence' and extrinsic 'non-valence' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; (3) the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and (4) a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. (orig.)
Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Rich R.; Doering, Charles R.
2015-10-01
An alternative computational procedure for numerically solving a class of variational problems arising from rigorous upper-bound analysis of forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, including the Navier-Stokes and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, is analyzed and applied to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A proof that the only steady state to which this numerical algorithm can converge is the required global optimal of the relevant variational problem is given for three canonical flow configurations. In contrast with most other numerical schemes for computing the optimal bounds on transported quantities (e.g., heat or momentum) within the "background field" variational framework, which employ variants of Newton's method and hence require very accurate initial iterates, the new computational method is easy to implement and, crucially, does not require numerical continuation. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal background-method bound on the heat transport enhancement factor, i.e., the Nusselt number (Nu), as a function of the Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and domain aspect ratio L in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries (Rayleigh's original 1916 model of convection). The result of the computation is significant because analyses, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have suggested a range of exponents α and β in the presumed Nu˜PrαRaβ scaling relation. The computations clearly show that for Ra≤1010 at fixed L =2 √{2 },Nu≤0.106 Pr0Ra5/12 , which indicates that molecular transport cannot generally be neglected in the "ultimate" high-Ra regime.
Proof of the insecurity of quantum secret sharing based on the Smolin bound entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Fei, Yu; Zhi-Ming, Zhang
2009-01-01
This paper reconsiders carefully the possibility of using the Smolin bound entangled states as the carrier for sharing quantum secret. It finds that the process of quantum secret sharing based on Smolin states has insecurity though the Smolin state was reported to violate maximally the two-setting Bell-inequality. The general proof is given. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Terri M.; Brown, Kenneth R.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2005-01-01
The role of mixed-state entanglement in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computation is not yet well understood. In particular, despite the success of quantum-information processing with NMR, recent work has shown that quantum states used in most of those experiments were not entangled. This is because these states, derived by unitary transforms from the thermal equilibrium state, were too close to the maximally mixed state. We are thus motivated to determine whether a given NMR state is entanglable - that is, does there exist a unitary transform that entangles the state? The boundary between entanglable and nonentanglable thermal states is a function of the spin system size N and its temperature T. We provide bounds on the location of this boundary using analytical and numerical methods; our tightest bound scales as N∼T, giving a lower bound requiring at least N∼22 000 proton spins to realize an entanglable thermal state at typical laboratory NMR magnetic fields. These bounds are tighter than known bounds on the entanglability of effective pure states
Amplification of non-Markovian decay due to bound state absorption into continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garmon, S.; Simine, L.; Segal, D.; Petrosky, T.
2013-01-01
It is known that quantum systems yield non-exponential (power law) decay on long time scales, associated with continuum threshold effects contributing to the survival probability for a prepared initial state. For an open quantum system consisting of a discrete state coupled to continuum, we study the case in which a discrete bound state of the full Hamiltonian approaches the energy continuum as the system parameters are varied. We find in this case that at least two regions exist yielding qualitatively different power law decay behaviors; we term these the long time 'near zone' and long time 'far zone'. In the near zone the survival probability falls off according to a t -1 power law, and in the far zone i t falls off as t -3 . We show that the timescale T Q separating these two regions is inversely related to the gap between the discrete bound state energy and the continuum threshold. In the case that the bound state is absorbed into the continuum and vanishes, then the time scale T Q diverges and the survival probability follows the t -1 power law even on asymptotic scales. Conversely, one could study the case of an anti-bound state approaching the threshold before being ejected from the continuum to form a bound state. Again the t -1 power law dominates precisely at the point of ejection. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Is the exotic X(5568) a bound state?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiaoyun; Ping, Jialun [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing (China)
2016-06-15
Stimulated by the recent observation of the exotic X(5568) state by the D0 Collaboration, we study the four-quark system us anti b anti d with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 0{sup +} in the framework of the chiral quark model. Two structures, diquark-antidiquark and meson-meson, with all possible color configurations are investigated by using the Gaussian expansion method. The results show that the energies of the tetraquark states with diquark-antiquark structure are too high to be candidates of X(5568), and no molecular structure can be formed in our calculations. The calculation is also extended to the four-quark system us anti c anti d and the same results as that of us anti b anti d are obtained. (orig.)
The covariant-evolution-operator method in bound-state QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Aasen, Bjoern
2004-01-01
The methods of quantum-electrodynamical (QED) calculations on bound atomic systems are reviewed with emphasis on the newly developed covariant-evolution-operator method. The aim is to compare that method with other available methods and also to point out possibilities to combine that with standard many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) in order to perform accurate numerical QED calculations, including quasi-degeneracy, also for light elements, where the electron correlation is relatively strong. As a background, the time-independent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) is briefly reviewed, particularly the method with extended model space. Time-dependent perturbation theory is discussed in some detail, introducing the time-evolution operator and the Gell-Mann-Low relation, generalized to an arbitrary model space. Three methods of treating the bound-state QED problem are discussed. The standard S-matrix formulation, which is restricted to a degenerate model space, is discussed only briefly. Two methods applicable also to the quasi-degenerate problem are treated in more detail, the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques. The treatment is concentrated on the latter technique, which has been developed more recently and which has not been discussed in more detail before. A comparison of the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques, which have great similarities, is performed. In the appendix a simple procedure is derived for expressing the evolution-operator diagrams of arbitrary order. The possibilities of merging QED in the covariant evolution-operator formulation with MBPT in a systematic way is indicated. With such a technique it might be feasible to perform accurate QED calculations also on light elements, which is presently not possible with the techniques available
A search for deeply bound kaonic nuclear states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Bhang, H.; Franklin, G.; Gomikawa, K.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Katayama, T.; Kondo, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Okada, S.; Outa, H.; Quinn, B.; Sato, M.; Shindo, M.; So, H.; Strasser, P.; Sugimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tomono, D.; Vinodkumar, A.M.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoneyama, T.
2005-01-01
We have measured proton and neutron energy spectra by means of time-of-flight (TOF) from 4 He(Kstopped-,p/n) reactions (KEK PS E471 experiment). In the proton spectrum, a clear mono-energetic peak was observed under semi-inclusive condition, which was assigned to the formation of a strange tribaryon S 0 (3115) with isospin T=1. The mass and width of the state were deduced to be 3117.7-2.0+3.8(syst.)+/-0.9(stat.) MeV/c2 and 21.6 MeV/c2, respectively, and its main decay mode was ΣNN. In the neutron spectrum, a mono-energetic peak was found as the result of a detailed analysis, which was assigned to the formation of another kind of strange tribaryon S + (3140). The mass and width of the state were deduced to be 3140.5-0.8+3.0(syst.)+/-2.3(stat.) MeV/c2 and 21.6 MeV/c2, respectively, and its main decay mode was Σ+/-NN. The isospin of the state is assigned to be 0. The results are compared with recent theoretical calculations
Magnetic moment of a two-particle bound state in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martynenko, A.P.; Faustov, R.N.
2002-01-01
A quasipotential method for calculating relativistic and radiative corrections to the magnetic moment of a two-particle bound state is formulated for particles of arbitrary spin. It is shown that the expression for the g factors of bound particles involve O(α 2 ) terms depending on the particle spin. Numerical values are obtained for the g factors of the electron in the hydrogen atom and in deuterium
A search for bound states of the /eta/-meson in light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pile, P.H.
1988-01-01
This paper describes an experiment designed to search for a new form of nuclear matter--a bound /eta/-nucleus system. The (π + ,p) reaction was used to study the possible formation of an /eta/-mesic nucleus. No narrow /eta/-nuclear bound states were observed using 7 Li, 12 C, 16 O and 27 Al targets. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Bound states of quarks and gluons and hadronic transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Antonio Soares de.
1990-05-01
A potential which incorporates the concepts of confinement and asymptotic freedom, previously utilized in the description of the spectroscopy of mesons and baryons, is extended to the gluon sector. The mass spectroscopy of glueballs and hybrids is analyzed considering only pairwise potentials and massive constituent gluons. The mass spectrum of the color octet two-gluon system is adopted as a suitable description of the intermediate states of hadronic transitions, within the framework of the multipole expansion for quantum chromodynamics. The spin-dependent effects in the gluonium spectrum, associated with the Coulombian potential, are calculated through the inverted first Born approximation for the gluon-gluon scattering. (author). 102 refs, 1 fig, 13 tabs
Gazzola, Filippo; Sweers, Guido
2010-01-01
This monograph covers higher order linear and nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains, mainly with the biharmonic or poly-harmonic operator as leading principal part. Underlying models and, in particular, the role of different boundary conditions are explained in detail. As for linear problems, after a brief summary of the existence theory and Lp and Schauder estimates, the focus is on positivity or - since, in contrast to second order equations, a general form of a comparison principle does not exist - on “near positivity.” The required kernel estimates are also presented in detail. As for nonlinear problems, several techniques well-known from second order equations cannot be utilized and have to be replaced by new and different methods. Subcritical, critical and supercritical nonlinearities are discussed and various existence and nonexistence results are proved. The interplay with the positivity topic from the ﬁrst part is emphasized and, moreover, a far-reaching Gidas-Ni-Nirenbe...
Tunneling spectroscopy of quasiparticle bound states in a spinful Josephson junction.
Chang, W; Manucharyan, V E; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Marcus, C M
2013-05-24
The spectrum of a segment of InAs nanowire, confined between two superconducting leads, was measured as function of gate voltage and superconducting phase difference using a third normal-metal tunnel probe. Subgap resonances for odd electron occupancy-interpreted as bound states involving a confined electron and a quasiparticle from the superconducting leads, reminiscent of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states-evolve into Kondo-related resonances at higher magnetic fields. An additional zero-bias peak of unknown origin is observed to coexist with the quasiparticle bound states.
Rate Reduction for State-labelled Markov Chains with Upper Time-bounded CSL Requirements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bharath Siva Kumar Tati
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents algorithms for identifying and reducing a dedicated set of controllable transition rates of a state-labelled continuous-time Markov chain model. The purpose of the reduction is to make states to satisfy a given requirement, specified as a CSL upper time-bounded Until formula. We distinguish two different cases, depending on the type of probability bound. A natural partitioning of the state space allows us to develop possible solutions, leading to simple algorithms for both cases.
Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.
1982-04-01
We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)
MAXIMUM r-REGULAR INDUCED SUBGRAPH PROBLEM: FAST EXPONENTIAL ALGORITHMS AND COMBINATORIAL BOUNDS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gupta, S.; Raman, V.; Saurabh, S.
2012-01-01
We show that for a fixed r, the number of maximal r-regular induced subgraphs in any graph with n vertices is upper bounded by O(c(n)), where c is a positive constant strictly less than 2. This bound generalizes the well-known result of Moon and Moser, who showed an upper bound of 3(n/3) on the n...
Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.; Minh, H.B.
We illustrate an algorithm that starting from the image representation of a strictly bounded-real system computes a minimal balanced state variable, from which a minimal balanced state realization is readily obtained. The algorithm stems from an iterative procedure to compute a storage function,
A lower bound on the relative error of mixed-state cloning and related operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastegin, A E
2003-01-01
We extend the concept of the relative error to mixed-state cloning and related physical operations, in which the ancilla contains some information a priori about the input state. The lower bound on the relative error is obtained. It is shown that this result provides further support for a stronger no-cloning theorem
Experimental and theoretical study of bound and quasibound states of Ce{sup -}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.; Li, Y.-G.; Matyas, D. J.; Alton, R. M.; Lou, S. E.; Field, R. L. III; Hanstorp, D.; Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)
2011-09-15
The negative ion of cerium is investigated experimentally with tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy and theoretically with relativistic configuration interaction in the continuum formalism. The relative cross section for neutral atom production is measured with a crossed ion-beam-laser-beam apparatus over the photon energy range of 0.54-0.75 eV. A rich resonance spectrum is revealed near the threshold with, at least, 12 peaks observed due to transitions from bound states of Ce{sup -} to either bound or quasibound excited states of the negative ion. Theoretical calculations of the photodetachment cross sections enable identification of the transitions responsible for the measured peaks. Two of the peaks are due to electric dipole-allowed bound-bound transitions in Ce{sup -}, making cerium only the second atomic negative ion that has been demonstrated to support multiple bound states of opposite parity. In addition, combining the experimental data with the theoretical analysis determines the electron affinity of cerium to be 0.628(10) eV and the fine structure splitting of the ground state of Ce{sup -} ({sup 4} H{sub 7/2}-{sup 4} H{sub 9/2}) to be 0.097 75(4) eV.
Bounds on the entanglement entropy of droplet states in the XXZ spin chain
Beaud, V.; Warzel, S.
2018-01-01
We consider a class of one-dimensional quantum spin systems on the finite lattice Λ ⊂Z , related to the XXZ spin chain in its Ising phase. It includes in particular the so-called droplet Hamiltonian. The entanglement entropy of energetically low-lying states over a bipartition Λ = B ∪ Bc is investigated and proven to satisfy a logarithmic bound in terms of min{n, |B|, |Bc|}, where n denotes the maximal number of down spins in the considered state. Upon addition of any (positive) random potential, the bound becomes uniformly constant on average, thereby establishing an area law. The proof is based on spectral methods: a deterministic bound on the local (many-body integrated) density of states is derived from an energetically motivated Combes-Thomas estimate.
Some simple conditions of bound states of Schroedinger operators in dimension d >= 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.
1984-01-01
A necessary condition for existence of bound states below a given energy of a Schroedinger operator H=-Δ+V on L 2 (Rsup(d)), d>=3, together with a lower bound to the ground-state energy of H are derived using the Sobolev inequalities. It generalizes some recent results to the dimensions d>3 and to the potentials that are not necessarily rapidly decreasing. Comparison to other known necessary conditions is given. The examples of the d-dimensional hydrogen-like atom and the d-dimensional harmonic oscillator are discussed. In both of them the bound to the ground-state energy becomes remarkably tight for large values of d
Bound states via Higgs exchanging and heavy resonant di-Higgs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaofeng Kang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The existence of Higgs boson h predicted by the standard model (SM was established and hunting for clues to new physics (NP hidden in h has become the top priority in particle physics. In this paper we explore an intriguing phenomenon that prevails in NP associated with h, bound state (Bh, referring to the ground state only of relatively heavy particles ϕ out of NP via interchanging h. This is well-motivated due to the intrinsic properties of h: It has zero spin and light mass, capable of mediating Yukawa interactions; moreover, it may be strongly coupled to ϕ in several important contexts, from addressing the naturalness problem by compositeness/supersymmetry (SUSY/classical scale invariance to understanding neutrino mass origin radiatively and matter asymmetry by electroweak baryogensis. The new resonance Bh, being a neutral scalar boson, has important implications to the large hadron collider (LHC di-Higgs search because it yields a clear resonant di-Higgs signature at the high mass region (≳1 TeV. In other words, searching for Bh offers a new avenue to probe the hidden sector with a Higgs-portal. For illustration in this paper we concentrate on two examples, the stop sector in SUSY and an inert Higgs doublet from a radiative neutrino model. In particular, h-mediation opens a new and wide window to probe the conventional stoponium and the current date begins to have sensitivity to stoponium around TeV.
Bound states via Higgs exchanging and heavy resonant di-Higgs
Kang, Zhaofeng
2017-08-01
The existence of Higgs boson h predicted by the standard model (SM) was established and hunting for clues to new physics (NP) hidden in h has become the top priority in particle physics. In this paper we explore an intriguing phenomenon that prevails in NP associated with h, bound state (Bh, referring to the ground state only) of relatively heavy particles ϕ out of NP via interchanging h. This is well-motivated due to the intrinsic properties of h: It has zero spin and light mass, capable of mediating Yukawa interactions; moreover, it may be strongly coupled to ϕ in several important contexts, from addressing the naturalness problem by compositeness/supersymmetry (SUSY)/classical scale invariance to understanding neutrino mass origin radiatively and matter asymmetry by electroweak baryogensis. The new resonance Bh, being a neutral scalar boson, has important implications to the large hadron collider (LHC) di-Higgs search because it yields a clear resonant di-Higgs signature at the high mass region (≳ 1 TeV). In other words, searching for Bh offers a new avenue to probe the hidden sector with a Higgs-portal. For illustration in this paper we concentrate on two examples, the stop sector in SUSY and an inert Higgs doublet from a radiative neutrino model. In particular, h-mediation opens a new and wide window to probe the conventional stoponium and the current date begins to have sensitivity to stoponium around TeV.
Parra-Rivas, Pedro; Gomila, Damia; Colet, Pere; Gelens, Lendert
2017-07-01
Bound states, also called soliton molecules, can form as a result of the interaction between individual solitons. This interaction is mediated through the tails of each soliton that overlap with one another. When such soliton tails have spatial oscillations, locking or pinning between two solitons can occur at fixed distances related with the wavelength of these oscillations, thus forming a bound state. In this work, we study the formation and stability of various types of bound states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation by computing their interaction potential and by analyzing the properties of the oscillatory tails. Moreover, we study the effect of higher order dispersion and noise in the pump intensity on the dynamics of bound states. In doing so, we reveal that perturbations to the Lugiato-Lefever equation that maintain reversibility, such as fourth order dispersion, lead to bound states that tend to separate from one another in time when noise is added. This separation force is determined by the shape of the envelope of the interaction potential, as well as an additional Brownian ratchet effect. In systems with broken reversibility, such as third order dispersion, this ratchet effect continues to push solitons within a bound state apart. However, the force generated by the envelope of the potential is now such that it pushes the solitons towards each other, leading to a null net drift of the solitons. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.
Large N Chern-Simons with massive fundamental fermions — A model with no bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frishman, Yitzhak; Sonnenschein, Jacob
2014-01-01
In a previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2013)091, we analyzed the theory of massive fermions in the fundamental representation coupled to a U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in three dimensions at level K. It was done in the large N, large K limits where λ=(N/K) was kept fixed. Among other results, we showed there that there are no high mass “quark anti-quark" bound states. Here we show that there are no bound states at all.
Symanzik approach in modeling of bound states of Dirac particle in singular background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pismak Yu. M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the model of interaction of spinor field with homogeneous isotropic material plane constructed in framework of Symanzik approach, the bound states are studied. For localized near plane Dirac particle the expression for current, charge and density are presented. For bound state with massless dispersion law the current, charge and density are calculated for simplified model with 2 parameter exactly.The model can find application to a wide class of phenomena arising by the interaction of fields of quantum electrodynamics with two-dimensional materials.
Heavy-to-light form factors for non-relativistic bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, G.; Feldmann, Th.
2007-01-01
We investigate transition form factors between non-relativistic QCD bound states at large recoil energy. Assuming the decaying quark to be much heavier than its decay product, the relativistic dynamics can be treated according to the factorization formula for heavy-to-light form factors obtained from the heavy-quark expansion in QCD. The non-relativistic expansion determines the bound-state wave functions to be Coulomb-like. As a consequence, one can explicitly calculate the so-called 'soft-overlap' contribution to the transition form factor
Bound states in the (2+1)D scalar electrodynamics with Chern-Simons term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, M.O.C.; Malacarne, L.C.
1994-01-01
This work studies the existence of bound states for the 3-dimensions scalar electrodynamics, with the Chern-Simons. Quantum field theory is used for calculation of the M fi scattering matrices, in the non-relativistic approximation. The field propagators responsible for the interaction in the scattering processes have been calculated, and scattering matrices have been constructed. After obtaining the scattering matrix, the cross section in the quantum field theory has been compared with the quantum mechanic cross section in the Born approximation, allowing to obtain the form of the potential responsible for the interactions in the scattering processes. The possibility of bound states are analyzed by using the Schroedinger equation
The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gadella, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2017-04-15
We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen–Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case. - Highlights: • The scattering matrix of hyperbolic step potential is studied. • The scattering matrix has a branch cut and an infinite number of poles. • The poles are associated to anti-bound states. • Susy partners using antibound states are computed. • Wigner time delays for the hyperbolic step and partner potentials are compared.
Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi
2014-01-01
We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higashi, Yoichi, E-mail: higashiyoichi@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Nagai, Yuki [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yanase, Youichi [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • We focus on the pair-density wave state in bilayer Rashba superconductors. • The zero energy Bogoliubov wave functions are localized at the edge and vortex core. • We investigate the excitation spectra of edge and vortex bound states. - Abstract: We study the excitation spectra and the wave functions of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density wave state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle wave functions with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.
Linking to Scientific Data: Identity Problems of Unruly and Poorly Bounded Digital Objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Wynholds
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Within information systems, a significant aspect of search and retrieval across information objects, such as datasets, journal articles, or images, relies on the identity construction of the objects. This paper uses identity to refer to the qualities or characteristics of an information object that make it definable and recognizable, and can be used to distinguish it from other objects. Identity, in this context, can be seen as the foundation from which citations, metadata and identifiers are constructed.In recent years the idea of including datasets within the scientific record has been gaining significant momentum, with publishers, granting agencies and libraries engaging with the challenge. However, the task has been fraught with questions of best practice for establishing this infrastructure, especially in regards to how citations, metadata and identifiers should be constructed. These questions suggests a problem with how dataset identities are formed, such that an engagement with the definition of datasets as conceptual objects is warranted.This paper explores some of the ways in which scientific data is an unruly and poorly bounded object, and goes on to propose that in order for datasets to fulfill the roles expected for them, the following identity functions are essential for scholarly publications: (i the dataset is constructed as a semantically and logically concrete object, (ii the identity of the dataset is embedded, inherent and/or inseparable, (iii the identity embodies a framework of authorship, rights and limitations, and (iv the identity translates into an actionable mechanism for retrieval or reference.
Method for constructing bound state wave functions of two interacting particles on nullplanes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leidigh, T.J.
1980-01-01
Nullplane position and momentum coordinates are defined in terms of the generators of the Poincare group. A transformation to center-of-mass and relative coordinates for a two-particle system is made. Then, another transformation from the original relative coordinates to a new set is made. In terms of the new relative coordinates the formal analogy with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, already familiar in the nullplane formalism, is greatly enhanced. These coordinates do not appear to have been used previously. The most general form for a two-particle interaction is then partially determined and two methods for solving the remaining constraints are shown to be equivalent. The similarity to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is used to solve a bound state problem with an interaction resembling a harmonic oscillator. The wave function is then used to model an unstable particle, which has zero spin in the limit in which the particle becomes stable. In the presence of the decay-producing interaction it is shown that the spin spectrum of the parent particle does not remain sharply zero. This is the first relativistic model to unequivocally display this result. The result is interpreted as indicating that real, relativistic, unstable particles may not possess a sharp spin spectrum
Spectroscopy of the hghest Rb2 bound states with 10 kHz precision
Verhaar, B.J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; van Kempen, E.G.M.; Freeland, R.S.; Wynar, R.; Comparat, D.; Ryu, C.; Heinzen, D.J.
2001-01-01
We have measured the binding energy of four of the highest bound vibrational levels of the ground electronic states of the ^87Rb2 molecule with a precision better than 10 kHz. The measurements were carried out using stimulated Raman photoassociation in an ^87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We have
Bound states of the Dirac equation with some physical potentials by the Nikiforov-Uvarov method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, Mohammad R; Haidari, S [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Avenue, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: heidary.somayeh@gmail.com
2010-01-15
Exact analytical solutions for the s-wave Dirac equation with the reflectionless-type, Rosen-Morse and Manning-Rosen potentials are obtained, under the condition of spin symmetry. We obtained bound state energy eigenvalues and corresponding spinor wave function in the framework of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.
Boson bound states in the β-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
5. — journal of. November 2013 physics pp. 839–848. Boson bound states in the ... of Basic Sciences, The First Aeronautical Institute of the Air Force, Xinyang 464000, ..... [4] N Boechler, G Theocharis, S Job, P G Kevrekidis, M A Porter and C ...
Ultraheavy Yukawa-bound states of fourth-generation at Large ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-10-05
Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. A study of bound states of the fourth-generation quarks in the range of 500–700 GeV is presented, where the binding energies are expected to be mainly of Yukawa origin, with QCD subdominant. Near degeneracy of their masses exhibits a new 'isospin'. The production of a colour- octet, isosinglet ...
Lower bounds for the ground states of He-isoelectronic series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraga, Serafin
1981-01-01
A formulation, based on the concept of null local kinetic energy regions, has been developed for the determination of lower bounds for the ground state of a two-electron atom. Numerical results, obtained from Hartree-Fock functions, are presented for the elements He through Kr of the two-electron series
Orthogonality-condition model for bound states with a separable expansion of the potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, K.F.
1984-01-01
A very efficient solution of the equation of Saito's orthogonality-condition model (OCM) is reported for bound states by means of a separable expansion of the potential (PSE method). Some simplifications of the published formulae of the PSE method is derived, which facilitate its application to the OCM and may be useful in solving the Schroedinger equation as well. (author)
On the bound states of Schrodinger operators with -interactions on conical surfaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Ourmieres-Bonafos, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 6 (2016), s. 999-1028 ISSN 0360-5302 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : conical and hyperconical surfaces * delta-interaction * existence of bound states * Schrodinger operator * spectral asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016
Robustness of Majorana bound states in the short-junction limit
Sticlet, D.C.; Nijholt, B.; Akhmerov, A.R.
2017-01-01
We study the effects of strong coupling between a superconductor and a semiconductor nanowire on the creation of the Majorana bound states, when the quasiparticle dwell time in the normal part of the nanowire is much shorter than the inverse superconducting gap. This "short-junction" limit is
Another comment on 'relativistic description of quark-antiquark bound states'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Rupprecht, H.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1991-04-01
We point out some ambiguities in the treatment of fermion-antifermion bound states by solving the reduced Salpeter equation in coordinate space. Our observations allow to cast some doubt on the validity of the conclusion of Gara et al. that moving from a nonrelativistic to a relativistic description makes things worse. (authors)
Boson bound states in the β-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The bound states of four bosons in the quantum -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model are investigated and some interesting results are presented using the number conserving approximation combined ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science
Morse potential, symmetric Morse potential and bracketed bound-state energies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 14 (2016), s. 1650088 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum bound states * special functions * Morse potential * symmetrized Morse potential * upper and lower energy estimates * computer-assisted symbolic manipulations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016
Comparison of three Stark problem solution techniques for the bounded case
Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.
2015-01-01
Three methods of obtaining solutions to the Stark problem—one developed by Lantoine and Russell using Jacobi elliptic and related functions, one developed by Biscani and Izzo using Weierstrass elliptic and related functions, and one developed by Pellegrini, Russell, and Vittaldev using and Taylor series extended to the Stark problem—are compared qualitatively and quantitatively for the bounded motion case. For consistency with existing available code for the series solution, Fortran routines of the Lantoine method and Biscani method are newly implemented and made available. For these implementations, the Lantoine formulation is found to be more efficient than the Biscani formulation in the propagation of a single trajectory segment. However, for applications for which acceptable accuracy may be achieved by orders up to 16, the Pellegrini series solution is shown to be more efficient than either analytical method. The three methods are also compared in the propagation of sequentially connected trajectory segments in a low-thrust orbital transfer maneuver. Separate tests are conducted for discretizations between 8 and 96 segments per orbit. For the series solution, the interaction between order and step size leads to computation times that are nearly invariable to discretization for a given truncation error tolerance over the tested range of discretizations. This finding makes the series solution particularly attractive for mission design applications where problems may require both coarse and fine discretizations. Example applications include the modeling of low-thrust propulsion and time-varying perturbations—problems for which the efficient propagation of relatively short Stark segments is paramount because the disturbing acceleration generally varies continuously.
Manipulation of Squeezed Two-Phonon Bound States using Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakamura Kazutaka G.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-phonon bound states have been excited exclusively in ZnTe(110 via impulsive stimulated second-order Raman scattering, essentially being squeezed states due to phase coherent excitation of two identical components anticorrelated in the wave vector. By using coherent control technique with a pair of femtosecond laser pulses, the manipulation of squeezed states has been demonstrated in which both the amplitude and lifetime of coherent oscillations of squeezed states are modulated, indicating the feasibility to control the quantum noise and the quantum nature of phonon squeezed states, respectively.
Eikenbroek, Oskar Adriaan Louis; Still, Georg J.; van Berkum, E.C.; Kern, Walter
In this paper, we study a static traffic assignment that accounts for the boundedly rational route choice behavior of travelers. This assignment induces uncertainties to the ex-ante evaluation of a policy measure: the boundedly rational assignment is non-unique and the indifference band is an
Generation of bound states of pulses in a SESAM mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser
Bu, Xiangbao; Shi, Yuhang; Xu, Jia; Li, Huijuan; Wang, Pu
2018-06-01
We report on the generation of bound states of pulses in a SESAM mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser around 2415 nm. A thulium-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1908 nm was used as the pump source. Bound states with various pulse separations at different dispersion regimes were obtained. Especially, in the anomalous dispersion regime, vibrating bound state of solitons exhibiting an evolving phase was obtained.
Gate-tunable Andreev bound states in InSb nanowire Josephson junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Ning; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Xu, Hongqi [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Caroff, Philippe [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)
2016-07-01
Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising candidates for investigating Majorana modes in solid-state devices and future technologies of topological quantum manipulation. Here, we report low-temperature transport measurements on an individual InSb nanowire quantum dot coupled to superconducting contacts that exhibit an interplay between the Kondo effects and superconductivity. We observed two types of subgap resonance states within the superconducting gap, which can be attributed to gate-tunable Andreev bound states in Coulomb valleys with different Kondo temperatures. The presence of the gate-tunable 0 and pi junction allow us to investigate the fundamental 0- pi transition. Detailed magnetic field and temperature evolution of level spectroscopy demonstrate different behavior of two types of the Andreev bound states. Our results exhibit that the InSb nanowires can provide a promising platform for exploring phase coherence transport and the effect of spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid device.
Emergent low-energy bound states in the two-orbital Hubbard model
Núñez-Fernández, Y.; Kotliar, G.; Hallberg, K.
2018-03-01
A repulsive Coulomb interaction between electrons in different orbitals in correlated materials can give rise to bound quasiparticle states. We study the nonhybridized two-orbital Hubbard model with intra- (inter)orbital interaction U (U12) and different bandwidths using an improved dynamical mean-field theory numerical technique which leads to reliable spectra on the real energy axis directly at zero temperature. We find that a finite density of states at the Fermi energy in one band is correlated with the emergence of well-defined quasiparticle states at excited energies Δ =U -U12 in the other band. These excitations are interband holon-doublon bound states. At the symmetric point U =U12 , the quasiparticle peaks are located at the Fermi energy, leading to a simultaneous and continuous Mott transition settling a long-standing controversy.
Big-bang nucleosynthesis through bound-state effects with a long-lived slepton in the NMSSM
Kohri, Kazunori; Koike, Masafumi; Konishi, Yasufumi; Ohta, Shingo; Sato, Joe; Shimomura, Takashi; Sugai, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Masato
2014-08-01
We show that the Li problems can be solved in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model where the slepton as the next-to-lightest supersymmetric (SUSY) particle is very long lived. Such a long-lived slepton induces exotic nuclear reactions in big-bang nucleosynthesis, and destroys and produces the Li7 and Li6 nuclei via bound state formation. We study cases where the lightest SUSY particle is singlino-like neutralino and bino-like neutralino to present allowed regions in the parameter space, which is consistent with the observations on the dark matter and the Higgs mass.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Doyon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-01
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-14
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Resolving the Spatial Structures of Bound Hole States in Black Phosphorus.
Qiu, Zhizhan; Fang, Hanyan; Carvalho, Alexandra; Rodin, A S; Liu, Yanpeng; Tan, Sherman J R; Telychko, Mykola; Lv, Pin; Su, Jie; Wang, Yewu; Castro Neto, A H; Lu, Jiong
2017-11-08
Understanding the local electronic properties of individual defects and dopants in black phosphorus (BP) is of great importance for both fundamental research and technological applications. Here, we employ low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (LT-STM) to probe the local electronic structures of single acceptors in BP. We demonstrate that the charge state of individual acceptors can be reversibly switched by controlling the tip-induced band bending. In addition, acceptor-related resonance features in the tunnelling spectra can be attributed to the formation of Rydberg-like bound hole states. The spatial mapping of the quantum bound states shows two distinct shapes evolving from an extended ellipse shape for the 1s ground state to a dumbbell shape for the 2p x excited state. The wave functions of bound hole states can be well-described using the hydrogen-like model with anisotropic effective mass, corroborated by our theoretical calculations. Our findings not only provide new insight into the many-body interactions around single dopants in this anisotropic two-dimensional material but also pave the way to the design of novel quantum devices.
Relativistic description of quark-antiquark bound states. Spin-independent treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gara, A.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.; Nickisch, L.J.
1989-01-01
We present the results of a detailed study of light- and heavy-quark--antiquark bound states in the context of the reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation with static vector and scalar interactions. In the present paper, we consider the spin-averaged spectra. Spin effects are considered in a separate paper. We find that this approach, although apparently successful for the heavy-quark b bar b and c bar c states, fails for the s bar s, l bar l, and light-heavy states. The reasons for the failure are intrinsic to the method, as we discuss. Difficulties are already evident for the c bar c states
Hadamard States for the Klein-Gordon Equation on Lorentzian Manifolds of Bounded Geometry
Gérard, Christian; Oulghazi, Omar; Wrochna, Michał
2017-06-01
We consider the Klein-Gordon equation on a class of Lorentzian manifolds with Cauchy surface of bounded geometry, which is shown to include examples such as exterior Kerr, Kerr-de Sitter spacetime and the maximal globally hyperbolic extension of the Kerr outer region. In this setup, we give an approximate diagonalization and a microlocal decomposition of the Cauchy evolution using a time-dependent version of the pseudodifferential calculus on Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. We apply this result to construct all pure regular Hadamard states (and associated Feynman inverses), where regular refers to the state's two-point function having Cauchy data given by pseudodifferential operators. This allows us to conclude that there is a one-parameter family of elliptic pseudodifferential operators that encodes both the choice of (pure, regular) Hadamard state and the underlying spacetime metric.
In-gap bound states induced by interstitial Fe impurities in iron-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Degang, E-mail: degangzhang@yahoo.com
2015-12-15
Highlights: • We provide an explanation for the interesting STM observation of the robust zero energy bound state on the interstitial Fe impurities in iron-based superconductors. - Abstract: Based on a two-orbit four-band tight binding model, we investigate the low-lying electronic states around the interstitial excess Fe ions in the iron-based superconductors by using T-matrix approach. It is shown that the local density of states at the interstitial Fe impurity (IFI) possesses a strong resonance inside the gap, which seems to be insensitive to the doping and the pairing symmetry in the Fe–Fe plane, while a single or two resonances appear at the nearest neighboring (NN) Fe sites. The location and height of the resonance peaks only depend on the hopping t and the pairing parameter Δ{sub I} between the IFI and the NN Fe sites. These in-gap resonances are originated in the Andreev’s bound states due to the quasiparticle tunneling through the IFI, leading to the change of the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter. When both t and Δ{sub I} are small, this robust zero-energy bound state near the IFI is consistent with recent scanning tunneling microscopy observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, N J A; Minns, R S; Patel, R; Fielding, H H
2008-01-01
The Stark spectra of Rydberg states of NO below the υ + = 0 ionization limit, with principal quantum numbers n = 25-30, have been investigated in the presence of dc electric fields in the range 0-150 V cm -1 . The Stark states were accessed by two-colour, double-resonance excitation via the υ' = 0, N' = 0 rovibrational state of the A 2 Σ + state. The N( 2 D) atoms produced by predissociation were measured by (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, and compared with pulsed-field ionization spectra of the bound Rydberg state population (Patel et al 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1369)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan
2007-01-01
We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains
Bound states of quarks calculated with stochastic integration of the Bethe-Salpeter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salomon, M.
1992-07-01
We have computed the masses, wave functions and sea quark content of mesons in their ground state by integrating the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a stochastic algorithm. This method allows the inclusion of a large set of diagrams. Inspection of the kernel of the equation shows that q-q-bar pairs with similar constituent masses in a singlet spin state exhibit a high bound state which is not present in other pairs. The pion, kaon and eta belongs to this category. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Lower Bounds on the Capacity of the Relay Channel with States at the Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdellatif Zaidi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a state-dependent three-terminal full-duplex relay channel with the channel states noncausally available at only the source, that is, neither at the relay nor at the destination. This model has application to cooperation over certain wireless channels with asymmetric cognition capabilities and cognitive interference relay channels. We establish lower bounds on the channel capacity for both discrete memoryless (DM and Gaussian cases. For the DM case, the coding scheme for the lower bound uses techniques of rate-splitting at the source, decode-and-forward (DF relaying, and a Gel'fand-Pinsker-like binning scheme. In this coding scheme, the relay decodes only partially the information sent by the source. Due to the rate-splitting, this lower bound is better than the one obtained by assuming that the relay decodes all the information from the source, that is, full-DF. For the Gaussian case, we consider channel models in which each of the relay node and the destination node experiences on its link an additive Gaussian outside interference. We first focus on the case in which the links to the relay and to the destination are corrupted by the same interference; and then we focus on the case of independent interferences. We also discuss a model with correlated interferences. For each of the first two models, we establish a lower bound on the channel capacity. The coding schemes for the lower bounds use techniques of dirty paper coding or carbon copying onto dirty paper, interference reduction at the source and decode-and-forward relaying. The results reveal that, by opposition to carbon copying onto dirty paper and its root Costa's initial dirty paper coding (DPC, it may be beneficial in our setup that the informed source uses a part of its power to partially cancel the effect of the interference so that the uninformed relay benefits from this cancellation, and so the source benefits in turn.
Radiative bound-state-formation cross-sections for dark matter interacting via a Yukawa potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petraki, Kalliopi [LPTHE, CNRS, UMR 7589,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris (France); Nikhef,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Postma, Marieke; Vries, Jordy de [Nikhef,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-04-13
We calculate the cross-sections for the radiative formation of bound states by dark matter whose interactions are described in the non-relativistic regime by a Yukawa potential. These cross-sections are important for cosmological and phenomenological studies of dark matter with long-range interactions, residing in a hidden sector, as well as for TeV-scale WIMP dark matter. We provide the leading-order contributions to the cross-sections for the dominant capture processes occurring via emission of a vector or a scalar boson. We offer a detailed inspection of their features, including their velocity dependence within and outside the Coulomb regime, and their resonance structure. For pairs of annihilating particles, we compare bound-state formation with annihilation.
The number of bound states for a discrete Schroedinger operator on ZN, N≥1, lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karachalios, N I
2008-01-01
We consider the discrete Schroedinger operator -Δ d +U in Z N , N≥1 in the case of a potential with negative part in an appropriate l σ -space (decays with an appropriate rate). We present a discrete analog of the method of Li and Yau (1983 Commun. Math. Phys. 88 309-18), proving an explicit upper estimate on the number of bound states N d (0)={j:μ j ≤0}, which is independent of the dimension of the lattice. This is a major difference with the continuous counterpart estimate, which is not valid when N = 1, 2. As a consequence, a dimension-independent smallness criterion for the existence of bound states is derived in contrast to the continuous case as well as to the discrete case of vanishing potential. A short comment is made on possible applications of the results to the study of the dynamics of some particular spatially discrete nonlinear systems
Dissecting zero modes and bound states on BPS vortices in Ginzburg-Landau superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izquierdo, A. Alonso [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca,Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales,Av. Filiberto Villalobos 119, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Fuertes, W. Garcia [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Facultad de Ciencias,Calle Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Guilarte, J. Mateos [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Facultad de Ciencias,Plaza de la Merced, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2016-05-12
In this paper the zero modes of fluctuation of cylindrically symmetric self-dual vortices are analyzed and described in full detail. These BPS topological defects arise at the critical point between Type II and Type I superconductors, or, equivalently, when the masses of the Higgs particle and the vector boson in the Abelian Higgs model are equal. In addition, novel bound states of Higss and vector bosons trapped by the self-dual vortices at their core are found and investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batiz, Zoltan; Gross, Franz
2000-01-01
The momentum conservation sum rule for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) from composite particles is investigated using the general theory of relativity. For two (1+1)-dimensional examples, it is shown that covariant theories automatically satisy the DIS momentum conservation sum rule provided the bound state is covariantly normalized. Therefore, in these cases the two DIS sum rules for baryon conservation and momentum conservation are equivalent. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Bound state solution of the Grassmannian nonlinear sigma model with fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Lima-Santos, A.
1987-11-01
We construct the s matrix for bound state (gauge-invariant) scattering for nonlinear sigma models defined on the manifold SU(N)/S(U(p)x (lower casex)U(n-p)) with fermions. It is not possible to compute gauge non-singlet matrix elements. In the present language they are not submitted to sufficiently many constraints derived from higher conservation laws. (author) [pt
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 96, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 012127. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : non-Hermitian * PT symmetric * bound states Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016
Three-photon laser spectroscopy of even-parity bound states of samarium atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomonaj, O.Yi.; Kudelich, O.Yi.
2002-01-01
The energy spectrum of highly-excited even-parity bound states of a Sm atom, lying in the energy range 34421.1 - 36031.8 cm -1 , is investigated using three-photon resonance-ionization spectroscopy. The energies and total momenta of 48 levels are determined. Eight new levels not observed before are discovered. Thirteen intense two-photon transitions, which can be used in the schemes of Sm atom effective photoionization, are observed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Zachary [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Neuert, Gregor [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University School of Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Munsky, Brian [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)
2016-08-21
Emerging techniques now allow for precise quantification of distributions of biological molecules in single cells. These rapidly advancing experimental methods have created a need for more rigorous and efficient modeling tools. Here, we derive new bounds on the likelihood that observations of single-cell, single-molecule responses come from a discrete stochastic model, posed in the form of the chemical master equation. These strict upper and lower bounds are based on a finite state projection approach, and they converge monotonically to the exact likelihood value. These bounds allow one to discriminate rigorously between models and with a minimum level of computational effort. In practice, these bounds can be incorporated into stochastic model identification and parameter inference routines, which improve the accuracy and efficiency of endeavors to analyze and predict single-cell behavior. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated data for three example models as well as for experimental measurements of a time-varying stochastic transcriptional response in yeast.
Bag-model analyses of proton-antiproton scattering and atomic bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberg, M.A.; Freedman, R.A.; Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.P.; Seckel, D.; Wilets, L.
1983-01-01
We study proton-antiproton (pp-bar ) scattering using the static real potential of Bryan and Phillips outside a cutoff radius rsub0 and two different shapes for the imaginary potential inside a radius R*. These forms, motivated by bag models, are a one-gluon-annihilation potential and a simple geometric-overlap form. In both cases there are three adjustable parameters: the effective bag radius R*, the effective strong coupling constant αsubssup*, and rsub0. There is also a choice for the form of the real potential inside the cutoff radius rsub0. Analysis of the pp-bar scattering data in the laboratory-momentum region 0.4--0.7 GeV/c yields an effective nucleon bag radius R* in the range 0.6--1.1 fm, with the best fit obtained for R* = 0.86 fm. Arguments are presented that the deduced value of R* is likely to be an upper bound on the isolated nucleon bag radius. The present results are consistent with the range of bag radii in current bag models. We have also used the resultant optical potential to calculate the shifts and widths of the sup3Ssub1 and sup1Ssub0 atomic bound states of the pp-bar system. For both states we find upward (repulsive) shifts and widths of about 1 keV. We find no evidence for narrow, strongly bound pp-bar states in our potential model
Nonlinear spectroscopy of the bound exciton states in CdSe single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisitsa, M.P.; Onishchenko, N.A.; Stolyarenko, A.V.; Ananchenko, V.V.; Polishchuk, S.V.
1989-01-01
The study is devoted to the pulsed laser radiation effect on the time-resolved variations of free and bound exciton bands region at the helium temperature. A gradual disappearance of the bound I 2 exciton state is observed with increase of the excitation intensity I in CdSe transmission spectra. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that despite of the shorter life of I 2 excitons as compared to the free ones, the concentration of the centres on which they localize is rather low (≤10 16 cm -3 ) while the evolution of the light-generated electron-hole pairs is such as the most probable recombination through the bound excitons. The transmission spectrum kinetics is studied. The intensity limitation of the laser pulse transmitted through the crystal in the region of the exciton ground state region is shown to be related with two-photon absorption (TPA) in which the exciton state is an intermediate level. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experiment. The estimations show the giant TPA coefficient of ∼10 3 cm/MW. The evolution of photoexcited nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs is studied. The possibility of using CdSe single crystals as spectrum-selective limiters of the laser pulses is shown. (author)
Nonthreshold D-brane bound states and black holes with nonzero entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, M.S.; Cvetic, M.
1997-01-01
We start with Bogomol close-quote nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield- (BPS) saturated configurations of two (orthogonally) intersecting M-branes and use the electromagnetic duality or dimensional reduction along a boost, in order to obtain new p-brane bound states. In the first case the resulting configurations are interpreted as BPS-saturated nonthreshold bound states of intersecting p-branes, and in the second case as p-branes intersecting at angles and their duals. As a by-product we deduce the enhancement of supersymmetry as the angle approaches zero. We also comment on the D-brane theory describing these new bound states, and a connection between the angle and the world-volume gauge fields of the D-brane system. We use these configurations to find new embeddings of the four- and five-dimensional black holes with nonzero entropy, whose entropy now also depends on the angle and world-volume gauge fields. The corresponding D-brane configuration sheds light on the microscopic entropy of such black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Bound-state β decay of a neutron in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.
2005-01-01
The β decay of a neutron into a bound (pe - ) state and an antineutrino in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field (B > or approx. 10 13 G) is considered. The β decay process is treated within the framework of the standard model of weak interactions. A Bethe-Salpeter formalism is employed for description of the bound (pe - ) system in a strong magnetic field. For the field strengths 10 13 18 G the estimate for the ratio of the bound-state decay rate w b and the usual (continuum-state) decay rate w c is derived. It is found that in such strong magnetic fields w b /w c ∼0.1-0.4. This is in contrast to the field-free case, where w b /w c ≅4.2x10 -6 [J. N. Bahcall, Phys. Rev. 124, 495 (1961); L. L. Nemenov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 15, 582 (1972); X. Song, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 13, 1023 (1987)]. The dependence of the ratio w b /w c on the magnetic field strength B exhibits a logarithmiclike behavior. The obtained results can be important for applications in astrophysics and cosmology
The solar elemental abundances problem: Large enhancements in photoionization and bound-free opacity
Pradhan, A.; Nahar, S.
2016-05-01
Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity and radiation transport, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photo-excitations not heretofore considered. In an extensive R-Matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe XVII, with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe XVIII core states from n current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. These findings may explain the ``higher-than-predicted'' monochromatic iron opacity measured recently at the Sandia Z-pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions. The findings will also impact the total atomic photoabsorption and radiation transport in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, such as UV emission from host stars of extra-solar planets. Support: NSF, DOE, Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Andreas
solution approaches: The use of perspective cuts, a second-order cone (SOC) MIP formulation for the case of quadratic costs, and Benders’ decomposition. Our computational results indicate that in many case the branch-and-bound method is superior to both the perspective cut approach, the SOC MIP...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2009-01-01
Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.
A bridge between hyperspherical and integro-differential approaches to the many-body bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre de la Ripelle, M.
1986-01-01
The solution of the Schroedinger equation can be obtained from the one of a system of coupled differential equations generated from the potential harmonic expansion of the bound-state wave function of a system of identical particles governed by two-body central interactions. It is shown that the system of coupled equations can be transformed into an equivalent integro-differential equation. For three bosons in S states this equation is identical to the Faddeev equation as written by Noyes. The integro-differential equations describing the triton for non-central realistic N-N forces are explicitly given. (Auth.)
Trif, Mircea; Dmytruk, Olesia; Bouchiat, Hélène; Aguado, Ramón; Simon, Pascal
2018-02-01
We theoretically study a Josephson junction based on a semiconducting nanowire subject to a time-dependent flux bias. We establish a general density-matrix approach for the dynamical response of the Majorana junction and calculate the resulting flux-dependent susceptibility using both microscopic and effective low-energy descriptions for the nanowire. We find that the diagonal component of the susceptibility, associated with the dynamics of the Majorana state populations, dominates over the standard Kubo contribution for a wide range of experimentally relevant parameters. The diagonal term, explored, in this Rapid Communication, in the context of Majorana physics, allows probing accurately the presence of Majorana bound states in the junction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2009-12-14
Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V V
2012-01-01
Exact and approximate formulas for the upper bound of the relative energy difference of two Gaussian states with a fixed fidelity between them are derived. The reciprocal formulas for the upper bound of the fidelity for the fixed value of the relative energy difference are also obtained. The bounds appear higher for pure states than for mixed ones, and their maximal values correspond to squeezed vacuum states. In particular, to guarantee the relative energy difference less than 10%, for quite arbitrary Gaussian states, the fidelity between them must exceed the level 0.998866. (fast track communication)
Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camacho-Guardian, A.; Dominguez-Castro, G.A.; Paredes, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)
2016-08-15
We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultracold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Marandi, Ahmadreza; Dahl, Joachim; de Klerk, Etienne
2017-01-01
The bounded degree sum-of-squares (BSOS) hierarchy of Lasserre, Toh, and Yang [EURO J. Comput. Optim., 2015] constructs lower bounds for a general polynomial optimization problem with compact feasible set, by solving a sequence of semi-definite programming (SDP) problems. Lasserre, Toh, and Yang
Marandi, Ahmadreza; Dahl, Joachim; De Klerk, E.
2018-01-01
The bounded degree sum-of-squares (BSOS) hierarchy of Lasserre et al. (EURO J Comput Optim 1–31, 2015) constructs lower bounds for a general polynomial optimization problem with compact feasible set, by solving a sequence of semi-definite programming (SDP) problems. Lasserre, Toh, and Yang prove
Signatures of Majorana bound states in one-dimensional topological superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pientka, Falko
2014-01-01
Topological states of matter have fascinated condensed matter physicists for the past three decades. Famous examples include the integer and fractional quantum Hall states exhibiting a spectacular conductance quantization as well as topological insulators in two and three dimensions featuring gapless Dirac fermions at the boundary. Very recently, novel topological phases in superconductors have been subject of intense experimental and theoretical investigation. One-dimensional topological superconductors are particularly intriguing as they host exotic Majorana end states. These are zero-energy bound states with nonabelian exchange statistics potentially useful for topologically protected quantum computing. Recent theoretical and experimental advances have put the realization of Majorana states within reach of current measurement techniques. In this thesis we investigate signatures of Majorana bound states in realistic experiments aiming to improve the theoretical understanding of ongoing experimental efforts and to design novel measurement schemes, which exhibit convincing signatures of Majoranas. In particular we account for nonideal experimental conditions which can lead to qualitatively new features. Possible signatures of Majoranas can be accessed in the Josephson current through a weak link between two topological superconductors although the signatures in the dc Josephson effect are typically obscured by inevitable quasiparticle relaxation in the superconductor. Here we propose a measurement scheme in mesoscopic superconducting rings, where Majorana signatures persist even for infinitely fast relaxation. In a separate project we outline an alternative to the standard Josephson experiment in topological superconductors based on quantum wires. We delineate how Majoranas can be detected, when the Josephson current is induced by noncollinear magnetic fields applied to the two banks of the junction instead of a superconducting phase difference. Another important
Sample Size Bounding and Context Ranking as Approaches to the Human Error Quantification Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reer, B
2004-03-01
The paper describes a technique denoted as Sub-Sample-Size Bounding (SSSB), which is useable for the statistical derivation of context-specific probabilities from data available in existing reports on operating experience. Applications to human reliability analysis (HRA) are emphasised in the presentation of this technique. Exemplified by a sample of 180 abnormal event sequences, the manner in which SSSB can provide viable input for the quantification of errors of commission (EOCs) are outlined. (author)
Sample Size Bounding and Context Ranking as Approaches to the Human Error Quantification Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reer, B.
2004-01-01
The paper describes a technique denoted as Sub-Sample-Size Bounding (SSSB), which is useable for the statistical derivation of context-specific probabilities from data available in existing reports on operating experience. Applications to human reliability analysis (HRA) are emphasised in the presentation of this technique. Exemplified by a sample of 180 abnormal event sequences, the manner in which SSSB can provide viable input for the quantification of errors of commission (EOCs) are outlined. (author)
Two-dimensional electron states bound to an off-plane donor in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno-Alfonso, A; Candido, L; Hai, G-Q
2010-01-01
The states of an electron confined in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and bound to an off-plane donor impurity center, in the presence of a magnetic field, are investigated. The energy levels of the ground state and the first three excited states are calculated variationally. The binding energy and the mean orbital radius of these states are obtained as a function of the donor center position and the magnetic field strength. The limiting cases are discussed for an in-plane donor impurity (i.e. a 2D hydrogen atom) as well as for the donor center far away from the 2D plane in strong magnetic fields, which corresponds to a 2D harmonic oscillator.
Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried
2018-04-01
A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksandrov, L.; Drenska, M.; Karadzhov, D.
1986-01-01
A generalization of the core spline method is given in the case of solution of the general bound state problem for a system of M linear differential equations with coefficients depending on the spectral parameter. The recursion scheme for construction of basic splines is described. The wave functions are expressed as linear combinations of basic splines, which are approximate partial solutions of the system. The spectral parameter (the eigenvalue) is determined from the condition for existence of a nontrivial solution of a (MxM) linear algebraic system at the last collocation point. The nontrivial solutions of this system determine (M - 1) coefficients of the linear spans, expressing the wave functions. The last unknown coefficient is determined from a boundary (or normalization) condition for the system. The computational aspects of the method are discussed, in particular, its concrete algorithmic realization used in the RODSOL program. The numerical solution of the Dirac system for the bound states of a hydrogen atom is given is an example
Topologically protected bound states in one-dimensional Floquet acoustic waveguide systems
Peng, Yu-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Guo; Zhu, Xue-Feng
2018-03-01
Topological manipulation of sound has recently been a hot spot in acoustics due to the fascinating property of defect immune transport. To the best of our knowledge, the studies on one-dimensional (1D) topological acoustic systems hitherto mainly focus on the case of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Here, we show that topologically protected bound states may also exist in 1D periodically modulated acoustic waveguide systems, viz., 1D Floquet topological insulators. The results show that tuning the coupling strength in a waveguide lattice could trigger topological phase transition, which gives rise to topologically protected interface states as we put together two waveguide lattices featured with different topological phases or winding numbers. However, for the combined lattice, input at the waveguides other than the interfacial ones will excite bulk states. We have further verified the robustness of interface bound states against the variation of coupling strengths between the two distinct waveguide lattices. This work extends the scope of topological acoustics and may promote potential applications for acoustic devices with topological functionalities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eappen, K.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Kushwaha, H.S.
2006-01-01
For the assessment of inhalation doses due to radon and its progeny to uranium mine workers, it is necessary to have information on the time integrated gas concentrations and equilibrium factors. Passive single cup dosimeters using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are best suited for this purpose. These generally contain two SSNTDs, one placed inside the cup to measure only the radon gas concentration and other outside the cup for recording tracks due to both radon gas and the progeny species. However, since one obtains only two numbers by this method whereas information on four quantities is required for an unambiguous estimation of dose, there is a need for developing an optimal methodology for extracting information on the equilibrium factors. Several techniques proposed earlier have essentially been based on deterministic approaches, which do not fully take into account all the possible uncertainties in the environmental parameters. Keeping this in view, a simple 'mean of bounds' methodology is proposed to extract equilibrium factors based on their absolute bounds and the associated uncertainties as obtained from general arguments of radon progeny disequilibrium. This may be considered as reasonable estimates of the equilibrium factors in the absence of a knowledge of fluctuation in the environmental variables. The results are compared with those from direct measurements both in the laboratory and in real field situations. In view of the good agreement found between these, it is proposed that the simple mean of bounds estimate may be useful for practical applications in inhalation dosimetry of mine workers
Coherent State Quantization and Moment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Gazeau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Berezin-Klauder-Toeplitz (“anti-Wick” or “coherent state” quantization of the complex plane, viewed as the phase space of a particle moving on the line, is derived from the resolution of the unity provided by the standard (or gaussian coherent states. The construction of these states and their attractive properties are essentially based on the energy spectrum of the harmonic oscillator, that is on natural numbers. We follow in this work the same path by considering sequences of non-negative numbers and their associated “non-linear” coherent states. We illustrate our approach with the 2-d motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. By solving the involved Stieltjes moment problem we construct a family of coherent states for this model. We then proceed with the corresponding coherent state quantization and we show that this procedure takes into account the circle topology of the classical motion.
Full-potential multiple scattering theory with space-filling cells for bound and continuum states.
Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero R
2010-05-12
We present a rigorous derivation of a real-space full-potential multiple scattering theory (FP-MST) that is free from the drawbacks that up to now have impaired its development (in particular the need to expand cell shape functions in spherical harmonics and rectangular matrices), valid both for continuum and bound states, under conditions for space partitioning that are not excessively restrictive and easily implemented. In this connection we give a new scheme to generate local basis functions for the truncated potential cells that is simple, fast, efficient, valid for any shape of the cell and reduces to the minimum the number of spherical harmonics in the expansion of the scattering wavefunction. The method also avoids the need for saturating 'internal sums' due to the re-expansion of the spherical Hankel functions around another point in space (usually another cell center). Thus this approach provides a straightforward extension of MST in the muffin-tin (MT) approximation, with only one truncation parameter given by the classical relation l(max) = kR(b), where k is the electron wavevector (either in the excited or ground state of the system under consideration) and R(b) is the radius of the bounding sphere of the scattering cell. Moreover, the scattering path operator of the theory can be found in terms of an absolutely convergent procedure in the l(max) --> ∞ limit. Consequently, this feature provides a firm ground for the use of FP-MST as a viable method for electronic structure calculations and makes possible the computation of x-ray spectroscopies, notably photo-electron diffraction, absorption and anomalous scattering among others, with the ease and versatility of the corresponding MT theory. Some numerical applications of the theory are presented, both for continuum and bound states.
A search for deeply-bound kaonic nuclear states at J-PARC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakaguchi A.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The J-PARC E15 experiment will be performed to search for the simplest kaonic nuclear bound state, K− pp, by the in-ﬂight 3He(K−,n reaction. The exclusive measurement can be performed by a simultaneous measurement of the missing mass using the primary neutron and the invariant mass via the expected decay, K− pp → Λp → pπ− p. In this report, an overview of the experiment and the preparation status are presented.
Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas; Cima, O.M. del; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA
2002-04-01
By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e - e - interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e - e - binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T c superconductivity. (author)
Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Cima, O.M. del [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2002-04-01
By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e{sup -}e{sup -} interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e{sup -}e{sup -} binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. (author)
A rigorous approach to relativistic corrections of bound state energies for spin-1/2 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gesztesy, F.; Thaller, B.; Grosse, H.
1983-01-01
Under fairly general conditions on the interactions we prove holomorphy of the Dirac resolvent around its nonrelativistic limit. As a consequences, perturbation theory in terms of resolvents (instead of Hamiltonians) yields holomorphy of Dirac eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with respect to c - 1 and a new method of calculating relativistic corrections to bound state energies. Due to a formulation in an abstract setting our method is applicable in many different concrete situation. In particular our approach covers the case of the relavistic hydrogen atom in external electromagnetic fields. (Author)
Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-11-15
We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)
Quantum localization and bound-state formation in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzosi, Roberto; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
We discuss the possibility of exponential quantum localization in systems of ultracold bosonic atoms with repulsive interactions in open optical lattices without disorder. We show that exponential localization occurs in the maximally excited state of the lowest energy band. We establish the conditions under which the presence of the upper energy bands can be neglected, determine the successive stages and the quantum phase boundaries at which localization occurs, and discuss schemes to detect it experimentally by visibility measurements. The discussed mechanism is a particular type of quantum localization that is intuitively understood in terms of the interplay between nonlinearity and a bounded energy spectrum.
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view
Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.
Simple functional-differential equations for the bound-state wave-function components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamuntavicius, G.P.
1986-01-01
The author presents a new method of a direct derivation of differential equations for the wave-function components of identical-particles systems. The method generates in a simple manner all the possible variants of these equations. In some cases they are the differential equations of Faddeev or Yakubovskii. It is shown that the case of the bound states allows to formulate very simple equations for the components which are equivalent to the Schroedinger equation for the complete wave function. The components with a minimal antisymmetry are defined and the corresponding equations are derived. (Auth.)
The ground state energy of a bound polaron in the presence of a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zorkani, I [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Belhissi, R [Faculte des Sciences Dhar Mahraz, Fes (Morocco). Dept. de Physique
1995-09-01
A theoretical calculation for the ground state energy of a bound polaron as a function of the magnetic field is presented. The theory is based on a variational approach using a trial wave function proposed by Devreese et al. in the absence of the magnetic field. It was shown that his function is adequate for all electron - phonon coupling {alpha} and all parameter {gamma}{sub 0} which is the ratio between the L.O. phonon energy and the Colombian one. Analytical results are obtained in the weak coupling limit. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.
Andreev reflection properties in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mu, Jin-Tao; Han, Yu [Physics Department, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Gong, Wei-Jiang, E-mail: gwj@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)
2017-03-15
We investigate the Andreev reflection in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that in such a structure, the Andreev current can be manipulated in a highly efficient way, by the adjustment of bias voltage, dot levels, inter-MBS coupling, and the applied magnetic flux. Besides, the dot-MBS coupling manner is an important factor to modulate the Andreev current, because it influences the period of the conductance oscillation. By discussing the underlying quantum interference mechanism, the Andreev-reflection property is explained in detail. We believe that all the results can assist to understand the nontrivial role of the MBSs in driving the Andreev reflection.
Exact S-matrices for dn+1(2) affine Toda solitons and their bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gandenberger, G.M.; MacKay, N.J.
1995-01-01
We conjecture an exact S-matrix for the scattering of solitons in d n+1 (2) affine Toda field theory in terms of the R-matrix of the quantum group U q (c n (1) ). From this we construct the scattering amplitudes for all scalar bound states (breathers) of the theory. This S-matrix conjecture is justified by detailed examination of its pole structure. We show that a breather-particle identification holds by comparing the S-matrix elements for the lowest breathers with the S-matrix for the quantum particles in real affine Toda field theory, and discuss the implications for various forms of duality. (orig.)
Numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for stationary bound states using nodel theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhijiang; Kong Fanmei; Din Yibin
1987-01-01
An iterative procedure for getting the numerical solution of Schrodinger equation on stationary bound states is introduced. The theoretical foundtion, the practical steps and the method are presented. An example is added at the end. Comparing with other methods, the present one requires less storage, less running time but posesses higher accuracy. It can be run on the personal computer or microcomputer with 256 K memory and 16 bit word length such as IBM/PC, MC68000/83/20, PDP11/23 etc
Analysis of bound-state spectra near the threshold of neutral particle interaction potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ou Fang; Cao Zhuangqi; Chen Jianping; Xu Junjie
2006-01-01
It is understood that conventional semiclassical approximations deteriorate towards threshold in a typical neutral particle interaction potential which is important for the study of ultra-cold atoms and molecules. In this Letter we give an example of the Lennard-Jones potential with tuning of the strength parameter on the basis of the analytical transfer matrix (ATM) method. Highly accurate quantum mechanical results, such as number of the bound states, energy level density and the eigenvalues with extremely low energies have been derived
Monopole-fermion and dyon-fermion bound states. Pt. 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, P.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Schultz, C.L.; Wu, T.T.
1985-02-01
We present explicit, approximate, remarkably precise results for the Kazama-Yang hamiltonian, which describes a Dirac monopole interacting with a spin-1/2 fermion that has an extra magnetic moment. The results are valid for bound states of angular momentum j >= Zvertical strokeegvertical stroke+1/2, where the radial wave functions are determined by four coupled differential equations. These equations have been solved analytically for M - E << M, which is a limit of considerable practical interest. Binding energies and wave functions are given. (orig.)
Bound states for square well potentials extending to infinity in D ≥ 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupertsberger, H.
1992-01-01
It is well known that quantum mechanics allows the penetration into classically forbidden regions (tunneling). Less well known seems to be the fact that in some sense the converse is true also. Potentials with classically allowed regions where a particle can move freely to infinity can nevertheless lead to bound states in quantum mechanics due to the stringent requirements of the boundary conditions, thus forbidding an escape to infinity. This effect is demonstrated by using an obvious generalization of the well known one-dimensional (D = 1) square well potential to arbitray space dimensions. (author)
Computation of Quantum Bound States on a Singly Punctured Two-Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar-Tim Chan; Zainuddin Hishamuddin; Molladavoudi Saeid
2013-01-01
We study a quantum mechanical system on a singly punctured two-torus with bound states described by the Maass waveforms which are eigenfunctions of the hyperbolic Laplace—Beltrami operator. Since the discrete eigenvalues of the Maass cusp form are not known analytically, they are solved numerically using an adapted algorithm of Hejhal and Then to compute Maass cusp forms on the punctured two-torus. We report on the computational results of the lower lying eigenvalues for the punctured two-torus and find that they are doubly-degenerate. We also visualize the eigenstates of selected eigenvalues using GridMathematica
Mutual friction in superfluid 3He: Effects of bound states in the vortex core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopnin, N.B.; Salomaa, M.M.
1991-01-01
The motion of singular quantized vortex lines in superfluid 3 He is considered for the A and B phases. Mutual friction is calculated within a microscopic quantum-mechanical Green's-function formalism, valid for dynamical processes. This enables us to include all the different physical phenomena in a unified approach. We consider axisymmetric vortices for temperatures considerably lower than T c . In this regime, the main contribution to the force exerted on a moving vortex originates from the localized Fermi excitations occupying quantized energy eigenstates in the vortex core. These 3 He quasiparticle states are similar to the quantized motion of charge in a magnetic field; thus vortex motion in 3 He resembles the Hall phenomenon in metals. The outcome is that the viscous drag cannot simply be expressed through the cross sections for 3 He quasiparticles scattering off the vortex, but is rather due to the mutual interactions between the localized quasiparticles and the normal excitations. Our calculations conform with the experimental values for the mutual-friction parameters. We also discuss vortex oscillations, and predict that strong dissipation should be observed at a resonant frequency of about 10 kHz, owing to transitions between the bound-state energy levels. This effect could be used for detecting and measuring the quantization of the bound-state spectrum for superfluid 3 He in the vortex-core matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shangchia Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of distributed decision making, different agents share a common processing resource, and each agent wants to minimize a cost function depending on its jobs only. These issues arise in different application contexts, including real-time systems, integrated service networks, industrial districts, and telecommunication systems. Motivated by its importance on practical applications, we consider two-agent scheduling on a single machine where the objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that an upper bound is allowed the total completion time of the jobs for the second agent. For solving the proposed problem, a branch-and-bound and three simulated annealing algorithms are developed for the optimal solution, respectively. In addition, the extensive computational experiments are also conducted to test the performance of the algorithms.
New rational extensions of solvable potentials with finite bound state spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandati, Yves
2012-01-01
Using the disconjugacy properties of the Schrödinger equation, we develop a new type of generalized SUSY QM partnership which allows generating new solvable rational extensions for translationally shape invariant potentials having a finite bound state spectrum. For this we prolong the dispersion relation relating the energy to the quantum number out of the physical domain until a disconjugacy sector. By Darboux–Bäcklund Transformations built on these prolonged states we obtain new regular isospectral extensions of the initial potential. We give the spectra of these extensions in terms of new orthogonal polynomials and study their shape invariance properties. -- Highlights: ► New solvable quantum potentials. ► SUSY quantum partnership generalized to excited states. ► Based on disconjugacy theorems and asymptotic behaviour. ► Exact spectrum in terms of new orthogonal polynomials. ► Enlarged shape invariance property.
NLIE of Dirichlet sine-Gordon model for boundary bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Changrim; Bajnok, Zoltan; Palla, Laszlo; Ravanini, Francesco
2008-01-01
We investigate boundary bound states of sine-Gordon model on the finite-size strip with Dirichlet boundary conditions. For the purpose we derive the nonlinear integral equation (NLIE) for the boundary excited states from the Bethe ansatz equation of the inhomogeneous XXZ spin 1/2 chain with boundary imaginary roots discovered by Saleur and Skorik. Taking a large volume (IR) limit we calculate boundary energies, boundary reflection factors and boundary Luescher corrections and compare with the excited boundary states of the Dirichlet sine-Gordon model first considered by Dorey and Mattsson. We also consider the short distance limit and relate the IR scattering data with that of the UV conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.
2016-01-01
An exactly solvable potential model is used to study the possibility of deducing information about the features of bound states for the system under consideration (binding energies and asymptotic normalization coefficients) on the basis of data on continuum states. The present analysis is based on an analytic approximation and on the subsequent continuation of a partial-wave scattering function from the region of positive energies to the region of negative energies. Cases where the system has one or two bound states are studied. The α+d and α+"1"2C systems are taken as physical examples. In the case of one bound state, the scattering function is a smooth function of energy, and the procedure of its analytic continuation for different polynomial approximations leads to close results, which are nearly coincident with exact values. In the case of two bound states, the scattering function has two poles—one in the region of positive energies and the other in the region of negative energies between the energies corresponding to the two bound states in question. Padéapproximants are used to reproduce these poles. The inclusion of these poles proves to be necessary for correctly describing the properties of the bound states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, J.F.; Coutinho, F.A.B.; Malta, C.P.
1985-01-01
It is shown that critical long distance behaviour for a two-body potential, defining the finiteness or infinitude of the number of negative eigenvalues of Schrodinger operators in ν-dimensions, are given by v sub(k) (r) = - [ν-2/2r] 2 - 1/(2rlnr) 2 + ... - 1/(2rlnr.lnlnr...ln sub(k)r) 2 where k=0,1... for ν not=2 and k=1,2... if ν=2. This result is a consequence of logarithmic corrections to an inequality known as Uncertainty Principle. If the continuum threshold in the N-body problem is defined by a two-cluster break up our results generate corrections to the existing sufficient conditions for the existence of infinitely many bound states. (Author) [pt
Aspects of Majorana Bound States in One-Dimensional Systems with and without Time-Reversal Symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölms, Konrad Udo Hannes
In recent years there has been a lot of interest in topological phases of matter. Unlike conventional phases of matter, topological phases are not distinguished by symmetries, but by so-called topological invariants which have more subtle physical implications. It comes therefore as no surprise...... phase the edge excitations are called Majorana bound states and they are interesting in themselves. There has been a lot of eort in detecting Majorana bound states in the lab. One reason is that these excitations provide evidence that a system is indeed in a topological phase. It is therefore required...... to have unambiguous experimental evidence for the presence Majorana bound states, which in turn requires a good theoretical understanding of the physics associated with Majorana bound states. In particular for the most common experimental methods that are used to study them, the signature of Majorana...
Efimov states and bound state properties in selected nuclear and molecular three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, H.S.
1978-01-01
The search is made among selected three-body systems for possible Efimov state behavior. In order to carry out this analysis of phenomenological potentials a new mathematical approach, the FCM (Faddeev-coordinate-momentum) technique, is developed. The analysis then proceeds through the framework of the Faddeev equations by employing the UPE (unitary pole expansion) to reduce these equations to numerically feasible form. The systems chosen for analysis are the 4 He trimer and the three-α model of 12 C. Efimov states are not found in 12 C, thus answering speculation among nuclear theorists. The 4 He trimer, on the other hand, manifests Efimov states for each potential considered and the characteristics of these states are extensively analyzed. Since Efimov states are predicted by all of the phenomenological potentials considered, these states would seem to be a realistically fundamental property of the 4 He trimer system
Chen, Jiao-Kai
2018-04-01
We present one reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the bound states composed of two off-mass-shell constituents. Both the relativistic effects and the virtuality effects can be considered in the obtained spinless virtuality distribution equation. The eigenvalues of the spinless virtuality distribution equation are perturbatively calculated and the bound states e+e-, μ+μ-, τ+τ-, μ+e-, and τ+e- are discussed.
The light bound states of N=1 supersymmetric SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice
Ali, Sajid; Bergner, Georg; Gerber, Henning; Giudice, Pietro; Montvay, Istvan; Münster, Gernot; Piemonte, Stefano; Scior, Philipp
2018-03-01
In this article we summarise our results from numerical simulations of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(3). We use the formulation of Curci and Veneziano with clover-improved Wilson fermions. The masses of various bound states have been obtained at different values of the gluino mass and gauge coupling. Extrapolations to the limit of vanishing gluino mass indicate that the bound states form mass-degenerate supermultiplets.
Fermionic bound states in Minkowski space. Light-cone singularities and structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paula, Wayne de; Frederico, Tobias; Pimentel, Rafael [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Dept. de Fisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salme, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Viviani, Michele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)
2017-11-15
The Bethe-Salpeter equation for two-body bound system with spin 1/2 constituent is addressed directly in the Minkowski space. In order to accomplish this aim we use the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and exploit the formal tool represented by the exact projection onto the null-plane. This formal step allows one (i) to deal with end-point singularities one meets and (ii) to find stable results, up to strongly relativistic regimes, which settle in strongly bound systems. We apply this technique to obtain the numerical dependence of the binding energies upon the coupling constants and the light-front amplitudes for a fermion-fermion 0{sup +} state with interaction kernels, in ladder approximation, corresponding to scalar-, pseudoscalar- and vector-boson exchanges, respectively. After completing the numerical survey of the previous cases, we extend our approach to a quark-antiquark system in 0{sup -} state, taking both constituent-fermion and exchanged-boson masses, from lattice calculations. Interestingly, the calculated light-front amplitudes for such a mock pion show peculiar signatures of the spin degrees of freedom. (orig.)
Semi-inclusive B->K(K*)X decays with initial bound state effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Jin, Changhao; Ma, J. P.
2001-01-01
The effects of the initial b quark bound state for the semi-inclusive decays B->K(K * )X are studied using light cone expansion and heavy quark effective theory methods. We find that the initial bound state effects on the branching ratios and CP asymmetries are small. In the light cone expansion approach, the CP-averaged branching ratios are increased by about 2% with respect to the free b-quark decay. For {bar B} 0 ->K - (K *- )X, the CP-averaged branching ratios are sensitive to the phase γ and the CP asymmetry can be as large as 7% (14%), whereas for B - ->{bar K} 0 ({bar K} *0 )X the CP-averaged branching ratios are not sensitive to γ and the CP asymmetries are small ( -4 [(0.25 - 2.0)x10 -4 ] for {bar B} 0 ->K - (K *- )X and (0.77 - 0.84)x10 -4 [(0.67 - 0.74)x10 -4 ] for B - ->{bar K} 0 ({bar K} *0 )X, depending on the value of the CP violating phase γ. In the heavy quark effective theory approach, we find that the branching ratios are decreased by about 10% and the CP asymmetries are not affected. These predictions can be tested in the near future
Interband type-II miniband-to-bound state diode lasers for the midinfrared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermelstein, C.; Schmitz, J.; Kiefer, R.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.
2004-01-01
A design for midinfrared diode lasers based on interband type-II miniband-to-bound state transitions is proposed and has been demonstrated experimentally. Type-II miniband-to-bound state laser structures emitting at 3.25 μm with active regions consisting of 5 and 10 W periods were grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy and processed into ridge waveguide lasers. Substrate-side down mounted devices with a 10 period active region and uncoated facets could be operated in continuous-wave (cw) mode up to 185 K and as high as 260 K in pulsed mode. A high characteristic temperature of 100 K has been achieved for heat-sink temperatures below 140 K, decreasing to 33 K for the 140 to 185 K interval. At 110 K, a 5 period laser structure exhibited a threshold current density of 177 A/cm 2 and a slope efficiency of 61 mW/A. Single-ended output powers of 144 mW in cw mode and exceeding 330 mW in pulsed operation were obtained for a substrate-side down mounted 5 period diode laser with high-reflection/antireflection coated mirror facets, operated at 110 K
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view
Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.
Deeply quasi-bound state in single- and double-K nuclear clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marri, S.; Kalantari, S.Z. [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili, J. [Shahrekord University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-15
New calculations of the quasi-bound state positions in K{sup -}K{sup -}pp kaonic nuclear cluster are performed using non-relativistic four-body Faddeev-type equations in AGS form. The corresponding separable approximation for the integral kernels in the three- and four-body kaonic clusters is obtained by using the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion procedure. Different phenomenological models of anti KN-πΣ potentials with one- and two-pole structure of Λ(1405) resonance and separable potential models for anti K- anti K and nucleon-nucleon interactions, are used. The dependence of the resulting four-body binding energy on models of anti KN-πΣ interaction is investigated. We obtained the binding energy of the K{sup -}K{sup -}pp quasi-bound state ∝ 80-94 MeV with the phenomenological anti KN potentials. The width is about ∝ 5-8 MeV for the two-pole models of the interaction, while the one-pole potentials give ∝ 24-31 MeV width. (orig.)
Relativistic actions for bound-states and applications in the meson spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva Carvalho, Hendly da.
1991-08-01
We study relativistic equations for bound states of two-body systems using Dirac's constraint formalism and supersymmetry. The two-body system can be of spinless particles, one of them spinning and the other one spinless, or both of them spinning. The interaction is described by scalar, timelike four-vector and spacelike four-vector potentials under Lorentz transformations. As an application we use the relativistic wave equation for two scalar particles and calculate the mass spectra of the mesons treating them as spinless quark-antiquark bound states. The interaction potential in this case is a convenient adaptation of the potential employed in non-relativistic calculations. Finally, we compare our results with more recent experimental data and with theoretical results obtained with the same potential used by us but with a non-relativistic wave equation. We also compare our results with results obtained with the relativistic wave equation but with a different interaction potential. (author). 38 refs, 9 figs, 8 tabs
A comparison of lower bounds for the symmetric circulant traveling salesman problem
de Klerk, E.; Dobre, C.
2011-01-01
When the matrix of distances between cities is symmetric and circulant, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) reduces to the so-called symmetric circulant traveling salesman problem (SCTSP), that has applications in the design of reconfigurable networks, and in minimizing wallpaper waste. The
Quartified leptonic color, bound states, and future electron–positron collider
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corey Kownacki
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The [SU(3]4 quartification model of Babu, Ma, and Willenbrock (BMW, proposed in 2003, predicts a confining leptonic color SU(2 gauge symmetry, which becomes strong at the keV scale. It also predicts the existence of three families of half-charged leptons (hemions below the TeV scale. These hemions are confined to form bound states which are not so easy to discover at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. However, just as J/ψ and ϒ appeared as sharp resonances in e−e+ colliders of the 20th century, the corresponding ‘hemionium’ states are expected at a future e−e+ collider of the 21st century.
Optimality Bounds for a Variational Relaxation of the Image Partitioning Problem
Lellmann, Jan; Lenzen, Frank; Schnö rr, Christoph
2012-01-01
We consider a variational convex relaxation of a class of optimal partitioning and multiclass labeling problems, which has recently proven quite successful and can be seen as a continuous analogue of Linear Programming (LP) relaxation methods
SOCP relaxation bounds for the optimal subset selection problem applied to robust linear regression
Flores, Salvador
2015-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of finding the globally optimal subset of h elements from a larger set of n elements in d space dimensions so as to minimize a quadratic criterion, with an special emphasis on applications to computing the Least Trimmed Squares Estimator (LTSE) for robust regression. The computation of the LTSE is a challenging subset selection problem involving a nonlinear program with continuous and binary variables, linked in a highly nonlinear fashion. The selection of a ...
Greedy solution of ill-posed problems: error bounds and exact inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denis, L; Lorenz, D A; Trede, D
2009-01-01
The orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a greedy algorithm to solve sparse approximation problems. Sufficient conditions for exact recovery are known with and without noise. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the OMP for the solution of ill-posed inverse problems in general, and in particular for two deconvolution examples from mass spectrometry and digital holography, respectively. In sparse approximation problems one often has to deal with the problem of redundancy of a dictionary, i.e. the atoms are not linearly independent. However, one expects them to be approximatively orthogonal and this is quantified by the so-called incoherence. This idea cannot be transferred to ill-posed inverse problems since here the atoms are typically far from orthogonal. The ill-posedness of the operator probably causes the correlation of two distinct atoms to become huge, i.e. that two atoms look much alike. Therefore, one needs conditions which take the structure of the problem into account and work without the concept of coherence. In this paper we develop results for the exact recovery of the support of noisy signals. In the two examples, mass spectrometry and digital holography, we show that our results lead to practically relevant estimates such that one may check a priori if the experimental setup guarantees exact deconvolution with OMP. Especially in the example from digital holography, our analysis may be regarded as a first step to calculate the resolution power of droplet holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Stojanović
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The continuous planar facility location problem with the connected region of feasible solutions bounded by arcs is a particular case of the constrained Weber problem. This problem is a continuous optimization problem which has a nonconvex feasible set of constraints. This paper suggests appropriate modifications of four metaheuristic algorithms which are defined with the aim of solving this type of nonconvex optimization problems. Also, a comparison of these algorithms to each other as well as to the heuristic algorithm is presented. The artificial bee colony algorithm, firefly algorithm, and their recently proposed improved versions for constrained optimization are appropriately modified and applied to the case study. The heuristic algorithm based on modified Weiszfeld procedure is also implemented for the purpose of comparison with the metaheuristic approaches. Obtained numerical results show that metaheuristic algorithms can be successfully applied to solve the instances of this problem of up to 500 constraints. Among these four algorithms, the improved version of artificial bee algorithm is the most efficient with respect to the quality of the solution, robustness, and the computational efficiency.
Diabetes Among United States-Bound Adult Refugees, 2009-2014.
Benoit, Stephen R; Gregg, Edward W; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A
2016-12-01
We reported diabetes prevalence among all US-bound adult refugees and assessed factors associated with disease. We analyzed overseas medical evaluations of US-bound refugees from 2009 through 2014 by using CDC's Electronic Disease Notification System. We identified refugees with diabetes by searching for diabetes-related keywords and medications in examination forms with text-parsing techniques. Age-adjusted prevalence rates were reported and factors associated with diabetes were assessed by using logistic regression. Of 248,850 refugees aged ≥18 years examined over 5 years, 5767 (2.3 %) had diabetes. Iraqis had the highest crude (5.1 %) and age-adjusted (8.9 %) prevalence of disease. Higher age group and body mass index were associated with diabetes in all regions. Diabetes prevalence varied by refugee nationality. Although the absolute rates were lower than rates in the United States, the prevalence is still concerning given the younger age of the population and their need for health services upon resettlement.
Bound states of water in gelatin discriminated by near-infrared spectroscopy
Otsuka, Yukiko; Shirakashi, Ryo; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko
2017-11-01
By near-infrared spectroscopy, we classified water molecules in hydrated gelatin membranes in a drying process. Absorbance spectra in the frequency range of 4500-5500 cm-1 were resolved into three peaks, S0, S1, and S2, that correspond to water molecules with different hydrogen bond states. From the areas of the absorbance peaks as a function of the water content of gelatin, together with the information on the freezing properties of water measured by differential scanning calorimetry, we found that, when the water content is less than 20%, free water disappears and only weakly and strongly bound waters remain. We also found that the weakly bound water consists of S0, S1, and S2 water molecules with a simple composition of \\text{S}0:\\text{S}1:\\text{S}2 ≈ 1:2:0. Using this information, most of the freezable water was determined to be free water. Our classification provides a simple method of estimating the retention and freezing properties of processed foods or drugs by infrared spectroscopy.
Inquiry for the conversion of the (π+ - π-) bound state into two π0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunatyan, G.G.
1998-01-01
In the work presented, the decay of the pionium, that is the (π + π - ) bound state, into two π 0 is studied, the ππ-interaction causing this transition being described by the underlying Weinberg Lagrangian. The calculation with such a ππ-Lagrangian being carried out, the π-meson size r 0 emerges to be allowed for, and this quantity occurs in the final result. The bound (π + π - )-system itself is presumed to be due to the instantaneous Coulomb interaction and is treated consistently nonrelativistically, the Bethe-Salpeter equation being utilized. When calculating, the terms to the lowest order in the fine structure constant α and the terms ∼ ln (r 0 ) are retained. The obtained pionium lifetime τ is thought to be compatible with the conceivable future experimental data. The dependence of the results on the effective Lagrangian parameters is visualized. The investigation carried out persuades us that it is just the complete form of the genuine ππ-interaction that determines the pionium lifetime , but not much simply the ππ scattering lengths. The inquiry into pionium decaying promotes to specify the validity of the various ππ-interaction descriptions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datta, Nilanjana, E-mail: n.datta@statslab.cam.ac.uk [Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu, E-mail: Min-Hsiu.Hsieh@uts.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Oppenheim, Jonathan, E-mail: j.oppenheim@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science and Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119615 (Singapore)
2016-05-15
State redistribution is the protocol in which given an arbitrary tripartite quantum state, with two of the subsystems initially being with Alice and one being with Bob, the goal is for Alice to send one of her subsystems to Bob, possibly with the help of prior shared entanglement. We derive an upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of achieving state redistribution with a given finite accuracy. In proving our result, we also obtain an upper bound on the quantum communication cost of this protocol in the one-shot setting, by using the protocol of coherent state merging as a primitive.
On a branch-and-bound approach for a Huff-like Stackelberg location problem
Sáiz Pérez, M.E.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Fernández, J.; Pelegrin, B.
2009-01-01
Modelling the location decision of two competing firms that intend to build a new facility in a planar market can be done by a Huff-like Stackelberg location problem. In a Huff-like model, the market share captured by a firm is given by a gravity model determined by distance calculations to
Which solutions of the third problem for the Poisson equation are bounded?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Medková, Dagmar
-, č. 6 (2004), s. 501-510 ISSN 1085-3375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : Poisson equation * Robin problem * boundedness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A Branch-and-bound Algorithm for the Network Diversion Problem
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Erken, Ozgur
2002-01-01
...). We develop and test a specialized branch-and-hound algorithm for this NP-complete problem. The algorithm is based on partitioning the solution space with respect to edges in certain s-t cuts and yields a non- standard, non-binary enumeration tree...
Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
1990-06-01
Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of {approx}500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx}18{degree} and 160{degree}. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from {approx}1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs.
Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, S.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B.
1990-01-01
Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of ∼500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between ∼18 degree and 160 degree. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from ∼1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs
Few-Body Techniques Using Coordinate Space for Bound and Continuum States
Garrido, E.
2018-05-01
These notes are a short summary of a set of lectures given within the frame of the "Critical Stability of Quantum Few-Body Systems" International School held in the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems (Dresden). The main goal of the lectures has been to provide the basic ingredients for the description of few-body systems in coordinate space. The hyperspherical harmonic and the adiabatic expansion methods are introduced in detail, and subsequently used to describe bound and continuum states. The expressions for the cross sections and reaction rates for three-body processes are derived. The case of resonant scattering and the complex scaling method as a tool to obtain the resonance energy and width is also introduced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bednarski, Henryk; Spałek, Józef
2014-01-01
We extend the theory of the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in diluted paramagnetic semiconductors to the situation with a ferromagnetic phase transition. This is achieved by including the classical Gaussian fluctuations of magnetization from the quartic (non-Gaussian) term in the effective Ginzburg–Landau Hamiltonian for the spins. Within this approach, we find a ferromagnetically ordered state within the BMP in the temperature range well above the Curie temperature for the host magnetic semiconductor. Numerical results are compared directly with the recently available experimental data for the ferromagnetic semiconductor GdN. The agreement is excellent, given the simplicity of our model, and is because the polaron size (≃1.4 nm) encompasses a relatively large but finite number (N≈400) of quasiclassical spins S=7/2 coming from Gd 3+ ions. The presence of BMP invalidates the notion of critical temperature and thus makes the incorporation of classical Gaussian fluctuations sufficient to realistically describe the situation. (paper)
Relativistic description of quark-antiquark bound states. II. Spin-dependent treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gara, A.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.
1990-01-01
We present the results of a study of light- and heavy-quark--antiquark bound states in the context of the reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation, including the full spin dependence. We obtain good fits to the observed spin splittings in the b bar b and c bar c systems using a short-distance single-gluon-exchange interaction, and a long-distance scalar confining interaction. However, we cannot obtain satisfactory fits to the centers of gravity of the b bar b and c bar c spin multiplets at the same time, and the splittings calculated for q bar Q mesons containing the lighter quarks are very poor. The difficulty appears to be intrinsic to the reduced Salpeter equation for reasons which we discuss
Exact spinor-scalar bound states in a quantum field theory with scalar interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shpytko, Volodymyr; Darewych, Jurij
2001-01-01
We study two-particle systems in a model quantum field theory in which scalar particles and spinor particles interact via a mediating scalar field. The Lagrangian of the model is reformulated by using covariant Green's functions to solve for the mediating field in terms of the particle fields. This results in a Hamiltonian in which the mediating-field propagator appears directly in the interaction term. It is shown that exact two-particle eigenstates of the Hamiltonian can be determined. The resulting relativistic fermion-boson equation is shown to have Dirac and Klein-Gordon one-particle limits. Analytical solutions for the bound state energy spectrum are obtained for the case of massless mediating fields
Electronic bound states in parity-preserving QED3 applied to high-Tc cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, H.R.; Cima, O.M. Del; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas
2001-08-01
We consider a parity-preserving QED 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for the evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential underlying high-T e superconductivity. The fact that resulting potential, - C s K o (Mr), is non-confining and weak (in the sense of Kato) strongly suggests the mechanism of pair-condensation. This potential, compatible with an s-wave order parameters, is then applied to the Schrodinger equation for the sake of numerical calculations, thereby enforcing the existence of bound states. The results worked out by means of our theoretical framework are checked by considering a number of phenomenological data extracted from different copper oxide superconductors. The agreement may motivate a deeper analysis of our model viewing an application to quasi-planar cuprate superconductors. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 1-10 meV for the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)
Two-magnon bound state causes ultrafast thermally induced magnetisation switching
Barker, J.; Atxitia, U.; Ostler, T. A.; Hovorka, O.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Chantrell, R. W.
2013-01-01
There has been much interest recently in the discovery of thermally induced magnetisation switching using femtosecond laser excitation, where a ferrimagnetic system can be switched deterministically without an applied magnetic field. Experimental results suggest that the reversal occurs due to intrinsic material properties, but so far the microscopic mechanism responsible for reversal has not been identified. Using computational and analytic methods we show that the switching is caused by the excitation of two-magnon bound states, the properties of which are dependent on material factors. This discovery allows us to accurately predict the onset of switching and the identification of this mechanism will allow new classes of materials to be identified or designed for memory devices in the THz regime. PMID:24253110
Calculations of antiproton-nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris N bar N potential
Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří
2018-01-01
An optical potential constructed using the p bar N scattering amplitudes derived from the 2009 version of the Paris N bar N potential is applied in calculations of p bar quasi-bound states in selected nuclei across the periodic table. A proper self-consistent procedure for treating energy dependence of the amplitudes in a nucleus appears crucial for evaluating p bar binding energies and widths. Particular attention is paid to the role of P-wave amplitudes. While the P-wave potential nearly does not affect calculated p bar binding energies, it reduces considerably the corresponding widths. The Paris S-wave potential supplemented by a phenomenological P-wave term yields in dynamical calculations p bar binding energies Bpbar ≈ 200 MeV and widths Γpbar ∼ 200- 230 MeV, which is very close to the values obtained within the RMF model consistent with p bar -atom data.
Bound states in the continuum on periodic structures surrounded by strong resonances
Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan
2018-04-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are trapped or guided modes with their frequencies in the frequency intervals of the radiation modes. On periodic structures, a BIC is surrounded by a family of resonant modes with their quality factors approaching infinity. Typically the quality factors are proportional to 1 /|β - β*|2 , where β and β* are the Bloch wave vectors of the resonant modes and the BIC, respectively. But for some special BICs, the quality factors are proportional to 1 /|β - β*|4 . In this paper, a general condition is derived for such special BICs on two-dimensional periodic structures. As a numerical example, we use the general condition to calculate special BICs, which are antisymmetric standing waves, on a periodic array of circular cylinders, and show their dependence on parameters. The special BICs are important for practical applications, because they produce resonances with large quality factors for a very large range of β .
Bound state properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene quantum dots
Xiong, Haonan; Jiang, Wentao; Song, Yipu; Duan, Luming
2017-06-01
The few-layer graphene quantum dot provides a promising platform for quantum computing with both spin and valley degrees of freedom. Gate-defined quantum dots in particular can avoid noise from edge disorders. In connection with the recent experimental efforts (Song et al 2016 Nano Lett. 16 6245), we investigate the bound state properties of trilayer graphene (TLG) quantum dots (QDs) through numerical simulations. We show that the valley degeneracy can be lifted by breaking the time reversal symmetry through the application of a perpendicular magnetic field. The spectrum under such a potential exhibits a transition from one group of Landau levels to another group, which can be understood analytically through perturbation theory. Our results provide insight into the transport property of TLG QDs, with possible applications to study of spin qubits and valleytronics in TLG QDs.
Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states
Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.
2017-11-01
Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.
Surviving Rates of Graphs with Bounded Treewidth for the Firefighter Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Leizhen; Cheng, Yongxi; Verbin, Elad
2010-01-01
The firefighter problem is the following discrete-time game on a graph. Initially, a fire starts at a vertex of the graph. In each round, a firefighter protects one vertex not yet on fire, and then the fire spreads to all unprotected neighbors of the vertices on fire. The objective of the firefig...... of Cai and Wang [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 23 (2009), pp. 1814-1826] in affirmative....
Majorana bound state of a Bogoliubov-de Gennes-Dirac Hamiltonian in arbitrary dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imura, Ken-Ichiro, E-mail: imura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, 739-8530 (Japan); Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori [Department of Physics, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan)
2012-01-11
We study a Majorana zero-energy state bound to a hedgehog-like point defect in a topological superconductor described by a Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG)-Dirac type effective Hamiltonian. We first give an explicit wave function of a Majorana state by solving the BdG equation directly, from which an analytical index can be obtained. Next, by calculating the corresponding topological index, we show a precise equivalence between both indices to confirm the index theorem. Finally, we apply this observation to reexamine the role of another topological invariant, i.e., the Chern number associated with the Berry curvature proposed in the study of protected zero modes along the lines of topological classification of insulators and superconductors. We show that the Chern number is equivalent to the topological index, implying that it indeed reflects the number of zero-energy states. Our theoretical model belongs to the BDI class from the viewpoint of symmetry, whereas the spatial dimension d of the system is left arbitrary throughout the paper.
Λ(1405) resonance in baryon-meson scattering with a bound state embedded in the continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Sachiko; Shimizu, Kiyotaka
2009-01-01
We investigate Λ(1405) as a resonance in a coupled-channels baryon-meson (Σπ-NK-Λη) scattering with a 'bound state embedded in the continuum' (BSEC). For this purpose, we solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation including a BSEC with the semirelativistic kinematics in the momentum space. This BSEC is introduced by hand, as a state not originated from a simple baryon-meson system. We assume it comes from the three-quark state. There appears a resonance in the Σπ scattering below the NK threshold without introducing a BSEC when the NK channel has a strong attraction, just like the chiral unitary approach. Even if the baryon-meson interaction is weakened by using a lower-momentum cut-off parameter, a resonance also appears around 1405 MeV when a BSEC is introduced. The corresponding peak also has a large width, and the NK scattering length is well reproduced. The interaction whose channel dependence is the same as the one originated from the color-magnetic interaction, where no NK attraction exists, also gives a broad peak with help of a BSEC. In order to reproduce the observed NK scattering length, the calculation including a BSEC seems to be preferable. Our calculation gives an appropriate NK scattering length when the BSEC contribution to the resonance is roughly half that of the NK channel.
Surface Andreev Bound States and Odd-Frequency Pairing in Topological Superconductor Junctions
Tanaka, Yukio; Tamura, Shun
2018-04-01
In this review, we summarize the achievement of the physics of surface Andreev bound states (SABS) up to now. The route of this activity has started from the physics of SABS of unconventional superconductors where the pair potential has a sign change on the Fermi surface. It has been established that SABS can be regarded as a topological edge state with topological invariant defined in the bulk Hamiltonian. On the other hand, SABS accompanies odd-frequency pairing like spin-triplet s-wave or spin-singlet p-wave. In a spin-triplet superconductor junction, induced odd-frequency pairing can penetrate into a diffusive normal metal (DN) attached to the superconductor. It causes so called anomalous proximity effect where the local density of states of quasiparticle in DN has a zero energy peak. When bulk pairing symmetry is spin-triplet px-wave, the anomalous proximity effect becomes prominent and the zero bias voltage conductance is always quantized independent of the resistance in DN and interface. Finally, we show that the present anomalous proximity effect is realized in an artificial topological superconducting system, where a nanowire with spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field is put on the conventional spin-singlet s-wave superconductor.
Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, F.; Buehler, T.M.; Brenner, R.; Hamilton, A.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.
2002-01-01
Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data
Thorwart, Michael
2018-01-01
Realizing Majorana bound states (MBS) in condensed matter systems is a key challenge on the way toward topological quantum computing. As a promising platform, one-dimensional magnetic chains on conventional superconductors were theoretically predicted to host MBS at the chain ends. We demonstrate a novel approach to design of model-type atomic-scale systems for studying MBS using single-atom manipulation techniques. Our artificially constructed atomic Fe chains on a Re surface exhibit spin spiral states and a remarkable enhancement of the local density of states at zero energy being strongly localized at the chain ends. Moreover, the zero-energy modes at the chain ends are shown to emerge and become stabilized with increasing chain length. Tight-binding model calculations based on parameters obtained from ab initio calculations corroborate that the system resides in the topological phase. Our work opens new pathways to design MBS in atomic-scale hybrid structures as a basis for fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. PMID:29756034
Pentaquark as a NK* bound state with TJP=0(3/2)-
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Sachiko; Shimizu, Kiyotaka
2005-01-01
We have investigated negative-parity uudds pentaquarks by employing a quark model with the meson exchange and the effective gluon exchange as qq and qq interactions. The system of five quarks is dynamically solved; the qq and qq correlations are taken into account in the wave function. The masses of the pentaquarks are found to be reasonably low. It is found that the lowest-mass state is TJ P =0(1/2) - and the next lowest one is 0(3/2) - . The former is reported to have a large width. We argue that the observed narrow peak corresponds to the latter state. It is still necessary to introduce an extra attraction to reduce the mass further by 140-280 MeV to reproduce the observed Θ + mass. Since their level splitting is less than 80 MeV, the lower level will not become a bound state below the NK threshold even after such an attraction is introduced. It is also found that the relative distance of two quarks with the attractive interaction is found to be by about 1.2-1.3 times closer than that of the repulsive one. The two-body correlation seems important in the pentaquark systems
Bound-state wave functions at rest in describing deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khvedelidze, A.M.; Kvinikhidze, A.N.
1991-01-01
The deep inelastic process of the lepton-hadron scattering is studied in the bound-state rest frame. A new version of expanding structure functions in interaction constant powers is proposed, each term in it having spectral properties. This expansion makes it possible to consider contributions of composites in the final state to the cross section. It is shown that, as compared with the system P z →∞, the impulse approximation is insufficient for describing correctly the elastic limit in the composite particle rest frame. The leading asymptotics of structure functions as χ Bj →1 can be obtained by taking into account the interaction of contituents in the final state. It is shown that in contrast to the 'light-cone' formalism the ratio F 2 en (χ)/F 2 ep (χ) as χ Bj →1 depends on the explicit form of the spatial part of the nucleon wave function and, in particular, assuming the relativistic character of internal motion, it may be lower than the well-known prediction (i.e. 3/7). This is due to the correct consideration of spin degrees of freedom of the wave function of the nucleon at rest. (orig.)
Fermion bound states in the Kerr-Newman field with magnetic charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.
1987-01-01
Approximate solutions of Dirac equations for 1/2 spin charged particles in the Kerr-Newman field are constructed. An equation for quasistationary states energy, taking account of their possible decay due to tunnelling in the black hole, is obtained. A problem of existence of zero modes is discussed
A Mixed Traffic Assignment Problem and Its Upper Bound of Efficiency Loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Jun Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A variational inequality (VI formulation of a mixed traffic assignment problem associated with user equilibrium (UE player and altruistic players (UE-AP is developed. The users governed by the UE player use the paths with minimum actual travel cost, while the users governed by altruistic players use the paths with minimum perceived travel cost, which is a linear combination of the actual and marginal travel costs. A nonlinear programming method is adopted to derive the efficiency loss of the UE-AP mixed equilibrium with polynomial cost function. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify our analytical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeppenfeld, D.
1984-01-01
The present thesis deals with the construction and the analysis of mesonic bound states in SU(N) gauge theories in a two-dimensional space-time. The based field theory can thereby be considered as a simplified version of the QCD, the theory of the strong interactions. After an extensive discussion of the quantization in the temporal gauge and after the Poincare invariance of the theory has been shown mesonic bound states and the meson spectrum for different ranges of the free parameters of the theory (quark mass, coupling constant, and index N of the gauge group) are treated. The spectrum is given by a boundary value problem which in the perturbative limit is solved analytically. For massless quarks gauge-invariant annihilation operators are constructed which permit an exact solution of the energy eigenvalue equation. The energy eigenstates so found described massive interacting mesons which are surrounded by a cloud of massless free particles. (orig.) [de
Air pollution problem in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heimann, H
1964-10-01
Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.
Ab initio investigation on the valence and dipole-bound states of CNa - and SiNa -
Kalcher, Josef; Sax, Alexander F.
2000-08-01
CNa - and SiNa - have been studied by the CAS-ACPF method. The 3Σ- ground states have binding energies of 5420 and 7517 cm -1, respectively. The 5Σ- excited states are 494 and 1551 cm -1 above the respective ground states. The 1Δ , 3Π , and 1Π valence-excited states for SiNa - should be at least metastable. CNa - and SiNa - possess dipole-bound 5Σ- and 3Σ- states. Binding energies of these states in CNa - are 217 and 236 cm -1, respectively. SiNa - has two stable 5Σ- dipole-bound states, whose binding energies are 246 and 118 cm -1, respectively.
Does the Higgs mechanism favour electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons QED3?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, Humberto; Helayeel-Neto, Jose Abdalla; Ferreira Junior, Manoel Messias
2000-01-01
Full text follows: We show that low-energy electron-electron bound states appear in the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) planar QED. In spite of the repulsive interaction mediated by the MCS gauge field, a net attractive interaction stems due to the Higgs mechanism through an Yukawa-type interaction. The spontaneous breaking of a local U(1)-symmetry is realized by a γ 6 -type potential. We conclude, by using the Schroedinger equation associated to the net attractive scattering potential, that electron-electron bound states arise in the model. Therefore, the Higgs mechanism overcomes the difficulties found out by Girotti et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 2623) in searching for bound states in the MCS planar QED. (author)
Bettens, Ryan P A
2003-01-15
Collins' method of interpolating a potential energy surface (PES) from quantum chemical calculations for reactive systems (Jordan, M. J. T.; Thompson, K. C.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 102, 5647. Thompson, K. C.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 8302. Bettens, R. P. A.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111, 816) has been applied to a bound state problem. The interpolation method has been combined for the first time with quantum diffusion Monte Carlo calculations to obtain an accurate ground state zero-point energy, the vibrationally average rotational constants, and the vibrationally averaged internal coordinates. In particular, the system studied was fluoromethane using a composite method approximating the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory. The approach adopted in this work (a) is fully automated, (b) is fully ab initio, (c) includes all nine nuclear degrees of freedom, (d) requires no assumption of the functional form of the PES, (e) possesses the full symmetry of the system, (f) does not involve fitting any parameters of any kind, and (g) is generally applicable to any system amenable to quantum chemical calculations and Collins' interpolation method. The calculated zero-point energy agrees to within 0.2% of its current best estimate. A0 and B0 are within 0.9 and 0.3%, respectively, of experiment.
Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Ferreira, M.M. Jr.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA
2002-10-01
We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e - e - - bound state. Three expressions V eff↓↓ , V eff↓↑ , V eff↓↓ ) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED 3 model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e - e - pairing in the presence of parity-symmetry breakdown. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 10-100 meV to fix the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)
Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Wójs, Arkadiusz; Jain, Jainendra
2014-03-01
Exact diagonalization studies have revealed that the energy spectrum of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level splits, non-perturbatively, into bands. The theory of nearly free composite fermions (CFs) has been shown to be valid for the lowest band, and thus to capture the low temperature physics, but it over-predicts the number of states for the excited bands. We explain the state counting of higher bands in terms of composite fermions with an infinitely strong short range interaction between a CF particle and a CF hole. This interaction, the form of which we derive from the microscopic CF theory, eliminates configurations containing certain tightly bound CF excitons. With this modification, the CF theory reproduces, for all well-defined excited bands, an exact counting for ν > 1 / 3 , and an almost exact counting for ν The resulting insight clarifies that the corrections to the nearly free CF theory are not thermodynamically significant at sufficiently low temperatures, thus providing a microscopic explanation for why it has proved successful for the analysis of the various properties of the CF Fermi sea. NSF grants DMR-1005536 and DMR-0820404, Polish NCN grant 2011/01/B/ST3/04504 and EU Marie Curie Grant PCIG09-GA-2011-294186, Research Computing and Cyberinfrastructure, PSU and Wroclaw Centre for Networking and Supercomputing
Electroweak-charged bound states as LHC probes of hidden forces
Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zheng, Rui
2018-01-01
We explore the LHC reach on beyond-the-standard model (BSM) particles X associated with a new strong force in a hidden sector. We focus on the motivated scenario where the SM and hidden sectors are connected by fermionic mediators ψ+,0 that carry SM electroweak charges. The most promising signal is the Drell-Yan production of a ψ±ψ¯ 0 pair, which forms an electrically charged vector bound state ϒ± due to the hidden force and later undergoes resonant annihilation into W±X . We analyze this final state in detail in the cases where X is a real scalar ϕ that decays to b b ¯, or a dark photon γd that decays to dileptons. For prompt X decays, we show that the corresponding signatures can be efficiently probed by extending the existing ATLAS and CMS diboson searches to include heavy resonance decays into BSM particles. For long-lived X , we propose new searches where the requirement of a prompt hard lepton originating from the W boson ensures triggering and essentially removes any SM backgrounds. To illustrate the potential of our results, we interpret them within two explicit models that contain strong hidden forces and electroweak-charged mediators, namely λ -supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY ultraviolet extensions of the twin Higgs model. The resonant nature of the signals allows for the reconstruction of the mass of both ϒ± and X , thus providing a wealth of information about the hidden sector.
Vortices and gate-tunable bound states in a topological insulator coupled to superconducting leads
Finck, Aaron; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.
2014-03-01
It has been predicted that zero energy Majorana bound states can be found in the core of vortices within topological superconductors. Here, we report on Andreev spectroscopy measurements of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a normal metal lead and one or more niobium leads. The niobium induces superconductivity in the Bi2Se3 through the proximity effect, leading to both signatures of Andreev reflection and a prominent re-entrant resistance effect. When a large magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the surface of the Bi2Se3, we observe multiple abrupt changes in the subgap conductance that are accompanied by sharp peaks in the dynamical resistance. These peaks are very sensitive to changes in magnetic field and disappear at temperatures associated with the critical temperature of the induced superconductivity. The appearance of the transitions and peaks can be tuned by a top gate. At high magnetic fields, we also find evidence of gate-tunable states, which can lead to stable zero-bias conductance peaks. We interpret our results in terms of a transition occurring within the proximity effect region of the topological insulator, likely due to the formation of vortices. We acknowledge support from Microsoft Project Q.
Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Del Cima, O.M. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira, M.M. Jr. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br
2002-10-01
We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED{sub 3} model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e{sup -}e{sup -} - bound state. Three expressions (V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {up_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED{sub 3} model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e{sup -}e{sup -} pairing in the presence of parity-symmetry breakdown. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 10-100 meV to fix the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)
Rovibrational bound states of SO2 isotopologues. I: Total angular momentum J = 0-10
Kumar, Praveen; Ellis, Joseph; Poirier, Bill
2015-04-01
Isotopic variation of the rovibrational bound states of SO2 for the four stable sulfur isotopes 32-34,36S is investigated in comprehensive detail. In a two-part series, we compute the low-lying energy levels for all values of total angular momentum in the range J = 0-20. All rovibrational levels are computed, to an extremely high level of numerical convergence. The calculations have been carried out using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The present study (Paper I) examines the J = 0-10 rovibrational levels, providing unambiguous symmetry and rovibrational label assignments for each computed state. The calculated vibrational energy levels exhibit very good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data. Rovibrational energy levels, calculated without any Coriolis approximations, are reported here for the first time. Among other potential ramifications, this data will facilitate understanding of the origin of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean rock record-of great relevance for understanding the "oxygen revolution".
Rovibrational bound states of SO2 isotopologues. II: Total angular momentum J = 11-20
Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill
2015-11-01
In a two-part series, the rovibrational bound states of SO2 are investigated in comprehensive detail, for all four stable sulfur isotopes 32-34,36S. All low-lying rovibrational energy levels-both permutation-symmetry-allowed and not allowed-are computed, for all values of total angular momentum in the range J = 0-20. The calculations have carried out using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The present study (Paper II) examines the J = 11-20 rovibrational levels, providing symmetry and rovibrational labels for every computed state, relying on a new lambda-doublet splitting technique to make completely unambiguous assignments. Isotope shifts are analyzed, as is the validity of ;J-shifting; as a predictor of rotational fine structure. Among other ramifications, this work will facilitate understanding of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF) observed in the Archean rock record-particularly as this may have arisen from self shielding. S-MIF, in turn is highly relevant in the broader context of understanding the ;oxygen revolution;.
Harz, Julia; Petraki, Kalliopi
2018-01-01
We compute the cross-sections for the radiative capture of non-relativistic particles into bound states, in unbroken perturbative non-Abelian theories. We find that the formation of bound states via emission of a gauge boson can be significant for a variety of dark matter models that feature non-Abelian long-range interactions, including multi-TeV scale WIMPs and dark matter co-annihilating with coloured partners. Our results disagree with previous computations, on the relative sign of the Ab...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naqvi, Mohsin M; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Otazo, Mariela R
2015-01-01
, at least transiently, at resting Ca(2+) conditions. Here, we used optical tweezers to study the folding behavior of individual NCS-1 molecules in the presence of Mg(2+) and in the absence of divalent ions. Under tension, the Mg(2+)-bound state of NCS-1 unfolds and refolds in a three-state process...... in a variety of cellular processes in which it has been linked to a number of disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive studies on the Ca(2+)-activated state of NCS proteins, little is known about the conformational dynamics of the Mg(2+)-bound and apo states, both of which are populated...... by populating one intermediate state consisting of a folded C-domain and an unfolded N-domain. The interconversion at equilibrium between the different molecular states populated by NCS-1 was monitored in real time through constant-force measurements and the energy landscapes underlying the observed transitions...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sturm, Sven
2012-09-06
This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10{sup -11}, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sturm, Sven
2012-01-01
This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike 28 Si 13+ . The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10 -11 , which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.
Comments upon a bound state model for a two body system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
We show that in classical mechanics, classical and relativistic quantum mechanics it is possible to replace the equation of the relative motion for a two-body bound system at rest by individual dynamical equations with correlated solutions. We compare the representations of a bound system in terms of the relative and individual coordinates and mention some of the observable differences. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)
Color-suppression of non-planar diagrams in bosonic bound states
Alvarenga Nogueira, J. H.; Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Ydrefors, E.; Frederico, T.
2018-02-01
We study the suppression of non-planar diagrams in a scalar QCD model of a meson system in 3 + 1 space-time dimensions due to the inclusion of the color degrees of freedom. As a prototype of the color-singlet meson, we consider a flavor-nonsinglet system consisting of a scalar-quark and a scalar-antiquark with equal masses exchanging a scalar-gluon of a different mass, which is investigated within the framework of the homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation. The equation is solved by using the Nakanishi representation for the manifestly covariant bound-state amplitude and its light-front projection. The resulting non-singular integral equation is solved numerically. The damping of the impact of the cross-ladder kernel on the binding energies are studied in detail. The color-suppression of the cross-ladder effects on the light-front wave function and the elastic electromagnetic form factor are also discussed. As our results show, the suppression appears significantly large for Nc = 3, which supports the use of rainbow-ladder truncations in practical non-perturbative calculations within QCD.
Three-body unitary transformations, three-body forces, and trinucleon bound state properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haftel, M.I.
1976-01-01
A three-body unitary transformation method for the study of three-body forces is presented. Starting with a three-body Hamiltonian with two-body forces, unitary transformations are introduced to generate Hamiltonians that have both two- and three-body forces. For cases of physical interest, the two-body forces of the altered Hamiltonians are phase equivalent (for two-body scattering) to the original and the three-body force vanishes when any interparticle distance is large. Specific examples are presented. Applications for studying the possible role of three-body forces in accounting for trinucleon bound state properties are examined. Calculations of the 3 He and 3 H charge form factors and Coulomb energy difference with hyperspherical radial transformations and with conventional N-N potentials are performed. The form factor calculations demonstrate how the proposed method can help obtain improved agreement with experiment by the introduction of appropriate three-body forces. Calculations of the Coulomb energy difference confirm previous estimates concerning charge symmetry breaking in the N-N interaction
Detecting Majorana bound states coupling with an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer
Orellana, Pedro; Ramos Andrade, Juan Pablo; Ulloa, Sergio
In this work we consider a quantum dot (QD) connected to current leads arranged to mediate the interaction between two topological nanowires, both hosting Majorana bound states (MBS) at their ends. In an interesting system geometry, one nanowire has both ends coupled with the QD, forming an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer, while the other is placed nearby such that two MBS belonging to different nanowires can interact. We model the system using an effective low energy Hamiltonian, considering that the QD is embedded between metallic leads. Using a Green's function formalism via the equation of motion procedure, we find that the conductance across the leads can show MBS signatures, i.e. half-maximum conductance at zero-energy, when both topological nanowires are connected, independent of the AB flux phase. This system may be used as a detector of the effective connections between independent MBS by monitoring the conductance while tuning the AB phase. J.P.R.-A. acknowledge support from scholarship CONICYT-Chile No.21141034. P.A.O. acknowledges support from FONDECYT Grant No. 1140571 and S.E.U. acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR 1508325.
Bound State Eigenvalues of the Schroedinger Eq. in two Spatial Variables.
Rawitscher, George H.; Koltracht, Israel
2002-08-01
An efficient spectral integral equation method (SIEM) has recently been developed for obtaining the scattering solution of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation.(R.A. Gonzales, S.-Y. Kang, I. Koltracht and G. Rawitscher, J. of Comput. Phys. 153, 160 (1999).) The purpose of the present study is to extend this method to the case of bound-states in more than one dimension. Even though other methods have already been developed for this case, such as finite element methods, the application we have in mind is to solve the non-linear Bose-Einstein condensate case in the presence of an optical lattice. In the presence of a trapping potential alone, a B-E condensate solution has been obtained by a new iterative spectral method which solves the differential equation.(Y.-S. Choi, J. Javanainen, I. Koltracht, M. Koš)trun, P.J. McKenna and N. Savytska "A Fast Algorithm for the Solution of the Time-Independent Gross-Pitaevskii Equation," Submitted to Computational Physics. But this method becomes inadequate for the case that several potential barriers are also present. The reason that the SIEM is expected to be better suited is that it distributes the collocation points much more efficiently into partitions of variable size.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyson, Jon
2009-01-01
Matrix monotonicity is used to obtain upper bounds on minimum-error distinguishability of arbitrary ensembles of mixed quantum states. This generalizes one direction of a two-sided bound recently obtained by the author [J. Tyson, J. Math. Phys. 50, 032106 (2009)]. It is shown that the previously obtained special case has unique properties.
Absorption enhancement in type-II coupled quantum rings due to existence of quasi-bound states
Hsieh, Chi-Ti; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Shu-Wei
2018-02-01
The absorption of type-II nanostructures is often weaker than type-I counterpart due to spatially separated electrons and holes. We model the bound-to-continuum absorption of type-II quantum rings (QRs) using a multiband source-radiation approach using the retarded Green function in the cylindrical coordinate system. The selection rules due to the circular symmetry for allowed transitions of absorption are utilized. The bound-tocontinuum absorptions of type-II GaSb coupled and uncoupled QRs embedded in GaAs matrix are compared here. The GaSb QRs act as energy barriers for electrons but potential wells for holes. For the coupled QR structure, the region sandwiched between two QRs forms a potential reservoir of quasi-bound electrons. Electrons in these states, though look like bound ones, would ultimately tunnel out of the reservoir through barriers. Multiband perfectly-matched layers are introduced to model the tunneling of quasi-bound states into open space. Resonance peaks are observed on the absorption spectra of type-II coupled QRs due to the formation of quasi-bound states in conduction bands, but no resonance exist in the uncoupled QR. The tunneling time of these metastable states can be extracted from the resonance and is in the order of ten femtoseconds. Absorption of coupled QRs is significantly enhanced as compared to that of uncoupled ones in certain spectral windows of interest. These features may improve the performance of photon detectors and photovoltaic devices based on type-II semiconductor nanostructures.
Ghorbel, Imen; Amara, Ibtissem Ben; Ktari, Naourez; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba
2016-12-01
Accumulation of aluminium and acrylamide in food is a major source of human exposure. Their adverse effects are well documented, but there is no information about the health problems arising from their combined exposure. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible neurotoxic effects after co-exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to aluminium and acrylamide in order to evaluate redox state, cholinergic function and membrane-bound ATPases in the cerebellum of adult rats and their progeny. Pregnant female rats have received aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) via drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Exposure to these toxicants provoked an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels and a decrease in SOD, CAT, GPx, Na + K + -ATPase, Mg 2+ -ATPase and AChE activities in the cerebellum of mothers and their suckling pups. A reduction in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histological results. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in the cerebellum of mothers and their progeny.
Widmann, E; Curceanu, C; Trento 2006; Trento06
2006-01-01
These are the miniproceedings of the workshop "Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results, future challenges," which was held at the European Centre for Theoretical Nuclear Physics and Related Studies (ECT*), Trento (Italy), June 19-24, 2006. The document includes a short presentation of the topics, the list of participants, and a short contribution from each speaker.
First observation of bound excited states in the A/Z = 3 nucleus 15B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobradi, Zs.; Sohler, D.; Azaiez, F.
2004-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Structure of strongly neutron rich nuclei, especially of those lying close to the neutron drip line came into the focus of interest. Among others, the structure of neutron rich Boron isotopes also attracted attention in the last decade. The nuclei 15 B, 17 B and 19 B are particle stable, while the isotopes with even mass number are unstable against neutron emission. Even the neutron rich Boron isotopes with odd mass number have a low neutron binding energy, which is a sign of their weakly bound nature. As a common effect of the weak binding and of the large neutron excess, neutron skin or halo can also develop already in the isotope 15 B with A/Z = 3. Structure of the nucleus 15 B has been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic study of the 9 Be + 36 S fragmentation reaction at GANIL, France. The emerging fragments were identified by use of a standard ΔE-time-of-fight technique with help of the SPEG spectrograph. γ-ray energies, intensities and γγ coincidences have been measured in coincidence with the projectile like fragments by 74 BaF 2 detectors of the Chateau de crystal. On the basis of the γ-spectroscopic information the level scheme presented in Figure 1 was constructed. The level scheme is shown together with the results of di rent model calculations. The common in predictions of these models is that all of them suggest a ground state band with the spin sequence 3/2 - , 5/2 - and 7/2 - , as well as a 1/2 - state, which involves a proton single particle excitation. The shell model calculations (SM) predict similar moments of inertia, strongly different from that of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations (AMD). The experimentally observed states can be assigned to the members of the rotational band on the basis of their decay properties. The experimental results confirm the predictions of the shell model. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pavelková, Lenka
2011-01-01
Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 370-384 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : non-linear state space model * bounded uncertainty * missing measurements * state filtering * vehicle position estimation Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/pavelkova-0360239.pdf
Souto, R Seoane; Martín-Rodero, A; Yeyati, A Levy
2016-12-23
We analyze the quantum quench dynamics in the formation of a phase-biased superconducting nanojunction. We find that in the absence of an external relaxation mechanism and for very general conditions the system gets trapped in a metastable state, corresponding to a nonequilibrium population of the Andreev bound states. The use of the time-dependent full counting statistics analysis allows us to extract information on the asymptotic population of even and odd many-body states, demonstrating that a universal behavior, dependent only on the Andreev state energy, is reached in the quantum point contact limit. These results shed light on recent experimental observations on quasiparticle trapping in superconducting atomic contacts.
Precision spectroscopy on hydrogen and deuterium. Test of the bound-state quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fendel, P.
2005-06-01
An optical measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 2s state in deuterium performed for the first time and the description of the arrangement for the measurement of the 1s-3s frequency in hydrogen by excitation with a frequency combexpect the reader of this thesis. Both experiments have the goal to test the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED) with high precision. The measurement of the hyperfine splitting serves thereby for the improvement of the accuracy of the so called D 21 =8E HFS (2s)-E HFS (1s) difference. Because D 21 is far-reachingly independent on the nuclear structure in spite of not accurately known proton charge radii QED can be tested on a level of 10 -7 . In the framework of the thesis present here the error of this quantity was reduced by a factor of three. The result for the 2s hyperfine splitting is: f D HFS =40924454(7) Hz. By a new kind of the data acquisition furthermore many systematic errors, especially the nonlinear drift of the reference resonator, could be reduced in comparison to a similar measurement on hydrogen. The second part of the thesis describes the efforts which were and will be taken in order to test QED by means of their perdiction of the 1s Lamb shift. For this the frequency of the 1s-3s transition in hydrogen shall be measured absolutely for the first time. A further novum is that for this a frequency-quadrupled mode-coupled laser shall be come into operation. Especially the construction and the stabilization of a ps laser, the construction of two frequency-doubling stages, the arrangement for the measurement of the absolute frequency of the spectroscopy laser, the alteration of the existing 1s-2s vacuum system, and the development of the measurement software is described. Additionally in this thesis the theory of the two-photon frequency-comb spectroscopy is further developed. Concrete expressions for the expected line shape and the influence of the chirp on the excitation rate are presented
Quasi-bound alpha resonant states populated by the 12C(6Li, d) reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; Ukita, G.M.
2012-01-01
Full text: The alpha cluster phenomenon in the light nuclei structure has been the subject of a long time investigation since the proposal of the Ikeda diagrams [1]. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of this phenomenon in (xα) and (xα+n) nuclei through the ( 6 Li, d) alpha transfer reaction [2-4]. Alpha resonant states around the (4α) threshold in the nucleus 16 O are the focus of the present contribution. In fact, the importance of these resonances at the elements production in stars is recognized, as primarily pointed out by Hoyle in 12 C [6]. The existence of a rotational band with the α + 12 C (Hoyle) cluster state structure was recently demonstrated by Ohkubo and Hirabayashi [6]. In order to explore this region of interest, measurements of the 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O reaction up to 17 MeV of excitation at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique (plates Fuji G6B, 50 μm thick). Spectra associated with six scattering angles, from 5 deg to 29 deg in the laboratory frame, each one 50 cm along the focal surface, were measured. Several narrow resonances with a quasi-bound behavior embedded in the continuum were detected and the resolution of 25 keV allowed for the separation of doublets not resolved before [7,8]. The absolute cross sections and the respective deuteron angular distributions were determined and the analysis is in progress. [1] K. Ikeda et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. E 68, 464 (1968); H. Horiuchi, K. Ikeda, and Y. Suzuki, ibid. 44, 225 (1978). [2] M.R.D.Rodrigues et al., in12th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanism, Varenna, Italy, edited by F. Cerutti and A. Ferrari , CERN Proceedings, 2010-2, pp. 331- 335. [3] T. Borello-Lewin et al., Proceedings of SOTANCP2, Brussels, Belgium 2010, edited by P. Descouvemount et al., Int. J. Mod. Mod. Phys E 20, 1018-1021 (2011). [4] T. Borello
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
A. Vandevelde; J.A. Hoogeveen; C.A.J. Hurkens (Cor); J.K. Lenstra (Jan Karel)
2005-01-01
htmlabstractThe multiprocessor flow-shop is the generalization of the flow-shop in which each machine is replaced by a set of identical machines. As finding a minimum-length schedule is NP-hard, we set out to find good lower and upper bounds. The lower bounds are based on relaxation of the
Vandevelde, A.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Lenstra, J.K.
2005-01-01
The multiprocessor flow-shop is the generalization of the flow-shop in which each machine is replaced by a set of identical machines. As finding a minimum-length schedule is NP-hard, we set out to find good lower and upper bounds. The lower bounds are based on relaxation of the capacities of all
Crystal structure of Na+, K(+)-ATPase in the Na(+)-bound state.
Nyblom, Maria; Poulsen, Hanne; Gourdon, Pontus; Reinhard, Linda; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik; Fedosova, Natalya; Nissen, Poul
2013-10-04
The Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) maintains the electrochemical gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane--a prerequisite for electrical excitability and secondary transport. Hitherto, structural information has been limited to K(+)-bound or ouabain-blocked forms. We present the crystal structure of a Na(+)-bound Na(+), K(+)-ATPase as determined at 4.3 Å resolution. Compared with the K(+)-bound form, large conformational changes are observed in the α subunit whereas the β and γ subunit structures are maintained. The locations of the three Na(+) sites are indicated with the unique site III at the recently suggested IIIb, as further supported by electrophysiological studies on leak currents. Extracellular release of the third Na(+) from IIIb through IIIa, followed by exchange of Na(+) for K(+) at sites I and II, is suggested.
Possibility of a 4He2 bound state, effective range theory, and very low energy He--He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uang, Y.; Stwalley, W.C.
1982-01-01
The best available intermolecular potential for helium by Aziz, Nain, Carley, Taylor, and McConville is shown here for the first time to have a 4 He 2 bound state. Two numerical analyses, namely, eigenvalue solution and effective range theory, are used to support this conclusion. Unlike usual chemically bound species, the binding energy of this very weakly bound level is found to be only 8.3 x 10 -4 K, which is four orders of magnitude smaller than the potential well depth epsilon = 10.8 K. The scattering length for He+He collisions, determined from effective range theory, is used to calculate the elastic cross section in the very low energy limit. The results (1.878 x 10 5 A 2 for 4 He+ 4 He and 6.035 x 10 2 A for 3 He+ 3 He) are consistent with measurements at the lowest velocities yet attained. In terms of the estimated uncertainties of the parameters of the potential of Aziz and co-workers, it is shown that it is very likely that a bound state of the 4 He 2 molecule does in fact exist
Preconditioners for state-constrained optimal control problems with Moreau-Yosida penalty function
Pearson, John W.
2012-11-21
Optimal control problems with partial differential equations as constraints play an important role in many applications. The inclusion of bound constraints for the state variable poses a significant challenge for optimization methods. Our focus here is on the incorporation of the constraints via the Moreau-Yosida regularization technique. This method has been studied recently and has proven to be advantageous compared with other approaches. In this paper, we develop robust preconditioners for the efficient solution of the Newton steps associated with the fast solution of the Moreau-Yosida regularized problem. Numerical results illustrate the efficiency of our approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
State control of discrete-time linear systems to be bound in state variables by equality constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filasová, Anna; Krokavec, Dušan; Serbák, Vladimír
2014-01-01
The paper is concerned with the problem of designing the discrete-time equivalent PI controller to control the discrete-time linear systems in such a way that the closed-loop state variables satisfy the prescribed equality constraints. Since the problem is generally singular, using standard form of the Lyapunov function and a symmetric positive definite slack matrix, the design conditions are proposed in the form of the enhanced Lyapunov inequality. The results, offering the conditions of the control existence and the optimal performance with respect to the prescribed equality constraints for square discrete-time linear systems, are illustrated with the numerical example to note effectiveness and applicability of the considered approach
State-dependent impulses boundary value problems on compact interval
Rachůnková, Irena
2015-01-01
This book offers the reader a new approach to the solvability of boundary value problems with state-dependent impulses and provides recently obtained existence results for state dependent impulsive problems with general linear boundary conditions. It covers fixed-time impulsive boundary value problems both regular and singular and deals with higher order differential equations or with systems that are subject to general linear boundary conditions. We treat state-dependent impulsive boundary value problems, including a new approach giving effective conditions for the solvability of the Dirichlet problem with one state-dependent impulse condition and we show that the depicted approach can be extended to problems with a finite number of state-dependent impulses. We investigate the Sturm–Liouville boundary value problem for a more general right-hand side of a differential equation. Finally, we offer generalizations to higher order differential equations or differential systems subject to general linear boundary...
Rapidly converging bound state eigenenergies for the two dimensional quantum dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Handy, C R; Vrinceanu, D
2013-01-01
We examine the effectiveness of a new spectral method in solving the two dimensional dipole problem (DP), as originally formulated by Dasbiswas et al (2010 Phys. Rev. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 81 064516), and recently analysed by Amore and Fernandez (AF, 2012 Phys. Rev. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 235004), through a large, non-orthogonal basis, Rayleigh–Ritz (RR) analysis. This deceptively simple problem has a long history of poorly approximated energy values, particularly for the ground state, until the recent work by AF. In contrast to their approach, we implement an orthogonal polynomial projection quantization (OPPQ) analysis (Handy and Vrinceanu 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 135202), involving expanding the wavefunction in terms of a complete basis, Ψ( r-vector )=∑ n Ω n P n ( r-vector )R( r-vector ), where P n are the orthogonal polynomials relative to the weight R. For systems transformable into a moment equation, such as DP, the projection coefficients are determinable in closed form, yielding an efficient quantization procedure, particularly when the weight assumes the asymptotic form of the physical solutions. There are several theoretical reasons why the OPPQ should be more effective than the above RR approach. Indeed, comparable results are achieved with significantly fewer OPPQ variational parameters as compared to RR-variational parameters. For instance, with regards to the delicate ground state energy, 130 OPPQ variables are required to achieve E gr = −0.137 7614 (E gr = −0.137 7514 after a Shanks transform) as opposed to the 821 required within the RR formulation: E gr = −0.137 7478. Despite this, the relative slow convergence for low lying even parity states, within both the OPPQ and RR formulations, suggests that significant logarithmic contributions to the wavefunction, at the origin, have been ignored by all previous investigators. Modifying the RR variational analysis to include log-dependent basis, affirms this through an
Energy problems of the United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pertuzio, A.
2006-01-01
The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous
State space approach to mixed boundary value problems.
Chen, C. F.; Chen, M. M.
1973-01-01
A state-space procedure for the formulation and solution of mixed boundary value problems is established. This procedure is a natural extension of the method used in initial value problems; however, certain special theorems and rules must be developed. The scope of the applications of the approach includes beam, arch, and axisymmetric shell problems in structural analysis, boundary layer problems in fluid mechanics, and eigenvalue problems for deformable bodies. Many classical methods in these fields developed by Holzer, Prohl, Myklestad, Thomson, Love-Meissner, and others can be either simplified or unified under new light shed by the state-variable approach. A beam problem is included as an illustration.
Meson-meson bound state in a 2+1 lattice QCD model with two flavors and strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael; Neto, Antonio Francisco
2005-01-01
We consider the existence of bound states of two mesons in an imaginary-time formulation of lattice QCD. We analyze an SU(3) theory with two flavors in 2+1 dimensions and two-dimensional spin matrices. For a small hopping parameter and a sufficiently large glueball mass, as a preliminary, we show the existence of isoscalar and isovector mesonlike particles that have isolated dispersion curves (upper gap up to near the two-particle threshold ∼-4lnκ). The corresponding meson masses are equal up to and including O(κ 3 ) and are asymptotically of order -2lnκ-κ 2 . Considering the zero total isospin sector, we show that there is a meson-meson bound state solution to the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a ladder approximation, below the two-meson threshold, and with binding energy of order bκ 2 ≅0.02359κ 2 . In the context of the strong coupling expansion in κ, we show that there are two sources of meson-meson attraction. One comes from a quark-antiquark exchange. This is not a meson exchange, as the spin indices are not those of the meson particle, and we refer to this as a quasimeson exchange. The other arises from gauge field correlations of four overlapping bonds, two positively oriented and two of opposite orientation. Although the exchange part gives rise to a space range-one attractive potential, the main mechanism for the formation of the bound state comes from the gauge contribution. In our lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, this mechanism is manifested by an attractive distance-zero energy-dependent potential. We recall that no bound state appeared in the one-flavor case, where the repulsive effect of Pauli exclusion is stronger
Prediction of new tightly bound-states of H2+(d2+) and ''cold fusion''-experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.
1989-06-01
It is suggested that in the ''cold-fusion'' experiments of Fleischmann and Pons new tightly-bound molecular states of D 2 + are formed with binding energies predicted to be of the order of 50 keV accounting for the heat released without appreciable fusion. Other tests of the suggested mechanism are proposed and the derivation of the new energy levels is given. (author). 3 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suparmi, A., E-mail: suparmiuns@gmail.com; Cari, C., E-mail: suparmiuns@gmail.com [Physics Department, Post Graduate Study, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Angraini, L. M. [Physics Department, Mataram University (Indonesia)
2014-09-30
The bound state solutions of Dirac equation for Hulthen and trigonometric Rosen Morse non-central potential are obtained using finite Romanovski polynomials. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum and the radial wave functions which are given in terms of Romanovski polynomials are obtained from solution of radial Dirac equation. The angular wave functions and the orbital quantum number are found from angular Dirac equation solution. In non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy spectrum reduces into non-relativistic energy.
Synthesis and Isotope Effects on the Excited State Properties of NN Bound Complexes
Soman, Suraj; Younis, Hamid M.; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.; Pryce, Mary T.
2017-01-01
A versatile approach to the preparation of [Ir(LL)(2)Cl-2](PF6) type complexes is reported, in which LL is an (NN)-N- bound polypyridyl ligand [X(2)bpy, X(2)phen, where X = H-, CH3-, (CH3)(3)C-, or phenyl-, and bpy = 2,2-bipyridyl, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] as well as their deuterated analogues.
Present state and problems of mutation breeding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balint, A. (Agrartudomanyi Egyetem, Goedoelloe (Hungary))
1983-09-01
The major achievements and problems of mutation breeding are discussed according to recent international references. Examples for the production of microorganism resistant tobacco, maize, cabbage, disease resistant sugar cane and some freeze resistant plants are listed. Special opportunities offered by mutation to increase photosynthesis and to improve yields are discussed. The significance of the new techniques to produce induced mutants by means of tissue cultures, to fix N/sub 2/ for leguminosae and to affect the activities of N/sub 2/ fixing microorganisms is emphasized.
Dissipative differential systems and the state space H∞ control problem
Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply our very recent results on the synthesis of dissipative linear differential systems to the 'classical' state space H∞ control problem. We first review our general problem set-up, where the problem of rendering a given plant dissipative by general
Problems of state adjustment the telecommunications industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tregub Ilona Vladimirovna
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the mechanism of state adjustment of the telecommunications industry companies, providing the additional mobile services (VAS-services, by determining the optimal rates of tax and non-tax payments to the budget. Method is based on the approach of A. Laffer, who showed the possibility of existence an optimal tax rate, which provides, on the one hand, the maximum flow of funds in the budget, on the other hand, preserves the incentives of entrepreneurship. In the present paper, we study the dependence of revenues to the Reserve Fund on the size of the contribution rate and the coefficient of profitability of enterprises providing VAS-services.
Excitations and possible bound states in the S = 1/2 alternating chain compound (VO)2P2O7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennant, D.A.; Nagler, S.E.; Sales, B.C.
1997-01-01
Magnetic excitations in an array of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 single crystals have been measured using inelastic neutron scattering. Until now, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 has been thought of as a two-leg antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin ladder with chains running in the a-direction. The present results show unequivocally that (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 is best described as an alternating spin-chain directed along the crystallographic b-direction. In addition to the expected magnon with magnetic zone-center energy gap Δ = 3.1 meV, a second excitation is observed at an energy just below 2Δ. The higher mode may be a triplet two-magnon bound state. Numerical results in support of bound modes are presented
Variational lower bound on the scattering length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1975-01-01
The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable
Bound-state effects for dark matter with Higgs-like mediators
Biondini, Simone
2018-01-01
In this paper we study the impact of a scalar exchange on the dark matter relic abundance by solving a plasma-modified Schr\\"odinger equation. A simplified model is considered where a Majorana dark matter fermion is embedded in a U(1)$'$ extension of the Standard Model and couples with a dark Higgs via a Yukawa interaction. We find that the dark-Higgs exchange can increase the overclosure bounds significantly. For the largest (smallest) value of the Yukawa coupling examined in this work, the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boutin, D.
2005-08-01
The first experimental observation of bound-state beta-decay showed, that due solely to the electron stripping, a stable nuclide, e.g. 163 Dy, became unstable. Also a drastic modification of the half-life of bare 187 Re, from 4.12(2) x 10 10 years down to 32.9(20) years, could be observed. It was mainly due to the possibility for the mother nuclide to decay into a previously inaccessible nuclear level of the daughter nuclide. It was proposed to study a nuclide where this decay mode was competing with continuum-state beta-decay, in order to measure their respective branchings. The ratio β b /β c could also be evaluated for the first time. 207 Tl was chosen due to its high atomic number, and Q-value of about 1.4 MeV, small enough to enhance the β b probability and large enough to allow the use of time-resolved Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) to study the evolution of mother and bound-state beta-decay daughter ions. The decay properties of the ground state and isomeric state of 207 Tl 81+ have been investigated at the GSI accelerator facility in two separate experiments. For the first time β-decay where the electron could go either to a bound state (atomic orbitals) and lead to 207 Pb 81+ as a daughter nuclide, or to a continuum state and lead to 207 Pb 82+ , has been observed. The respective branchings of these two processes could be measured as well. The deduced total nuclear half-life of 255(17) s for 207 Tl 81+ , was slightly modified with respect to the half-life of the neutral atom of 286(2) s. It was nevertheless in very good agreement with calculations based on the assumption that the beta-decay was following an allowed type of transition. The branching β b /β c =0.192(20), was also in very good agreement with the same calculations. The application of stochastic precooling allowed to observe in addition the 1348 keV short-lived isomeric state of 207 Tl. The half-life of this isomeric state was measured as 1.47(32) s, which shows a small deviation
Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}.
Zhou, R; Hirata, M; Wu, T; Vinograd, I; Mayaffre, H; Krämer, S; Horvatić, M; Berthier, C; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P L; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Julien, M-H
2017-01-06
We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of ^{17}O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}. This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N(E_{F}) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukov, V.V.; Osovskij, V.D.; Ptushnikov, Yu.G.; Sukretnyj, V.G.; Chujkov, B.A.
1986-01-01
A molecular beam technique with an effusion source operating at T=200 K is used to study the adsorption interaction of oxygen with W(100) and (110) faces in the range of the simple temperatures from 5 to 340 K. Three weakly-bound adsorption states of oxygen are detected corresponding to adsorption in the second, third and forth monolayer. These states are characterized by adsorption energies of 0.13, 0.08 and 0.07 eV and desorption temperatures of 45, 27 and 25 K, respectively. The kinetics of filling of these states is almost similar for both faces, whereas the adsorption kinetics in the first monolayer is essentially different. A dissociative nature of adsorption at T >or approx. 5 K and a jump migration mechanism of the admolecules in the precursor state to the stationary adsorption sites are suggested
Huang, Dao-Ling; Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng
2016-06-01
Deprotonated thymine can exist in two different forms, depending on which of its two N sites is deprotonated: N1[T-H]^- or N3[T-H]^-. Here we report a photodetachment study of the N1[T-H]^- isomer cooled in a cryogenic ion trap and the observation of an excited dipole-bound state. Eighteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state are observed, and its vibrational ground state is found to be 238 ± 5 wn below the detachment threshold of N1[T-H]^-. The electron affinity of the deprotonated thymine radical (N1[T-H]^.) is measured accruately to be 26 322 ± 5 wn (3.2635 ± 0.0006 eV). By tuning the detachment laser to the sixteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state that are above the detachment threshold, highly non-Franck-Condon resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectra are obtained due to state- and mode-selective vibrational autodetachment. Much richer vibrational information is obtained for the deprotonated thymine radical from the photodetachment and resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectroscopy. Eleven fundamental vibrational frequencies in the low-frequency regime are obtained for the N1[T-H]^. radical, including the two lowest-frequency internal rotational modes of the methyl group at 70 ± 8 wn and 92 ± 5 wn. D. L. Huang, H. T. Liu, C. G. Ning, G. Z. Zhu and L. S. Wang, Chem. Sci., 6, 3129-3138 (2015)
Geevers, Sjoerd; van der Vegt, J.J.W.
2017-01-01
We present sharp and sucient bounds for the interior penalty term and time step size to ensure stability of the symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPDG) method combined with an explicit time-stepping scheme. These conditions hold for generic meshes, including unstructured
SOCIAL DIALECTOLOGY: MODERN STATE AND PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Solnyshkina Marina Ivanovna
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The article exemplifies the authors' views on the state of affairs in modern Russian social dialectology as a new branch of sociolinguistics, and demonstrates application of expansionism, anthropocentrism, functionalism and explanatoriness as the main principles of the new linguistic paradigm in sociolinguistic research. The paper offers analysis of the advantages of the integrated approach applied in the studies of social dialects of both – high and low – registers of communication. The authors prove that social dialectology possesses its own theoretical foundation and methodological framework, its research methods are described and time-tested, the existing reviews of social dialectological lexicography are full and complete. The intensive growth of social dialectology is viewed by the authors as catalyzed by the change of the linguistic paradigm and caused by utilizing argot, jargons and non-codified forms of professional sublanguages as sociolinguistic research database. The focus of modern Russian social dialectological schools pioneering the research in the area is on the following: institutional communicative practices based on extra-linguistic contexts, institutional discourse analysis, professional societies as discourse-forming community, interpretation of internal determinants of professional communication. Modern functional (anthropocentric paradigm views professional/social communication not only as the process of sending and receiving information conducted by communication partners but a complicated web of discursive practices of professionals (and at discourses junctures those of professionals with laymen, generating common senses and meanings. The suggested taxonomy of social dialects, based on the parameters of openness/closeness of the community and codified/non-codified type of the language used by it, include the following forms of the language: professional sublanguages, codes (ciphers of security services, jargons and
Bound State Solutions of the Klein-Gordon Equation for the Mathews-Lakshmanan Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Wang, Jie
2014-01-01
We study a boundary-value problem for the Klein-Gordon equation that is inspired by the well-known Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator model. By establishing a link to the spheroidal equation, we show that our problem admits an infinite number of discrete energies, together with associated solutions that form an orthogonal set in a weighted L 2 -Hilbert space. (author)
Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.
Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio
2014-10-01
Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.
High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED.
Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried
2017-05-16
Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.
Numerical studies of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a two-fermion bound state
de Paula, W.; Frederico, T.; Salmè, G.; Viviani, M.
2018-03-01
Some recent advances on the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) for a two-fermion bound system directly in Minkowski space are presented. The calculations are based on the expression of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in terms of the so-called Nakanishi integral representation and on the light-front projection (i.e. the integration of the light-front variable k - = k 0 - k 3). The latter technique allows for the analytically exact treatment of the singularities plaguing the two-fermion BSE in Minkowski space. The good agreement observed between our results and those obtained using other existing numerical methods, based on both Minkowski and Euclidean space techniques, fully corroborate our analytical treatment.
Quasi-potential approach to the problem of bound states in quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizov, V A; Todorov, I T [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika
1975-07-01
The paper reviews two types of quasipotential equations. An equation with a non-local potential is derived from the equations of motion of quantum electrodynamics. It is also related to a Bethe-Salpeter type of equation for the retarded Green function. Most of the paper is devoted to a systematic study of a local version of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach.
Calculations of antiproton nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris (N)over-barN potential
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří
2018-01-01
Roč. 969, č. 1 (2018), s. 45-59 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : antiproton-nucleus interaction * Paris (N)over-barN potential * antiproton-nuclear bound states Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016
On the role of anti-bound states in the RPA description of the giant monopole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertse, T.; Bang, J.
1989-01-01
The limit of the applicability of the resonant Random Phase Approximation (RPA) method is tested by calculating escape widths in the giant monopole resonance of 16 O and comparing them to the results of a time dependent Hartree-Fock calculation. Though the widths of the narrow s-wave component agree reasonably well, the broad p-wave component shows large disagreement, which cannot be cured by complementing the basis with anti-bound states in the RPA calculation. (author) 18 refs.; 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael
2006-01-01
We determine baryon-baryon bound states in (3+1)-dimensional SU(3) lattice QCD with two flavors, 4x4 spin matrices, and in an imaginary time formulation. For small hopping parameter κ>0 and large glueball mass (strong coupling), we show the existence of three-quark isospin 1/2 particles (proton and neutron) and isospin 3/2 baryons (delta particles), with asymptotic masses -3lnκ and isolated dispersion curves. Baryon-baryon bound states of isospin zero are found with binding energy of order κ 2 , using a ladder approximation to a lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation. The dominant baryon-baryon interaction is an energy-independent spatial range-one attractive potential with an O(κ 2 ) strength. There is also attraction arising from gauge field correlations associated with six overlapping bonds, but it is counterbalanced by Pauli repulsion to give a vanishing zero-range potential. The overall range-one potential results from a quark, antiquark exchange with no meson exchange interpretation; the repulsive or attractive nature of the interaction depends on the isospin and spin of the two-baryon state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Rui [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); Li, Song, E-mail: lsong@yangtzeu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zheng, Li-Min [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)
2015-09-08
Highlights: • A two-dimensional potential for Ar–BrCl is constructed at the CCSD(T) level. • The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. • Bound state calculations were carried out for the complex. - Abstract: The intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of the ground electronic state for the Ar–BrCl dimer is constructed at the CCSD(T) level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set and mid-bond functions. The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points. The global minimum corresponding to a collinear Ar–BrCl configuration, which has been observed experimentally, is located at R = 4.10 Å and θ = 2.5° with a well depth of −285.207 cm{sup −1}. A nearly T-shaped structure and an anti-linear Ar–ClBr geometry is also predicted. The bound state calculations are preformed to study intermolecular vibrational modes, rotational levels and average structures for the complex. Our transition frequencies, spectroscopic constants and average structures for all isotopomers of the collinear isomer agree well with experimental data. We have also provided pure rotational transitional frequencies for both nearly T-shaped and anti-linear isomers. These results are significant for further experimental investigations of the Ar–BrCl dimer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aoki Sinya
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The sanity check is to rule out certain classes of obviously false results, not to catch every possible error. After reviewing such a sanity check for NN bound states with the Lüscher’s finite volume formula [1–3], we give further evidences for the operator dependence of plateaux, a symptom of the fake plateau problem, against the claim [4]. We then present our critical comments on [5] by NPLQCD: (i Operator dependences of plateaux in NPL2013 [6, 7] exist with the P value of 4–5%. (ii The volume independence of plateaux in NPL2013 does not prove their correctness. (iii Effective range expansions (EREs in NPL2013 violate the physical pole condition. (iv Their comment is partly based on new data and analysis different from the original ones. (v Their new ERE does not satisfy the Lüscher’s finite volume formula.
Time-dependent problems in quantum-mechanical state reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonhardt, U.; Bardroff, P. J.
1997-01-01
We study the state reconstruction of wave packets that travel in time-dependent potentials. We solve the problem for explicitly time-dependent potentials. We solve the problem for explicitly time-dependent harmonic oscillators and sketch a general adaptive technique for finding the wave function that matches and observed evolution. (authors)
K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students
Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun
2006-01-01
The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logrado, P.G.; Vianna, J.D.M.
Upper and lower bounds for the energy eigenvalues is Schoenberg's perturbation-theory ground state are studied. After a review of the characteristic features of the partitioning techniques the perturbative expansion proposed by Schoenberg is generated from an exact operator equation. The upper and lower bounds for the ground state eigenvalue are derived by using reaction and wave operators concepts, the bracketing function and operator inequalities. (Author) [pt
High-precision calculation of loosely bound states of LiPs+ and NaPs+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi
2015-01-01
A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs + and NaPs + ), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies. (paper)
Search for the He-η bound states with the WASA-at-COSY facility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzemien W.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The η-mesic nuclei in which the η meson is bound with nucleus via strong interaction was postulated already in 1986, however till now no experiment confirmed empirically its existence. The discovery of this new kind of an exotic nuclear matter would be very important for better understanding of the η meson structure and its interaction with nucleons. The search for η-mesic helium is carried out with high statistic and high acceptance with the WASA-at-COSY detection setup in the Research Center Jülich. The search is conducted via the measurement of the excitation function for the chosen decay channels of the 4He-η system. Till now two reactions dd → (4He-ηbs → 3Hepπ− and dd → (4He-ηbs → 3Henπ0 were measured with the beam momentum ramped around the η production threshold. This report includes the description of experimental method and status of the analysis.
Steady-state dynamo and current drive in a nonuniform bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mett, R.R.; Taylor, J.B.
1991-03-01
Current drive due to helicity injection and dynamo effect are examined in an inhomogeneous bounded plasma. Averaged over a magnetic surface, there is in general no dynamo effect independent of resistivity -- contrary to the results found previously for an unbounded plasma. The dynamo field is calculated explicitly for an incompressible visco-resistive fluid in the plane-slab model. In accord with our general conclusion, outside the Alfven resonant layer it is proportional to the resistivity. Within the resonant layer there is a contribution which is enhanced, relative to its value outside the layer, by a factor (ωa 2 /(η + ν)), where ω is the wave frequency, a the plasma radius, η the magnetic diffusivity, and ν the kinematic viscosity. However, this contribution vanishes when integrated across the layer. The average field in the layer is enhanced by factor (ωa 2 /(η + ν)) 2/3 and is proportional to the shear in the magnetic field and the cube root of the gradient of the Alfven speed. These results are interpreted in terms of helicity balance, and reconciled with the infinite medium calculations. 15 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mankiewicz, L.; Sawicki, M.
1989-01-01
Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics
Topologically protected bound states in photonic parity-time-symmetric crystals.
Weimann, S; Kremer, M; Plotnik, Y; Lumer, Y; Nolte, S; Makris, K G; Segev, M; Rechtsman, M C; Szameit, A
2017-04-01
Parity-time (PT)-symmetric crystals are a class of non-Hermitian systems that allow, for example, the existence of modes with real propagation constants, for self-orthogonality of propagating modes, and for uni-directional invisibility at defects. Photonic PT-symmetric systems that also support topological states could be useful for shaping and routing light waves. However, it is currently debated whether topological interface states can exist at all in PT-symmetric systems. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the existence of such states: states that are localized at the interface between two topologically distinct PT-symmetric photonic lattices. We find analytical closed form solutions of topological PT-symmetric interface states, and observe them through fluorescence microscopy in a passive PT-symmetric dimerized photonic lattice. Our results are relevant towards approaches to localize light on the interface between non-Hermitian crystals.
Mitchell, Tarissa; Lee, Deborah; Weinberg, Michelle; Phares, Christina; James, Nicola; Amornpaisarnloet, Kittisak; Aumpipat, Lalita; Cooley, Gretchen; Davies, Anita; Tin Shwe, Valerie Daw; Gajdadziev, Vasil; Gorbacheva, Olga; Khwan-Niam, Chutharat; Klosovsky, Alexander; Madilokkowit, Waritorn; Martin, Diana; Htun Myint, Naing Zaw; Yen Nguyen, Thi Ngoc; Nutman, Thomas B; O'Connell, Elise M; Ortega, Luis; Prayadsab, Sugunya; Srimanee, Chetdanai; Supakunatom, Wasant; Vesessmith, Vattanachai; Stauffer, William M
2018-03-01
With an unprecedented number of displaced persons worldwide, strategies for improving the health of migrating populations are critical. United States-bound refugees undergo a required overseas medical examination to identify inadmissible conditions (e.g., tuberculosis) 2-6 months before resettlement, but it is limited in scope and may miss important, preventable infectious, chronic, or nutritional causes of morbidity. We sought to evaluate the feasibility and health impact of diagnosis and management of such conditions before travel. We offered voluntary testing for intestinal parasites, anemia, and hepatitis B virus infection, to U.S.-bound refugees from three Thailand-Burma border camps. Treatment and preventive measures (e.g., anemia and parasite treatment, vaccination) were initiated before resettlement. United States refugee health partners received overseas results and provided post-arrival medical examination findings. During July 9, 2012 to November 29, 2013, 2,004 refugees aged 0.5-89 years enrolled. Among 463 participants screened for seven intestinal parasites overseas and after arrival, helminthic infections decreased from 67% to 12%. Among 118 with positive Strongyloides -specific antibody responses, the median fluorescent intensity decreased by an average of 81% after treatment. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin migration process to improve the health of refugees before resettlement. With more than 250 million migrants globally, this model may offer insights into healthier migration strategies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo Junior, C.F. de; Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.
1993-10-01
Complex Kohn variational principle is applied to the numerical solution of the fully off-shell Lippmann-Schwinger equation for nucleon-nucleon scattering for various partial waves including the coupled 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 channel. Analytic expressions are obtained for all the integrals in the method for a suitable choice of expansion functions. Calculations with the partial waves 1 S 0 , 1 P 1 , 1 D 2 , and 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 of the Reid soft core potential show that the method converges faster than other solution schemes not only for the phase shift but also for the off-shell t matrix elements. It is also shown that its is trivial to modify this variational principle in order to make it suitable for bound-stage calculations. The bound-state approach is illustrated for the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 channel of the Reid soft-core potential for calculating the deuteron binding, wave function and the D state asymptotic parameters. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Junxia; Fu Huahua
2013-01-01
We study the electronic transport through a four-quantum-dot (FQD) structure with a diamond-like shape through nonequilibrium Green's function theory. It is observed that the bound state in the continuum (BIC) appears in this multiple QDs system, and the position of the BIC in the total density of states (TDOS) spectrum is tightly determined by the strength of the electronic hopping between the upper QD and the lower one. As the symmetry in the energy levels in these two QDs is broken, the BIC is suppressed to a general conductance peak with a finite width, and meanwhile a Fano-type antiresonance with a zero point appears in the conductance spectrum. These results will develop our understanding of the BICs and their spintronic device applications of spin filter and quantum computing.
The Problem State : A Cognitive Bottleneck in Multitasking
Borst, Jelmer P.; Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik
The main challenge for theories of multitasking is to predict when and how tasks interfere. He re, we focus on interference related to the problem state. a directly accessible intermediate representation of the current state of a task. On the basis of Salvucci and Taatgen's (2008) threaded cognition
Scattering and bound states for the Hulthen potential in a cosmic string background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, P. O. Box: 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2017-05-15
In this work we study the Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials in the spacetime generated by a cosmic string. Using an approximation for the centrifugal term, a solution for the radial differential equation is obtained. We consider the scattering states under the Hulthen potential and obtain the phase shifts. From the poles of the scattering S-matrix the states energies are determined as well. (orig.)
Influence of quasi-bound states on the carrier capture into quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend
2002-01-01
An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes are beli......An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes...... are believed to be mediated by carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier interaction (Auger processes). In systems of higher dimensionality, carrier relaxation via emission of LO (Longitudinal Optical) phonons is dominant. However, due to the discrete QD density of states, this process is often considered impossible...... unless the energy level separation equals the LO phonon energy, leading to a so-called phonon bottleneck. This argument is based on the assumption that the carrier-LO phonon interaction is weak. It was shown that carriers in discrete QD states couple strongly to phonons and that the intersubband...
Bottom and charm mass determinations from global fits to Q\\overline{Q} bound states at N3LO
Mateu, Vicent; Ortega, Pablo G.
2018-01-01
The bottomonium spectrum up to n = 3 is studied within Non-Relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics up to N3LO. We consider finite charm quark mass effects both in the QCD potential and the \\overline{MS} -pole mass relation up to third order in the Y-scheme counting. The u = 1 /2 renormalon of the static potential is canceled by expressing the bottom quark pole mass in terms of the MSR mass. A careful investigation of scale variation reveals that, while n = 1 , 2 states are well behaved within perturbation theory, n = 3 bound states are no longer reliable. We carry out our analysis in the n ℓ = 3 and n ℓ = 4 schemes and conclude that, as long as finite m c effects are smoothly incorporated in the MSR mass definition, the difference between the two schemes is rather small. Performing a fit to b\\overline{b} bound states we find {\\overline{m}}_b({\\overline{m}}_b) = 4 .216 ± 0 .039 GeV. We extend our analysis to the lowest lying charmonium states finding {\\overline{m}}_c({\\overline{m}}_c) = 1 .273 ± 0 .054 GeV. Finally, we perform simultaneous fits for {\\overline{m}}_b and α s finding {α}_s^{({n}_f=5)}({m}_Z)=0.1178± 0.0051 . Additionally, using a modified version of the MSR mass with lighter massive quarks we are able to predict the uncalculated O({α}_s^4) virtual massive quark corrections to the relation between the \\overline{MS} and pole masses.
Quantum mean-field approximations for nuclear bound states and tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negele, J.W.; Levit, S.; Paltiel, Z.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1979-01-01
A conceptual framework has been presented in which observables are approximated in terms of a self-consistent quantum mean-field theory. Since the SPA (Stationary Phase Approximation) determines the optimal mean field to approximate a given observable, it is natural that when one changes the observable, the best mean field to describe it changes as well. Although the theory superficially appears applicable to any observable expressible in terms of an evolution operator, for example an S-matrix element, one would have to go far beyond the SPA to adequately approximate the overlap of two many-body wave functions. The most salient open problems thus concern quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the SPA, reformulation of the theory to accomodate hard cores, and selection of sensible expectation values of few-body operators to address in scattering problems
Sufahani, Suliadi; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Mohamad, Mahathir; Khalid, Kamil; Ali, Maselan; Khalid, Kamal; Nawawi, MKM; Ahmad, Asmala
2018-04-01
A solid body needs adequate supplements from nourishment that we eat each day. Eating pretty much than what our body needs will prompt lack of healthy sustenance (under-nourishment and over-nourishment). In Malaysia, a few reviews have been directed to examine the wholesome status of Malaysians, particularly among youngsters and youths. However there are different methods for taking care of the menu arranging issue and in this paper Binary Programming (BP) is executed. Separately, “Additive Technique (AT)” and “Branch and Bound Technique (BBT)” are utilized as a part of BP. Both methodologies utilize diverse systems and might yield distinctive ideal arrangements. Along these lines, this study expects to build up a scientific model for eating regimen arranging that meets the essential supplement admission and look at the outcomes yield through additive substance and branch and bound methodologies. The information was gathered from different all inclusive schools and furthermore from the Ministry of Education. The model was illuminated by utilizing the Balas Algorithm through AT and Binary Programming through BBT.
Calculations of K- nuclear quasi-bound states based on chiral meson-baryon amplitudes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gazda, Daniel; Mareš, Jiří
2012-01-01
Roč. 881, 5/6 (2012), s. 159-168 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11005 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : K- nuclear states * mesic nuclei * antikaon-nucleus interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2012
Normal pure states of the von Nuemann algebra of bounded operators as Kaehler manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cirelli, R.; Lanzavecchia, P.; Mania, A.
1983-01-01
The projective space of a complex Hilbert space H is considered both as a Kaehler manifold and as the set of pure states of the von Neumann algebra B(H). A link is given between these two structures. Special attention is devoted to topology, orientation and automorphisms of the structures and Wigner's theorem. (author)
An Efficient Implementation of Non-Linear Limit State Analysis Based on Lower-Bound Solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars; Schmidt, Lotte Juhl
2005-01-01
Limit State analysis has been used in design for decades e.g. the yield line theory for concrete slabs or slip line solutions in geotechnics. In engineering practice manual methods have been dominating but in recent years the interest in numerical methods has been increasing. In this respect it i...
On-Demand Final State Control of a Surface-Bound Bistable Single Molecule Switch.
Garrido Torres, José A; Simpson, Grant J; Adams, Christopher J; Früchtl, Herbert A; Schaub, Renald
2018-04-12
Modern electronic devices perform their defined action because of the complete reliability of their individual active components (transistors, switches, diodes, and so forth). For instance, to encode basic computer units (bits) an electrical switch can be used. The reliability of the switch ensures that the desired outcome (the component's final state, 0 or 1) can be selected with certainty. No practical data storage device would otherwise exist. This reliability criterion will necessarily need to hold true for future molecular electronics to have the opportunity to emerge as a viable miniaturization alternative to our current silicon-based technology. Molecular electronics target the use of single-molecules to perform the actions of individual electronic components. On-demand final state control over a bistable unimolecular component has therefore been one of the main challenges in the past decade (1-5) but has yet to be achieved. In this Letter, we demonstrate how control of the final state of a surface-supported bistable single molecule switch can be realized. On the basis of the observations and deductions presented here, we further suggest an alternative strategy to achieve final state control in unimolecular bistable switches.
Few-Body Techniques Using Momentum Space for Bound and Continuum States
Yamashita, M. T.; Rosa, D. S.; Sandoval, J. H.
2018-05-01
This article is based on the notes (arxiv:1710.11228) written for a set of three lectures given in a school at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in October/2017 before the workshop "Critical Stability of Quantum Few-Body Systems". The last part of the article includes the specific topic presented in the workshop related to the dimensional effects in three-body systems. These notes are primarily dedicated to the students and are only a tentative to show a technique, among many others, to solve problems in a very rich area of the contemporary physics—the Few-Body Physics.
Monopole-fermion and dyon-fermion bound states. Pt. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, P.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Tai Tsun Wu
1985-01-01
In the first part of the paper, we give analytic, approximate results for dyon-fermion binding energies and wave functions, valid for large values of A = 1/2 Zvertical strokeegvertical strokeK, where K is the magnetic moment. In the second part, more general results are obtained for the same problem that are valid when either A is large or the binding is weak. Numerical results for the binding energy are tabulated and compared. The case of very strong binding is also discussed. (orig.)
Separability problem for multipartite states of rank at most 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Lin; Đoković, Dragomir Ž
2013-01-01
One of the most important problems in quantum information is the separability problem, which asks whether a given quantum state is separable. We investigate multipartite states of rank at most 4 which are PPT (i.e., all their partial transposes are positive semidefinite). We show that any PPT state of rank 2 or 3 is separable and has length at most 4. For separable states of rank 4, we show that they have length at most 6. It is six only for some qubit–qutrit or multiqubit states. It turns out that any PPT entangled state of rank 4 is necessarily supported on a 3⊗3 or a 2⊗2⊗2 subsystem. We obtain a very simple criterion for the separability problem of the PPT states of rank at most 4: such a state is entangled if and only if its range contains no product vectors. This criterion can be easily applied since a four-dimensional subspace in the 3⊗3 or 2⊗2⊗2 system contains a product vector if and only if its Plücker coordinates satisfy a homogeneous polynomial equation (the Chow form of the corresponding Segre variety). We have computed an explicit determinantal expression for the Chow form in the former case, while such an expression was already known in the latter case. (paper)
Bound states of 3He in 3He-4He mixture films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bashkin, E.; Pavloff, N.; Treiner, J.
1995-01-01
3 He atoms dissolved in superfluid 4 He may form dimers ( 3 He) 2 in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. We study dimer formation in films of dilute 3 He- 4 He mixture. After designing a schematic 3 He- 4 He interaction potential we calculate the dimer binding energy for various substrates. It is shown that 3 He impurity states localized near the substrate give rise to the largest magnitudes of the binding energies
Nonradiative recombination onto shallow bound states in confined systems in electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinyavskij, Eh.P.; Rusanov, A.M.
1999-01-01
A study has been made of the one-phonon recombination of carriers onto shallow impurity states in parabolic quantum wells in the longitudinal electric field. It has been found that processes of the one-phonon recombination in confined systems occur in a more active way the in a bulk material.The possibility of electrically induced one-quantum transitions in confined systems is being discussed
Managing State Debt of Ukraine: Problems and Directions of Optimisation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syzrantsev Hlib O.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The modern state of the state debt of Ukraine and future forecasts of its increase make look for new methods of debt management. That is why the goal of the article lies in revelation of main problems of state debt management in Ukraine on the basis of the analysis of its modern state and also in scientific justification of conceptual grounds of improvement of the mechanism of state debt management and servicing under modern conditions. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, the article considers the state debt as an instrument of macro-economic regulation, provides dynamics of growth of external and internal state debts. In the result of the study the article reveals a number of unsolved problems in the sphere of debt management. Due to this the article offers conceptual measures on management of the state debt of Ukraine. The prospect of further studies is the search for state debt management methods that would allow reduction of the debt load on the state budget and economy of Ukraine.
Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achtziger, Wolfgang; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.
1997-01-01
Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the stated bounds are given simply...
Generalized coherent states for the Coulomb problem in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouri, S.
2002-01-01
A set of generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem in coordinate representation is constructed. At first, we obtain a mapping for proper transformation of the one-dimensional Coulomb problem into a nonrotating four-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator in the hyperspherical space, and the generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem is then obtained in exact closed form. This exactly soluble model can provide an adequate means for a quantum coherency description of the Coulomb problem in one dimension, sample for coherent aspects of the exciton model in one-dimension example in high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors, and polymers. Also, it can be useful for investigating the coherent scattering of the Coulomb particles in one dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George L. Karakostas
2006-08-01
Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions of a three-point boundary value problem concerning a second order delay differential equation with damping and forcing term whose the delayed part is an actively bounded function, a meaning introduced in [19]. By writing the damping term as a difference of two factors one can extract more information on the solutions. (For instance, in an application, given in the last section, we can give the exact value of the norm of the solution.
A new cut-based algorithm for the multi-state flow network reliability problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Wei-Chang; Bae, Changseok; Huang, Chia-Ling
2015-01-01
Many real-world systems can be modeled as multi-state network systems in which reliability can be derived in terms of the lower bound points of level d, called d-minimal cuts (d-MCs). This study proposes a new method to find and verify obtained d-MCs with simple and useful found properties for the multi-state flow network reliability problem. The proposed algorithm runs in O(mσp) time, which represents a significant improvement over the previous O(mp 2 σ) time bound based on max-flow/min-cut, where p, σ and m denote the number of MCs, d-MC candidates and edges, respectively. The proposed algorithm also conquers the weakness of some existing methods, which failed to remove duplicate d-MCs in special cases. A step-by-step example is given to demonstrate how the proposed algorithm locates and verifies all d-MC candidates. As evidence of the utility of the proposed approach, we present extensive computational results on 20 benchmark networks in another example. The computational results compare favorably with a previously developed algorithm in the literature. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed to find all d-MCs for the multi-state flow networks. • The proposed method can prevent the generation of d-MC duplicates. • The proposed method is simpler and more efficient than the best-known algorithms
Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu
2013-11-01
The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.
Crystal structure of a Na+-bound Na+,K+-ATPase preceding the E1P state.
Kanai, Ryuta; Ogawa, Haruo; Vilsen, Bente; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi
2013-10-10
Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) ions out of cells in exchange for two K(+) taken up from the extracellular medium per ATP molecule hydrolysed, thereby establishing Na(+) and K(+) gradients across the membrane in all animal cells. These ion gradients are used in many fundamental processes, notably excitation of nerve cells. Here we describe 2.8 Å-resolution crystal structures of this ATPase from pig kidney with bound Na(+), ADP and aluminium fluoride, a stable phosphate analogue, with and without oligomycin that promotes Na(+) occlusion. These crystal structures represent a transition state preceding the phosphorylated intermediate (E1P) in which three Na(+) ions are occluded. Details of the Na(+)-binding sites show how this ATPase functions as a Na(+)-specific pump, rejecting K(+) and Ca(2+), even though its affinity for Na(+) is low (millimolar dissociation constant). A mechanism for sequential, cooperative Na(+) binding can now be formulated in atomic detail.
The interaction of MnH(X 7Sigma+) with He: ab initio potential energy surface and bound states.
Turpin, Florence; Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry
2010-06-07
The potential energy surface of the ground state of the He-MnH(X (7)Sigma(+)) van der Waals complex is presented. Within the supermolecular approach of intermolecular energy calculations, a grid of ab initio points was computed at the multireference configuration interaction level using the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set for helium and hydrogen and the relativistic aug-cc-pVQZ-DK basis set for manganese. The potential energy surface was then fitted to a global analytical form which main features are discussed. As a first application of this potential energy surface, we present accurate calculations of bound energy levels of the (3)He-MnH and (4)He-MnH complexes.
The interaction of MnH(X 7Σ+) with He: Ab initio potential energy surface and bound states
Turpin, Florence; Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry
2010-06-01
The potential energy surface of the ground state of the He-MnH(X Σ7+) van der Waals complex is presented. Within the supermolecular approach of intermolecular energy calculations, a grid of ab initio points was computed at the multireference configuration interaction level using the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set for helium and hydrogen and the relativistic aug-cc-pVQZ-DK basis set for manganese. The potential energy surface was then fitted to a global analytical form which main features are discussed. As a first application of this potential energy surface, we present accurate calculations of bound energy levels of the H3e-MnH and H4e-MnH complexes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demić, Aleksandar; Milanović, Vitomir; Radovanović, Jelena
2015-01-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) is a method that can be used for generating complex potentials with entirely real spectrum with bound states in the continuum (BIC). These complex potentials are isospectral with the initial one, but SUSYQM method adds discrete BIC's at selected energies. Corresponding wavefunctions created by SUSYQM are biorthogonal and complex, hence we can discuss their phase rigidity and illustrate the application of SUSYQM on the examples of three specific potential profiles (free electron, negative Dirac potential and quantum well with infinite walls). - Highlights: • We present SUSYQM method for generating complex potentials with entirely real spectrum. • Phase rigidity and normalizability of wavefunctions in complex potential is discussed. • Numerical application is performed on three specific potential profiles.
Line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex and bound states of D-branes on toric manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkhomenko, S.E.
2014-01-01
In this note we calculate elliptic genus in various examples of twisted chiral de Rham complex on two-dimensional toric compact manifolds and Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces in toric manifolds. At first the elliptic genus is calculated for the line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex on a compact smooth toric manifold and K3 hypersurface in P 3 . Then we twist chiral de Rham complex by sheaves localized on positive codimension submanifolds in P 2 and calculate in each case the elliptic genus. In the last example the elliptic genus of chiral de Rham complex on P 2 twisted by SL(N) vector bundle with instanton number k is calculated. In all the cases considered we find the infinite tower of open string oscillator contributions and identify directly the open string boundary conditions of the corresponding bound state of D-branes
Determination of the self-adjoint matrix Schrödinger operators without the bound state data
Xu, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Chuan-Fu
2018-06-01
(i) For the matrix Schrödinger operator on the half line, it is shown that the scattering data, which consists of the scattering matrix and the bound state data, uniquely determines the potential and the boundary condition. It is also shown that only the scattering matrix uniquely determines the self-adjoint potential and the boundary condition if either the potential exponentially decreases fast enough or the potential is known a priori on (), where a is an any fixed positive number. (ii) For the matrix Schrödinger operator on the full line, it is shown that the left (or right) reflection coefficient uniquely determine the self-adjoint potential if either the potential exponentially decreases fast enough or the potential is known a priori on (or ()), where b is an any fixed number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneipp, Marco A.C.
1999-10-01
Soliton time delays and the semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices are calculated for non-simply laced Affine Toda Field Theories. The phase shift is written as a sum over bilinears on the soliton conserved charges. The results apply to any two solitons of any Affine Toda Field Theory. As a by-product, a general expression for the number of bound states and the values of the coupling in which the S-matrix can be diagonal are obtained. In order to arrive at these results, a vertex operator is constructed, in the principal gradation, for non-simply laced affine Lie algebras, extending the previous constructions for simply laced and twisted affine Lie algebras. (author)
Hadronic bound states in SU(2) from Dyson-Schwinger equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vujinovic, Milan [Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Physik, Graz (Austria); Williams, Richard [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Giessen (Germany)
2015-03-01
By using the Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter formalism in Euclidean spacetime, we calculate the ground state spectrum of J ≤ 1 hadrons in an SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental fermions. We show that the rainbow-ladder truncation, commonly employed in QCD studies, is unsuitable for a description of an SU(2) theory. This we remedy by truncating at the level of the quark-gluon vertex Dyson-Schwinger equation in a diagrammatic expansion. Results obtained within this novel approach show good agreement with lattice studies. These findings emphasize the need to use techniques more sophisticated than rainbow-ladder when investigating generic strongly interacting gauge theories. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu
1989-01-01
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ - ) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2 Heπ - ) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ - ) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kim, C.
1990-01-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux Γ of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound Γ by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulent electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: The dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain, upon considering all bounding calculations to date it can be concluded, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kim, Chang-Bae
1990-06-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux Γ of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound Γ by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulence electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: the dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain upon considering all bounding calculations to date one can conclude, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research. 29 refs
Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles
Torquato, S.
2010-11-01
It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in Rd that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the “void” nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their “dual” solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper
Bound states of spin-half particles in a static gravitational field close to the black hole field
Spencer-Smith, A. F.; Gossel, G. H.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.
2013-03-01
We consider the bound-state energy levels of a spin-1/2 fermion in the gravitational field of a near-black hole object. In the limit that the metric of the body becomes singular, all binding energies tend to the rest-mass energy (i.e. total energy approaches zero). We present calculations of the ground state energy for three specific interior metrics (Florides, Soffel and Schwarzschild) for which the spectrum collapses and becomes quasi-continuous in the singular metric limit. The lack of zero or negative energy states prior to this limit being reached prevents particle pair production occurring. Therefore, in contrast to the Coulomb case, no pairs are produced in the non-singular static metric. For the Florides and Soffel metrics the singularity occurs in the black hole limit, while for the Schwarzschild interior metric it corresponds to infinite pressure at the centre. The behaviour of the energy level spectrum is discussed in the context of the semi-classical approximation and using general properties of the metric.
Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.E.
1980-08-01
A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A 0 = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube
Bound states, resonances and poles in the low-energy K-barN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landau, R.H.
1994-01-01
The locations in the complex energy plane of the dynamic poles of the T matrix for the (K-bar N,Σπ) system are calculated. Investigated are a quark bag model and several potential models, including one which agrees with the strong interaction shift in kaonic hydrogen as well as scattering data. The parameters of the model are fit to K - p scattering and reaction cross sections, branching ratios, and mass spectra from K - p→ Σπππ, Λπππ. The Σ P1322 (1385) and Λ D03 (1520) resonances are found to be predominately elementary bag states with considerable dressing for the Σ P13 . The Λ S01 (1405) appears as a complicated composite systems arising from two poles. The model with certain parameter sets does predict two sign changes in the real part of the K-bar N scattering amplitude near threshold, but they are not quite at the correct energies to produce agreement with the sign of the strong interaction shift of kaonic hydrogen. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs
Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.
Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi
2016-07-21
Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.
Problems and Prospects of Pineapple Production in Enugu State ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study identified problems and prospects of pineapple production in Enugu State of Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select eighty (80) pineapple farmers from two agricultural zones. Data were analyzed using percentage and mean score. Results showed that greater proportion of the farmers was ...
SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF GIRL CHILD IN EKITI STATE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mr Olusoji
problems among adolescent girls in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. Methods: A ... Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy and poor reproductive health knowledge among ..... result in pregnancy. Yes. 50 70 92. 80. 292(73.0). No. 50 30 8. 20. 108(27.0) .... the current percentage of female secondary.
A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems
Yu, Y.
2005-01-01
In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a
Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Tanaka, Yukio
2018-04-01
We study quasiparticle states on a surface of a topological insulator (TI) with proximity-induced superconductivity under an external magnetic field. An applied magnetic field creates two Majorana bound states: a vortex Majorana state localized inside a vortex core and an exterior Majorana state localized along a circle centered at the vortex core. We calculate the spin-resolved local density of states (LDOS) and demonstrate that the shrinking of the radius of the exterior Majorana state, predicted in R. S. Akzyanov et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 125428 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.125428, under a strong magnetic field can be seen in LDOS without smeared out by nonzero-energy states. The spin-resolved LDOS further reveals that the spin of the exterior Majorana state is strongly spin-polarized. Accordingly, the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are found to be spin-polarized as well. In order to detect the exterior Majorana states, however, the Fermi energy should be closed to the Dirac point to avoid contributions from continuum levels. We also study a different two-dimensional topological-superconducting system where a two-dimensional electron gas with the spin-orbit coupling is sandwiched between an s -wave superconductor and a ferromagnetic insulator. We show that the radius of an exterior Majorana state can be tuned by an applied magnetic field. However, on the contrary to the results at a TI surface, neither the exterior Majorana state nor the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are spin-polarized. We conclude that the spin polarization of the Majorana state is attributed to the spin-polarized Landau level, which is characteristic for systems with the Dirac-like dispersion.
State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra A. Dorskaya
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.
Separability of diagonal symmetric states: a quadratic conic optimization problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Tura
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We study the separability problem in mixtures of Dicke states i.e., the separability of the so-called Diagonal Symmetric (DS states. First, we show that separability in the case of DS in $C^d\\otimes C^d$ (symmetric qudits can be reformulated as a quadratic conic optimization problem. This connection allows us to exchange concepts and ideas between quantum information and this field of mathematics. For instance, copositive matrices can be understood as indecomposable entanglement witnesses for DS states. As a consequence, we show that positivity of the partial transposition (PPT is sufficient and necessary for separability of DS states for $d \\leq 4$. Furthermore, for $d \\geq 5$, we provide analytic examples of PPT-entangled states. Second, we develop new sufficient separability conditions beyond the PPT criterion for bipartite DS states. Finally, we focus on $N$-partite DS qubits, where PPT is known to be necessary and sufficient for separability. In this case, we present a family of almost DS states that are PPT with respect to each partition but nevertheless entangled.
Three-body problem in the ground-state representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.
1993-01-01
The ground-state probability density of a three-body system is used to construct a classical potential U whose minimum coincides exactly with the ground-state energy. The spectrum of excited states may approximately be obtained by imposing quasiclassical quantization conditions over the classical motion in U. We show nontrivial one-dimensional models in which either this quantization condition is exact or considerably improves the usual semiclassical quantization. For three-dimensional problems, the small-oscillation frequencies in states with total angular momentum L = 0 are computed. These frequencies could represent an improvement over the frequencies of triatomic molecules computed with the use of ordinary quasiclassics for the motion of the nuclei in the molecular term. By providing a semiclassical description of the first excited quantum states, the sketched approach rises some interesting questions such as, for example, the relevance (once again) of classical chaos to quantum mechanics
Rovibrational bound states of SO{sub 2} isotopologues. I: Total angular momentum J = 0–10
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: Praveen.Kumar@ttu.edu; Ellis, Joseph; Poirier, Bill, E-mail: Bill.Poirier@ttu.edu
2015-04-01
Highlights: • We report calculation of the exact rovibrational energy levels of SO{sub 2} for J = 0–10. • We report sulfur isotope shifts of the SO{sub 2} isotopologues rovibrational frequencies. • Coriolis coupling is treated exactly. • All rovibrational levels are computed to a high level of numerical convergence. • All of the rovibrational data exhibit near-perfect mass-dependent fractionation. - Abstract: Isotopic variation of the rovibrational bound states of SO{sub 2} for the four stable sulfur isotopes {sup 32–34,36}S is investigated in comprehensive detail. In a two-part series, we compute the low-lying energy levels for all values of total angular momentum in the range J = 0–20. All rovibrational levels are computed, to an extremely high level of numerical convergence. The calculations have been carried out using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The present study (Paper I) examines the J = 0–10 rovibrational levels, providing unambiguous symmetry and rovibrational label assignments for each computed state. The calculated vibrational energy levels exhibit very good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data. Rovibrational energy levels, calculated without any Coriolis approximations, are reported here for the first time. Among other potential ramifications, this data will facilitate understanding of the origin of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean rock record—of great relevance for understanding the “oxygen revolution”.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, L.H.; Hentges, P.J.; Aubin, H.; Aprili, M.; Badica, E.; Covington, M.; Pafford, M.M.; Westwood, G.; Klemperer, W.G.; Jian, Sha; Hinks, D.G.
2004-01-01
Quasiparticle planar tunneling spectroscopy is used to study unconventional superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) thin films and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (BSCCO) single crystals. Tunneling conductances are obtained as a function of crystallographic orientation, applied magnetic field (magnitude and orientation), atomic substitution and surface damage. Our systematic studies confirm that the observed zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP), a measure of the near-surface quasiparticle (QP) density of states (DoS), is comprised of Andreev bound states (ABS) resulting directly from the sign change of the d-wave order parameter (OP) at the Fermi surface. Our data, plus a literature search, reveals a consistency in the observation of the splitting of the ZBCP in optimally-doped materials. We note that the splitting of the ZBCP observed in applied field, and the spontaneous splitting observed at lower temperatures in zero field, occur concomitantly in a given junction, and that observation of this splitting is dependent upon two parameters: (1) the magnitude of the tunneling cone and (2) the degree of atomic-scale disorder at the interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikhdair, S.M.; Hamzavi, M.; Rajabi, A.A.
2013-01-01
Approximate bound-state solutions of the Dirac equation with q-deformed Woods–Saxon (WS) plus a new generalized ring-shaped (RS) potential are obtained for any arbitrary l-state. The energy eigenvalue equation and corresponding two-component wave functions are calculated by solving the radial and angular wave equations within a shortcut of the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. The solutions of the radial and polar angular parts of the wave function are expressed in terms of the Jacobi polynomials. A new approximation being expressed in terms of the potential parameters is carried out to deal with the strong singular centrifugal potential term l(l+1)r -2 . Under some limitations, we can obtain solution for the RS Hulthen potential and the standard usual spherical WS potential (q = 1). (author)
Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta
2018-04-01
We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowire in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance given by the length of the wire. The really problematic ps-ABSs consist of component MBSs separated by a distance of the order of the characteristic Majorana decay length ξ , and have nearly zero energy in a significant range of control parameters, such as the Zeeman field and chemical potential, within the topologically trivial phase. Despite being topologically trivial, such ps-ABSs can generate signatures identical to MZMs in local charge tunneling experiments. In particular, the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) generated by ps-ABSs has the quantized value 2 e2/h , and it can remain unchanged in an extended range of experimental parameters, such as Zeeman field and the tunnel barrier height. We illustrate the formation of such low-energy robust ps-ABSs in two experimentally relevant situations: a hybrid SM-SC system consisting of a proximitized nanowire coupled to a quantum dot and the SM-SC system in the presence of a spatially varying inhomogeneous potential. We then show that, unlike local measurements, a two-terminal experiment involving charge tunneling at both ends of the wire is capable of distinguishing between the generic ps-ABSs and the non-Abelian MZMs. While the MZMs localized at the opposite ends of the wire generate correlated differential conduction spectra, including correlations in energy splittings and critical Zeeman fields associated with the emergence of the ZBCPs, such correlations are absent if the ZBCPs are due to ps-ABSs emerging in the
Alkofer, Reinhard; von Smekal, Lorenz
2001-11-01
Recent studies of QCD Green's functions and their applications in hadronic physics are reviewed. We discuss the definition of the generating functional in gauge theories, in particular, the rôle of redundant degrees of freedom, possibilities of a complete gauge fixing versus gauge fixing in presence of Gribov copies, BRS invariance and positivity. The apparent contradiction between positivity and colour antiscreening in combination with BRS invariance in QCD is considered. Evidence for the violation of positivity by quarks and transverse gluons in the covariant gauge is collected, and it is argued that this is one manifestation of confinement. We summarise the derivation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) of QED and QCD. For the latter, the implications of BRS invariance on the Green's functions are explored. The possible influence of instantons on DSEs is discussed in a two-dimensional model. In QED in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions, the solutions for Green's functions provide tests of truncation schemes which can under certain circumstances be extended to the DSEs of QCD. We discuss some limitations of such extensions and assess the validity of assumptions for QCD as motivated from studies in QED. Truncation schemes for DSEs are discussed in axial and related gauges, as well as in the Landau gauge. Furthermore, we review the available results from a systematic non-perturbative expansion scheme established for Landau gauge QCD. Comparisons to related lattice results, where available, are presented. The applications of QCD Green's functions to hadron physics are summarised. Properties of ground state mesons are discussed on the basis of the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for quarks and antiquarks. The Goldstone nature of pseudoscalar mesons and a mechanism for diquark confinement beyond the ladder approximation are reviewed. We discuss some properties of ground state baryons based on their description as Bethe-Salpeter/Faddeev bound states of quark
Organic radiation chemistry--the present state and problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sareava, V.V.; Kalyazin, E.P.
1985-01-01
The authors pose the principal problems to be solved in organic radiation chemistry: 1) to derive from the structural formula of a given organic compound the composition of the products from its radiolysis under standard conditions; 2) to use a number of physicochemical properties of a given compound at the molecular and material levels to predict the variation in composition and fraction of products from the radiolysis of the compounds with a change in irradiation conditions, i.e., the parameters of the acting radiation and the state of the substance, to indicate the direction of the principal radiation chemical processes in complex mixtures of natural or technical origin. Having stated the problems, the authors attempt to show the level of understanding of the radiolysis of organic compounds, using aliphatic hydrocarbons as principal discussion subjects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acheson, S.A.; Bell, J.B.; Jones, M.E.; Wolfenden, R. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))
1990-04-03
The enzymatic decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate may proceed by an addition-elimination mechanism involving a covalently bound intermediate or by elimination of CO2 to generate a nitrogen ylide. In an attempt to distinguish between these two alternatives, 1-(phosphoribosyl)barbituric acid was synthesized with 13C at the 5-position. Interaction of this potential transition-state analogue inhibitor with yeast orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase resulted in a small (0.6 ppm) downfield displacement of the C-5 resonance, indicating no rehybridization of the kind that might have been expected to accompany 5,6-addition of an enzyme nucleophile. When the substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate was synthesized with deuterium at C-5, no significant change in kcat (H/D = 0.99 +/- 0.06) or kcat/KM (H/D = 1.00 +/- 0.06) was found to result, suggesting that C-5 does not undergo significant changes in geometry before or during the step that determines the rate of the catalytic process. These results are consistent with a nitrogen ylide mechanism and offer no support for the intervention of covalently bound intermediates in the catalytic process.
Terminology of economics in Albanian: Current state, problems and tasks
Mulaj, Isa
2012-01-01
The primary aim of this paper was to analyze the state of terminology of economics in Albanian language, and depending on the problems identified, to address some recommendations as tasks that are deemed necessary for future research that would contribute to its standardization. The paper begun from the hypothesis that the terminology in question is relatively rich, but finds that academic and scientific research are very limited or largely neglected, thus creating a vacuum in its broader and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafie-khah, M.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A hybrid SCUC solution is developed to deal with large-scale, real-time and long-term problems. → New formulations are proposed for considering valve point effect and warmth-dependent start-up cost. → A new algorithm is developed for modeling the AC power flow in SCUC problems. → Using the power flow algorithm both steps in traditional SCUC is done simultaneously. → The proposed method provides better solutions than previous ones with a fast speed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new practical method is presented for solving the non-convex security constraint unit commitment (SCUC) problem in power systems. The accuracy of the proposed method is desirable while the shorter computation time makes it useful for SCUC solution of large-scale power systems, real-time market operation and long-term SCUC problems. The proposed framework allows inclusion of the valve point effects, warmth-dependent start-up costs, ramp rates, minimum up/down time constraints, multiple fuels costs, emission costs, prohibited operating zones and AC power flow limits in normal and contingency conditions. To solve the non-convex problem, combination of a modified Branch-and-Bound method with the Quadratic Programming is used as an optimization tool and a developed AC power flow algorithm is applied for considering the security and contingency concerns using the nonlinear/linear AC model. These modifications improve the convergence speed and solution precision of SCUC problem. In the proposed method, in contrast with traditional SCUC algorithms, unit commitment solution, checking and satisfying the security constraints are managed simultaneously. The obtained results are compared with other reported methods for investigating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Also, the proposed method is applied to an Iranian power system including 493 thermal units.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-05-15
The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Effective stability around the Cassini state in the spin-orbit problem
Sansottera, Marco; Lhotka, Christoph; Lemaître, Anne
2014-05-01
We investigate the long-time stability in the neighborhood of the Cassini state in the conservative spin-orbit problem. Starting with an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the canonical Andoyer-Delaunay variables, we construct a high-order Birkhoff normal form and give an estimate of the effective stability time in the Nekhoroshev sense. By extensively using algebraic manipulations on a computer, we explicitly apply our method to the rotation of Titan. We obtain physical bounds of Titan's latitudinal and longitudinal librations, finding a stability time greatly exceeding the estimated age of the Universe. In addition, we study the dependence of the effective stability time on three relevant physical parameters: the orbital inclination, , the mean precession of the ascending node of Titan orbit, , and the polar moment of inertia,.
The η′N interaction from a chiral effective model and η′-N bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Shuntaro; Jido, Daisuke
2015-01-01
The η ′ mass reduction in the nuclear medium is expected owing to the degeneracy of the pseudoscalar-singlet and octet mesons in the restoration of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In this study, we investigate the η ′ N 2body interaction, which is the fundamental interaction of the in-medium η ′ properties, using the linear sigma model as a chiral effective model. The η ′ N interaction in the linear sigma model comes from the scalar meson exchange with U A (1) symmetry effect and is found to be fairly strong attraction. The transition amplitude of η ′ N to the ηN channel is relatively small compared to that of elastic channel. From the analysis of the η ′ N 2body system, we find a η ′ N bound state with the binding energy 12.3-3.3iMeV. We expect that this strongly attractive two body interaction leads to a deep and attractive optical potential
Bound states of 27Al studied at selected 26Mg(p,γ)27Al resonances, ch. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maas, J.W.; Holvast, A.J.C.D.; Baghus, A.; Endt, P.M.
1976-01-01
Measurements of the γ-ray decay and angular distributions at eight low-energy (Esub(P) 26 Mg (p,γ) 27 Al resonances lead to the spin and parity assignments Jsup(π) = 3/2 + , 1/2 - , 3/2 - , 5/2 + , 5/2, 3/2 - , 9/2 - and 7/2 for the bound states at Esub(x) = 3.96, 4.05, 5.15, 5.25, 5.44, 6.16, 6.99, 7.23 and 7.47 MeV, respectively. For other levels, spin and parity limitations are set. Also reported are precise excitation energies, branching and mixing ratios and lifetime limits. For the resonances, additional information is given on energies, strengths and widths. The reaction Q-value is Q = 8267.2 +- 0.7 keV. The level scheme of 27 Al, complemented with these new data, is compared with the results from recent shell-model calculations
Sharma, Natasha
2016-01-01
The excellent particle identification capabilities of the ALICE detector, using the time projection chamber and the time-of-flight detector, allow the detection of light nuclei and anti-nuclei. Furthermore, the high tracking resolution provided by the inner tracking system enables the separation of primary nuclei from those coming from the decay of heavier systems. This allows for the reconstruction of decays such as the hypertriton mesonic weak decay ($^3_{\\Lambda}$H$\\rightarrow ^3$He + $\\pi^-$), the decay of a hypothetical bound state of a $\\Lambda$n into a deuteron and pion or the H-dibaryon decaying into a $\\Lambda$, a proton and a $\\pi^{-}$. An overview of the production of stable nuclei and anti-nuclei in proton-proton, proton-lead and, in particular, lead-lead collisions is presented. Hypernuclei production rates in Pb--Pb are also shown, together with the upper limits estimated on the production of hypothetical exotica candidates. The results are compared with predictions for the production in thermal...
Dark Matter's secret liaisons: phenomenology of a dark U(1) sector with bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirelli, Marco; Petraki, Kalliopi; Sala, Filippo [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE), UMR 7589 CNRS and UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris (France); Panci, Paolo [CERN Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Case C01600, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: marco.cirelli@gmail.com, E-mail: paolo.panci@cern.ch, E-mail: kpetraki@lpthe.jussieu.fr, E-mail: filo.sala@gmail.com, E-mail: m.taoso@csic.es [Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT) UAM/CSIC, calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)
2017-05-01
Dark matter (DM) charged under a dark U(1) force appears in many extensions of the Standard Model, and has been invoked to explain anomalies in cosmic-ray data, as well as a self-interacting DM candidate. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive phenomenological analysis of such a model, assuming that the DM abundance arises from the thermal freeze-out of the dark interactions. We include, for the first time, bound-state effects both in the DM production and in the indirect detection signals, and quantify their importance for FERMI, AMS-02, and CMB experiments. We find that DM in the mass range 1 GeV to 100 TeV, annihilating into dark photons of MeV to GeV mass, is in conflict with observations. Instead, DM annihilation into heavier dark photons is viable. We point out that the late decays of multi-GeV dark photons can produce significant entropy and thus dilute the DM density. This can lower considerably the dark coupling needed to obtain the DM abundance, and in turn relax the existing constraints.
2002-01-01
This experiment uses a magnetic spectrometer to search for monoenergetic @g and @p@+ transitions between bound N&bar.N states. The spectrometer is instrumented with drift chambers (NDC, RDC and PDC), proportional wire chambers (A-E), and various thin scintillation counters (S,M,G,AH,V,Q,D,E and PH) f purposes, as shown in the accompanying drawing.\\\\ \\\\ Gamma-rays produced in the LH^2 target are materialized by a 10\\% converter located in the B chamber with an acceptance (@D@W/4@p) of @=2-6x10|-|3 (100-400 MeV) and 6x10|-|3 ($>$400 MeV). Trajectories of bent electron-positron pairs and @p@+ are measured in the A-E~chambers. Trajectories of less frequent high energy penetrating tracks, as well as the remaining associated charged annihilation products exiting the target, are measured in the drift chamber system. \\\\ \\\\ The resultant energy resolution (@DE/E) is better than 1,5\\% R.M.S. over the full range of energies studied. To illustrate the sensitivity of this experiment, a @g line at 300 MeV produced at t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christiansen, H.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: hugo@cbpf.br; Cima, O.M. Del [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: helayel@gft.ucp.br
2001-08-01
We consider a parity-preserving QED{sub 3} model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for the evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential underlying high-T{sub e} superconductivity. The fact that resulting potential, - C{sub s} K{sub o} (Mr), is non-confining and weak (in the sense of Kato) strongly suggests the mechanism of pair-condensation. This potential, compatible with an s-wave order parameters, is then applied to the Schrodinger equation for the sake of numerical calculations, thereby enforcing the existence of bound states. The results worked out by means of our theoretical framework are checked by considering a number of phenomenological data extracted from different copper oxide superconductors. The agreement may motivate a deeper analysis of our model viewing an application to quasi-planar cuprate superconductors. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 1-10 meV for the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)