Quantum Bound States Around Black Holes
Grain, J.; Barrau, A.
2007-01-01
Quantum mechanics around black holes has shown to be one of the most fascinating fields of theoretical physics. It involves both general relativity and particle physics, opening new eras to establish the principles of unified theories. In this article, we show that quantum bound states with no classical equivalent -- as it can easily be seen at the dominant monopolar order -- should be formed around black holes for massive scalar particles. We qualitatively investigate some important physical...
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented
Near optimal bounds on quantum communication complexity of single-shot quantum state redistribution
Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul
2014-01-01
We show near optimal bounds on the worst case quantum communication of single-shot entanglement-assisted one-way quantum communication protocols for the {\\em quantum state redistribution} task and for the sub-tasks {\\em quantum state splitting} and {\\em quantum state merging}. Our bounds are tighter than previously known best bounds for the latter two sub-tasks. A key technical tool that we use is a {\\em convex-split} lemma which may be of independent interest.
Quantum Chernoff bound as a measure of efficiency of quantum cloning for mixed states
Ghiu, Iulia
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate the efficiency of quantum cloning of $N$ identical mixed qubits. We employ a recently introduced measure of distinguishability of quantum states called quantum Chernoff bound. We evaluate the quantum Chernoff bound between the output clones generated by the cloning machine and the initial mixed qubit state. Our analysis is illustrated by performing numerical calculation of the quantum Chernoff bound for different scenarios that involves the number of initial qubit...
Asymptotic properties of bound states in coupled quantum wave guides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maglione, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica G Galilei, Via F Marzolo 8, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais (CFIF), Avenida Rovisco Pais, Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, LIdia S [Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais (CFIF), Avenida Rovisco Pais, Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cattapan, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Fisica G Galilei, Via F Marzolo 8, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy)
2006-02-03
We investigate the motion of bound-state poles in two quantum wave guides laterally coupled through a window. The imaginary momentum ik at the bound-state poles is studied as a function of the size a of the window. Both bound and virtual states appear as a spans the whole range from 0 up to +{infinity}. We are able to find simple scaling laws relating the critical value of the window size at which the nth bound state appears to the number n of bound states, in the limit of large n. A similar relation is also provided for the slope and the second derivative of the pole trajectories in the (k, a) plane. These relations are characterized by an extremely high numerical accuracy. We also evaluate the exact value of the first two derivatives for a = 0.
Quantum Chernoff bound as a measure of the efficiency of quantum cloning for mixed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we investigate the efficiency of quantum cloning of N identical mixed qubits. We employ a recently introduced measure of distinguishability of quantum states called the quantum Chernoff bound. We evaluate the quantum Chernoff bound between the output clones generated by the cloning machine and the initial mixed qubit state. Our analysis is illustrated by performing numerical calculation of the quantum Chernoff bound for different scenarios that involves the number of initial qubits N and the number of output imperfect copies M. (paper)
Unitary Transformations in Quantum Field Theory and Bound States
Shebeko, A V
2001-01-01
Finding the eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian H or its diagonalization is the important problem of quantum physics. However, in relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT) its complete and exact solution is possible for a few simple models only. Unitary transformations (UT's) considered in this survey do not diagonalize H, but convert H into a form which enables us to find approximately some H eigenstates. During the last years there have appeared many papers devoted to physical applications of such UT's. Our aim is to present a systematic and self-sufficient exposition of the UT method. The two general kinds of UT's are pointed out, distinct variations of each kind being possible. We consider in detail the problem of finding the simplest H eigenstates for interacting mesons and nucleons using the so-called ``clothing'' UT and Okubo's UT. These UT's allow us to suggest definite approaches to the problem of two-particle (deuteron-like) bound states in RQFT. The approaches are shown to yield the same two-nucleo...
Lower bound on concurrence for arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states
Chen, Wei; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the concurrence of arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states. An explicit operational lower bound of concurrence is obtained in terms of the concurrence of substates. A given example shows that our lower bound may improve the well-known existing lower bounds of concurrence. The significance of our result is to get a lower bound when we study the concurrence of arbitrary m⊗ n⊗ l -dimensional tripartite quantum states.
Transport Through Andreev Bound States in a Graphene Quantum Dot
Dirks, Travis; Hughes, Taylor L.; Lal, Siddhartha; Uchoa, Bruno; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chialvo, Cesar; Goldbart, Paul M.; Mason, Nadya
2010-01-01
Andreev reflection-where an electron in a normal metal backscatters off a superconductor into a hole-forms the basis of low energy transport through superconducting junctions. Andreev reflection in confined regions gives rise to discrete Andreev bound states (ABS), which can carry a supercurrent and have recently been proposed as the basis of qubits [1-3]. Although signatures of Andreev reflection and bound states in conductance have been widely reported [4], it has been difficult to directly...
'Dressing' and bound states in quantum field theory
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The program of introducing 'dressed' particles (instead of 'bare' ones) was suggested earlier by L. Faddev et al. It is modified here for the case when 'dressed' states can decay. On the basis of this 'dressing' formalism, a new approach is proposed to the problem of bound states in field theories such as the hydrogen atom and the positronium in QED or hadrons in QCD. Peculiarities of this approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 22 refs
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in T-shape double quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calle, A.M.; Pacheco, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Orellana, P.A., E-mail: orellana@ucn.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)
2013-09-02
In this Letter, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot coupled to two normal metal leads left and right and a superconducting lead. Analytical expressions of Andreev transmission and local density of states of the system at zero temperature have been obtained. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot. We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. Our results show that as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect, the transmission from normal to normal lead exhibits Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states. We find that this interference effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. - Highlights: • Transport properties of a double quantum dot coupled in T-shape configuration to conducting and superconducting leads are studied. • We report Fano antiresonances in the normal transmission due to the Andreev reflections in the superconducting lead. • We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. • Fano effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. • Andreev bound states survives even for strong dot-superconductor coupling.
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in T-shape double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot coupled to two normal metal leads left and right and a superconducting lead. Analytical expressions of Andreev transmission and local density of states of the system at zero temperature have been obtained. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot. We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. Our results show that as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect, the transmission from normal to normal lead exhibits Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states. We find that this interference effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. - Highlights: • Transport properties of a double quantum dot coupled in T-shape configuration to conducting and superconducting leads are studied. • We report Fano antiresonances in the normal transmission due to the Andreev reflections in the superconducting lead. • We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. • Fano effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. • Andreev bound states survives even for strong dot-superconductor coupling
Bound states and entanglement in the excited states of quantum spin chains
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We investigate the entanglement properties of the excited states of the spin- (1/2) Heisenberg (XXX) chain with isotropic antiferromagnetic interactions, by exploiting the Bethe ansatz solution of the model. We consider eigenstates obtained from both real and complex solutions (‘strings’) of the Bethe equations. Physically, the former are states of interacting magnons, whereas the latter contain bound states of groups of particles. We first focus on the situation with few particles in the chain. Using exact results and semiclassical arguments, we derive an upper bound SMAX for the entanglement entropy. This exhibits an intermediate behaviour between logarithmic and extensive, and it is saturated for highly-entangled states. As a function of the eigenstate energy, the entanglement entropy is organized in bands. Their number depends on the number of blocks of contiguous Bethe–Takahashi quantum numbers. In the presence of bound states a significant reduction in the entanglement entropy occurs, reflecting that a group of bound particles behaves effectively as a single particle. Interestingly, the associated entanglement spectrum shows edge-related levels. At a finite particle density, the semiclassical bound SMAX becomes inaccurate. For highly-entangled states SA∝ Lc, with Lc the chord length, signalling the crossover to extensive entanglement. Finally, we consider eigenstates containing a single pair of bound particles. No significant entanglement reduction occurs, in contrast with the few-particle case. (paper)
The quantum probability equation: I. Bound state perturbation theory
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The partial-wave Schroedinger equation with real boundary conditions is recast as an equation for the probability density. When a small additional potential is included, the changes in the bound-state energy eigenvalues are obtained, up to third order in the perturbation, purely in terms of the perturbing potential and the unperturbed probability density. Although the approach is different, our results are equivalent to those derived by Bender (Bender C M 1978 Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (New York: McGraw-Hill) p 330). Knowledge of neither the unperturbed energy spectrum nor the wavefunctions of excited states is required. Evaluations of the second-order energy shift are given for some soluble S-wave problems. (author)
Multichannel quantum defect theory of strontium bound Rydberg states
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Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium below the first ionization limit, based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series’ perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and ab initio studies reveals good agreement with most series; however, some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the MQDT wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Landé gJ-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enables future investigations of properties such as Stark maps and long-range interactions of Rydberg states of strontium. (paper)
Interacting quantum walkers: two-body bosonic and fermionic bound states
Krapivsky, P. L.; Luck, J. M.; Mallick, K.
2015-11-01
We investigate the dynamics of bound states of two interacting particles, either bosons or fermions, performing a continuous-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional lattice. We consider the situation where the distance between both particles has a hard bound, and the richer situation where the particles are bound by a smooth confining potential. The main emphasis is on the velocity characterizing the ballistic spreading of these bound states, and on the structure of the asymptotic distribution profile of their center-of-mass coordinate. The latter profile generically exhibits many internal fronts.
Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)
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This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated
Bound states in the continuum and spin filter in quantum-dot molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Orellana, P.A., E-mail: pedro.orellana@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago (Chile)
2014-12-15
In this paper we study the formation of bound states in the continuum in a quantum dot molecule coupled to leads and their potential application in spintronics. Based on the combination of bound states in the continuum and Fano effect, we propose a new design of a spin-dependent polarizer. By lifting the spin degeneracy of the carriers in the quantum dots by means of a magnetic field the system can be used as a spin-polarized device. A detailed analysis of the spin-dependent conductance and spin polarization as a function of the applied magnetic field and gate voltages is carried out.
Bound States of Non-Hermitian Quantum Field Theories
Bender, Carl M; Boettcher, Stefan; Jones, H. F.; Meisinger, Peter; Simsek, Mehmet
2001-01-01
The spectrum of the Hermitian Hamiltonian ${1\\over2}p^2+{1\\over2}m^2x^2+gx^4$ ($g>0$), which describes the quantum anharmonic oscillator, is real and positive. The non-Hermitian quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian $H={1\\over2}p^2+{1 \\over2}m^2x^2-gx^4$, where the coupling constant $g$ is real and positive, is ${\\cal PT}$-symmetric. As a consequence, the spectrum of $H$ is known to be real and positive as well. Here, it is shown that there is a significant difference between these two theories: Whe...
Quantum localization and bound-state formation in Bose-Einstein condensates
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We discuss the possibility of exponential quantum localization in systems of ultracold bosonic atoms with repulsive interactions in open optical lattices without disorder. We show that exponential localization occurs in the maximally excited state of the lowest energy band. We establish the conditions under which the presence of the upper energy bands can be neglected, determine the successive stages and the quantum phase boundaries at which localization occurs, and discuss schemes to detect it experimentally by visibility measurements. The discussed mechanism is a particular type of quantum localization that is intuitively understood in terms of the interplay between nonlinearity and a bounded energy spectrum.
Ground-State Entanglement Bound for Quantum Energy Teleportation of General Spin-Chain Models
Hotta, Masahiro
2013-01-01
In protocols of quantum energy teleportation (QET), ground-state entanglement of many-body systems plays a crucial role. For a general class of spin-chain systems, we show analytically that the entanglement entropy is lower bounded by a positive quadratic function of the teleported energy between the regions of a QET protocol. This supports a general conjecture that ground-state entanglement is an evident physical resource for energy transportation in the context of QET
Thermoelectric signatures of a Majorana bound state coupled to a quantum dot
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We theoretically investigate the possibility to use thermolectric measurements to detect Majorana bound states and to investigate their coupling to a dissipative environment. The particle–hole symmetry of Majorana states would normally lead to a vanishing Seebeck coefficient, i.e. a vanishing open-circuit voltage resulting from a temperature gradient. We discuss how coupling to a quantum dot with a gate-controlled energy level breaks particle–hole symmetry in a tunable manner. The resulting gate-dependent Seebeck coefficient provides a new way to evidence the existence of Majorana states, which can be combined with conventional tunnel spectroscopy in the same setup. Furthermore, the thermoelectric properties rely on the ability of the quantum dot–Majorana system to sense the temperature of the bulk superconductor and can be used to extract information about the dissipative decay of Majorana states, which is crucial for quantum information applications. (paper)
Quantum Transport through a Triple Quantum Dot System in the Presence of Majorana Bound States
Jiang, Zhao-Tan; Cao, Zhi-Yuan; Zhong, Cheng-Cheng
2016-05-01
We study the electron transport through a special quantum-dot (QD) structure composed of three QDs and two Majorana bound states (MBSs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. This QD-MBS ring structure includes two channels with the two coupled MBSs being Channel 1 and one QD being Channel 2, and three types of transport processes such as the electron transmission (ET), the Andreev reflection (AR), and the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR). By comparing the ET, AR, and CAR processes through Channels 1 and 2, we make a systematic study on the transport properties of the QD-MBS ring. It is shown that there appear two kinds of characteristic transport patterns for Channels 1 and 2, as well as the interplay between the two patterns. Of particular interest is that there exists an AR-assisted ET process in Channel 2, which is different from that in Channel 1. Thus a clear “X” pattern due to the ET and AR processes appears in the ET, AR, and CAR transmission coefficients. Moreover, we study how Channel 2 affects the three transport processes when Channel 1 is tuned in the ET and CAR regimes. It is shown that the transport properties of the ET, AR and CAR processes can be adjusted by tuning the energy level of the QD embedded in Channel 2. We believe this research should be a helpful reference for understanding the transport properties in the QD-MBS coupled systems. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11274040, and by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University under Grant No. NCET-08-0044
Quasi-bound states of Schrodinger and Dirac electrons in magnetic quantum dot
Masir, M. Ramezani; Matulis, A.; Peeters, F. M.
2009-01-01
The properties of a two-dimensional electron are investigated in the presence of a circular step magnetic field profile. Both electrons with parabolic dispersion as well as Dirac electrons with linear dispersion are studied. We found that in such a magnetic quantum dot no electrons can be confined. Nevertheless close to the Landau levels quasi-bound states can exist with a rather long life time.
Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer
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Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data
Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime.
Kadigrobov, A M; Fistul, M V
2016-06-29
We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, [Formula: see text], where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59). PMID:27166511
Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime
Kadigrobov, A. M.; Fistul, M. V.
2016-06-01
We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, {εn}≤ft( {{p}y}\\right) , where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59)
Afzal, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Yong Tak
2016-01-01
Von Neumann and Wigner theorized bounding of asymmetric eigenstates and anti-crossing of symmetric eigenstates. Experiments have shown that owing to anti-crossing and similar radiation rates, graphene-like resonance of inhomogeneously strained photonic eigenstates can generate pseudomagnetic field, bandgaps and Landau levels, while dissimilar rates induce non-Hermicity. Here, we showed experimentally higher-order supersymmetry and quantum phase transitions by resonance between similar one dimensional lattices. The lattices consisted of inhomgeneously strain-like phases of triangular solitons. The resonance created two dimensional inhomogeneously deformed photonic graphene. All parent eigenstates are annihilated. Where eigenstates of mildly strained solitons are annihilated with similar (power law) rates through one tail only and generated Hermitianally bounded eigenstates. The strongly strained solitons, positive defects are annihilated exponentially through both tails with dissimilar rates. Which bounded eig...
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Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.
Bound states for multiple Dirac-δ wells in space-fractional quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tare, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jeffreytare@gmail.com; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: pesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)
2014-01-15
Using the momentum-space approach, we obtain bound states for multiple Dirac-δ wells in the framework of space-fractional quantum mechanics. Introducing first an attractive Dirac-comb potential, i.e., Dirac comb with strength −g (g > 0), in the space-fractional Schrödinger equation we show that the problem of obtaining eigenenergies of a system with N Dirac-δ wells can be reduced to a problem of obtaining the eigenvalues of an N × N matrix. As an illustration we use the present matrix formulation to derive expressions satisfied by the bound-state energies of N = 1, 2, 3 delta wells. We also obtain the corresponding wave functions and express them in terms of Fox's H-function.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
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Benjamin Doyon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyon, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.doyon@kcl.ac.uk
2015-03-15
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality
Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2016-05-01
State redistribution is the protocol in which given an arbitrary tripartite quantum state, with two of the subsystems initially being with Alice and one being with Bob, the goal is for Alice to send one of her subsystems to Bob, possibly with the help of prior shared entanglement. We derive an upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of achieving state redistribution with a given finite accuracy. In proving our result, we also obtain an upper bound on the quantum communication cost of this protocol in the one-shot setting, by using the protocol of coherent state merging as a primitive.
Light fermion bound states in two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics
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We study, in the framework of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, spin 1/2 fermion-spin-0 boson systems with general classes of interaction having the following properties: they preserve chiral symmetry, confine the two particles into bound states and possess the short distance behavior of vector interactions. The resulting spectrum displays as ground states an infinite number of light fermions with increasing spins, the masses of which vanish with the vanishing of the constituent particle masses. In the absence of short range interactions these fermions have the quantum numbers j = l +1/2; l=0,1,...; n=0. A secondary interaction, here taken illustratively of the L-S coupling type, is needed to give masses to the light high spin fermions. This problem is relevant for the study of the dynamics of preonic systems
Friedel phase discontinuity and bound states in the continuum in quantum dot systems
Solís, B.; Ladrón de Guevara, M. L.; Orellana, P. A.
2008-06-01
In this Letter we study the Friedel phase of the electron transport in two different systems of quantum dots which exhibit bound states in the continuum (BIC). The Friedel phase jumps abruptly in the energies of the BICs, which is associated to the vanishing width of these states, as shown by Friedrich and Wintgen in [H. Friedrich, D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. A 31 (1985) 3964]. This odd behavior of the Friedel phase has consequences in the charge through the Friedel sum rule. Namely, if the energy of the BIC drops under the Fermi energy the charge changes abruptly in a unity. We show that this behavior closely relates to discontinuities in the conductance predicted for interacting quantum dot systems.
Quantum entanglement of charges in bound states with finite-size dyons
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We show that the presence of finite-size monopoles can lead to a number of interesting physical processes involving quantum entanglement of charges. Taking as a model the classical solution of the N=2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, we study interaction between dyons and scalar particles in the adjoint and fundamental representation. We find that there are bound states of scalars and dyons, which, remarkably, are always an entangled configuration of the form vertical bar ψ> = vertical bar dyon+> vertical bar scalar-> ± vertical bar dyon-> vertical bar scalar+>. We determine the energy levels and the wave functions and also discuss their stability. (author)
Computation of Quantum Bound States on a Singly Punctured Two-Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a quantum mechanical system on a singly punctured two-torus with bound states described by the Maass waveforms which are eigenfunctions of the hyperbolic Laplace—Beltrami operator. Since the discrete eigenvalues of the Maass cusp form are not known analytically, they are solved numerically using an adapted algorithm of Hejhal and Then to compute Maass cusp forms on the punctured two-torus. We report on the computational results of the lower lying eigenvalues for the punctured two-torus and find that they are doubly-degenerate. We also visualize the eigenstates of selected eigenvalues using GridMathematica
Ground-state-entanglement bound for quantum energy teleportation of general spin-chain models
Hotta, Masahiro
2013-03-01
Many-body quantum systems in the ground states have zero-point energy due to the uncertainty relation. In many cases, the system in the ground state accompanies spatially entangled energy density fluctuation via the noncommutativity of the energy density operators, though the total energy takes a fixed value, i.e., the lowest eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian. Quantum energy teleportation (QET) is a protocol for the extraction of the zero-point energy out of one subsystem using information of a remote measurement of another subsystem. From an operational viewpoint of protocol users, QET can be regarded as an effective rapid energy transportation without breaking all physical laws, including causality and local energy conservation. In the protocol, the ground-state entanglement plays a crucial role. In this paper, we show analytically for a general class of spin-chain systems that the entanglement entropy is lower bounded by a positive quadratic function of the teleported energy between the regions of a QET protocol. This supports a general conjecture that ground-state entanglement is an evident physical resource for energy transportation in the context of QET. The result may also deepen our understanding of the energy density fluctuation in condensed-matter systems from a perspective of quantum information theory.
Khan, Md Abdul
2015-01-01
Bound state properties of few single and double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei is critically examined in the framework of core-$\\Lambda$ and core+$\\Lambda+\\Lambda$ few-body model applying hyperspherical harmonics expansion method (HHEM). The $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ potential is chosen phenomenologically while the core-$\\Lambda$ potential is obtained by folding a phenomenological $\\Lambda N$ interaction into the density distribution of the core. The depth of the effective $\\Lambda N$ potential is adjusted to reproduce the experimental data for the core-$\\Lambda$ subsystem. The three-body Schr\\"odinger equation is solved by hyperspherical adiabatic approximation (HAA) to get the ground state energy and wave function. The ground state wavefunction is used to construct the supersymmetric partner potential following prescription of supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SSQM) algebra. The newly constructed supersymmetric partner potential is used to solve the three-body Schr\\"odinger equation to get the energy and wavefunction for the...
Honecker, A.; Wessel, S.; Kerkdyk, R.; Pruschke, T.; Mila, F.; Normand, B.
2016-02-01
Quantum antiferromagnets have proven to be some of the cleanest realizations available for theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of quantum fluctuation effects. At finite temperatures, however, the additional effects of thermal fluctuations in the restricted phase space of a low-dimensional system have received much less attention, particularly the situation in frustrated quantum magnets, where the excitations may be complex collective (bound or even fractionalized) modes. We investigate this problem by studying the thermodynamic properties of the frustrated two-leg S =1/2 spin ladder, with particular emphasis on the fully frustrated case. We present numerical results for the magnetic specific heat and susceptibility, obtained from exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo studies, which we show can be rendered free of the sign problem even in a strongly frustrated system and which allow us to reach unprecedented sizes of L =200 ladder rungs. We find that frustration effects cause an unconventional evolution of the thermodynamic response across the full parameter regime of the model. However, close to the first-order transition they cause a highly anomalous reduction in temperature scales with no concomitant changes in the gap; the specific heat shows a very narrow peak at very low energies and the susceptibility rises abruptly at extremely low temperatures. Unusually, the two quantities have different gaps over an extended region of the parameter space. We demonstrate that these results reflect the presence of large numbers of multiparticle bound-state excitations, whose energies fall below the one-triplon gap in the transition region.
Entropic bounds for the quantum marginal problem
Osborne, Tobias J
2008-01-01
The quantum marginal problem asks, given a set of reduced quantum states of a multipartite system, whether there exists a joint quantum state consistent with these reduced states. The quantum marginal problem is known to be hard to solve in general as it is a variant of the N-representability problem. We provide entropic bounds on the number of orthogonal solutions to the quantum marginal problem.
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot–MBS and MBS–MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot–MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot–MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS–MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵM increases. In addition, dot–MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS–MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS–MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions. (paper)
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-01
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ɛM increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.
Magneto-Josephson effects and Majorana bound states in quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A prominent signature of Majorana bound states is the exotic Josephson effects they produce, the classic example being a fractional Josephson current with 4π periodicity in the phase difference across the junction. Recent work established that topological insulator edges support a novel ‘magneto-Josephson effect’, whereby a dissipationless current exhibits 4π-periodic dependence also on the relative orientation of the Zeeman fields in the two banks of the junction. Here, we explore the magneto-Josephson effect in junctions based on spin–orbit-coupled quantum wires. In contrast to the topological insulator case, the periodicities of the magneto-Josephson effect no longer follow from an exact superconductor–magnetism duality of the Hamiltonian. We employ numerical calculations as well as analytical arguments to identify the domain configurations that display exotic Josephson physics for quantum-wire junctions, and elucidate the characteristic differences with the corresponding setups for topological insulators edges. To provide guidance to experiments, we also estimate the magnitude of the magneto-Josephson effects in realistic parameter regimes, and compare the Majorana-related contribution to the coexisting 2π-periodic effects emerging from non-Majorana states. (paper)
Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincare map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozin, Igor N.; Law, Mark M.; Connor, Jonathan N.L. (eds.)
2002-07-01
The objective of the Workshop was to bring together the leading specialists in the fields of rovibrational quantum calculation and experimental spectroscopy to share ideas and expertise on the challenging problems faced in dealing with wide-amplitude molecular motion. The results of work in this field have not only resolved difficult problems in the interpretation of high-resolution molecular spectra but have also allowed the determination of accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) by fitting to such data. Conversely the most rigorous tests of ab initio PESs depend on being able to calculate accurate spectroscopic transitions based on the potentials for comparison with experimental data.
Observation of quantum states without a semiclassical equivalence bound by a magnetic field gradient
Schüler, B.; Cerchez, M.; Xu, Hengyi; Schluck, J.; Heinzel, T.; Reuter, D.; A. D. Wieck
2014-01-01
Resonant transmission through electronic quantum states that exist at the zero points of a magnetic field gradient inside a ballistic quantum wire is reported. Since the semiclassical motion along such a line of zero magnetic field takes place in form of unidirectional snake trajectories, these states have no classical equivalence. The existence of such quantum states has been predicted more than a decade ago by theoretical considerations of Reijniers and coworkers [1]. We further show how th...
Vernek, Edson; Penteado, Poliana; Seridonio, Antonio; Egues, José C.
2014-03-01
The search for Majorana bound state (MBS) is topological superconductor nanowires is currently a topic of great interest. Despite the various theoretical proposals and the experimental results, the question of whether the possible signatures of MBS can be distinguished from those arising from other phenomena such as the Kondo effect is still under debate. A recent proposal for detecting MBS using a quantum dot coupled to normal two leads and to a topological quantum wire has proven to be very appropriate structure to investigate this problem. In this system, the presence of MBS in the wire is marked as a e2 / 2 h conductance through the dot. In this work we find, that the e2 / 2 h conductance peak is not per se an distinct signature of a MBS in the wire. We show instead that it results from a leaking of the Majorana state into the dot. Moreover, by gating the dot level (ɛd) far away below and above the Fermi level of the leads (ɛF), the conductance remains at e2 / 2 h . The surviving of the conductance plateau for ɛd >ɛF contrasts with Kondo effect plateau known to emerge only for ɛd CNPq, CAPES and FAPEMIG.
Pillet, J.-D.; Joyez, P.; Žitko, Rok; Goffman, M. F.
2013-07-01
We performed tunneling spectroscopy of a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic reservoir either in the normal or in the superconducting state. We explore how the Kondo resonance, observed when the QD's occupancy is odd and the reservoir is normal, evolves towards Andreev bound states (ABS) in the superconducting state. Within this regime, the ABS spectrum observed is consistent with a quantum phase transition from a singlet to a degenerate magnetic doublet ground state, in quantitative agreement with a single-level Anderson model with superconducting leads.
Schulz, M D; Vidal, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a high-Q Fabry-Perot resonator with cylindrical mirrors, operating near fundamental mode and filled with an alkali vapor, as the photonic analog to the electronic quantum wire. The internal photons constitute a 1D Bose gas with pairwise interactions. We solve for the two-photon bound state which determines a resonance for the two-photon transmission function. Emphasis is placed on the experimental feasibility of observing these quasiparticles
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-14
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Quantum transport through a multi-quantum-dot-pair chain side-coupled with Majorana bound states
Zhao-Tan, Jiang; Cheng-Cheng, Zhong
2016-06-01
We investigate the quantum transport properties through a special kind of quantum dot (QD) system composed of a serially coupled multi-QD-pair (multi-QDP) chain and side-coupled Majorana bound states (MBSs) by using the Green functions method, where the conductance can be classified into two kinds: the electron tunneling (ET) conductance and the Andreev reflection (AR) one. First we find that for the nonzero MBS-QDP coupling a sharp AR-induced zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h is present (or absent) when the MBS is coupled to the far left (or the other) QDP. Moreover, the MBS-QDP coupling can suppress the ET conductance and strengthen the AR one, and further split into two sub-peaks each of the total conductance peaks of the isolated multi-QDPs, indicating that the MBS will make obvious influences on the competition between the ET and AR processes. Then we find that the tunneling rate Γ L is able to affect the conductances of leads L and R in different ways, demonstrating that there exists a Γ L-related competition between the AR and ET processes. Finally we consider the effect of the inter-MBS coupling on the conductances of the multi-QDP chains and it is shown that the inter-MBS coupling will split the zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h into two sub-peaks. As the inter-MBS coupling becomes stronger, the two sub-peaks are pushed away from each other and simultaneously become lower, which is opposite to that of the single QDP chain where the two sub-peaks with the height of about e 2/2h become higher. Also, the decay of the conductance sub-peaks with the increase of the MBS-QDP coupling becomes slower as the number of the QDPs becomes larger. This research should be an important extension in studying the transport properties in the kind of QD systems coupled with the side MBSs, which is helpful for understanding the nature of the MBSs, as well as the MBS-related QD transport properties. Project supported by the National Natural
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Benjamin Doyon
2015-01-01
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonz...
Bound states of 'dressed' particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)
Influence of quasi-bound states on the carrier capture into quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.
2002-01-01
An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes are...... believed to be mediated by carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier interaction (Auger processes). In systems of higher dimensionality, carrier relaxation via emission of LO (Longitudinal Optical) phonons is dominant. However, due to the discrete QD density of states, this process is often considered impossible...
VARIATIONAL CALCULATION ON GROUND-STATE ENERGY OF BOUND POLARONS IN PARABOLIC QUANTUM WIRES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG ZHUANG-BING; WU FU-LI; CHEN QING-HU; JIAO ZHENG-KUAN
2001-01-01
Within the framework of Feynman path-integral variational theory, we calculate the ground-state energy of a polaron in parabolic quantum wires in the presence of a Coulomb potential. It is shown that the polaronic correction to the ground-state energy is more sensitive to the electron-phonon coupling constant than the Coulomb binding parameter,and it increases monotonically with decreasing effective wire radius. Moreover, compared to the results obtained by Feynman Haken variational path-integral theory, we obtain better results within the Feynman path-integral variational approach (FV approach). Applying our calculation to several polar semiconductor quantum wires, we find that the polaronic correction can be considerably large.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the structure and formation of deeply bound π- states in heavy nuclei, which are expected to be narrow due to the repulsive π--nucleus interaction. Possible experiments to produce those states are described. (author)
Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A0 = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the electronic transport through a four-quantum-dot (FQD) structure with a diamond-like shape through nonequilibrium Green's function theory. It is observed that the bound state in the continuum (BIC) appears in this multiple QDs system, and the position of the BIC in the total density of states (TDOS) spectrum is tightly determined by the strength of the electronic hopping between the upper QD and the lower one. As the symmetry in the energy levels in these two QDs is broken, the BIC is suppressed to a general conductance peak with a finite width, and meanwhile a Fano-type antiresonance with a zero point appears in the conductance spectrum. These results will develop our understanding of the BICs and their spintronic device applications of spin filter and quantum computing.
Bound states and threshold resonances in quantum wires with circular bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the solutions to the wave equation in a two-dimensional tube of unit width comprised of two straight regions connected by a region of constant curvature. We introduce a numerical method which permits high accuracy at high curvature. We determine the bound state energies as well as the transmission and reflection matrices T and R and focus on the nature of the resonances that occur in the vicinity of channel thresholds. We explore the dependence of these solutions on the curvature of the tube and angle of the bend and discuss several limiting cases where our numerical results confirm analytic predictions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Approximate bound states of the Dirac equation with some physical quantum potentials
Sameer M. Ikhdair; Sever, Ramazan
2012-01-01
The approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equations with the reflectionless-type and Rosen-Morse potentials including the spin-orbit centrifugal (pseudo-centrifugal) term are obtained. Under the conditions of spin and pseudospin (pspin) symmetry concept, we obtain the bound state energy spectra and the corresponding two-component upper- and lower-spinors of the two Dirac particles by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method in closed form. The special cases of the s-wave {\\kappa}=\\pm...
Approximate bound states of the Dirac equation with some physical quantum potentials
Ikhdair, Sameer M; 10.1016/j.amc.2012.03.073
2012-01-01
The approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equations with the reflectionless-type and Rosen-Morse potentials including the spin-orbit centrifugal (pseudo-centrifugal) term are obtained. Under the conditions of spin and pseudospin (pspin) symmetry concept, we obtain the bound state energy spectra and the corresponding two-component upper- and lower-spinors of the two Dirac particles by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method in closed form. The special cases of the s-wave {\\kappa}=\\pm1 (l=l=0) Dirac equation and the non-relativistic limit of Dirac equation are briefly studied.
Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes
Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird
This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper
First clear evidence of quantum chaos in the bound states of an atomic nucleus
Muñoz, L; Gómez, J M G; Heusler, A
2016-01-01
We study the spectral fluctuations of the $^{208}$Pb nucleus using the complete experimental spectrum of 151 states up to excitation energies of $6.20$ MeV recently identified at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium at Garching, Germany. For natural parity states the results are very close to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) for the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. A quantitative estimate of the agreement is given by the Brody parameter $\\omega$, which takes the value $\\omega=0$ for regular systems and $\\omega \\simeq 1$ for chaotic systems. We obtain $\\omega=0.85 \\pm 0.02$ which is, to our knowledge, the closest value to chaos ever observed in experimental bound states of nuclei. By contrast, the results for unnatural parity states are far from RMT behavior. We interpret these results as a consequence of the strength of the residual interaction in $^{208}$Pb, which, according to experimental data, is much stronger for natural than for unnatural parity states. In addition our results show that ch...
Hoyer, Paul
2016-01-01
Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...
Quantum phase transition triggering magnetic bound states in the continuum in graphene
Guessi, L. H.; Marques, Y.; Machado, R. S.; Kristinsson, K.; Ricco, L. S.; Shelykh, I. A.; Figueira, M. S.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.
2015-12-01
Graphene hosting a pair of collinear adatoms in the phantom atom configuration has density of states vanishing in the vicinity of the Dirac point which can be described in terms of the pseudogap scaling as cube of the energy, Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 , which leads to the appearance of spin-degenerate bound states in the continuum (BICs) [Phys. Rev. B 92, 045409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045409]. In the case when adatoms are locally coupled to a single carbon atom the pseudogap scales linearly with energy, which prevents the formation of BICs. Here, we explore the effects of nonlocal coupling characterized by the Fano factor of interference q0, tunable by changing the slope of the Dirac cones in the graphene band structure. We demonstrate that three distinct regimes can be identified: (i) for q0qc 2 the cubic scaling of the pseudogap with energy Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 characteristic to the phantom atom configuration is restored and the phase with nonmagnetic BICs is recovered. The phase with magnetic BICs can be described in terms of an effective intrinsic exchange field of ferromagnetic nature between the adatoms mediated by graphene monolayer. We thus propose a new type of QPT resulting from the competition between two ground states, respectively characterized by spin-degenerate and magnetic BICs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concept of asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states is generalised to elementary quantum systems of higher dimensions. Based on these results basic properties of quantum state purification protocols are investigated which are capable of purifying tensor products of Bell-diagonal states and which are based on B-steps of the Gottesman-Lo-type with the subsequent application of a Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum code. Consequences for maximum tolerable error rates of quantum cryptographic protocols are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concept of asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states is generalized to elementary quantum systems of higher dimensions. Based on these results basic properties of quantum state purification protocols are investigated which are capable of purifying tensor products of Bell-diagonal states and which are based on B-steps of the Gottesman-Lo-type with the subsequent application of a Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum code. Consequences for maximum tolerable error rates of quantum cryptographic protocols are discussed
Monotonicity of the quantum linear programming bound
Eric M. Rains
1998-01-01
The most powerful technique known at present for bounding the size of quantum codes of prescribed minimum distance is the quantum linear programming bound. Unlike the classical linear programming bound, it is not immediately obvious that if the quantum linear programming constraints are satisfiable for dimension K, that the constraints can be satisfied for all lower dimensions. We show that the quantum linear programming bound is indeed monotonic in this sense, and give an explicitly monotoni...
Reflecting Magnon Bound States
Ahn, C; Rey, S J
2008-01-01
In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm tha...
Quantum few-body bound states of dipolar particles in a helical geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jakob Knorborg; Fedorov, Dmitri Vladimir; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm;
2016-01-01
We study a quantum mechanical system consisting of up to three identical dipoles confined to move along a helical shaped trap. The long-range interactions between particles confined to move in this one dimension leads to an interesting effective two-particle potential with an oscillating behavior...... that they can take maximal advantage of the strong head-to-tail attraction that is a generic feature of the dipole–dipole interaction....
Bound states and the Bekenstein bound
Bousso, R
2004-01-01
We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S <= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width a. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.
On Quantum Capacity and its Bound
Ohya, Masanori; Volovich, Igor V.
2004-01-01
The quantum capacity of a pure quantum channel and that of classical-quantum-classical channel are discussed in detail based on the fully quantum mechanical mutual entropy. It is proved that the quantum capacity generalizes the so-called Holevo bound.
Fano effect in an AB interferometer with a quantum dot side-coupled to a single Majorana bound state
Zeng, Qi-Bo; Chen, Shu; Lü, Rong
2016-02-01
We study the conductance and interference effects through an AB interferometer with an embedded quantum dot (QD) side-coupled to a single Majorana bound state (MBS) by using non-equilibrium Green's function method. The energy levels appearing in the QD are calculated by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the embedded QD-MBS system. When the single QD energy level ɛ0 is set to 0, there are three discrete energy levels in the QD appearing at around ω = 0, ±√{ ɛM2 + 2λ2 } due to the coupling with MBS where ɛM is the coupling strength between the two MBSs at the two ends of the nanowire and λ is the coupling strength between the MBS and the QD. Asymmetric Fano lineshapes are found around these levels in the conductance due to the interference between electrons traversing through different paths. The phase shift of electrons through the QD changes from π / 2 to - π / 2 at each of these three energy values. However, the phase does not vary smoothly between these three energy levels but shows severe changes from - π / 2 to π / 2 at ω = ±√{ ɛM2 +λ2 }. As a comparison, we also study the similar AB interferometer in which the QD-MBS system is replaced by a normal QD-QD system or a simple single QD system, which shows only two or one Fano peak and the phase shifts from π / 2 to - π / 2 only at the Fano peaks. These differences reflect the distinct influences of Majorana bound state on the transport properties of AB interferometer.
Quasi-bound states in continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)
Lower bound of local quantum uncertainty for high-dimensional bipartite quantum systems
Wang, Shuhao; Li, Hui; Lu, Xian; Chen, Bin; Long, Gui Lu
2013-01-01
Quantum correlations are of fundamental importance in quantum phenomena and quantum information processing studies. The measure of quantum correlations is one central issue. The recently proposed measure of quantum correlations, the local quantum uncertainty (LQU), satisfies the full physical requirements of a measure of quantum correlations. In this work, by using operator relaxation, a closed form lower bound of the LQU for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states is derived. We have ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Su-Xin, Wang; Yu-Xian, Li; Jian-Jun, Liu
2016-03-01
Andreev reflection (AR) in a normal-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor (N-QD-S) system with coupled Majorana bound states (MBSs) is investigated theoretically. We find that in the N-QD-S system, the AR can be enhanced when coupling to the MBSs is incorporated. Fano line-shapes can be observed in the AR conductance spectrum when there is an appropriate QD-MBS coupling or MBS-MBS coupling. The AR conductance is always e2/2h at the zero Fermi energy point when only QD-MBSs coupling is considered. In addition, the resonant AR occurs when the MBS-MBS coupling roughly equals to the QD energy level. We also find that an AR antiresonance appears when the QD energy level approximately equals to the sum of the QD-MBS coupling and the MBS-MBS coupling. These features may serve as characteristic signatures for the probe of MBSs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176089 and 10974043), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2011205092 and 2014205005), and the Fund for Hebei Normal University for Nationalities, China (Grant No. 201109).
Quantum Lower Bounds by Entropy Numbers
Heinrich, Stefan
2006-01-01
We use entropy numbers in combination with the polynomial method to derive a new general lower bound for the n-th minimal error in the quantum setting of information-based complexity. As an application, we improve some lower bounds on quantum approximation of embeddings between finite dimensional L_p spaces and of Sobolev embeddings.
Quantum computation speedup limits from quantum metrological precision bounds
Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Markiewicz, Marcin
2014-01-01
We propose a scheme for translating metrological precision bounds into lower bounds on query complexity of quantum search algorithms. Within the scheme the link between quadratic performance enhancement in idealized quantum metrological and quantum computing schemes becomes clear. More importantly, we utilize results from the field of quantum metrology on a generic loss of quadratic quantum precision enhancement in presence of decoherence to infer an analogous generic loss of quadratic speed-...
Finite blocklength converse bounds for quantum channels
Matthews, William; Wehner, Stephanie
2012-01-01
We derive upper bounds on the rate of transmission of classical information over quantum channels by block codes with a given blocklength and error probability, for both entanglement-assisted and unassisted codes, in terms of a unifying framework of quantum hypothesis testing with restricted measurements. Our bounds do not depend on any special property of the channel (such as memorylessness) and generalise both a classical converse of Polyanskiy, Poor, and Verd\\'{u} as well as a quantum conv...
Quarks as quasiparticles of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A treatment of quarks as strongly bound subsystems of the baryon structure is considered, with the baryons assigned to various states with integers G and B. The requirement that the appropriate fractional values of the quantum numbers of the quarks be obtained, and that appropriate integral values be obtained for the whole system of three bound quarks, uniquely determine the three initial states of the quarks, labeled by the set of values of the quantum numbers G, B, and J. In this connection the new color quantum number is interpreted as a quantity which characterizes the presence of the subsystems in different eigenstates. The self- consistency of the changes of color states in the three-quark system is explained on the basis of a generalized Sakata model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sturm, Sven
2012-09-06
This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10{sup -11}, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike 28Si13+. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10-11, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Wei; Zhao Yuwei; Han Chao; Eerdunchaolu
2013-01-01
Magnetic field and temperature dependence of the properties of the ground state of the strong-couplingbound magnetopolaron in quantum rods (QRs) with hydrogenic impurity is studied by means of the Huybrechts-Lee-Low-Pines transformation method and the quantum statistical theory.The expressions for the ground-state energy and the mean number ofphonons of the magnetopolaron are derived.Results of the numerical calculations show that the bound state of the magnetopolaron cannot be formed when the value of the aspect ratio of the QR,the dielectric constant ratio,the electron-phonon coupling strength or the temperature parameter is small.The larger the deviation of the value of aspect ratio e' from 1 is,the more it is unfavorable to the stability of the ground state of the magnetopolaron.When the magnetopolaron is in the bound state,the absolute value of its ground-state energy and its mean number ofphonons increase with an increase of the dielectric constant ratio and confinement strength of QRs,but decrease with an increase in the cyclotron frequency of the external magnetic field and the temperature.The absolute value of the ground-state energy and the mean number of phonons of the magnetopolaron decrease with decreasing e' when e' ＜ 1,but decrease with increasing e' when e' ＞ 1.They get the maximum value at e'=1.
Microscopic observation of magnon bound states and their dynamics
Fukuhara, Takeshi; Schauß, Peter; Endres, Manuel; Hild, Sebastian; Cheneau, Marc; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian
2013-01-01
More than eighty years ago, H. Bethe pointed out the existence of bound states of elementary spin waves in one-dimensional quantum magnets. To date, identifying signatures of such magnon bound states has remained a subject of intense theoretical research while their detection has proved challenging for experiments. Ultracold atoms offer an ideal setting to reveal such bound states by tracking the spin dynamics after a local quantum quench with single-spin and single-site resolution. Here we r...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGLi; XIEHong-Jing
2003-01-01
Within the framework of the compact density matrix approach, the third-harmonic generation (THG) in an electric-field-biased semi-parabolic quantum well (QW) has been deduced and investigated. Via variant of displacement harmonic oscillation, the exact electronic states in the semi-parabolic QW with an applied electric field have also been obtained and discussed. Numerical results on typical GaAs material reveal that, electric fields and confined potential frequency of semi-parabolic QW have obvious influences on the energy levels of electronic states and the THG in the semi-parabolic QW systems.
Quantum communication using a bounded-size quantum reference frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Typical quantum communication schemes are such that to achieve perfect decoding the receiver must share a reference frame (RF) with the sender. Indeed, if the receiver only possesses a bounded-size quantum token of the sender's RF, then the decoding is imperfect, and we can describe this effect as a noisy quantum channel. We seek here to characterize the performance of such schemes, or equivalently, to determine the effective decoherence induced by having a bounded-size RF. We assume that the token is prepared in a special state that has particularly nice group-theoretic properties and that is near-optimal for transmitting information about the sender's frame. We present a decoding operation, which can be proven to be near-optimal in this case, and we demonstrate that there are two distinct ways of implementing it (corresponding to two distinct Kraus decompositions). In one, the receiver measures the orientation of the RF token and reorients the system appropriately. In the other, the receiver extracts the encoded information from the virtual subsystems that describe the relational degrees of freedom of the system and token. Finally, we provide explicit characterizations of these decoding schemes when the system is a single qubit and for three standard kinds of RF: a phase reference, a Cartesian frame (representing an orthogonal triad of spatial directions), and a reference direction (representing a single spatial direction).
Ungan, Fatih; Yesilgul, Unal; Şakiroğlu, Serpil; Kasapoglu, Esin; Erol, Ayse; Arikan, Mehmet Cetin; Sarı, Huseyin; Sökmen, Ismail
2012-01-01
Within the envelope function approach and the effective-mass approximation, we have investigated theoretically the effect of an intense, high-frequency laser field on the bound states in a Ga x In1 − x N y As1 − y /GaAs double quantum well for different nitrogen and indium mole concentrations. The laser-dressed potential, bound states, and squared wave functions related to these bound states in Ga1 − x In x N y As1 − y /GaAs double quantum well are investigated as a function of the position a...
Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity
Tamaki, Takashi
2016-01-01
We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulae which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulae. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulae are also useful in this case. By applying the formulae, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this ...
Optimal bounds for quantum bit commitment
Chailloux, André
2011-01-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive with numerous applications. Quantum information allows for bit commitment schemes in the information theoretic setting where no dishonest party can perfectly cheat. The previously best-known quantum protocol by Ambainis achieved a cheating probability of at most 3/4[Amb01]. On the other hand, Kitaev showed that no quantum protocol can have cheating probability less than 1/sqrt{2} [Kit03] (his lower bound on coin flipping can be easily extended to bit commitment). Closing this gap has since been an important and open question. In this paper, we provide the optimal bound for quantum bit commitment. We first show a lower bound of approximately 0.739, improving Kitaev's lower bound. We then present an optimal quantum bit commitment protocol which has cheating probability arbitrarily close to 0.739. More precisely, we show how to use any weak coin flipping protocol with cheating probability 1/2 + eps in order to achieve a quantum bit commitment protocol with ...
Classical and quantum partition bound and detector inefficiency
Laplante, S; Roland, J
2012-01-01
In communication complexity, two players each have an input and they wish to compute some function of the joint inputs. This has been the object of much study and a wide variety of lower bound methods have been introduced to address the problem of showing lower bounds on communication. Recently, Jain and Klauck introduced the partition bound, which subsumes many of the known methods, in particular factorization norm, discrepancy, and the rectangle (corruption) bound. Physicists have considered a closely related scenario where two players share a predefined entangled state. Each is given a measurement as input, which they perform on their share of the system. The outcomes of the measurements follow a distribution which is predicted by quantum mechanics. In an experimental setting, Bell inequalities are used to distinguish truly quantum from classical behavior. We present a new lower bound technique based on the notion of detector inefficiency (where some runs are discarded by either of the players) for the ext...
Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities
Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2016-04-01
We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.
Bound anionic states of adenine
Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.
2007-01-01
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine...
Topological edge states of bound photon pairs
Gorlach, Maxim A
2016-01-01
We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. Energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. Despite the unexpected breakdown of the Zak phase technique and the edge mixing of internal and center-of-mass motion we link the edge state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity, thus uncovering the topological nature of the many-body problem in complex lattices.
A framework for bounding nonlocality of state discrimination
Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie; Mancinska, Laura; Ozols, Maris
2012-01-01
We consider the class of protocols that can be implemented by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) between two parties. In particular, we focus on the task of discriminating a known set of quantum states by LOCC. Building on the work in the paper "Quantum nonlocality without entanglement" [BDF+99], we provide a framework for bounding the amount of nonlocality in a given set of bipartite quantum states in terms of a lower bound on the probability of error in any LOCC dis...
No-signaling bounds for quantum cloning and metrology
Sekatski, P.; Skotiniotis, M.; Dür, W.
2015-08-01
The impossibility of superluminal communication is a fundamental principle of physics. Here we show that this principle underpins the performance of several fundamental tasks in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. In particular, we derive tight no-signaling bounds for probabilistic cloning and superreplication that coincide with the corresponding optimal achievable fidelities and rates known. In the context of quantum metrology, we derive the Heisenberg limit from the no-signaling principle for certain scenarios including reference frame alignment and maximum likelihood state estimation. We elaborate on the equivalence of assymptotic phase-covariant cloning and phase estimation for different figures of merit.
Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states
Borsten, L; Duff, M J
2012-01-01
In order to see whether superqubits are more nonlocal than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a nonlocal resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2) the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound p(win) = cos^2 pi/8 \\simeq 0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with p(win) = 0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities.
Tighter quantum uncertainty relations following from a general probabilistic bound
Fröwis, Florian; Schmied, Roman; Gisin, Nicolas
2015-07-01
Uncertainty relations (URs) such as the Heisenberg-Robertson or the time-energy UR are often considered to be hallmarks of quantum theory. Here, a simple derivation of these URs is presented based on a single classical inequality from estimation theory, a Cramér-Rao-like bound. The Heisenberg-Robertson UR is then obtained by using the Born rule and the Schrödinger equation. This allows a clear separation of the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics from the Hilbert space structure and the dynamical law. It also simplifies the interpretation of the bound. In addition, the Heisenberg-Robertson UR is tightened for mixed states by replacing one variance by the quantum Fisher information. Thermal states of Hamiltonians with evenly gapped energy levels are shown to saturate the tighter bound for natural choices of the operators. This example is further extended to Gaussian states of a harmonic oscillator. For many-qubit systems, we illustrate the interplay between entanglement and the structure of the operators that saturate the UR with spin-squeezed states and Dicke states.
Bound entangled states invariant under Ux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi
2008-01-01
This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.
Proof of a quantum Bousso bound
Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-08-01
We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ΔS≤(A-A')/4Gℏ, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ΔS is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Lower Bounds for Quantum Oblivious Transfer
Chailloux, André; Sikora, Jamie
2010-01-01
Oblivious transfer is a fundamental primitive in cryptography. While perfect information theoretic security is impossible, quantum oblivious transfer protocols can limit the dishonest players' cheating. Finding the optimal security parameters in such protocols is an important open question. In this paper we show that every 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer protocol allows a dishonest party to cheat with probability bounded below by a constant strictly larger than 1/2. Alice's cheating is defined as her probability of guessing Bob's index, and Bob's cheating is defined as his probability of guessing both input bits of Alice. In our proof, we relate these cheating probabilities to the cheating probabilities of a coin flipping protocol and conclude by using Kitaev's coin flipping lower bound. Then, we present an oblivious transfer protocol with two messages and cheating probabilities at most 3/4. Last, we extend Kitaev's semidefinite programming formulation to more general primitives, where the security is against a...
Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a 1/r2 force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a 1/r2 force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication. (paper)
Quantum Networks for Generating Arbitrary Quantum States
Kaye, Phillip; Mosca, Michele
2004-01-01
Quantum protocols often require the generation of specific quantum states. We describe a quantum algorithm for generating any prescribed quantum state. For an important subclass of states, including pure symmetric states, this algorithm is efficient.
Lower bounds in the quantum cell probe model
Sen, Pranab; Venkatesh, S.
2001-01-01
We introduce a new model for studying quantum data structure problems -- the "quantum cell probe model". We prove a lower bound for the static predecessor problem in the address-only version of this model where we allow quantum parallelism only over the `address lines' of the queries. The address-only quantum cell probe model subsumes the classical cell probe model, and many quantum query algorithms like Grover's algorithm fall into this framework. Our lower bound improves the previous known ...
Lower Bounds on the Capacities of Quantum Relay Channels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石金晶; 施荣华; 彭小奇; 郭迎; 易留洋; 李门浩
2012-01-01
Three kinds of quantum relay communication models are proposed, i.e., the quantum single relay model, quantum serial multi-relay model and quantum parallel multi-relay model. The channel capacities of those three kinds of systems are analyzed with the theory of quantum Markov trace-preserving process and the generalized theory of simple multi-hop channel in quantum system. Motivated by the quantum Fano inequality, the lower bounds of that channel capacities are derived. The illustration and simulation present the trends of the lower bounds on the channel capacities of different quantum relay systems based on the depolarizing noisy channel.
Antibaryon-nucleus bound states
Hrtánková, J
2014-01-01
We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.
Boson bound states in the -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xin-Guang Hu; Ju Xiang; Zheng Jiao; Yang Liu; Guo-Qiu Xie; Ke Hu
2013-11-01
The bound states of four bosons in the quantum -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model are investigated and some interesting results are presented using the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method. We find that the relative magnitude of anharmonic coefficient has a significant effect on forming localized energy in the model, and the wave number plays an important role in forming different bound states. The signature of the quantum breather is also set up by the square of the amplitudes of the corresponding eigenvectors in real space.
Fossez, K; Nazarewicz, W; Płoszajczak, M; Jaganathen, Y
2014-01-01
Bound and resonance states of the dipole-bound anion of hydrogen cyanide HCN$^-$ are studied using a non-adiabatic pseudopotential method and the Berggren expansion technique involving bound states, decaying resonant states, and non-resonant scattering continuum. We devise an algorithm to identify the resonant states in the complex energy plane. To characterize spatial distributions of electronic wave functions, we introduce the body-fixed density and use it to assign families of resonant states into collective rotational bands. We find that the non-adiabatic coupling of electronic motion to molecular rotation results in a transition from the strong-coupling to weak-coupling regime. In the strong coupling limit, the electron moving in a subthreshold, spatially extended halo state follows the rotational motion of the molecule. Above the ionization threshold, electron's motion in a resonance state becomes largely decoupled from molecular rotation. Widths of resonance-band members depend primarily on the electro...
Bound states and Lorentz-Poincare symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hypothesis of the ''relation-continuum'' C is put forward, closely connected with isolation of physical system, which extends to finite universal constant c the absolute nature of the Galilean relative coordinates and the absolute Newtonian time. Points of C4 continuum are directly unobservable and the relativistic symmetry L4 of directly observable space-time events becomes the limiting case of the C4-symmetry. Consequently, though the possibility of the hypothesis of C4-continuum is due to quantum physics, the modifications it implies come with finite universal constant (h/2π)/c and concern the description of the internal structure of bound states only. The C4-symmetry of relations, as weaker than the Lorentz-Poincare L4-symmetry of events, makes ''more room'' for quantum dynamical models. The Feynman graphs phenomenology with form factors (vertex functions) of non-point particles left for experimental determination can be connected with the C4-framework which determines their analytic structure. The C4-effects then would reveal themselves only in these processes in which composite particles participate. Therefore, the ''good'' quantum electrodynamics of point-particles is left unmodified. Two off-mass-shell effects are analyzed in the relatively low-energy processes which are connected with the mass-dependent localization of the center-of-mass of composite particle ''M''. They seem to be crucial for the hypothesis itself. (author)
Two-vibron bound states in the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Xin-Guang; Tang Yi
2008-01-01
This paper studies the two-vibron bound states in the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model by means of the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method.The results indicate that on-site,adjacent-site and mixed two-vibron bound states may exist in the model.Specially,wave number has a significant effect on such bound states,which may be considered as the quantum effects of the localized states in quantum systems.
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Strelchuk, Sergii
2015-07-31
We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely, we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularized relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution. PMID:26274402
Bound States of Double Flavor Hyperons
Froemel, F; Riska, D O
2005-01-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the $\\Xi_c^{'}$ and $\\Xi_{cc}$ charm hyperons as well as between $\\Xi$ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two $\\Sigma_c$ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons
Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.
2005-04-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
Mixed-state entanglement and quantum communication
Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard
2001-01-01
We present basics of mixed-state entanglement theory. The first part of the article is devoted to mathematical characterizations of entangled states. In second part we discuss the question of using mixed-state entanglement for quantum communication. In particular, a type of entanglement that is not directly useful for quantum communcation (called bound entanglement) is analysed in detail.
A brief review on Majorana bound states in topological superconductors
Lin, Rui; Wang, Zhi
2016-07-01
Topological superconductivity has drawn much attention recently, and most interests are focused on the Majorana bound states existing at the edges of one-dimensional topological superconductors. These Majorana bound states are ideal platform for studying non-Abelian statistics. Meanwhile, they are proposed to be useful in quantum computation. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts and models in this area. We begin from the Kitaev model, which is the most concise model for one-dimensional topological superconductivity. Then, we discuss how to realize this model with spin-orbit coupling in realistic materials. Finally, we show some simple methods to detect the Majorana bound states and study their novel properties with the help of adjacent quantum dots.
Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons
Maghrebi, M F; Bienias, P; Choi, S; Martin, I; Firstenberg, O; Lukin, M D; Büchler, H P; Gorshkov, A V
2015-01-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Bound states in the continuum in quasiperiodic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.t [Department of Engineering Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.H.; Chang, C.H. [Department of Engineering Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)
2010-11-01
We first propose the existence of bound states in the continuums (BICs) in quasiperiodic systems. Owing to long-range correlation, destructive interference may occur in quasiperiodic systems with higher generation order. Occurrences of BICs in Fibonacci quantum wells studied by localization analysis and gap map method are proposed.
Are Quantum States Subjective?
Pradhan, R. K.
2012-01-01
The subjective nature of the quantum states is brought out and it is argued that the objective state assignment is subsequent to the subjective state of the observer regarding his state of knowledge about the system. The collapse postulate is examined in detail to bring out the inherent subjectivity of the quantum state. The role of doubt and faith in quantum state assignment is examined.
Bound states of singlet quarks at LHC
Krasnikov, N. V.
1996-01-01
We discuss the discovery potential of the bound states of singlet quarks at LHC. We find that it is possible to discover bound states of singlet quarks at LHC with singlet quark masses up to 300 Gev for $e_{Q} = \\frac{2}{3}$ and up to 200 Gev for $e_{Q} = -\\frac{1}{3}$.
Probing bound states of D-branes
Lifschytz, G
1996-01-01
A zero-brane is used to probe non-threshold BPS bound states of ($p$, $p+2$,$p+4$)-branes. At long distances the stringy calculation agrees with the supergravity calculations. The supergravity description is given, using the interpretation of the $D=8$ dyonic membrane as the bound state of a two-brane inside a four-brane. We investigate the short distance structure of these bound states, compute the phase shift of the scattered zero-brane and find the bound states characteristic size. It is found that there should be a supersymmetric solution of type IIa supergravity, describing a bound state of a zero-brane and two orthogonal two-brane, all inside a four-brane , with an additional unbound zero-brane. We comment on the relationship between $p$-branes and $(p-2)$-branes.
Multipartite Entanglement and Quantum State Exchange
Pope, D. T.; Milburn, G. J.
2002-01-01
We investigate multipartite entanglement in relation to the theoretical process of quantum state exchange. In particular, we consider such entanglement for a certain pure state involving two groups of N trapped atoms. The state, which can be produced via quantum state exchange, is analogous to the steady-state intracavity state of the subthreshold optical nondegenerate parametric amplifier. We show that, first, it possesses some 2N-way entanglement. Second, we place a lower bound on the amoun...
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-02-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems.
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2014-01-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered chaotic dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behavior deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of o...
Tightening the entropic uncertainty bound in the presence of quantum memory
Adabi, F.; Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.
2016-06-01
The uncertainty principle is a fundamental principle in quantum physics. It implies that the measurement outcomes of two incompatible observables cannot be predicted simultaneously. In quantum information theory, this principle can be expressed in terms of entropic measures. M. Berta et al. [Nat. Phys. 6, 659 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1734] have indicated that uncertainty bound can be altered by considering a particle as a quantum memory correlating with the primary particle. In this article, we obtain a lower bound for entropic uncertainty in the presence of a quantum memory by adding an additional term depending on the Holevo quantity and mutual information. We conclude that our lower bound will be tightened with respect to that of Berta et al. when the accessible information about measurements outcomes is less than the mutual information about the joint state. Some examples have been investigated for which our lower bound is tighter than Berta et al.'s lower bound. Using our lower bound, a lower bound for the entanglement of formation of bipartite quantum states has been obtained, as well as an upper bound for the regularized distillable common randomness.
Lower Bounds on Quantum Query Complexity
P. Hoyer; R. Spalek
2005-01-01
Shor's and Grover's famous quantum algorithms for factoring and searching show that quantum computers can solve certain computational problems significantly faster than any classical computer. We discuss here what quantum computers cannot do, and specifically how to prove limits on their computation
Abdelmadjid Maireche
2015-01-01
In present work, the exact analytical bound-state solutions of modified Schrödinger equation with Modified central potential consisting of a Cornellmodified plus pseudoharmonic harmonic potential (MCMpH) have been presented using both Boopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory, we have also constructed the corresponding noncommutative Hamiltonian which containing two new terms, the first one is modified Zeeman effect and the second is new spin-orbital interaction. The theoretical r...
On the reflection of magnon bound states
MacKay, Niall
2010-01-01
We investigate the reflection of two-particle bound states of a free open string in the light-cone AdS_5 x S^5 string sigma model, for large angular momentum J=J_56 and ending on a D7 brane which wraps the entire AdS_5 and a maximal S^3 of S^5. We use the superspace formalism to analyse fundamental and two-particle bound states in the cases of supersymmetry-preserving and broken-supersymmetry boundaries. We find the boundary S-matrices corresponding to bound states both in the bulk and on the boundary.
Xu, M Z; Bačić, Z.; Hutson, J. M.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the bound states of the open-shell OH radical in its ground electronic state(X2Π) interacting with n Ar atoms, for n from 4 to 12. After freezing the geometry of the Arn cage or subunit at the equilibrium structure (preceding paper), we carry out nonadiabatic five-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations on two coupled potential energy surfaces, using an extension of the method previously applied to closed-shell ArnHFclusters [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 18...
G-factors of hole bound states in spherically symmetric potentials in cubic semiconductors
Miserev, Dmitry; Sushkov, Oleg
2016-03-01
Holes in cubic semiconductors have effective spin 3/2 and very strong spin orbit interaction. Due to these factors properties of hole bound states are highly unusual. We consider a single hole bound by a spherically symmetric potential, this can be an acceptor or a spherically symmetric quantum dot. Linear response to an external magnetic field is characterized by the bound state Lande g-factor. We calculate analytically g-factors of all bound states.
G-factors of hole bound states in spherically symmetric potentials in cubic semiconductors
Miserev, D. S.; Sushkov, O. P.
2015-01-01
Holes in cubic semiconductors have effective spin 3/2 and very strong spin orbit interaction. Due to these factors properties of hole bound states are highly unusual. We consider a single hole bound by a spherically symmetric potential, this can be an acceptor or a spherically symmetric quantum dot. Linear response to an external magnetic field is characterized by the bound state Lande g-factor. We calculate analytically g-factors of all bound states.
An Upper Bound of Fully Entangled Fraction of Mixed States
Huang, Xiao-Fen; Jing, Nai-Huan; Zhang, Ting-Gui
2016-06-01
We study the fully entangled fraction of a quantum state. An upper bound is obtained for arbitrary bipartite system. This upper bound only depends on the Frobenius norm of the state. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11401032, 11501153, 11271138, and 11531004; the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province under Grant Nos. 20151010, 114006 and 20161006; and the Scientific Research Foundation for Colleges of Hainan Province under Grant No. Hnky2015-18 and Simons Foundation under Grant No. 198129
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelmadjid Maireche
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In present work, the exact analytical bound-state solutions of modified Schrödinger equation with Modified central potential consisting of a Cornellmodified plus pseudoharmonic harmonic potential (MCMpH have been presented using both Boopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory, we have also constructed the corresponding noncommutative Hamiltonian which containing two new terms, the first one is modified Zeeman effect and the second is new spin-orbital interaction. The theoretical results show that the automatically appearance for both spin-orbital interaction and modified Zeeman Effect leads to the degenerate to energy levels to 2(2l +1sub states.
Linear Plotkin bound for entanglement-assisted quantum codes
Guo, Luobin; Li, Ruihu
2013-03-01
The entanglement-assisted (EA) formalism is a generalization of the standard stabilizer formalism, and it can transform arbitrary quaternary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using of shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. Using the special structure of linear EAQECCs, we derive an EA-Plotkin bound for linear EAQECCs, which strengthens the previous known EA-Plotkin bound. This linear EA-Plotkin bound is tighter then the EA-Singleton bound, and matches the EA-Hamming bound and the EA-linear programming bound in some cases. We also construct three families of EAQECCs with good parameters. Some of these EAQECCs saturate this linear EA-Plotkin bound and the others are near optimal according to this bound; almost all of these linear EAQECCs are degenerate codes.
Black Hole Bound State Metamorphosis
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Saha, Arunabha; Sen, Ashoke
2012-01-01
N=4 supersymmetric string theories contain negative discriminant states whose numbers are known precisely from microscopic counting formulae. On the macroscopic side, these results can be reproduced by regarding these states as multi-centered black hole configurations provided we make certain identification of apparently distinct multi-centered black hole configurations according to a precise set of rules. In this paper we provide a physical explanation of such identifications, thereby establishing that multi-centered black hole configurations reproduce correctly the microscopic results for the number of negative discriminant states without any ad hoc assumption.
Quantum Gravity Mathematical Models and Experimental Bounds
Fauser, Bertfried; Zeidler, Eberhard
2007-01-01
The construction of a quantum theory of gravity is the most fundamental challenge confronting contemporary theoretical physics. The different physical ideas which evolved while developing a theory of quantum gravity require highly advanced mathematical methods. This book presents different mathematical approaches to formulate a theory of quantum gravity. It represents a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions about the issue of quantum gravity which took place at the second workshop "Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Quantum Gravity" in Blaubeuren, Germany. This collection covers in a unique way aspects of various competing approaches. A unique feature of the book is the presentation of different approaches to quantum gravity making comparison feasible. This feature is supported by an extensive index. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in questions related to mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview on ...
Quantum Cloning of Mixed States in Symmetric Subspace
Fan, Heng
2003-01-01
Quantum cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspace is proposed. This quantum cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal.
Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Serge, Fehr; Schaffner, Christian;
2008-01-01
We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...
Cryptography In The Bounded Quantum-Storage Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian;
2005-01-01
We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...
Graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields: bound, quasi-bound and scattering states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramezani Masir, M; Peeters, F M [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vasilopoulos, P, E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com, E-mail: takis@alcor.concordia.ca, E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Department of Physics, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)
2011-08-10
The electron states in graphene-based magnetic dot and magnetic ring structures and combinations of both are investigated. The corresponding spectra are studied as a function of the radii, the strengths of the inhomogeneous magnetic field and of a uniform background field, the strength of an electrostatic barrier and the angular momentum quantum number. In the absence of an external magnetic field we have only long-lived quasi-bound and scattering states and we assess their influence on the density of states. In addition, we consider elastic electron scattering by a magnetic dot, whose average B vanishes, and show that the Hall and longitudinal resistivities, as a function of the Fermi energy, exhibit a pronounced oscillatory structure due to the presence of quasi-bound states. Depending on the dot parameters this oscillatory structure differs substantially for energies below and above the first Landau level.
Bound States at Threshold resulting from Coulomb Repulsion
Gridnev, Dmitry K
2011-01-01
The eigenvalue absorption for a many-particle Hamiltonian depending on a parameter is analyzed in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The long-range part of pair potentials is assumed to be pure Coulomb and no restriction on the particle statistics is imposed. It is proved that if the lowest dissociation threshold corresponds to the decay into two likewise non-zero charged clusters then the bound state, which approaches the threshold, does not spread and eventually becomes the bound state at threshold. The obtained results have applications in atomic and nuclear physics. In particular, we prove that atomic ion with atomic critical charge $Z_{cr}$ and $N_e$ electrons has a bound state at threshold given that $Z_{cr} \\in (N_e -2, N_e -1)$, whereby the electrons are treated as fermions and the mass of the nucleus is finite.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently it has been shown that two pure quantum states can be discriminated by using the concept of PT- invariant non- Hermitian system. Here we demonstrate how to discriminate two non-orthogonal, entangled quantum state which are slightly different from each other by using pseudo-Hermitian system. The positive definite metric operator which makes the pseudo-Hermitian systems fully consistent quantum theory is used for such a state discrimination. We further show that non- orthogonal states can evolve through a suitably constructed pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian to orthogonal states. Such an evolution ceases at exceptional points of the pseudo-Hermitian system. (author)
Furusawa, Akira
2015-01-01
This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.
Weakly bound states of neutrons in gravitational fields
Khugaev, Avas V.; Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, Dennis
2010-01-01
In this paper a quantum-mechanical behaviour of neutrons in gravitational fields is considered. A first estimation is made using the semiclassical approximation, neglecting General Relativity, magnetic and rotation effects, for neutrons in weakly bound states in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. This result was generalized for a case, in which the Randall - Sundrum correction to Newton's gravitational law on the small scales was applied. Application of the results to Neutron Star phy...
Fermion Bound States Around Skyrmions in Doped Antiferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
寇谡鹏
2003-01-01
We show the skyrmion effects in doped antiferromagnets for the uniform flux phase. The low-energy effective theory of the t′-J model can be mapped onto the massive quantum electrodynamics. There exist Fermion bound states around skyrmions. For each sublattice, there exist induced fractional fermion numbers around the skyrmions. The total induced fermion number is zero due to the "cancelling effect" between two sublattices with opposite charges.
Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective
Hoyer, Paul
2011-01-01
These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...
Resonantly Trapped Bound State in the Continuum Laser
Lepetit, Thomas; Kodigala, Ashok; Bahari, Babak; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Kanté, Boubacar
2015-01-01
Cavities play a fundamental role in wave phenomena from quantum mechanics to electromagnetism and dictate the spatiotemporal physics of lasers. In general, they are constructed by closing all "doors" through which waves can escape. We report, at room temperature, a bound state in the continuum laser that harnesses optical modes residing in the radiation continuum but nonetheless may possess arbitrarily high quality factors. These counterintuitive cavities are based on resonantly trapped symmetry-compatible modes that destructively interfere. Our experimental demonstration opens exciting avenues towards coherent sources with intriguing topological properties for optical trapping, biological imaging, and quantum communication.
Bound - states for truncated Coulomb potentials
Odeh, Maen; Mustafa, Omar
2000-01-01
The pseudoperturbative shifted - $l$ expansion technique PSLET is generalized for states with arbitrary number of nodal zeros. Bound- states energy eigenvalues for two truncated coulombic potentials are calculated using PSLET. In contrast with shifted large-N expansion technique, PSLET results compare excellently with those from direct numerical integration.
Improved Bounds on Quantum Learning Algorithms
Atici, A; Atici, Alp; Servedio, Rocco A.
2004-01-01
In this article we give several new results on the complexity of algorithms that learn Boolean functions from quantum queries and quantum examples. Hunziker et al. conjectured that for any class C of Boolean functions, the number of quantum black-box queries which are required to exactly identify an unknown function from C is at most $O(\\frac{\\log |C|}{\\sqrt{{\\hat{\\gamma}}^{C}}})$, where $\\hat{\\gamma}^{C}$ is a combinatorial parameter of the class C. We essentially resolve this conjecture in the affirmative by giving a quantum algorithm that, for any class C, identifies any unknown function from C using at most $O(\\frac{\\log |C| \\log \\log |C|}{\\sqrt{{\\hat{\\gamma}}^{C}}})$ quantum black-box queries. We consider a range of natural problems intermediate between the exact learning problem (in which the learner must obtain all bits of information about the black-box function) and the usual problem of computing a predicate (in which the learner must obtain only one bit of information about the black-box function). ...
Sethi, S K; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark
1998-01-01
We study the existence of D-brane bound states at threshold in Type II string theories. In a number of situations, we can reduce the question of existence to quadrature, and the study of a particular limit of the propagator for the system of D-branes. This involves a derivation of an index theorem for a family of non-Fredholm operators. In support of the conjectured relation between compactified eleven-dimensional supergravity and Type IIA string theory, we show that a bound state exists for two coincident zero-branes. This result also provides support for the conjectured description of M-theory as a matrix model. In addition, we provide further evidence that there are no BPS bound states for two and three-branes twice wrapped on Calabi-Yau vanishing cycles.
A New Protocol and Lower Bounds for Quantum Coin Flipping
Ambainis, Andris
2002-01-01
We present a new protocol and two lower bounds for quantum coin flipping. In our protocol, no dishonest party can achieve one outcome with probability more than 0.75. Then, we show that our protocol is optimal for a certain type of quantum protocols. For arbitrary quantum protocols, we show that if a protocol achieves a bias of at most $\\epsilon$, it must use at least $\\Omega(\\log \\log \\frac{1}{\\epsilon})$ rounds of communication. This implies that the parallel repetition fails for quantum co...
Product-State Approximations to Quantum States
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.
2016-02-01
We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.
Torons and D-Brane Bound States
Guralnik, Z.; Ramgoolam, S.
1997-01-01
We interpret instantons on a torus with twisted boundary conditions, in terms of bound states of branes. The interplay between the SU(N) and U(1) parts of the U(N) theory of N 4-branes allows the construction of a variety of bound states. The SU(N) and U(1) parts can contribute fractional amounts to the total instanton number which is integral. The geometry of non-self intersecting two-cycles in $T^4$ sheds some light on a number of properties of these solutions.
Spin and relativistic motion of bound states
JÃ€rvinen, Matti
2007-01-01
The wave functions of moving bound states may be expected to contract in the direction of motion, in analogy to a rigid rod in classical special relativity, when the constituents are at equal (ordinary) time. Indeed, the Lorentz contraction of wave functions is often appealed to in qualitative discussions. However, only few field theory studies exist of equal-time wave functions in motion. In this thesis I use the Bethe-Salpeter formalism to study the wave function of a weakly bound state suc...
Bound entangled states with a private key and their classical counterpart.
Ozols, Maris; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2014-03-21
Entanglement is a fundamental resource for quantum information processing. In its pure form, it allows quantum teleportation and sharing classical secrets. Realistic quantum states are noisy and their usefulness is only partially understood. Bound-entangled states are central to this question--they have no distillable entanglement, yet sometimes still have a private classical key. We present a construction of bound-entangled states with a private key based on classical probability distributions. From this emerge states possessing a new classical analogue of bound entanglement, distinct from the long-sought bound information. We also find states of smaller dimensions and higher key rates than previously known. Our construction has implications for classical cryptography: we show that existing protocols are insufficient for extracting private key from our distributions due to their "bound-entangled" nature. We propose a simple extension of existing protocols that can extract a key from them. PMID:24702340
Supersymmetry Approaches to the Bound States of the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential
Fakhri, H.; Sadeghi, J.
Using the associated Jacobi differential equation, we obtain exactly bound states of the generalization of Woods-Saxon potential with the negative energy levels based on the analytic approach. According to the supersymmetry approaches in quantum mechanics, we show that these bound states by four pairs of the first-order differential operators, represent four types of the laddering equations. Two types of these supersymmetry structures, suggest the derivation of algebraic solutions by two different approaches for the bound states.
Do $\\Xi\\Xi$ bound states exist?
Haidenbauer, J; Petschauer, S
2014-01-01
The existence of baryon-baryon bound states in the strangeness sector is examined in the framework of SU(3) chiral effective field theory. Specifically, the role of SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms that arise at next-to-leading order in the employed Weinberg power counting scheme is explored. We focus on the 1S0 partial wave and on baryon-baryon channels with maximal isospin since in this case there are only two independent SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms. At the same time, those are the channels where most of the bound states have been predicted in the past. Utilizing $pp$ phase shifts and $\\Sigma^+ p$ cross section data allows us to pin down one of the SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms and a clear indication for the decrease of attraction when going from the NN system to strangeness S=-2 is found, which rules out a bound state for $\\Sigma\\Sigma$ with isospin I=2. Assuming that the trend observed for S=0 to S=-2 is not reversed when going to $\\Xi\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi\\Xi$ makes also bound states in ...
Scattering theory methods for bound state problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)
Relativistic bound states at Born level
Hoyer, Paul
2012-01-01
Theoretical and phenomenological studies indicate that the QCD coupling \\alpha_s(Q^2) freezes in the infrared. Hadrons may then be described by a perturbative expansion around "Born" states bound only by a confining potential. A linear potential results from the QCD equations of motion when Gauss' law for A^0 is solved with F_{\\mu\
On the Bound States of Matrix Strings
Sahakian, Vatche
1997-01-01
We investigate excitations in Matrix Theory on T^2 corresponding to bound states of strings. We demonstrate the Dirichlet aspect of R-R charged vacua through a non-trivial connection between the U(1) and SU(n) sectors of the matrix SYM.
Construction of bound entangled states based on permutation operators
Zhao, Hui; Guo, Sha; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shaoming
2016-04-01
We present a construction of new bound entangled states from given bound entangled states for arbitrary dimensional bipartite systems. One way to construct bound entangled states is to show that these states are positive partial transpose (PPT) and violate the range criterion at the same time. By applying certain operators to given bound entangled states or to one of the subsystems of the given bound entangled states, we obtain a set of new states which are both PPT and violate the range criterion. We show that the derived bound entangled states are not local unitary equivalent to the original bound entangled states by detail examples.
Scattering and Bound State Solutions of the Yukawa Potential within the Dirac Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the presence of spin symmetry case, we obtain bound and scattering states solutions of the Dirac equation for the equal scalar and vector Yukawa potentials for any spin-orbit quantum number κ. The approximate analytical solutions are presented for the bound and scattering states and scattering phase shifts
Quantum speed limit for arbitrary initial states.
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
The minimal time a system needs to evolve from an initial state to its one orthogonal state is defined as the quantum speed limit time, which can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of a quantum system. This is a fundamental question of quantum physics. We investigate the generic bound on the minimal evolution time of the open dynamical quantum system. This quantum speed limit time is applicable to both mixed and pure initial states. We then apply this result to the damped Jaynes-Cummings model and the Ohimc-like dephasing model starting from a general time-evolution state. The bound of this time-dependent state at any point in time can be found. For the damped Jaynes-Cummings model, when the system starts from the excited state, the corresponding bound first decreases and then increases in the Markovian dynamics. While in the non-Markovian regime, the speed limit time shows an interesting periodic oscillatory behavior. For the case of Ohimc-like dephasing model, this bound would be gradually trapped to a fixed value. In addition, the roles of the relativistic effects on the speed limit time for the observer in non-inertial frames are discussed. PMID:24809395
Quantum mechanics two volumes bound as one
Messiah, Albert
2014-01-01
""Strongly recommended"" by the American Journal of Physics, this volume serves as a text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics as well as a reference for professionals. Clear in its presentation and scrupulous in its attention to detail, the treatment originally appeared in a two-volume French edition. This convenient single-volume translation begins with formalism and its interpretation, starting with the origins of quantum theory and examinations of matter waves and the Schrödinger equation, one-dimensional quantized systems, the uncertainty relations, and the mathema
Deeply bound kaonic states in nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yi-He; WU Shi-Shu
2009-01-01
Using a new phenomenological (K)N interaction which reproduces A(1405) as an I = 0 bound state of (K)N, we have investigated K- -3 He(T = 0) and K- -4 He(T = 1/2) within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock(BHF) theory. Our calculations show that the above kaonic nuclear systems are both deeply bound. The binding energy BK- is 124.4 MeV(94.1 MeV) and the width Γ is 11.8 MeV(25.8 MeV) for K- -3 He(T = 0)(K- -4 He(T= 1/2)).
Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M. W. J.
2006-01-01
The existence of a second bound state of PsH that is electronically stable and also stable against positron annihilation by the normal 2gamma and 3gamma processes is demonstrated by explicit calculation. The state can be found in the 2,4So symmetries with the two electrons in a spin triplet state. The binding energy against dissociation into the H(2p) + Ps(2p) channel was 6.06x10-4 Hartree. The dominant decay mode of the states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or ...
Quantum multiparty communication complexity and circuit lower bounds
Kerenidis, I
2005-01-01
We define a quantum model for multiparty communication complexity and prove a simulation theorem between the classical and quantum models. As a result of our simulation, we show that if the quantum k-party communication complexity of a function f is $\\Omega(n/2^k)$, then its classical k-party communication is $\\Omega(n/2^{k/2})$. Finding such an f would allow us to prove strong classical lower bounds for (k>log n) players and hence resolve a main open question about symmetric circuits. Furthermore, we prove that for the Generalized Inner Product (GIP) function, the quantum model is exponentially more efficient than the classical one. This provides the first exponential separation for a total function between any quantum and public coin randomized communication model.
Dynamical Horizon Entropy Bound Conjecture in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李丽仿; 朱建阳
2012-01-01
The covariant entropy bound conjecture is an important hint for the quantum gravity, with several versions available in the literature. For cosmology, Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing ever show the consistence between the loop gravity theory and one version of this conjecture. Recently, He and Zhang [J. High Energy Phys. 10 （2007） 077] proposed a version for the dynamical horizon of the universe, which validates the entropy bound conjecture for the cosmology filled with perfect fluid in the classical scenario when the universe is far away from the big bang singularity. However, their conjecture breaks down near big bang region. We examine this conjecture in the context of the loop quantum cosmology. With the example of photon gas, this conjecture is protected by the quantum geometry effects as expected.
Bounds on expectation values of quantum subsystems and perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical investigation of many-body quantum systems usually requires different kinds of physical approximations. The error which is made by these approximations is difficult to estimate and remains unknown in most cases. We examine an upper bound on expectation values of quantum subsystems, which enables the estimation of the maximum error that is made by physical approximations outside the subsystem. This is of special interest for perturbation theory, where the bath is commonly approximated with simplified interactions. A recently realized all-spin-based atomic-scale logic device, consisting of iron atoms and cobalt islands placed on a copper substrate, serves as a specific example for an application of the bound. Strength and weakness of these methods are critically discussed and we provide a quantitative answer to the old question in which cases a small quantum system can be used instead of a large one. (paper)
Bounding the Set of Finite Dimensional Quantum Correlations.
Navascués, Miguel; Vértesi, Tamás
2015-07-10
We describe a simple method to derive high performance semidefinite programing relaxations for optimizations over complex and real operator algebras in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. The method is very flexible, easy to program, and allows the user to assess the behavior of finite dimensional quantum systems in a number of interesting setups. We use this method to bound the strength of quantum nonlocality in Bell scenarios where the dimension of the parties is bounded from above. We derive new results in quantum communication complexity and prove the soundness of the prepare-and-measure dimension witnesses introduced in Gallego et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 230501 (2010). Finally, we propose a new dimension witness that can distinguish between classical, real, and complex two-level systems. PMID:26207454
Analytic continuation of bound states to solve resonance states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Norimichi; Arai, Koji [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Varga, K.
1997-05-01
As a method to determine the parameters of the resonance state, a method is proposed using analytic continuation on bound constants of correlation. The characteristics of this method consists in probability of prediction of the parameters of the resonance state only by calculation of the bound state. Owing to conducting the analytic continuation on square root of energy in the bound state as a function relating to the bound constant, energy and width in the bound state was determined. Here was reported on a result of application of this method to three systems. Some partial wave on two systems showing correlation at a simple potential and a resonance state of zero of all orbital angular motion quality in three boson system were determined using the analytic continuation method. These results agreed well with one used a method of integrating Schroedinger equation directly and one used the complex scaling method, and this method was found to be much efficient for the study of the resonance state. Under a background of becoming applicable to the method of analytic continuation, there was development of calculating method for the recent small number multi system. As the characteristics of the analytic continuation method is used for only calculation of the bound state, it is convenient at a point applicable to the method to obtain conventional bound state and then is much efficient in a point of applicability of calculus of variations. However, in order to obtain coefficient of Pade approximation correctly, the bound state must be solved correctly, which is difficult for more complex system and is not always applicable to every systems. (G.K.)
Understanding the nucleon as a Borromean bound-state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Segovia
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Analyses of the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory predict that the nucleon may be understood primarily as a Borromean bound-state, in which binding arises mainly from two separate effects. One originates in non-Abelian facets of QCD that are expressed in the strong running coupling and generate confined but strongly-correlated colour-antitriplet diquark clusters in both the scalar–isoscalar and pseudovector–isotriplet channels. That attraction is magnified by quark exchange associated with diquark breakup and reformation. Diquark clustering is driven by the same mechanism which dynamically breaks chiral symmetry in the Standard Model. It has numerous observable consequences, the complete elucidation of which requires a framework that also simultaneously expresses the running of the coupling and masses in the strong interaction. Planned experiments are capable of validating this picture.
The effect of impurity on transition frequency of bound polaron in quantum rods
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wei Xiao; Jing-Lin Xiao
2012-12-01
The Hamiltonian of a quantum rod with an ellipsoidal boundary is given after a coordinate transformation that changes the ellipsoidal boundary into a spherical one. The properties of the quantum rods constituting the bridge between two-dimensional quantum wells, zero-dimensional quantum dots and one-dimensional quantum wires are explored theoretically using linear combination operator method. The first internal excited state energy, the excitation energy and the transition frequency between the first internal excited and the ground states of the strong-coupled impurity-bound polaron in the rod with Coulomb-bound potential, the transverse effective confinement length, the ellipsoid aspect ratio and the electron–phonon coupling strength are studied. It is found that the first internal excited state energy, the excitation energy and the transition frequency are increasing functions of the Coulomb-bound potential and the electron–phonon coupling strength, whereas they are decreasing functions of the ellipsoid aspect ratio and the transverse effective confinement length. These results can be attributed to the interesting quantum size confining effects.
Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing
Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen
2016-05-01
With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.
Closed form bound-state perturbation theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ollie J. Rose
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.
Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.
2016-07-01
We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.
Semirelativistic Bound-State Equations: Trivial Considerations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucha Wolfgang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Observing renewed interest in long-standing (semi- relativistic descriptions of two-body bound states, we would like to make a few comments on the eigenvalue problem posed by the spinless Salpeter equation and, illustrated by the examples of the nonsingular Woods–Saxon potential and the singular Hulthén potential, recall elementary tools that, in their quest, practitioners looking for analytic albeit approximate solutions will find useful.
Quantum signatures of chimera states
Bastidas, V. M.; Omelchenko, I.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Brandes, T.
2015-12-01
Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns in networks of identical oscillators, characterized by the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized dynamics. Here we propose to extend the phenomenon of chimera states to the quantum regime, and uncover intriguing quantum signatures of these states. We calculate the quantum fluctuations about semiclassical trajectories and demonstrate that chimera states in the quantum regime can be characterized by bosonic squeezing, weighted quantum correlations, and measures of mutual information. Our findings reveal the relation of chimera states to quantum information theory, and give promising directions for experimental realization of chimera states in quantum systems.
Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandon, Drew; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)
2014-07-21
This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar{sub 3}), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar{sub 3} rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar{sub 3} are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar{sub 3} is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar{sub 3} may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations.
Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar3), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar3 rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10−3 cm−1 or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar3 are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar3 is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar3 may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations
Local Thermal Equilibrium States and Quantum Energy Inequalities
Schlemmer, Jan; Verch, Rainer
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate the energy distribution of states of a linear scalar quantum field with arbitrary curvature coupling on a curved spacetime which fulfill some local thermality condition. We find that this condition implies a quantum energy inequality for these states, where the (lower) energy bounds depend only on the local temperature distribution and are local and covariant (the dependence of the bounds other than on temperature is on parameters defining the quantum field model,...
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.
Quantum signatures of Chimera states
Bastidas, V. M.; Omelchenko, I.; ZAKHAROVA, A.; Schöll, E.; Brandes, T.
2015-01-01
Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns in networks of identical oscillators, characterized by the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized dynamics. Here we propose to extend the phenomenon of chimera states to the quantum regime, and uncover intriguing quantum signatures of these states. We calculate the quantum fluctuations about semiclassical trajectories and demonstrate that chimera states in the quantum regime can be characterized by bosonic squeezing, weighted quantum ...
Quantum states made to measure
Banaszek, Konrad; Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Walmsley, Ian A.
2009-01-01
Recent progress in manipulating quantum states of light and matter brings quantum-enhanced measurements closer to prospective applications. The current challenge is to make quantum metrologic strategies robust against imperfections.
Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K V S Shiv Chaitanya
2014-07-01
In this paper, it is shown that Stieltjes electrostatic model and quantum Hamilton Jacobi formalism are analogous to each other. This analogy allows the bound state problem to mimic as unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$, which are placed in between the two fixed imaginary charges arising due to the classical turning points of the potential. The interaction potential between unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$ is given by the logarithm of the wave function. For an exactly solvable potential, this system attains stable equilibrium position at the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials depending upon the interval of the classical turning points.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and
Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)
Bounding quantum gravity inspired decoherence using atom interferometry
Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Hypothetical models have been proposed in which explicit collapse mechanisms prevent the superposition principle to hold at large scales. In particular, the model introduced by Ellis and co-workers [Phys. Lett. B ${\\bf 221}$, 113 (1989)] suggests that quantum gravity might be responsible for the collapse of the wavefunction of massive objects in spatial superpositions. We here consider a recent experiment reporting on interferometry with atoms delocalized over half a meter for timescale of a second [Nature ${\\bf 528}$, 530 (2015)] and show that the corresponding data strongly bound quantum gravity induced decoherence and rule it out in the parameter regime considered originally.
Secure quantum carriers for quantum state sharing
Karimipour, Vahid; Marvian, Milad
2010-01-01
We develop the concept of quantum carrier and show that messages can be uploaded and downloaded from this carrier and while in transit, these messages are hidden from external agents. We explain in detail the working of the quantum carrier for different communication tasks, including quantum key distribution, classical secret and quantum state sharing among a set of $n$ players according to general threshold schemes. The security of the protocol is discussed and it is shown that only the legi...
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
Bound states in the (2+1)D scalar electrodynamics with Chern-Simons term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work studies the existence of bound states for the 3-dimensions scalar electrodynamics, with the Chern-Simons. Quantum field theory is used for calculation of the Mfi scattering matrices, in the non-relativistic approximation. The field propagators responsible for the interaction in the scattering processes have been calculated, and scattering matrices have been constructed. After obtaining the scattering matrix, the cross section in the quantum field theory has been compared with the quantum mechanic cross section in the Born approximation, allowing to obtain the form of the potential responsible for the interactions in the scattering processes. The possibility of bound states are analyzed by using the Schroedinger equation
Dark matter and stable bound states of primordial black holes
Chavda, L K; Chavda, Abhijit L.
2002-01-01
We present three reasons for the formation of gravitational bound states of primordial black holes,called holeums,in the early universe.Using Newtonian gravity and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics we find a purely quantum mechanical mass-dependant exclusion property for the nonoverlap of the constituent black holes in a holeum.This ensures that the holeum occupies space just like ordinary matter.A holeum emits only gravitational radiation whose spectrum is an exact analogue of that of a hydrogen atom. A part of this spectrum lies in the region accessible to the detectors being built.The holeums would form haloes around the galaxies and would be an important component of the dark matter in the universe today.They may also be the constituents of the invisible domain walls in the universe.
Dark matter and stable bound states of primordial black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present three reasons for the formation of gravitational bound states of primordial black holes, called holeums, in the early universe. Using Newtonian gravity and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics we find a purely quantum mechanical mass-dependent exclusion property for the nonoverlap of the constituent black holes in a holeum. This ensures that the holeum occupies space just like ordinary matter. A holeum emits only gravitational radiation whose spectrum is an exact analogue of that of a hydrogen atom. A part of this spectrum lies in the region accessible to the detectors being built. The holeums would form haloes around the galaxies and would be an important component of the dark matter in the universe today. They may also be the constituents of the invisible domain walls in the universe
Bound states -- from QED to QCD
Hoyer, Paul
2014-01-01
These lectures are divided into two parts. In Part 1 I discuss bound state topics at the level of a basic course in field theory: The derivation of the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations from the QED Lagrangian, by summing Feynman diagrams and in a Hamiltonian framework. Less well known topics include the equal-time wave function of Positronium in motion and the properties of the Dirac wave function for a linear potential. The presentation emphasizes physical aspects and provides the framework...
Is there an quasi-bound state?
Wilkin, C; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Hanhart, C; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Maeda, Y; Mersmann, T; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Papenbrock, M; Rathmann, F; Rausmann, T; Schleichert, R; Ströher, H; Täschner, A; Valdau, Yu; Wronska, A
2007-01-01
The observed variation of the total cross section for the dp -> 3He eta reaction near threshold means that the magnitude of the s--wave amplitude falls very rapidly with the eta centre--of--mass momentum. It is shown here that recent measurements of the momentum dependence of the angular distribution imply a strong variation also in the phase of this amplitude. Such a behaviour is that expected from a quasi--bound or virtual eta-3He state. The interpretation can be investigated further through measurements of the deuteron or proton analysing powers and/or spin--correlations.
A balance for Dark Matter bound states
Nozzoli, F.
2016-01-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. T...
Novel Bound States in Graphene with Impurities
Gupta, Kumar S
2008-01-01
We obtain a novel bound state spectrum of the low energy excitations near the Fermi points of graphene in the presence of a charge impurity. The effects of possible short range interactions induced by the impurity are modelled by suitable boundary conditions. The spectrum in the subcritical region of the effective Coulomb coupling is labelled by a parameter which characterizes the boundary conditions and determines the inequivalent quantizations of the system. In the supercritical region we obtain a renormalization group flow for the effective Coulomb coupling.
Properties of Parabolic Linear Bound Potential and Coulomb Bound Potential Quantum Dot Qubit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Ji-Rong; WANG Zi-Wu; ZHU Tao; LI Wei-Ping; DUAN Yi-Shi; YIN Ji-Wen; XIAO Jing-Lin
2008-01-01
On the condition of electric-LO phonon strong-coupling in a parabolic quantum dot, we obtain the eigenen-ergy of the ground-state and the first-excited state, the eigenfunctions of the ground-state and the first- excited state by using variational method of Pekar type. This system in quantum dot may be employed as a two-level quantum system-qubit. When the electron is in the superposition state of the ground- and the first-excited state, we obtain the time evolution of the electron density. The relation of the probability density of electron on the Coulomb binding parameter and the relations of the period of oscillation on the Coulomb binding parameter, the electron-LO-phonon coupling constant and the confinement length are derived.
Upper Bounds for the Number of Quantum Clones under Decoherence
Maruyama, K
2003-01-01
Universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs), sometimes called quantum cloners, generate many outputs with identical density matrices, with as close a resemblance to the input state as is allowed by the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Any experimental realization of a quantum cloner has to cope with the effects of decoherence which terminate the coherent evolution demanded by a UQCM. We examine how many clones can be generated within a decoherence time. We compare the time that a quantum cloner implemented with trapped ions requires to produce $M$ copies from $N$ identical pure state inputs and the decoherence time during which the probability of spontaneous emission becomes non-negligible. We find a method to construct an $N\\to M$ cloning circuit, and estimate the number of elementary logic gates required. It turns out that our circuit is highly vulnerable to spontaneous emission as the number of gates in the circuit is exponential with respect to the number of qubits involved.
Mould, R A
2003-01-01
If conscious observers are to be included in the quantum mechanical universe, we need to find the rules that engage observers with quantum mechanical systems. The author has proposed five rules that are discovered by insisting on empirical completeness; that is, by requiring the rules to draw empirical information from Schrodinger's solutions that is more complete than is currently possible with the (Born) probability interpretation. I discard Born's interpretation, introducing probability solely through probability current. These rules tell us something about brains. They require the existence of observer brain states that are neither conscious nor unconscious. I call them 'ready' brain states because they are on stand-by, ready to become conscious the moment they are stochastically chosen. Two of the rules are selection rules involving ready brain states. The place of these rules in a wider theoretical context is discussed. Key Words: boundary conditions, consciousness, decoherence, macroscopic superpositio...
On Aharonov-Casher bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, E.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Andrade, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Filgueiras, C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2013-04-15
In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the {nabla}.E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem. (orig.)
Hadron QCD (Bound states in gauge theories)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general principles of the description of bound states in QED and QCD are proposed for the aim of construction of the consistent scheme of calculating hadron spectrum and interaction amplitudes. Such principles are the explicit solution of the Gauss equation for time component, the quantization of the minimal set physical variables and the choice of the time-axis of quantization in accordance with the Markov-Yukawa relativistic theory of bilocal fields. QCD constructed by these principles contains new infrared divergences, changing the behaviour of the Coulomb field on large distances. This divergences (like ones in QED) are removed out with the help of phenomenology, in this case, by taking into account the rising potential as the 'nonperturbative background' for a new perturbation theory. It is shown how in such hadron theory the parton model, nonrelativistic potential spectroscopy, chiral Lagrangian and confinement appear. The Dirac quantization method, renormalization group equations and lattice calculations in their conventional formulation are proved to be untenable for the description of bound states. 23 refs
ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State
Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun
2016-01-01
We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...
Bound states -- from QED to QCD
Hoyer, Paul
2014-01-01
These lectures are divided into two parts. In Part 1 I discuss bound state topics at the level of a basic course in field theory: The derivation of the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations from the QED Lagrangian, by summing Feynman diagrams and in a Hamiltonian framework. Less well known topics include the equal-time wave function of Positronium in motion and the properties of the Dirac wave function for a linear potential. The presentation emphasizes physical aspects and provides the framework for Part 2, which discusses the derivation of relativistic bound states at Born level in QED and QCD. A central aspect is the maintenance of Poincar\\'e invariance. The transformation of the wave function under boosts is studied in detail in D=1+1 dimensions, and its generalization to D=3+1 is indicated. Solving Gauss' law for $A^0$ with a non-vanishing boundary condition leads to a linear potential for QCD mesons, and an analogous confining potential for baryons.
A balance for Dark Matter bound states
Nozzoli, F
2016-01-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. The existence of bound states, with binding energy larger than $\\sim$1 meV, would offer the possibility to test in laboratory capture cross sections of the order of a barn (or larger). The signature of the detection of a mass increasing of cryogenic samples, due to the possible Dark Matter accumulation, would allow the investigation of Dark Matter particles with mass up to the GUT scale. A proof of concept for a possible detection set-up and the evaluation of some noise sources are described.
Model anisotropic quantum Hall states
Qiu, R. -Z.; Haldane, F.D.M.; Wan, Xin; Yang, Kun; Yi, Su
2012-01-01
Model quantum Hall states including Laughlin, Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states are generalized into appropriate anisotropic form. The generalized states are exact zero-energy eigenstates of corresponding anisotropic two- or multi-body Hamiltonians, and explicitly illustrate the existence of geometric degrees of in the fractional quantum Hall effect. These generalized model quantum Hall states can provide a good description of the quantum Hall system with anisotropic interactions. Some numeri...
Static and dynamic properties of QCD bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The QCD phenomenology can be faced with the framework of the coupled quark DSE, meson BSE and baryon Faddeev equation, providing non-perturbative, continuum and Poincare invariant scientific approach. The research performed throughout this thesis is twofold. From one perspective we focus on the investigation of mass spectra for mesons with total spin quantum number J=3 and arising Regge-trajectory for natural parity states JPC=1--,2++,3-- within rainbow-ladder single gluon exchange model. The other findings are concerning the impact of the pion cloud effect on J>2 meson states, baryon masses, namely on Nucleon and Delta three-body bound states and meson dynamical properties like the pion form factor.
Static and dynamic properties of QCD bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubrak, Stanislav
2015-07-01
The QCD phenomenology can be faced with the framework of the coupled quark DSE, meson BSE and baryon Faddeev equation, providing non-perturbative, continuum and Poincare invariant scientific approach. The research performed throughout this thesis is twofold. From one perspective we focus on the investigation of mass spectra for mesons with total spin quantum number J=3 and arising Regge-trajectory for natural parity states J{sup PC}=1{sup --},2{sup ++},3{sup --} within rainbow-ladder single gluon exchange model. The other findings are concerning the impact of the pion cloud effect on J>2 meson states, baryon masses, namely on Nucleon and Delta three-body bound states and meson dynamical properties like the pion form factor.
Exact Entanglement Cost of Multi-Qubit Bound Entangled States
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.
2005-01-01
We report the exact entanglement cost of a class of multiqubit bound entangled states, computed in the context of a universal model for multipartite state preparation. The exact amount of entanglement needed to prepare such states are determined by first obtaining lower bounds using a cut-set approach, and then providing explicit local protocols achieving the lower bound.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum bound on the specific entropy in strong-coupled scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Euclidean path integral approach with functional methods, we discuss the (g0 ψp)d self-interacting scalar field theory, in the strong-coupling regime. We assume the presence of macroscopic boundaries confining the field in a hypercube of side L. We also consider that the system is in thermal equilibrium at temperature β-1. For spatially bounded free fields, the Bekenstein bound states that the specific entropy satisfies the inequality S/E 0)-2/p, presenting an analytical proof that the specific entropy also satisfies in some situations a quantum bound. Defining ε(r)d as the renormalized zero-point energy for the free theory per unit length, the dimensionless quantity ξ = β/L and h1(d) and h2(d) as positive analytic functions of d, for the case of high temperature, we get that the specific entropy satisfies S/E 1(d)/ h2(d) ξ. When considering the low temperature behavior of the specific entropy, we have S/E 1(d)/ ε(3) ξ1-d. Therefore the sign of the renormalized zero-point energy can invalidate this quantum bound. If the renormalized zero point-energy is a positive quantity, at intermediate temperatures and in the low temperature limit, there is a quantum bound. (author)
Quantum state fusion in photons
Vitelli, Chiara; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Aparo, Lorenzo; SCIARRINO, Fabio; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
Photons are the ideal carriers of quantum information for communication. Each photon can have a single qubit or even multiple qubits encoded in its internal quantum state, as defined by optical degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength, transverse modes, etc. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a physical process, named "quantum state fusion", in which the two-dimensional quantum states (qubits) of two input photons are combined into a single output photon, within a four...
Bound states in the dynamics of a dipole in the presence of a conical defect
De Ribeiro, C A L; Moraes, F; Furtado, Claudio; Moraes, Fernando
2005-01-01
In this work we investigate the quantum dynamics of an electric dipole in a $(2+1)$-dimensional conical spacetime. For specific conditions, the Schr\\"odinger equation is solved and bound states are found with the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions determined. We find that the bound states spectrum extends from minus infinity to zero with a point of accumulation at zero. This unphysical result is fixed when a finite radius for the defect is introduced.
Two-polariton bound states in the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the eigenstates of the one-dimensional Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model in the two-excitation subspace. We discover that two-excitation bound states emerge when the ratio of vacuum Rabi frequency to the tunneling rate between cavities exceeds a critical value. We determine the critical value as a function of the quasimomentum quantum number, and indicate that the bound states carry a strong correlation in which the two polaritons appear to be spatially confined together.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-01
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Quantum fidelity for arbitrary Gaussian states
Banchi, Leonardo; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-01-01
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
A geometric approach to quantum circuit lower bounds
Nielsen, Michael A.
2005-01-01
What is the minimal size quantum circuit required to exactly implement a specified n-qubit unitary operation, U, without the use of ancilla qubits? We show that a lower bound on the minimal size is provided by the length of the minimal geodesic between U and the identity, I, where length is defined by a suitable Finsler metric on SU(2^n). The geodesic curves of such a metric have the striking property that once an initial position and velocity are set, the remainder of the geodesic is complet...
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it
2006-05-15
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit
Continuous Variable Quantum State Sharing via Quantum Disentanglement
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-01-01
Quantum state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multi-partite quantum networks. Quantum state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret state distribution, and a class of "quantum disentangling" protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum state sh...
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under quantum Hall effect conditions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V E Arkhincheev
2008-02-01
Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati
2002-08-01
Entangling an unknown qubit with one type of reference state is generally impossible. However, entangling an unknown qubit with two types of reference states is possible. To achieve this, we introduce a new class of states called zero sum amplitude (ZSA) multipartite, pure entangled states for qubits and study their salient features. Using shared-ZSA states, local operations and classical communication, we give a protocol for creating multipartite entangled states of an unknown quantum state with two types of reference states at remote places. This provides a way of encoding an unknown pure qubit state into a multiqubit entangled state.
Variational Path-Integral Study on Bound Polarons in Parabolic Quantum Dots and Wires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Qing-Hu; WANG Zhuang-Bing; WU Fu-Li; LUO Meng-Bo; RUAN Yong-Hong; JIAO Zheng-Kuan
2001-01-01
The expression of the ground-state energy of an electron coupled simultaneously with a Coulomb potential and a longitudinal-optical phonon field in parabolic quantum dots and wires is derived within the framework of Feynman variational path-integral theory. We obtain a general result with arbitrary electron-phonon coupling constant,Coulomb binding parameters, and confining potential strength, which could be used for further numerical calculation of polaron properties. Moreover, it is shown that all the previous path-integral formulae for free polarons,bound polarons, and polarons confined in parabolic quantum dots and wires can be recovered in the present formalism.
State Ensembles and Quantum Entropy
Kak, Subhash
2016-06-01
This paper considers quantum communication involving an ensemble of states. Apart from the von Neumann entropy, it considers other measures one of which may be useful in obtaining information about an unknown pure state and another that may be useful in quantum games. It is shown that under certain conditions in a two-party quantum game, the receiver of the states can increase the entropy by adding another pure state.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Coexistence of bound and virtual-bound states in shallow-core to valence x-ray spectroscopies
Sen Gupta, Subhra; Bradley, J. A.; Haverkort, M. W.; Seidler, G. T.; Tanaka, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.
2011-08-01
With the example of the non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) at the O45 edges (5d→5f) of the actinides, we develop the theory for shallow-core to valence excitations, where the multiplet spread is larger than the core-hole attraction, such as if the core and valence orbitals have the same principal quantum number. This involves very strong final state configuration interaction (CI), which manifests itself as huge reductions in the Slater-Condon integrals, needed to explain the spectral shapes within a simple renormalized atomic multiplet theory. But more importantly, this results in a cross-over from bound (excitonic) to virtual-bound excited states with increasing energy, within the same core-valance multiplet structure, and in large differences between the dipole and high-order multipole transitions, as observed in NIXS. While the bound states (often higher multipole allowed) can still be modeled using local cluster-like models, the virtual-bound resonances (often dipole-allowed) cannot be interpreted within such local approaches. This is in stark contrast to the more familiar core-valence transitions between different principal quantum number shells, where all the final excited states almost invariably form bound core-hole excitons and can be modeled using local approaches. The possibility of observing giant multipole resonances for systems with high angular momentum ground states is also predicted. The theory is important to obtain ground state information from core-level x-ray spectroscopies of strongly correlated transition metal, rare-earth, and actinide systems.
Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid
Schmitt, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-01-01
Self-bound many-body systems occur in different scenarios all across the fields of physics. For example in the astrophysical context the stellar classification is based on a detailed balance of attractive self-gravitating forces and repulsive terms e.g. due to Fermi pressure. Also liquid droplets are formed by mutual attractive forces due to covalent or van der Waals attraction and repulsive parts of the inter-particle potential due to the electronic Pauli exclusion principle. Self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms at densities 100 million times lower than in a helium droplet, the only other quantum liquid known so far, have been suggested. However, they have been elusive up to now as they require more than the usual contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. Based on the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, which is due to quantum depletion and a corresponding exclusion volume at small distances, it was predict...
Squashed giants: bound states of giant gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider giant gravitons in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave, in the presence of a constant NSNS B-field background. We show that in response to the background B-field the giant graviton would take the shape of a deformed three-sphere, the size and shape of which depend on the B-field, and that the giant becomes classically unstable once the B-field is larger than a critical value Bcr. In particular, for the B-field which is (anti-)self-dual under the SO(4) isometry of the original giant S3, the closed string metric is that of a round S3, while the open string metric is a squashed three-sphere. The squashed giant can be interpreted as a bound state of a spherical three-brane and circular D-strings. We work out the spectrum of geometric fluctuations of the squashed giant and study its stability. We also comment on the gauge theory which lives on the brane (which is generically a noncommutative theory) and a possible dual gauge theory description of the deformed giant. (author)
Real weights, bound states and duality orbits
Marrani, Alessio; Romano, Luca
2015-01-01
We show that the duality orbits of extremal black holes in supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds can be derived by studying the stabilizing subalgebras of suitable representatives, realized as bound states of specific weight vectors of the corresponding representation of the duality symmetry group. The weight vectors always correspond to weights that are real, where the reality properties are derived from the Tits-Satake diagram that identifies the real form of the Lie algebra of the duality symmetry group. Both N=2 magic Maxwell-Einstein supergravities and the semisimple infinite sequences of N=2 and N=4 theories in D=4 and 5 are considered, and various results, obtained over the years in the literature using different methods, are retrieved. In particular, we show that the stratification of the orbits of these theories occurs because of very specific properties of the representations: in the case of the theory based on the real numbers, whose symmetry group is maximally non-compact and there...
Real weights, bound states and duality orbits
Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio; Romano, Luca
2016-01-01
We show that the duality orbits of extremal black holes in supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds can be derived by studying the stabilizing subalgebras of suitable representatives, realized as bound states of specific weight vectors of the corresponding representation of the duality symmetry group. The weight vectors always correspond to weights that are real, where the reality properties are derived from the Tits-Satake diagram that identifies the real form of the Lie algebra of the duality symmetry group. Both 𝒩 = 2 magic Maxwell-Einstein supergravities and the semisimple infinite sequences of 𝒩 = 2 and 𝒩 = 4 theories in D = 4 and 5 are considered, and various results, obtained over the years in the literature using different methods, are retrieved. In particular, we show that the stratification of the orbits of these theories occurs because of very specific properties of the representations: in the case of the theory based on the real numbers, whose symmetry group is maximally noncompact and therefore all the weights are real, the stratification is due to the presence of weights of different lengths, while in the other cases it is due to the presence of complex weights.
Bound-state properties from field-theory correlators
Melikhov, Dmitri
2011-01-01
We discuss the details of calculating hadron properties from the OPE for correlators of quark currents in QCD, which constitutes the basis of the method of QCD sum rules. The main emphasis is laid on gaining control over the systematic uncertainties of the hadron parameters obtained within this method. We start with examples from quantum mechanics, where bound-state properties may be calculated independently in two ways: exactly, by solving the Schroedinger equation, and approximately, by the method of sum rules. Knowing the exact solution allows us to control each step of the sum-rule extraction procedure. On the basis of this analysis, we formulate several improvements of the method of sum rules. We then apply these modifications to the analysis of the decay constants of heavy mesons.
Bound-state properties from field-theory correlators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the details of calculating hadron properties from the OPE for correlators of quark currents in QCD, which constitutes the basis of the method of QCD sum rules. The main emphasis is laid on gaining control over the systematic uncertainties of the hadron parameters obtained within this method. We start with examples from quantum mechanics, where bound-state properties may be calculated independently in two ways: exactly, by solving the Schroedinger equation, and approximately, by the method of sum rules. Knowing the exact solution allows us to control each step of the sum-rule extraction procedure. On the basis of this analysis, we formulate several improvements of the method of sum rules. We then apply these modifications to the analysis of the decay constants of heavy mesons.
Pair creation induced by transitions between electronic and positronic bound states
Liu, Y.; Lv, Q. Z.; Li, Y. T.; Grobe, R.; Su, Q.
2015-05-01
We study the creation process of electron-positron pairs from the quantum electrodynamical vacuum under very strong electric fields by solving the quantum field theoretical Dirac equation on a space-time grid. We investigate the role of bound-bound state mixing in such a process, which can be studied if the external force can be modeled by a combination of a potential barrier and a potential well. By increasing the magnitude of the two potentials, discrete states that originate from the positive and negative energy continua can become quasidegenerate in the mass gap region (between -mc 2 and mc 2). We show that this bound-bound state mixing is quite different from the usual bound-continuum state mixing where the particles are created until the Pauli exclusion principle inhibits this process. In the case of bound-bound mixing the particle number exhibits a characteristic oscillatory behavior that in principle can last forever. These findings can be modeled by an effective two-state model.
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rat...
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal ...
Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory
Karshenboim, Savely G.
2003-01-01
As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...
Lai, Ching-Yi; Ashikhmin, Alexei
2016-01-01
Linear programming approaches have been applied to derive upper bounds on the size of classical codes and quantum codes. In this paper, we derive similar results for general quantum codes with entanglement assistance, including nonadditive codes, by considering a type of split weight enumerators. After deriving the MacWilliams identities for these split weight enumerators, we are able to prove algebraic linear programming bounds, such as the Singleton bound, the Hamming bound, and the first l...
Minimax Quantum Tomography: Estimators and Relative Entropy Bounds.
Ferrie, Christopher; Blume-Kohout, Robin
2016-03-01
A minimax estimator has the minimum possible error ("risk") in the worst case. We construct the first minimax estimators for quantum state tomography with relative entropy risk. The minimax risk of nonadaptive tomography scales as O(1/sqrt[N])-in contrast to that of classical probability estimation, which is O(1/N)-where N is the number of copies of the quantum state used. We trace this deficiency to sampling mismatch: future observations that determine risk may come from a different sample space than the past data that determine the estimate. This makes minimax estimators very biased, and we propose a computationally tractable alternative with similar behavior in the worst case, but superior accuracy on most states. PMID:26991163
Clusters of bound particles in a quantum integrable many-body system and number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct clusters of bound particles for a quantum integrable derivative δ- function Bose gas in one dimension. It is found that clusters of bound particles can be constructed for this Bose gas for some special values of the coupling constant, by taking the quasi-momenta associated with the corresponding Bethe state to be equidistant points on a single circle in the complex momentum plane. Interestingly, there exists a connection between the above mentioned special values of the coupling constant and some fractions belonging to the Farey sequences in number theory. This connection leads to a classification of the clusters of bound particles for the derivative S-function Bose gas and the determination of various properties of these clusters like their size and their stability under a variation of the coupling constant
Hierarchy of efficiently computable and faithful lower bounds to quantum discord
Piani, Marco
2015-01-01
Quantum discord expresses a fundamental non-classicality of correlations more general than quantum entanglement. We combine the no-local-broadcasting theorem, semidefinite-programming characterizations of quantum fidelity and quantum separability, and a recent breakthrough result of Fawzi and Renner about quantum Markov chains to provide a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to quantum discord. Such a hierarchy converges to the surprisal of measurement recoverability introduce...
Bound state of heavy quarks and antiquarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Properties of the charmonium and upsilon families of heavy mesons are reviewed within the framework of quarkonium quantum mechanics. The implications of current data are analyzed and projections are made for heavier quarkonium families. 72 references
Multiphoton Quantum Optics and Quantum State Engineering
Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; 10.1016/j.physrep.2006.01.004
2009-01-01
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states...
Noncommutative Coherent States and Quantum Cosmology
Juárez, Román
2014-01-01
The set of coherent states for a noncommutative quantum Bianchi I anisotropic cosmology were built to circumvent the absence of a simultaneous set of configuration observables. By extending known methods of path integrals with coherent states to their noncommutative analogues allowed us to obtain the formal expression of the propagator of the theory in terms of the covariant Husimi Q-symbol of the quantum constraint. The analysis of the equations of motion resulting from a steepest descent procedure showed the existence of solutions displaying a minimum value of the volume scaling function which are, in turn, compatible with a physically inspired definition for a bounce. More importantly, a lower bound for the volume at the bounce which incorporates quantum mechanical and noncommutativite contributions was established. The asymptotic analysis of the solutions in the vicinity of the bounce was performed by implementing techniques used in boundary-layer problems. The numerical simulations that confirm our resul...
The Learnability of Quantum States
Aaronson, Scott
2006-01-01
Traditional quantum state tomography requires a number of measurements that grows exponentially with the number of qubits n. But using ideas from computational learning theory, we show that "for most practical purposes" one can learn a state using a number of measurements that grows only linearly with n. Besides possible implications for experimental physics, our learning theorem has two applications to quantum computing: first, a new simulation of quantum one-way communication protocols, and...
Applying the relativistic quantization condition to a three-particle bound state in a periodic box
Hansen, Maxwell T
2016-01-01
Using our recently developed relativistic three-particle quantization condition, we study the finite-volume energy shift of a three-particle bound state. We reproduce the result obtained using non-relativistic quantum mechanics by Mei{\\ss}ner, R{\\'i}os and Rusetsky, and generalize the result to a moving frame.
Quantum Transition-State Theory
Hele, Timothy J H
2014-01-01
This dissertation unifies one of the central methods of classical rate calculation, `Transition-State Theory' (TST), with quantum mechanics, thereby deriving a rigorous `Quantum Transition-State Theory' (QTST). The resulting QTST is identical to ring polymer molecular dynamics transition-state theory (RPMD-TST), which was previously considered a heuristic method, and whose results we thereby validate. The key step in deriving a QTST is alignment of the flux and side dividing surfaces in path-integral space to obtain a quantum flux-side time-correlation function with a non-zero $t\\to 0_+$ limit. We then prove that this produces the exact quantum rate in the absence of recrossing by the exact quantum dynamics, fulfilling the requirements of a QTST. Furthermore, strong evidence is presented that this is the only QTST with positive-definite Boltzmann statistics and therefore the pre-eminent method for computation of thermal quantum rates in direct reactions.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum States Using Entanglement States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Ying; HUANG Da-Zu; ZENG Gui-Hua; LEE Moon Ho
2008-01-01
A multi-partite-controlled quantum secret sharing scheme using several non-orthogonal entanglement states is presented with unconditional security.In this scheme,the participants share the secret quantum state by exchanging the secret polarization angles of the disordered travel particles.The security of the secret quantum state is also guaranteed by the non-orthogonal multi-partite-controlled entanglement states,the participants'secret polarizations,and the disorder of the travelling particles.Moreover,the present scheme is secure against the particle-number splitting attack and the intercept-and-resend attack.It may be still secure even if the distributed quantum state is embedded in a not-so-weak coherent-state pulse.
Dark-matter bound states from Feynman diagrams
K. Petraki; M. Postma; M. Wiechers
2015-01-01
If dark matter couples directly to a light force mediator, then it may form bound states in the early universe and in the non-relativistic environment of haloes today. In this work, we establish a field-theoretic framework for the computation of bound-state formation cross-sections, de-excitation an
Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartmann, R. R., E-mail: richard.hartmann@dlsu.edu.ph [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines)
2014-01-15
We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.
Tauonium tau+tau-, a bound state of heavy leptons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some properties of an electromagnetically bound state of the recently discovered tau heavy lepton are analyzed. This bound state of tau+tau-, has been called tauonium, T. It is found that the process e+e-→T→X has a very high cross section but that it might have escaped observation because of the very narrow width of the T
The representation of bound state wavefunctions by spherical Hankel functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The representation of a nucleon bound state by a single Hankel function is generalised such that the bound state is expanded as a linear combination of Hankel functions of the same l-value. The singularity at the origin due to the use of Hankel functions is removed. The arguments and coefficients of the expansion are determined by a variational method. (orig.)
Martingale Models for Quantum State Reduction
Adler, Stephen Louis; Brun, T A; Hughston, L P
2001-01-01
Stochastic models for quantum state reduction give rise to statistical laws that are in most respects in agreement with those of quantum measurement theory. Here we examine the correspondence of the two theories in detail, making a systematic use of the methods of martingale theory. An analysis is carried out to determine the magnitude of the fluctuations experienced by the expectation of the observable during the course of the reduction process and an upper bound is established for the ensemble average of the greatest fluctuations incurred. We consider the general projection postulate of L\\"uders applicable in the case of a possibly degenerate eigenvalue spectrum, and derive this result rigorously from the underlying stochastic dynamics for state reduction in the case of both a pure and a mixed initial state. We also analyse the associated Lindblad equation for the evolution of the density matrix, and obtain an exact time-dependent solution for the state reduction that explicitly exhibits the transition from...
Allam, J.; Beltram, F.; Capasso, F; Cho, A.
1987-01-01
We report the observation of resonant tunneling effects at high applied fields in a multiple quantum-well P-I-N diode. The Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As structure shows features in the dark current due to Zener tunneling of electrons from the lowest sub-band in a valence-band quantum well to the first and second sub-bands of an adjacent conduction-band well.
Effect of quasi-bound states on coherent electron transport in twisted nanowires
Cuoghi, Giampaolo; Bertoni, Andrea; Sacchetti, Andrea
2010-01-01
Quantum transmission spectra of a twisted electron waveguide expose the coupling between traveling and quasi-bound states. Through a direct numerical solution of the open-boundary Schr\\"odinger equation we single out the effects of the twist and show how the presence of a localized state leads to a Breit-Wigner or a Fano resonance in the transmission. We also find that the energy of quasi-bound states is increased by the twist, in spite of the constant section area along the waveguide. While ...
QQqq Four-Quark Bound States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Hai-Xia; ZHANG Zong-Ye
2008-01-01
The possibility of QQqq heavy-light four-quark bound states has been analyzed by means of the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q is the light quark (u, d, or s). We obtain a bound state for the bbnn configuration with quantum number JP=1+, I=0 and for the ccnn (JP=1+, I=0) configuration, which is not bound but slightly above the D*D* threshold (n is u or d quark). Meanwhile, we also conclude that a weakly bound state in bbnn system can also be found without considering the chiral quark interactions between the two light quarks, yet its binding energy is weaker than that with the chiral quark interactions.
Quantum Circuits with Mixed States
Aharonov, Dorit; Kitaev, Alexei; Nisan, Noam
1998-01-01
We define the model of quantum circuits with density matrices, where non-unitary gates are allowed. Measurements in the middle of the computation, noise and decoherence are implemented in a natural way in this model, which is shown to be equivalent in computational power to standard quantum circuits. The main result in this paper is a solution for the subroutine problem: The general function that a quantum circuit outputs is a probabilistic function, but using pure state language, such a func...
Novel states in quantum matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Understanding the collective electronic properties of emergent materials remains a great challenge to condensed-matter theory. The quantum mechanical ground states are determined by subtle compromises between various interactions. The resulting high sensitivity with respect to external fields will allow for new functionalities and novel technical applications. The present paper discusses typical emergent phenomena including the formation of heavy fermions in Kondo lattices, quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality as well as orbital-selective localization transitions. (Author)
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Bound states and critical behavior of the Yukawa potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Yongyao
2006-01-01
[1]Yukawa,H.,On the interaction of elementary particles,Proc.Phys.Math Soc.Jap.,1935,17:48-57.[2]Sachs,R.,Goeppert-Mayer,M.,Calculations on a new neutron-proton interaction potential,Phys.Rev.,1938,53:991-993.[3]Harris,G.,Attractive two-body interactions in partially ionized plasmas,Phys.Rev.,1962,125:1131-1140.[4]Schey,H.,Schwartz,J.,Counting the bound states in short-range central potentials,Phys.Rev.B,1965,139:1428-1432.[5]Rogers,J.,Graboske,H.,Harwood,E.,Bound eigenstates of the static screened Coulomb poten-tial,Phys.Rev.A,1970,1:1577-1586.[6]McEnnan,J.,Kissel,L.,Pratt,R.,Analytic perturbation theory for screened Coulomb potentials:non-relativistic case,Phys.Rev.A,1976,13:532-559.[7]Gerry,C.,Estimates of the ground states of the Yukawa potential from the Bogoliubov inequality,J.Phys.A,1984,17:L313-L315.[8]Kr(o)ger,H.,Girard,R.,Dufour,G.,Direct calculation of the S matrix in coordinate space,Phys.Rev.C,1988,37:486-496.[9]Girard,R.,Kr(o)ger,H.,Labelle,P.et al.,Computation of a long time evolution in a Schr(o)dinger system,Phys.Rev.A,1988,37:3195-3200.[10]Garavelli,S.,Oliveira,F.,Analytical solution for a Yukawa-type potential,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1991,66:1310-1313.[11]Gomes,O.,Chacham,H.,Mohallem,J.,Variational calculations for the bound-unbound transition of the Yukawa potential,Phys.Rev.A,1994,50:228-231.[12]Yukalov,V.,Yukalova,E.,Oliveira,F.,Renormalization-group solutions for Yukawa potential,J.Phys.A,1998,31:4337-4348.[13]Brau,F.,Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of bound states in a central potential,J.Phys.A,2003,36:9907-9913.[14]Bertini,L.,Mella,M.,Bressanini,D.et al.,Borromean binding in H-2 with Yukawa potential:a nonadiabatic quantum Monte Carlo study,Phys.Rev.A,2004,69:042504.[15]Dean,D.,Drummond,I.,Horgan,R.,Effective diffusion constant in a two-dimensional medium of charged point scatterers,J.Phys.A,2004,37:2039-2046.[16]De-Leo,S.,Rotelli,P.,Amplification of coupling for Yukawa potentials,Phys.Rev.D,2004,69:034006.[17]Khrapak
Weakly bound states of polar molecules in bilayers
Fedorov, D V; Zinner, N T; Jensen, A S
2011-01-01
We investigate a system of two polarized molecules in a layered trap. The molecules reside in adjacent layers and interact purely via the dipole-dipole interaction. We determine the properties of the ground state of the system as a function of the dipole moment and polarization angle. A bound state is always present in the system and in the weak binding limit the bound state extends to a very large distance and shows universal behavior.
Relativistic bound states: a mass formula for vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of a relativistic description of two particles bound states, a mass formula for vector mesons considered as quark-antiquark systems bound by harmonic oscillator like forces is proposed. Results in good agreement with experimental values are obtained
Mould, Richard A
2003-01-01
If conscious observers are to be included in the quantum mechanical universe, we need to find the rules that engage observers with quantum mechanical systems. The author has proposed five rules that are discovered by insisting on empirical completeness; that is, by requiring the rules to draw empirical information from Schrodinger's solutions that is more complete than is currently possible with the (Born) probability interpretation. I discard Born's interpretation, introducing probability so...
Comparison of mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we study the problem of comparing mixed quantum states: given n unknown mixed quantum states, can one determine whether they are identical or not with an unambiguous quantum measurement? We first study the universal comparison of mixed quantum states, and prove that this task is generally impossible to accomplish. Then, we focus on the unambiguous comparison of n mixed quantum states arbitrarily chosen from a set of k mixed quantum states. The condition for the existence of an unambiguous measurement operator which can produce a conclusive result when the unknown states are actually the same and the condition for the existence of an unambiguous measurement operator when the unknown states are actually different are studied independently. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the first measurement operator, and a necessary condition and two sufficient conditions for the second. Furthermore, we find that the sufficiency of the necessary condition for the second measurement operator has a simple and interesting dependence on n and k. At the end, a unified condition is obtained for the simultaneous existence of these two unambiguous measurement operators.
Quantum benchmarks for Gaussian states
Chiribella, Giulio
2014-01-01
Teleportation and storage of continuous variable states of light and atoms are essential building blocks for the realization of large scale quantum networks. Rigorous validation of these implementations require identifying, and surpassing, benchmarks set by the most effective strategies attainable without the use of quantum resources. Such benchmarks have been established for special families of input states, like coherent states and particular subclasses of squeezed states. Here we solve the longstanding problem of defining quantum benchmarks for general pure Gaussian states with arbitrary phase, displacement, and squeezing, randomly sampled according to a realistic prior distribution. As a special case, we show that the fidelity benchmark for teleporting squeezed states with totally random phase and squeezing degree is 1/2, equal to the corresponding one for coherent states. We discuss the use of entangled resources to beat the benchmarks in experiments.
Pseudogap state from quantum criticality
Efetov, K. B.; Meier, H.; Pépin, C.
2012-01-01
Upon application of an external tuning parameter, a magnetic state can be driven to a normal metal state at zero temperature. This phenomenon is known as quantum criticality and leads to fascinating responses in thermodynamics and transport of the compound. In the standard picture, a single quantum critical point occurs at zero temperature, which results in a nontrivial critical behaviour in its vicinity. Here we show that in two dimensions the scenario is considerably more complex due to the...
Dark states in quantum photosynthesis
Kozyrev, S V
2016-01-01
We discuss a model of quantum photosynthesis with degeneracy in the light-harvesting system. We consider interaction of excitons in chromophores with light and phonons (vibrations of environment). These interactions have dipole form but are different (are related to non-parallel vectors of "bright" states). We show that this leads to excitation of non-decaying "dark" states. We discuss relation of this model to the known from spectroscopical experiments phenomenon of existence of photonic echo in quantum photosynthesis.
Quantum resource studied from the perspective of quantum state superposition
Wu, Chengjun; Li, Junhui; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong
2014-01-01
Quantum resources,such as discord and entanglement, are crucial in quantum information processing. In this paper, quantum resources are studied from the aspect of quantum state superposition. We define the local superposition (LS) as the superposition between basis of single part, and nonlocal superposition (NLS) as the superposition between product basis of multiple parts. For quantum resource with nonzero LS, quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it, and for quantum resource with ...
Quantum coherence of steered states
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.
Quantum coherence of steered states.
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to 'steer' Bob's reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob's steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob's channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214
Optimal, reliable estimation of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurately inferring the state of a quantum device from the results of measurements is a crucial task in building quantum information processing hardware. The predominant state estimation procedure, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), generally reports an estimate with zero eigenvalues. These cannot be justified. Furthermore, the MLE estimate is incompatible with error bars, so conclusions drawn from it are suspect. I propose an alternative procedure, Bayesian mean estimation (BME). BME never yields zero eigenvalues, its eigenvalues provide a bound on their own uncertainties, and under certain circumstances it is provably the most accurate procedure possible. I show how to implement BME numerically, and how to obtain natural error bars that are compatible with the estimate. Finally, I briefly discuss the differences between Bayesian and frequentist estimation techniques.
A time-dependent Tsirelson's bound from limits on the rate of information gain in quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doherty, Andrew C [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Wehner, Stephanie, E-mail: wehner@comp.nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)
2011-07-15
We consider the problem of distinguishing between a set of arbitrary quantum states in a setting in which the time available to perform the measurement is limited. We provide simple upper bounds on how well we can perform state discrimination in a given time as a function of either the average energy or the range of energies available during the measurement. We exhibit a specific strategy that nearly attains this bound. Finally, we consider several applications of our result. Firstly, we obtain a time-dependent Tsirelson's bound that limits the extent of the Bell inequality violation that can be in principle be demonstrated in a given time t. Secondly, we obtain a Margolus-Levitin type bound when considering the special case of distinguishing orthogonal pure states.
Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M De Sanctis
2013-09-01
Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other authors, a semirelativistic wave equation is solved using an accurate numerical method to determine the binding energies of these possible superheavy fermion-bound states. The interaction given by the Yukawa potential of the Higgs boson exchange is considered; the corresponding relativistic corrections are calculated by means of a model based on the covariance properties of the Hamiltonian. We study the effects given by the Coulomb force. Moreover, we calculate the contributions given by the Coulombic and confining terms of the strong interaction in the case of superheavy quark bound states. The results of the model are critically analysed.
Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-07-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Unified description of bound, resonant and scattering states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently we have introduced a general method for calculating the discrete Hilbert-space basis representation of the Green's operators of those Hamiltonians which have infinite symmetric tridiagonal matrix forms. The elements of this matrix are used in the calculation of the Green's matrix in terms of a three-term recurrence relation and continued fractions. We specified our general approach to the case of the Coulomb problem and the Coulomb-Sturmian basis associated with it. As a further step, we can combine this new way of calculating the Coulomb-Green's matrix with a technique of solving integral equations in discrete Hilbert-space-basis representations. This provides us with a quantum mechanical approximation method which is rather general in the sense that it is equally applicable to solving bound-, resonant- and scattering-state problems with practically any potential of physical relevance. The method is especially suited to problems where Coulomb-like asymptotics have to be treated, but the formalism also contains the case of the free Green's operator as a special case. (author)
Novel properties of bound states of Klein-Gordon equation in gravitational field of massive point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We are considering for the first time the solutions of Klein-Gordon equation in gravitational field of massive point source in general relativity (GR). We examine numerically the basic bounded quantum state and the next few states in the discrete spectrum for different values of the orbital momentum. A novel feature of the solutions under consideration is the essential dependence if their physical properties on the gravitational mass defect of the point source. Such mass defect was not introduced up to recently. Its variation yields a repulsion or an attraction of the quantum levels up to their quasi-crossing. (authors)
Long range coherent magnetic bound states in superconductors
Ménard, Gerbold C.; Guissart, Sébastien; Brun, Christophe; Pons, Stéphane; Stolyarov, Vasily S.; Debontridder, François; Leclerc, Matthieu V.; Janod, Etienne; Cario, Laurent; Roditchev, Dimitri; Simon, Pascal; Cren, Tristan
2015-01-01
The quantum coherent coupling of completely different degrees of freedom is a challenging path towards creating new functionalities for quantum electronics. Usually the antagonistic coupling between spins of magnetic impurities and superconductivity leads to the destruction of the superconducting order. Here we show that a localized classical spin of an iron atom immersed in a superconducting condensate can give rise to new kind of long range coherent magnetic quantum state. In addition to th...
From the Deuteron to Deusons, an Analysis of Deuteronlike Meson-Meson Bound States
Törnqvist, N A
1994-01-01
A systematic study of possible deuteronlike two-meson bound states, {\\it deusons}, is presented. Previous arguments that many such bound states may exist are elaborated with detailed arguments and numerical calculations including, in particular, the tensor potential. In the heavy meson sector one-pion exchange alone is strong enough to form at least deuteron-like $B\\bar B^*$ and $B^*\\bar B^*$ composites bound by approximately 50 MeV. Composites of $D\\bar D^*$ and $D^*\\bar D^*$ states bound by pion exchange alone are expected near the thresholds, while in the light meson sector one generally needs some additional short range attraction to form bound states. The quantum numbers of these states are I=0, In $B\\bar B^*$ one predictss the states: $\\eta_b(\\approx 10545),\\ \\chi_{b1}(\\approx 10562)$, and in $B^*\\bar B^*$ one finds the states: $\\eta_b(\\approx 10590),\\ \\chi_{b0}(\\approx 10582),\\ h_b(\\approx 10608),\\ \\chi_{b2}(\\approx 10602)$. Near the $D\\bar D^*$ threshold the states: $\\eta_c(\\approx 3870),\\ \\chi_{c0}(\\...
The Capacity of Quantum Channel with General Signal States
Holevo, A S
1996-01-01
It is shown that the capacity of a classical-quantum channel with arbitrary (possibly mixed) states equals to the maximum of the entropy bound with respect to all apriori distributions. This completes the recent result of Hausladen, Jozsa, Schumacher, Westmoreland and Wooters, who proved the equality for the pure state channel.
Upper bounds on fault tolerance thresholds of noisy Clifford-based quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the possibility of adding noise to a quantum circuit to make it efficiently simulatable classically. In previous works, this approach has been used to derive upper bounds to fault tolerance thresholds-usually by identifying a privileged resource, such as an entangling gate or a non-Clifford operation, and then deriving the noise levels required to make it 'unprivileged'. In this work, we consider extensions of this approach where noise is added to Clifford gates too and then 'commuted' around until it concentrates on attacking the non-Clifford resource. While commuting noise around is not always straightforward, we find that easy instances can be identified in popular fault tolerance proposals, thereby enabling sharper upper bounds to be derived in these cases. For instance we find that if we take Knill's (2005 Nature 434 39) fault tolerance proposal together with the ability to prepare any possible state in the XY plane of the Bloch sphere, then not more than 3.69% error-per-gate noise is sufficient to make it classical, and 13.71% of Knill's γ noise model is sufficient. These bounds have been derived without noise being added to the decoding parts of the circuits. Introducing such noise in a toy example suggests that the present approach can be optimized further to yield tighter bounds.
A quantum bound on the thermodynamic description of gravity
Hod, Shahar
2016-01-01
The seminal works of Bekenstein and Hawking have revealed that black holes have a well-defined thermodynamic description. In particular, it is often stated in the physical literature that black holes, like mundane physical systems, obey the first law of thermodynamics: $\\Delta S=\\Delta E/T_{\\text{BH}}$, where $T_{\\text{BH}}$ is the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature of the black hole. In the present work we test the regime of validity of the thermodynamic description of gravity. In particular, we provide compelling evidence that, due to quantum effects, the first law of thermodynamics breaks down in the low-temperature regime $T_{\\text{BH}}\\times r_{\\text{H}}\\lesssim ({{\\hbar}/{r_{\\text{H}}}})^2$ of near-extremal black holes (here $r_{\\text{H}}$ is the radius of the black-hole horizon).
Quasibound states in semiconductor quantum well structures
Rihani, Samir; Page, Hideaki; Beere, Harvey E.
2010-02-01
We present a study on quasibound states in multiple quantum well structures using a finite element model (FEM). The FEM is implemented for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation in arbitrary layered semiconductor nanostructures with an arbitrary applied potential. The model also includes nonparabolicity effects by using an energy dependent effective mass, where the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem was solved using an iterative approach. We focus on quasibound/continuum states above the barrier potential and show that such states can be determined using cyclic boundary conditions. This new method enables the determination of both bound and quasibound states simultaneously, making it more efficient than other methods where different boundary conditions have to be used in extracting the relevant states. Furthermore, the new method lifted the problem of quasibound state divergence commonly seen with many other methods of calculation. Hence enabling accurate determination of dipole matrix elements involving both bound and quasibound states. Such calculations are vital in the design of intersubband optoelectronic devices and reveal the interesting properties of quasibound states above the potential barriers.
Extended supersymmetry for the bound states of the generalized Hulthen potential hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the associated hypergeometric differential equation, we analytically solve the bound states corresponding to a hierarchy of the radial potential -v0 e-δr/(1 - e-δr) + c e-δr/(1 - e-δr)2 as a generalization of the Hulthen potential. Then, an analytic solution corresponding to a special case for which the parameter c is expected to be in terms of l(l + 1) is also derived. Meanwhile without introducing a superpotential and in the framework of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, it is shown that these bound states can be calculated by two different algebraic methods. Based on these two approaches, it is noted that the bound states realize an extended supersymmetry structure
Extended supersymmetry for the bound states of the generalized Hulthén potential hierarchy
Fakhri, H.; Chenaghlou, A.
2004-09-01
Using the associated hypergeometric differential equation, we analytically solve the bound states corresponding to a hierarchy of the radial potential -v0 e-dgrr/(1 - e-dgrr) + c e-dgrr/(1 - e-dgrr)2 as a generalization of the Hulthén potential. Then, an analytic solution corresponding to a special case for which the parameter c is expected to be in terms of l(l + 1) is also derived. Meanwhile without introducing a superpotential and in the framework of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, it is shown that these bound states can be calculated by two different algebraic methods. Based on these two approaches, it is noted that the bound states realize an extended supersymmetry structure.
Extended supersymmetry for the bound states of the generalized Hulthen potential hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fakhri, H [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chenaghlou, A [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2004-09-03
Using the associated hypergeometric differential equation, we analytically solve the bound states corresponding to a hierarchy of the radial potential -v{sub 0} e{sup -{delta}}{sup r}/(1 - e{sup -{delta}}{sup r}) + c e{sup -{delta}}{sup r}/(1 - e{sup -{delta}}{sup r}){sup 2} as a generalization of the Hulthen potential. Then, an analytic solution corresponding to a special case for which the parameter c is expected to be in terms of l(l + 1) is also derived. Meanwhile without introducing a superpotential and in the framework of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, it is shown that these bound states can be calculated by two different algebraic methods. Based on these two approaches, it is noted that the bound states realize an extended supersymmetry structure.
Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography
Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-03-01
We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.
Discrete Quantum Control - State Preparation
Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.
2012-01-01
A discrete-time method for solving problems in optimal quantum control is presented. Controlling the time discretized markovian dynamics of a quantum system can be reduced to a Markov-decision process. We demonstrate this method in this with a class of simple one qubit systems, which are also discretized in space. For the task of state preparation we solve the examples both numerically and analytically with dynamic programming techniques.
Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor
Sau, Jay D.; Brydon, P. M. R.
2015-09-01
We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.
Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor.
Sau, Jay D; Brydon, P M R
2015-09-18
We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment. PMID:26431011
Quantum Memory as Light Pulses Quantum States Transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vetlugin A.N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum memory can operate not only as a write-in/readout device [1] for quantum light pulses and non-classical states generation [2] device but also as a quantum states of light transformer. Here the addressable parallel quantum memory [3] possibilities for this type of transformation are researched. Quantum memory operates as a conventional N-port interferometer with N equals to the number of the involved spin waves. As example we consider the ability to transform quantum states of two light pulses – in this case the quantum memory works as a mirror with a controlled transmission factor.
Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states
Han, Wei; Jiang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xia, Yun-Jie
2015-12-01
The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and 11304179), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20123705120002 and 20133705110001), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2014AP009), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Qufu Normal University.
Computing Stabilized Norms for Quantum Operations via the Theory of Completely Bounded Maps
Johnston, Nathaniel; Kribs, David W.; Paulsen, Vern I.
2007-01-01
The diamond and completely bounded norms for linear maps play an increasingly important role in quantum information science, providing fundamental stabilized distance measures for differences of quantum operations. Based on the theory of completely bounded maps, we formulate an algorithm to compute the norm of an arbitrary linear map. We present an implementation of the algorithm via Maple, discuss its efficiency, and consider the case of differences of unitary maps.
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rate for direct dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement. The effects are strongest for large dark gauge coupling and when the dark photon mass is smaller than the typical momentum of dark matter in the galaxy. As an example, we show that for thermal dark matter the Fermi gamma ray constraint is substantially increased once bound state effects are taken into account. We also find that bound state effects are not important for dark matter annihilation during the freeze out and recombination epochs.
Proximity induced interface bound states in superconductor-graphene junctions
Burset, P.; Herrera, W.; Yeyati, A. Levy
2009-01-01
We show that interface bound states are formed at isolated graphene-superconductor junctions. These states arise due to the interplay of virtual Andreev and normal reflections taking place at these interfaces. Simple analytical expressions for their dispersion are obtained considering interfaces formed along armchair or zig-zag edges. It is shown that the states are sensitive to a supercurrent flowing on the superconducting electrode. The states provide long range superconducting correlations...
Brokered Graph State Quantum Computing
Benjamin, Simon C.; Browne, Dan E.; Fitzsimons, Joe; Morton, John J. L.
2005-01-01
We describe a procedure for graph state quantum computing that is tailored to fully exploit the physics of optically active multi-level systems. Leveraging ideas from the literature on distributed computation together with the recent work on probabilistic cluster state synthesis, our model assigns to each physical system two logical qubits: the broker and the client. Groups of brokers negotiate new graph state fragments via a probabilistic optical protocol. Completed fragments are mapped from...
Topological cluster state quantum computing
Fowler, Austin G.; Goyal, Kovid
2009-01-01
The quantum computing scheme described in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190504 (2007), when viewed as a cluster state computation, features a 3-D cluster state, novel adjustable strength error correction capable of correcting general errors through the correction of Z errors only, a threshold error rate approaching 1% and low overhead arbitrarily long-range logical gates. In this work, we review the scheme in detail framing discussion solely in terms of the required 3-D cluster state and its stabilizers.
Quantum resource studied from the perspective of quantum state superposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum resources, such as discord and entanglement, are crucial in quantum information processing. In this paper, quantum resources are studied from the aspect of quantum state superposition. We define the local superposition (LS) as the superposition between basis of single part, and nonlocal superposition (NLS) as the superposition between product basis of multiple parts. For quantum resource with nonzero LS, quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it, and for quantum resource with nonzero NLS, nonlocal quantum operation must be introduced to prepare it. We prove that LS vanishes if and only if the state is classical and NLS vanishes if and only if the state is separable. From this superposition aspect, quantum resources are categorized as superpositions existing in different parts. These results are helpful to study quantum resources from a unified frame. (paper)
Quantum state preparation using dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We investigate the possibility of using a dissipative process to prepare a quantum system in a desired state. We derive for any multipartite pure state a dissipative process for which this state is the unique stationary state and solve the corresponding master equation analytically. For certain states, like the cluster states, we use this process to show that the jump operators can be chosen quasi-locally, i.e. they act non-trivially only on a few, neighboring qubits. We demonstrate the general formalism by considering MPS-PEPS states. In particular, we show that the ground state of the AKLT-model can be prepared employing a quasi-local dissipative process. Furthermore, we discuss a dissipatively driven Bose-Einstein condensate, where for non-interacting atoms a pure state exhibiting long range order is generated as the steady state by quasi-local coupling to an environment with finite correlation length. Applying standard linearization schemes in the weakly interacting situations, allows us to determine the solution of the master equation, revealing a steady state with properties similar to bosons in thermal contact to a heat bath. Furthermore, we consider a special class of states, called locally maximally entangleable states and discuss their applications for quantum information tasks. The generation of those states using either dissipative processes, or unitary evolutions is presented. (author)
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Phase transitions of energy and wave functions and bound states in the continuum
Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Chaozhen; Liu, Yingming; Luo, Maokang
2016-04-01
This paper studies a particle subjected to an infinite potential well in the circumstance of a fractional dimensional Lévy path. To obtain analytic expression for the wave functions and energy levels, we introduce the fractional corresponding operator and a generalized de Moivre's theorem. Phase transitions of the energy and wave functions are found when the Lévy path dimension changes from integer to noninteger in nature. More importantly, we demonstrate the existence of stable bound states in the continuum in a simple potential. The results predict a phenomenon in which all bound states energy levels of the particle are continuous and the particle remains in bound states. This phenomenon can be demonstrated that this is a characteristic phenomenon of a fractional system. This phenomenon provides both an a priori criterion for theoretically describing an unknown quantum system with fractional derivatives and a sufficient condition for verifying the preparation of a fractional quantum system in experiment. Finally, we compare our results for fractional quantum systems with the existing results and explain the cause of the reported phenomenon.
Fractal states in quantum information processing
Jaeger, Gregg
2007-01-01
The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amanti, Maria I; Scalari, Giacomo; Terazzi, Romain; Fischer, Milan; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Rudra, Alok; Gallo, Pascal; Kapon, Eli [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)], E-mail: jerome.faist@phys.ethz.ch
2009-12-15
A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.
Complementarity of quantum correlations in cloning and deleting of quantum states
Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Datta, Annwesha; Pati, Arun K.
2015-06-01
We quantify the amount of correlation generated between two different output modes in imperfect cloning and deletion processes. We use three different measures of quantum correlations and investigate their role in determining the fidelity of cloning and deletion. We obtain a bound on the total correlation generated in the successive processes of cloning and deleting operations. This bound displays a different kind of complementary relationship between the quantum correlations required in generating a copy of a quantum state and the amount of correlation required to bring it back to the original state by deleting and vice versa. Our result shows that the better we clone (delete) a state, the more difficult it will be to bring the state back to its original form by the process of deleting (cloning).
Probing Majorana Bound States in T-Shaped Junctions
Wu, Bin-He; Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Chun-Rui; Gong, Wei-Jiang
2014-03-01
We investigate the transport properties of a pair of Majorana bound states in a T-shaped junction, where two normal leads are coupled with an identical Majorana bound state. Both the scattering matrix and the recursive Green function method show that the peak value of the differential conductance (Gpeak) in units of e2/h and the shot noise Fano factor in the zero bias limit (F0), which are measured at the same lead and zero temperature, satisfy a linear relation as F0 = 1 + Gpeak/2, independent of the magnitude or symmetry of the coupling strengths to the leads. Therefore, combined measurements of the differential conductance and shot noise in the T-shaped geometry can serve as a characteristic signature in probing Majorana bound states.
Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morsch H.P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.
Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation
Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2014-10-01
The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.
Question of η- and K−- Nucleus Bound States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Interaction of the η-meson and that of the K−-meson with nucleons is of special interest because both of them are strongly attractive near threshold. This raises the strong possibility that we may find in nature the bound η- and K−-nuclear (quasi) bound states. This led to experimental programs to hunt for the existence of these states and theoretical studies to keep pace with them. The efforts had positive results. The η-meson studies had been there for several years by now, while those with the K−-meson had been relatively recent. The talk gives a brief critical overview of the η-nuclear interaction studies, especially in context with the η-mesic state explorations. For the K−-meson we give a brief summary of the efforts in understanding the basic K−-nucleon interaction and theoretical explorations for the existence of K−-nucleus bound states. We critically examine the FINUDA measurements as a signal for the existence of the K−-nucleus bound states, especially in context with the contribution of the single nucleon knock-out final state interaction in the (K−, pΛ) reaction.
Efficient bounds on quantum-communication rates via their reduced variants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate one-way communication scenarios where Bob operating on his component can transfer some subsystem to the environment. We define reduced versions of quantum-communication rates and, further, prove upper bounds on a one-way quantum secret key, distillable entanglement, and quantum-channel capacity by means of their reduced versions. It is shown that in some cases they drastically improve their estimation.
Asymptotic quantum cloning is state estimation
Bae, Joonwoo; Acin, Antonio
2006-01-01
The impossibility of perfect cloning and state estimation are two fundamental results in Quantum Mechanics. It has been conjectured that quantum cloning becomes equivalent to state estimation in the asymptotic regime where the number of clones tends to infinity. We prove this conjecture using two known results of Quantum Information Theory: the monogamy of quantum correlations and the properties of entanglement breaking channels.
A Lower Bound on the Quantum Capacity of Channels with Correlated Errors
Hamada, Mitsuru
2002-01-01
The highest fidelity of quantum error-correcting codes of length n and rate R is proven to be lower bounded by 1 - exp [-n E(R)+ o(n)] for some function E(R) on noisy quantum channels that are subject to not necessarily independent errors. The E(R) is positive below some threshold R', which implies R' is a lower bound on the quantum capacity. This work is an extension of the author's previous works [M. Hamada, Phys. Rev. A, 65, 052305, 2002 (e-Print quant-ph/0109114, LANL, 2001), and M. Hamad...
Entanglement for All Quantum States
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Martingale models for quantum state reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stochastic models for quantum state reduction give rise to statistical laws that are in most respects in agreement with those of quantum measurement theory. Here we examine the correspondence of the two theories in detail, making a systematic use of the methods of martingale theory. An analysis is carried out to determine the magnitude of the fluctuations experienced by the expectation of the observable during the course of the reduction process and an upper bound is established for the ensemble average of the greatest fluctuations incurred. We consider the general projection postulate of Lueders applicable in the case of a possibly degenerate eigenvalue spectrum, and derive this result rigorously from the underlying stochastic dynamics for state reduction in the case of both a pure and a mixed initial state. We also analyse the associated Lindblad equation for the evolution of the density matrix, and obtain an exact time-dependent solution for the state reduction that explicitly exhibits the transition from a general initial density matrix to the Lueders density matrix. Finally, we apply Girsanov's theorem to derive a set of simple formulae for the dynamics of the state in terms of a family of geometric Brownian motions, thereby constructing an explicit unravelling of the Lindblad equation. (author)
Quantum tomography via compressed sensing: error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intuitively, if a density operator has small rank, then it should be easier to estimate from experimental data, since in this case only a few eigenvectors need to be learned. We prove two complementary results that confirm this intuition. Firstly, we show that a low-rank density matrix can be estimated using fewer copies of the state, i.e. the sample complexity of tomography decreases with the rank. Secondly, we show that unknown low-rank states can be reconstructed from an incomplete set of measurements, using techniques from compressed sensing and matrix completion. These techniques use simple Pauli measurements, and their output can be certified without making any assumptions about the unknown state. In this paper, we present a new theoretical analysis of compressed tomography, based on the restricted isometry property for low-rank matrices. Using these tools, we obtain near-optimal error bounds for the realistic situation where the data contain noise due to finite statistics, and the density matrix is full-rank with decaying eigenvalues. We also obtain upper bounds on the sample complexity of compressed tomography, and almost-matching lower bounds on the sample complexity of any procedure using adaptive sequences of Pauli measurements. Using numerical simulations, we compare the performance of two compressed sensing estimators—the matrix Dantzig selector and the matrix Lasso—with standard maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE). We find that, given comparable experimental resources, the compressed sensing estimators consistently produce higher fidelity state reconstructions than MLE. In addition, the use of an incomplete set of measurements leads to faster classical processing with no loss of accuracy. Finally, we show how to certify the accuracy of a low-rank estimate using direct fidelity estimation, and describe a method for compressed quantum process tomography that works for processes with small Kraus rank and requires only Pauli eigenstate preparations
Quantum State Detection Via Elimination
Ettinger, J M; Hoyer, Peter
1999-01-01
We present the view of quantum algorithms as a search-theoretic problem. We show that the Fourier transform, used to solve the Abelian hidden subgroup problem, is an example of an efficient elimination observable which eliminates a constant fraction of the candidate secret states with high probability. Finally, we show that elimination observables do not always exist by considering the geometry of the hidden subgroup states of the dihedral group D_N.
Mizel, Ari
2003-01-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
Scattering Induced Quantum Interference of Multiple Quantum Optical States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;
2011-01-01
Using a discrete mode theory for propagation of quantum optical states, we investigate the consequences of multiple scattering on the degree of quadrature entanglement and quantum interference. We report that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering. We furthermore show that quantum...
The quantum state can be interpreted statistically
Lewis, Peter G; Barrett, Jonathan; Rudolph, Terry
2012-01-01
Many quantum physicists have suggested that a quantum state does not represent reality directly, but rather the information available to some agent or experimenter. This view is attractive because if a quantum state represents only information, then the collapse of the quantum state on measurement is possibly no more mysterious than the Bayesian procedure of updating a probability distribution on the acquisition of new data. In order to explore the idea in a rigorous setting, we consider models for quantum systems with probabilities for measurement outcomes determined by some underlying physical state of the system, where the underlying state is not necessarily described by quantum theory. A quantum state corresponds to a probability distribution over the underlying physical states, in such a way that the Born rule is recovered. We show that models can be constructed such that more than one quantum state is consistent with a single underlying physical state-in other words the probability distributions corresp...
Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laha, Ranjan
2015-10-01
It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angular recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.
On Deusons or Deuteronlike Meson-Meson Bound States
Törnqvist, N A
1994-01-01
The systematics of deuteronlike two-meson bound states, {\\it deusons}, is discussed. Previous arguments that many of the present non-$q\\bar q$ states are such states are elaborated including, in particular, the tensor potential. For pseudoscalar states the important observation is made that the centrifugal barrier from the P-wave can be overcome by the $1/r^2$ and $1/r^3$ terms of the tensor potential. In the heavy meson sector one-pion exchange alone is strong enough to form at least deuteron-like $B\\bar B^*$ and $B^*\\bar B^*$ composites bound by approximately 50 MeV, while $D\\bar D^*$ and $D^*\\bar D^*$ states are expected near the threshold.
Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiri Vala
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.
A Precise Error Bound for Quantum Phase Estimation
Chappell, James M; von Smekal, Lorenz; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2011-01-01
Quantum phase estimation is one of the key algorithms in the field of quantum computing, but up until now, only approximate expressions have been derived for the probability of error. We revisit these derivations, and find that by ensuring symmetry in the error definitions, that an exact formula can be found. This new approach may also have value in solving other related problems. Expressions for two special cases of the formula are also developed, in the limit as the number of qubits in the quantum computer approaches infinity and in the limit as the extra added qubits to improve reliability goes to infinity. It is found that this formula is useful in validating computer simulations of the phase estimation procedure and in avoiding the overestimation of the number of qubits required in order to achieve a given reliability. This formula thus brings improved precision in the design of quantum computers.
A search for unexpected bound states in 15B
Hoffman, Calem R.
2014-09-01
Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound states in 15B and ii) to assign total angular momenta to known excited states for the first time. At present only two bound states have been observed in 15B, neither with firm spin or parity assignments. The present work to be discussed is aimed at determining whether an excited 3 /2- state, a state with identical spin-parity as the ground state, resides below the neutron separation energy in 15B. Such an excited 3 /2- state is not predicted to appear below the 15B Sn by shell-model calculations using various p- sd interactions. However, a robust systematic, probably related to the s-wave trends found in the single-neutron states in this region, has been observed for neutron-rich N=10 nuclei and it suggests that the state may appear lower in excitation energy than expected. Providing some measure of validation for the N=10 prediction is a similar trend noticed in the energy differences between ground (p)2 neutron states and excited (sd)2 neutron states in the N=8 neutron-rich isotones. In addition to a search for this unexpected state, additional spectroscopic information on 15B will better aid in the understanding of the N=10 isotones when transitioning from 16C into sparsely probed 14Be. Details of the experimental procedures and motivation will be presented and discussed. Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this note, we use ideas of Farhi et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 6, 503 (2008) and Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 840 (2011)] who link a lower bound on the run time of their quantum adiabatic search algorithm to an upper bound on the energy gap above the ground-state of the generators of this algorithm. We apply these ideas to the quantum random energy model (QREM). Our main result is a simple proof of the conjectured exponential vanishing of the energy gap of the QREM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adame, J.; Warzel, S., E-mail: warzel@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2015-11-15
In this note, we use ideas of Farhi et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 6, 503 (2008) and Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 840 (2011)] who link a lower bound on the run time of their quantum adiabatic search algorithm to an upper bound on the energy gap above the ground-state of the generators of this algorithm. We apply these ideas to the quantum random energy model (QREM). Our main result is a simple proof of the conjectured exponential vanishing of the energy gap of the QREM.
Quantum state revivals in quantum walks on cycles
Dukes, Phillip R.
2014-01-01
Recurrence in the classical random walk is well known and described by the Pólya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is similarly understood in terms of the probability of a localized quantum walker to return to its origin. Under certain circumstances the quantum walker may also return to an arbitrary initial quantum state in a finite number of steps. Quantum state revivals in quantum walks on cycles using coin operators which are constant in time and uniform across the path have been descr...
Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders
El-Bennich, B; Paracha, M A; de Melo, J P B C
2013-01-01
We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.
Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2014-11-11
We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.
Detection of positron-atom bound states through resonant annihilation
Dzuba, V A; Gribakin, G F
2010-01-01
A method is proposed for detecting positron-atom bound states by observing Feshbach resonances in positron annihilation at electron volt energies. The method is applicable to a range of open-shell transition metal atoms which are likely to bind the positron: Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Ge, Tc, Ru, Rh, Sn, Sb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, and Pt.
Bound States and Supercriticality in Graphene-Based Topological Insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reinhold Egger
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the bound state spectrum and the conditions for entering a supercritical regime in graphene with strong intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions within the topological insulator phase. Explicit results are provided for a disk-shaped potential well and for the Coulomb center problem.
In-medium antikaon interactions and bound states
Gal, Avraham; Barnea, Nir; Cieplý, Aleš; Mareš, Jiří; Gazda, Daniel
2014-01-01
Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.
Dynamics of deeply bound (K) over-bar states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 22, 2-3 (2007), s. 633-636. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : over-bar-nuclear bound states * over-bar-nuclear relativistic mean field calculations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2007
Approximate solution of bound state problems through continued fractions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method to solve ordinary linear differential equations through continued fractions is applied to several physical systems. In particular, results for the Schroedinger equation give a good accuracy for the eigenvalues of bound states in the S-wave Yukawa potential, and the lowest order approximations provide exact values for the harmonic oscillator and Coulomb potential eigenvalues and eigenfuctions. (orig.)
Effective field theories for non-relativistic bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I review some of the progress made in the last ten years in providing a solid foundation to the description of non-relativistic bound states in QED and QCD by means of effective field theories. I will discuss some applications. (author)
K-nuclear bound states in a dynamical model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2006-01-01
Roč. 770, 1/2 (2006), s. 84-105. ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : kaonic atoms * K-nuclear bound states * K-nucleus interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.155, year: 2006
Polarization control of the bound state of a vector soliton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article demonstrates that the number of pulses in a group of vector bound solitons can be accurately adjusted by polarization control. We could achieve states with up to seven pulses trapped in a group with equally firm pulse separation. The stable relative phase between pulses within the group is manifested as an interference pattern in the soliton spectrum. (letter)
Bound States in the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Minces, P
2004-01-01
We consider a massive scalar field theory in anti-de Sitter space, in both minimally and non-minimally coupled cases. We introduce a relevant double-trace perturbation at the boundary, by carefully identifying the correct source and generating functional for the corresponding conformal operator. We show that such relevant double-trace perturbation introduces changes in the coefficients in the boundary terms of the action, which in turn govern the existence of a bound state in the bulk. For instance, in the minimally coupled case, we show that the usual action, containing no additional boundary terms, gives rise to a bound state, which can be avoided only through the addition of a proper boundary term. Another notorious example is that of a conformally coupled scalar field, for which there is no associated bound state. In general, in both minimally and non-minimally coupled cases, we explicitly compute the boundary terms which give rise to a bound state, and which ones do not. In the non-minimally coupled case...
Gluon mass generation in the massless bound-state formalism
Ibañez, D
2012-01-01
We present a detailed, all-order study of gluon mass generation within the massless bound-state formalism, which constitutes the general framework for the systematic implementation of the Schwinger mechanism in non-Abelian gauge theories. The main ingredient of this formalism is the dynamical formation of bound-states with vanishing mass, which give rise to effective vertices containing massless poles; these latter vertices, in turn, trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and allow for the gauge-invariant generation of an effective gluon mass. This particular approach has the conceptual advantage of relating the gluon mass directly to quantities that are intrinsic to the bound-state formation itself, such as the "transition amplitude" and the corresponding "bound-state wave-function". As a result, the dynamical evolution of the gluon mass is largely determined by a Bethe-Salpeter equation that controls the dynamics of the relevant wave-function, rather than the Schwinger-Dyson equation of the gluon propagator, as h...
Separability criteria for multipartite quantum mixed states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Hui
2005-01-01
The separability of mixed states in multipartite quantum systems is investigated. If a quantum state in a multipartite system with an arbitrary dimension is separable, some quantity in relation to Hermitian matrix is positive.
Closed string brane-like states, brane bound states and noncommutative branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the mass and different RR charge distributions of the BPS (p,p-2)-brane bound states in the closed string brane-like σ-model. We show that such brane bound states can be realized by introducing a constant B field in the closed string theory. In addition we show that the worldvolume coordinates of these brane bound states turn out to be noncommutative. (author)
Decoherence and Quantum-state Measurement in Quantum Optics
Davidovich, Luiz
2003-01-01
This paper discusses work developed in recent years, in the domain of quantum optics, which has led to a better understanding of the classical limit of quantum mechanics. New techniques have been proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, for characterizing and monitoring in real time the quantum state of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. They allow the investigation of the dynamics of the decoherence process by which a quantum-mechanical superposition of coherent states of the field beco...
Effective Hamiltonian for bound states in Yukawa theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to lowest nontrivial order to determine an effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states in relativistic Yukawa theory. The consistency of the corresponding effective Schrödinger equation is thoroughly investigated in various aspects, among others the nonrelativistic and one-body limits, and the small-distance or large-momentum regime of the bound state solutions is discussed in detail. -- Highlights: •A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to Yukawa theory. •The effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states is derived to lowest order. •The nonrelativistic and one-body limits are consistent. •The large-momentum behavior of the bound-state solutions is analyzed. •A critical value for the coupling constant is determined
Quantum Defect Theory description of weakly bound levels and Feshbach resonances in LiRb
Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Chen, Yong P; Greene, Chris H
2014-01-01
The multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) in combination with the frame transformation (FT) approach is applied to model the Fano-Feshbach resonances measured for $^{7}$Li$^{87}$Rb and $^{6}$Li$^{87}$Rb [Marzok {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 79} 012717 (2009)]. The MQDT results show a level of accuracy comparable to that of previous models based on direct, fully numerical solutions of the the coupled channel Schr\\"odinger equations (CC). Here, energy levels deduced from 2-photon photoassociation spectra for $^{7}$Li$^{85}$Rb are assigned by applying the MQDT approach, obtaining the bound state energies for the coupled channel problem. Our results confirm that MQDT yields a compact description of photoassociation observables as well as the Fano-Feshbach resonance positions and widths.
Exact Cost of Redistributing Multipartite Quantum States
Devetak, Igor; Yard, Jon
2008-01-01
How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third? We answer this by providing an optimal “quantum state redistribution” protocol for multipartite product sources. Specifically, given an arbitrary quantum state of three systems, where Alice holds two and Bob holds one, we identify the cost, in terms of quantum communication and entanglement, for Alice to give one of her parts to Bob. The communication cost gives the first known operational interpretation to quantum condit...
Observation of bound states in Lieb photonic lattices
Vicencio, Rodrigo A; Morales-Inostroza, Luis; Real, Bastian; Weimann, Steffen; Szameit, Alexander; Molina, Mario I
2014-01-01
We present the first experimental demonstration of a new type of bound states in the continuum, namely, compacton-like linear states in flat bands lattices. To this end, photonic Lieb lattices are employed, which exhibit three tight-binding bands, with one being perfectly flat. Our results could be of great importance for fundamental physics as well as for various applications concerning imaging and data transmission.
Quantum Circuits with Mixed States
Aharonov, D; Nisan, N; Aharonov, Dorit; Kitaev, Alexei; Nisan, Noam
1998-01-01
We define the model of quantum circuits with density matrices, where non-unitary gates are allowed. Measurements in the middle of the computation, noise and decoherence are implemented in a natural way in this model, which is shown to be equivalent in computational power to standard quantum circuits. The main result in this paper is a solution for the subroutine problem: The general function that a quantum circuit outputs is a probabilistic function, but using pure state language, such a function can not be used as a black box in other computations. We give a natural definition of using general subroutines, and analyze their computational power. We suggest convenient metrics for quantum computing with mixed states. For density matrices we analyze the so called ``trace metric'', and using this metric, we define and discuss the ``diamond metric'' on superoperators. These metrics enable a formal discussion of errors in the computation. Using a ``causality'' lemma for density matrices, we also prove a simple lowe...
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Superdense coding of quantum states
Harrow, Aram; Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie
2003-01-01
We describe a method to non-obliviously communicate a 2l-qubit quantum state by physically transmitting l+o(l) qubits of communication, and by consuming l ebits of entanglement and some shared random bits. In the non-oblivious scenario, the sender has a classical description of the state to be communicated. Our method can be used to communicate states that are pure or entangled with the sender's system; l+o(l) and 3l+o(l) shared random bits are sufficient respectively.
Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms
Swann, A R; Deller, A; Gribakin, G F
2016-01-01
Predicted twenty years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A new scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer-reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for Ps charge transfer in collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.
Bound States of (Anti-)Scalar-Quarks in $SU(3)_{c}$ Lattice QCD
Iida, H; Takahashi, T T
2007-01-01
Light scalar-quarks \\phi (colored scalar particles or idealized diquarks) and their color-singlet hadronic states are studied with quenched SU(3)_c lattice QCD in terms of mass generation. We investigate ``scalar-quark mesons'' \\phi^\\dagger \\phi and ``scalar-quark baryons'' \\phi\\phi\\phi as the bound states of scalar-quarks \\phi. We also investigate the bound states of scalar-quarks \\phi and quarks \\psi, i.e., \\phi^\\dagger \\psi, \\psi\\psi\\phi and \\phi\\phi\\psi, which we name ``chimera hadrons''. All the new-type hadrons including \\phi are found to have a large mass due to large quantum corrections by gluons, even for zero bare scalar-quark mass m_\\phi=0 at a^{-1}\\sim 1{\\rm GeV}. We conjecture that all colored particles generally acquire a large effective mass due to dressed gluon effects.
Overcoming lossy channel bounds using a single quantum repeater node
Luong, D.; Jiang, L.; Kim, J.; Lütkenhaus, N.
2016-04-01
We propose a scheme for performing quantum key distribution (QKD) which has the potential to beat schemes based on the direct transmission of photons between the communicating parties. In our proposal, the communicating parties exchange photons with two quantum memories placed between them. This is a very simple quantum repeater scheme and can be implemented with currently available technology. Ideally, its secret key rate scales as the square root of the transmittivity of the optical channel, which is superior to QKD schemes based on direct transmission because key rates for the latter scale at best linearly with transmittivity. Taking into account various imperfections in each component of our setup, we present parameter regimes in which our protocol outperforms protocols based on direct transmission.
Quantum learning of coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Quantum learning of coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Lower Bounds on the Quantum Capacity and Highest Error Exponent of General Memoryless Channels
Hamada, Mitsuru
2001-01-01
Tradeoffs between the information rate and fidelity of quantum error-correcting codes are discussed. Quantum channels to be considered are those subject to independent errors and modeled as tensor products of copies of a general completely positive linear map, where the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space is a prime number. On such a quantum channel, the highest fidelity of a quantum error-correcting code of length $n$ and rate R is proven to be lower bounded by 1 - \\exp [-n E(R) + o(n)...
Memory Effect in Upper Bound of Heat Flux Induced by Quantum Fluctuations
Koide, T
2016-01-01
We develop a model of quantum open systems as a quantum Brownian motion coupled to a classical heat bath by introducing a mathematical definition of operator differentials. We then define a heat operator by extending the stochastic energetics and show that this operator satisfies properties corresponding to the first and second laws in thermodynamics. We further find that the upper bound of the heat flux depends on the memory effect induced by quantum fluctuations and hence the maximum extractable work can be qualitatively modified in quantum thermodynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate weakly bound dyon-fermion states of the lowest angular momentum. Both Coulomb attraction and Coulomb repulsion are studied. Binding energies are given by a transcendental equation which is solved explicitly in a number of limiting cases.Normalized wave functions are given in terms of Bessel functions and confluent hypergeometric functions. (orig.)
Effect of the velocity-dependent potentials on the bound state energy eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effect of isotropic velocity-dependent potentials on the bound state energy eigenvalues for the first time for any quantum states of the Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method. When the velocity-dependent term is selected as a constant parameter ρ0, we present that the energy eigenvalues can be obtained analytically for both Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials. However, when the velocity-dependent term is considered as a harmonic oscillator type ρ0r2, taking the velocity-dependent term as a perturbation, we present how to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials for any n and ℓ quantum states by using perturbation expansion and numerical calculations in the asymptotic iteration method procedure. (authors)
Effect of the Velocity-Dependent Potentials on the Bound State Energy Eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effect of isotropic velocity-dependent potentials on the bound state energy eigenvalues for the first time for any quantum states of the Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method. When the velocity-dependent term is selected as a constant parameter ρ0, we present that the energy eigenvalues can be obtained analytically for both Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials. However, when the velocity-dependent term is considered as a harmonic oscillator type ρ0r2, taking the velocity-dependent term as a perturbation, we present how to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the Coulomb and harmonic oscillator potentials for any n and l quantum states by using perturbation expansion and numerical calculations in the asymptotic iteration method procedure. (general)
Schwinger functions, light-quark bound states and sigma terms
Höll, A.; Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Wright, S. V.
2006-11-01
We explore the viability of using solely spacelike information about a Schwinger function to extract properties of bound states. In a concrete example it is not possible to determine properties of states with masses ≳1.2 GeV. Modern Dyson-Schwinger equation methods supply a well-constrained tool that provides access to hadron masses and σ-terms. We report values of the latter for a range of hadrons. Of interest is an analysis relating to a u,d scalar meson, which is compatible with a picture of the lightest 0 as a bound state of a dressed-quark and -antiquark supplemented by a material pion cloud. A constituent-quark σ-term is defined, which affords a means for assessing the flavour-dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Bound States in the Continuum in double layer structures
Li, Liangsheng; Yin, Hongcheng
2016-06-01
We have theoretically investigated the reflectivity spectrums of single- and double-layer photonic crystal slabs and the dielectric multilayer stack. It is shown that light can be perfectly confined in a single-layer photonic crystal slab at a given incident angle by changing the thickness, permittivity or hole radius of the structure. With a tunable double-layer photonic crystal slab, we demonstrate that the occurrence of tunable bound states in the continuum is dependent on the spacing between two slabs. Moreover, by analytically investigating the Drude lossless multilayer stack model, the spacing dependence of bound states in the continuum is characterized as the phase matching condition that illuminates these states can occur at any nonzero incident angles by adjusting the spacing.
Andreev bound state spectrum in half-metallic ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Half-metallic ferromagnets are important for potential applications in spintronics and as sources of completely spin-polarized currents. In heterostructures with superconductors they introduce new effects in the interface regions, like spin-mixing and triplet rotation. A triplet supercurrent trough a half metal has been predicted and experimentally verified. Another interesing question regards the question how the density of states is modified in the half-metallic region. Here we present results of the Andreev bound state spectrum in a half-metal/superconductor proximity structure. We discuss the dependence on the interface parameters that enter the interface scattering matrix of the heterostructure. We discuss the role of odd-frequency pairing amplitudes in the proximity structure. We also study the modification of the Andreev bound state spectrum in a superflow
Introduction to Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach to QCD Bound State Problems
Li, Yang; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P
2013-01-01
Basis Light-Front Quantized Field Theory (BLFQ) is an $\\textit{ab intio}$ Hamiltonian approach that adopts light-cone gauge, light-front quantization and state-of-the-art many-body methods to solve non-perturbative quantum field theory problems. By a suitable choice of basis, BLFQ retains the underlying symmetries to the extent allowed within light-front coordinates. In this talk, we outline the scheme for applying BLFQ to QCD bound state problems. We adopt a 2D Harmonic Oscillator with 1D plane wave basis that corresponds to the AdS/QCD soft-wall solution. Exact treatment of the symmetries will be discussed.
Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)
2014-12-15
A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.
Disjoint states and quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We cast in game theory terms the physics associated with the interaction between (i) matter and (ii) a single mode of an electromagnetic field within a cavity. Thereby, we introduce a game admitting both classical and quantal players. Strategies are determined by the initial conditions of the associated dynamical system, whose time evolution is characterized by the existence of attractors that represent possible results of the game. Two types of quantum states are considered: perfectly distinguishable or partially overlapping ones. (paper)
Entanglement for all quantum states
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-03-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical relevance of the change of tensor product structure is mentioned.
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-18
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290
Brokered Graph State Quantum Computing
Benjamin, S C; Fitzsimons, J; Morton, J J L; Benjamin, Simon C.; Browne, Dan E.; Fitzsimons, Joe; Morton, John J. L.
2005-01-01
We describe a procedure for graph state quantum computing that is tailored to fully exploit the physics of optically active multi-level systems. Leveraging ideas from the literature on distributed computation together with the recent work on probabilistic cluster state synthesis, our model assigns to each physical system two logical qubits: the broker and the client. Groups of brokers negotiate new graph state fragments via a probabilistic optical protocol. Completed fragments are mapped from broker to clients via a simple state transition and measurement. The clients, whose role is to store the nascent graph state long term, remain entirely insulated from failures during the brokerage. We describe an implementation in terms of NV-centres in diamond, where brokers and clients are very naturally embodied as electron and nuclear spins.
Are there compact heavy four-quark bound states?
Vijande, Javier; Weissman, E.; Valcarce, A.; Barnea, N.
2007-01-01
We present an exact method to study four-quark systems based on the hyperspherical harmonics formalism. We apply it to several physical systems of interest containing two heavy and two light quarks using different quark-quark potentials. Our conclusions mark the boundaries for the possible existence of compact, nonmolecular, four-quark bound states. While QQ (n) over bar(n) over bar states may be stable in nature, the stability of Q (Q) over barn (n) over bar states would imply the existence ...
Relative states in quantum teleology of the ion - surface interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A brief review of the new results concerning the role of observers in quantum teleology, related with the Everett - Wheeler's 'relative state' formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. Our key argument is that a single active electron at intermediate stages of the ion - surface interaction can be described simultaneously within the framework of two different scenarios with two observers. The quantum experiences of these observers are based on two different relative electron states, |Ψ1(t)> and |Ψ2(t)>, evolving causally in two opposite directions of time. For the observer of the second scenario, two results of the post - selection test at time tfin are possible: the active electron can be in either bound ionic state or the state of the solid above the Fermi level. These alternatives are interpreted as the initial state |Ψ2(t)> in the time -inverted picture of the renormalized second scenario
Perspectives on a Solid State NMR Quantum Computer
Feldman, E B; Fel'dman, Edward B.; Lacelle, Serge
2001-01-01
A quantum information processing device, based on bulk solid state NMR of the quasi-one dimensional material hydroxyapatite, is proposed following the magnetic resonance force microscopy work of Yamamoto et al (quant-ph/0009122). In a macroscopic sample of hydroxyapatite, our solid state NMR model yields a limit of 10^8 qubits imposed by physics, while development of current technological considerations should allow an upper bound in the range of hundreds to thousands of qubits.
Bounding quantum gravity inspired decoherence using atom interferometry
Minář, Jiří; Sekatski, Pavel; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Hypothetical models have been proposed in which explicit collapse mechanisms prevent the superposition principle to hold at large scales. In particular, the model introduced by Ellis and co-workers [Phys. Lett. B ${\\bf 221}$, 113 (1989)] suggests that quantum gravity might be responsible for the collapse of the wavefunction of massive objects in spatial superpositions. We here consider a recent experiment reporting on interferometry with atoms delocalized over half a meter for timescale of a ...
Quantum State Reconstruction From Incomplete Data
Buzek, V; Derka, R; Adam, G; Wiedemann, H
1998-01-01
Knowing and guessing, these are two essential epistemological pillars in the theory of quantum-mechanical measurement. As formulated quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. In general, a priori unknown states can be completely determined only when measurements on infinite ensembles of identically prepared quantum systems are performed. But how one can estimate (guess) quantum state when just incomplete data are available (known)? What is the most reliable estimation based on a given measured data? What is the optimal measurement providing only a finite number of identically prepared quantum objects are available? These are some of the questions we address. We present several schemes for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from measured data: (1) We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for an estimation of quantum states on incomplete observation levels. (2) We show how Bayesian inference can be used for reconstruction of quantum states when only a finite number ...
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Direct Measurement of Quantum State Rotations
Malik, Mehul; Lavery, Martin P J; Leach, Jonathan; Padgett, Miles J; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
The measurement of a quantum state poses a unique challenge for experimentalists. Recently, the technique of "direct measurement" was proposed for characterizing a quantum state in-situ through sequential weak and strong measurements. While this method has been used for measuring polarization states, its real potential lies in the measurement of quantum states with a large dimensionality. Here we show the practical direct measurement of a high-dimensional quantum state in the discrete basis of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM). Through weak measurements of OAM and strong measurements of angular position, we have measured the probability amplitudes of a pure quantum state in the OAM basis with a dimensionality, d=27. Further, we have used our method to directly observe the relationship between rotations of a quantum state and the relative phase between its OAM components. Our technique has important applications in high-dimensional quantum information systems as well as strong implications for foundational quantu...
Upper Bounds on the Rate of Low Density Stabilizer Codes for the Quantum Erasure Channel
Delfosse, Nicolas
2012-01-01
Using combinatorial arguments, we determine an upper bound on achievable rates of stabilizer codes used over the quantum erasure channel. This allows us to recover the no-cloning bound on the capacity of the quantum erasure channel, R is below 1-2p, for stabilizer codes: we also derive an improved upper bound of the form : R is below 1-2p-D(p) with a function D(p) that stays positive for 0 < p < 1/2 and for any family of stabilizer codes whose generators have weights bounded from above by a constant - low density stabilizer codes. We obtain an application to percolation theory for a family of self-dual tilings of the hyperbolic plane. We associate a family of low density stabilizer codes with appropriate finite quotients of these tilings. We then relate the probability of percolation to the probability of a decoding error for these codes on the quantum erasure channel. The application of our upper bound on achievable rates of low density stabilizer codes gives rise to an upper bound on the critical prob...
A variational study of bound states in the Higgs model
Siringo, F
2000-01-01
The possible existence of Higgs-Higgs bound states in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model is explored using the |hh>+|hhh> variational ansatz of Di Leo and Darewych. The resulting integral equations can be decoupled exactly, yielding a one-dimensional integral equation, solved numerically. We thereby avoid the extra approximations employed by Di Leo and Darewych, and we find a qualitatively different mass renormalization. Within the conventional scenario, where a not-too-large cutoff is invoked to avoid "triviality", we find, as usual, an upperbound on the Higgs mass. Bound-state solutions are only found in the very strong coupling regime, but at the same time a relatively small physical mass is required as a consequence of renormalization.
Observation of Andreev bound states at spin-active interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael Johannes [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); KIT, Physikalisches Institut (Germany)
2013-07-01
We report on high-resolution differential conductance experiments on nanoscale superconductor/ferromagnet tunnel junctions with ultra-thin oxide tunnel barriers. We observe subgap conductance features which are symmetric with respect to bias, and shift according to the Zeeman energy with an applied magnetic field. These features can be explained by resonant transport via Andreev bound states induced by spin-active scattering at the interface. From the energy and the Zeeman shift of the bound states, both the magnitude and sign of the spin-dependent interfacial phase shifts between spin-up and spin-down electrons can be determined. These results contribute to the microscopic insight into the triplet proximity effect at spin-active interfaces.
Bound states in coupled guides. II. Three dimensions
Linton, C. M.; Ratcliffe, K.
2004-04-01
We compute bound-state energies in two three-dimensional coupled waveguides, each obtained from the two-dimensional configuration considered in paper I [J. Math. Phys. 45, 1359-1379 (2004)] by rotating the geometry about a different axis. The first geometry consists of two concentric circular cylindrical waveguides coupled by a finite length gap along the axis of the inner cylinder, and the second is a pair of planar layers coupled laterally by a circular hole. We have also extended the theory for this latter case to include the possibility of multiple circular windows. Both problems are formulated using a mode-matching technique, and in the cylindrical guide case the same residue calculus theory as used in paper I is employed to find the bound-state energies. For the coupled planar layers we proceed differently, computing the zeros of a matrix derived from the matching analysis directly.
Bound States in Minkowski Space in 2 + 1 Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Nakanishi perturbative integral representation of the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in three-dimensions (2 + 1) is used to solve the corresponding homogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. The projection of this equation onto the null-plane, as reported here, leads to a bound-state equation for the Nakanishi weight function. The explicit forms of the integral equation for the Nakanishi weight function are shown in the ladder approximation. In addition, the valence light-front wave function is presented. The formal steps of the formalism are illustrated to some extend, with the resulting equation being applied to a bound state system composed by two identical scalar particles of mass m, interacting through the exchange of another massive scalar particle of mass μ. The results reported in this contribution show quite good agreement between our calculations obtained from the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude with the Nakanishi weight function with direct solutions obtained in the Euclidean space. (author)
Molecular Andreev bound states and Majorana modes in a double dot system
Vernek, Edson; Silva, Joelson F.
Nanostructured systems such as quantum dots (QD) connected to superconductors has attracted a lot of attention in the recent years. One of the well known phenomena in such a system is the formation of a pair of bound called Andreev bound states (ABS). Recently, it have been shown that when a QD is coupled to a topological superconductor wire, a Majorana bound state (MBS) leaks from the end of the wire into the dot. The character of these bound states is much reacher in structures like molecules and is far from being completely understood. In this work we study a system composed by a two inter-connected QDs in which one of then is coupled to a normal superconductor and to a normal lead while the other is coupled to a topological superconductor and to a distinct normal metallic lead. We show that in the atomic limit (for small interdot coupling), one of the dot has a pair of ABS whereas the other has a single a MBS. More interestingly, in the molecular regime (large inter-dot coupling) we observe a localized Majorana mode coexisting with a delocalized molecular ABS. We would like to thank financial support from the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES and FAPEMIG.
Uniform in time lower bound for solutions to a quantum Boltzmann equation of bosons
Nguyen, Toan T.; Tran, Minh-Binh
2016-01-01
We consider the quantum Boltzmann equation, which describes the growth of the condensate, or in other words, models the interaction between excited atoms and a condensate. In this work, the full form of Bogoliubov dispersion law is considered, which leads to a detailed study of surface integrals inside the collision operator on energy manifolds. We prove that positive radial solutions of the quantum Boltzmann equation are bounded from below by a Gaussian, uniformly in time.
Separability Criteria for Quantum Mixed States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAOHui; WANGZhi-Xi
2004-01-01
We investigate separability of mixed states in bipartite and multipartite quantum systems. If a quantum state in a bipartite system of arbitrary dimension (or in 2 × 2 × N quantum systems) is separable, we show that some quantity in relation to Hermitian matrix is positive.
Separability Criteria for Quantum Mixed States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Hui; WANG Zhi-Xi
2004-01-01
We investigate separability of mixed states in bipartite and multipartite quantum systems. If a quantum state in a bipartite system of arbitrary dimension (or in 2 × 2 × N quantum systems) is separable, we show that some quantity in relationto Hermitian matrix is positive.
Coherent State Representation of Semiclassical Quantum Gravity
Kim, Sang Pyo
1996-01-01
We elaborate the recently introduced asymptotically exact semiclassical quantum gravity derived from the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by finding a particular coherent state representation of a quantum scalar field in which the back-reaction of the scalar field Hamiltonian exactly gives rise to the classical one. In this coherent state representation classical spacetime emerges naturally from semiclassical quantum gravity.
Bound States in the Continuum in Nuclear and Hadron Physics
Lenske, H; Cao, Xu
2015-01-01
The population of bound states in the continuum and their spectral properties are studied on the nuclear and hadronic scale. The theoretical approach is presented and realizations in nuclear and charmonium spectroscopy are dis- cussed. The universality of the underlying dynamical principles is pointed out. Applications to nuclear systems at the neutron dripline and for charmonium spectroscopy by $e^- e^+ \\to D\\bar{D}$ production are discussed.
Approximate bound Dirac states for pseudoscalar Hulthen potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the pseudoscalar Hulthen potential under spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetry limits in (3+1) dimensions. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are given in their closed forms by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. Numerical results of the energy eigenvalue equations are presented to show the effects of the potential parameters on the bound-state energies. (author)
Bound states in weakly deformed waveguides: numerical vs analytical results
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M; Jacobo, Martin; Zhevandrov, Petr
2016-01-01
We have studied the emergence of bound states in weakly deformed and/or heterogeneous waveguides, comparing the analytical predictions obtained using a recently developed perturbative method, with precise numerical results, for different configurations (a homogeneous asymmetric waveguide, a heterogenous asymmetric waveguide and a homogeneous broken-strip). In all the examples considered in this paper we have found excellent agreement between analytical and numerical results, thus providing a numerical verification of the analytical approach.
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee
2008-08-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.
Multiphoton Quantum Optics and Quantum State Engineering
Dell'Anno, F.; Siena, S; Illuminati, F.
2007-01-01
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously ...
Quantum learning of coherent states
Sentís, Gael; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-01
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian es...
Quantum Brachistochrone for Mixed States
Carlini, A; Koike, T; Okudaira, Y
2007-01-01
We present a general formalism based on the variational principle for finding the time-optimal quantum evolution of mixed states governed by a master equation, when the Hamiltonian and the Lindblad operators are subject to certain constraints. The problem reduces to solving first a fundamental equation (the {\\it quantum brachistochrone}) for the Hamiltonian, which can be written down once the constraints are specified, and then solving the constraints and the master equation for the Lindblad and the density operators. As an application of our formalism, we study a simple one-qubit model where the optimal Lindblad operators control decoherence and can be simulated by a tunable coupling with an ancillary qubit. It is found that the evolution through mixed states can be more efficient than the unitary evolution between given pure states. We also discuss the mixed state evolution as a finite time unitary evolution of the system plus an environment followed by a single measurement. For the simplest choice of the c...
Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states
Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-04-01
Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.
Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.
Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. If a non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1-(1-C2)1/2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation, Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.
Geometry of quantum state space and quantum correlations
Deb, Prasenjit
2016-04-01
Quantum state space is endowed with a metric structure, and Riemannian monotone metric is an important geometric entity defined on such a metric space. Riemannian monotone metrics are very useful for information-theoretic and statistical considerations on the quantum state space. In this article, considering the quantum state space being spanned by 2× 2 density matrices, we determine a particular Riemannian metric for a state ρ and show that if ρ gets entangled with another quantum state, the negativity of the generated entangled state is, upto a constant factor, equal to square root of that particular Riemannian metric . Our result clearly relates a geometric quantity to a measure of entanglement. Moreover, the result establishes the possibility of understanding quantum correlations through geometric approach.
Stochastic Noise as a Source of Decoherence in a Solid State Quantum Computer
Wellard, C. J.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.
2001-01-01
We examine a stochastic noise process that has a decohering effect on the average evolution of qubits in the quantum register of the solid state quantum computer proposed by Kane. We consider the effects of this process on the single qubit operations necessary to perform quantum logical gates and derive an expression for the fidelity of these gates in this system. We then calculate an upper bound on the level of this stochastic noise tolerable in a workable quantum computer.
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Jentschura, Ulrich
2003-01-01
The accurate calculation of atomic spectra, including radiative corrections, is one of the rather challenging tasks in theoretical physics. The entire formalism of quantum (gauge) field theory, augmented by the difficulties of the bound-state formalism, is needed for an accurate understanding of the relevant physics at the level of current high-precision spectroscopy. In this thesis, several calculations in this area are described in detail. Investigations on large-order perturbation-theory e...
Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pichowsky, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kennedy, M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Physics Dept.; Strickland, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
1995-01-18
The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.
Upsilon particles as bound states of new heavy quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charmonium spectroscopy (cc) was analysed, recently using a power confining potential and was determined that the energy eigenvalues are in good agreement with experimental values when it was used a power equal to 1/2 (square root potential). Assuming universality of the potential for quark-antiquark (qq) and assuming that the particle γ (9.4 GeV) is the fundamental state of the pair bb (beauty quark). The remaning bound states of this pair and their leptonic and hadronic decay widths are calculated
Three-boson bound states in finite volume with EFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The universal properties of a three-boson system with large scattering length are well understood within the framework of Effective Field Theory. They include a geometric spectrum of shallow three-body bound states called Efimov states and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the scattering length. We investigate the modification of this spectrum in a finite cubic box using a partial wave expansion. The dependence of the binding energies on the box size is calculated and the renormalization of the Effective Field Theory in finite volume is verified explicitly.
Analytic continuation as a bridge between continuum and bound states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blokhintsev Leonid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of obtaining characteristics of bound nuclear states from continuum states data is discussed. It is shown that the ambiguities due to the existence of phase-equivalent potentials can be resolved by using the analytic properties of scattering amplitudes. The methods of determination of asymptotic normalization coefficients and vertex constants are considered. The asymptotic normalization coefficients for 6Li in the α + d channel are found by analytic continuation of the two-channel effective range expansion. The account of inelastic channels within the effective range approach is discussed.
Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B
2014-09-15
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295
Light-matter quantum state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum states are vulnerable objects which cannot be copied or identified by measurements. In this respect one of the fundamental goals in quantum mechanics is to identify what is possible and what is impossible to do with an unknown quantum state. An especially attractive task, with practical implications, is a faithful and deterministic transfer of an unknown quantum state between different systems, most notably between light and matter. Quantum teleportation is a celebrated method of a quantum state transfer, but it is certainly not the only possible approach. A novel way for high-fidelity light-atoms state transfer has been recently proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The method involves an off-resonant dipole interaction of a pulse of light with an atomic ensemble, followed by the measurement on the transmitted light and quantum feedback onto atoms conditioned on the measurement result. The method, which can be called 'direct quantum mapping', provides theoretically perfect fidelity for an arbitrary single mode quantum state. In the experimental demonstration with weak coherent states, fidelities up to 70 %, markedly higher than the benchmark classical fidelity have been demonstrated, thus constituting the first demonstration of a deterministic atomic quantum memory for light. The capabilities of direct mapping protocol for transfer of entangled and single photon quantum states, as well as ways to perform the inverse matter-to-light transfer will be also discussed. (author)
Photo-production of Bound States with Hidden Charms
Wu, Jia-Jun
2012-01-01
The photo-production of $J/\\Psi$-$^3He$ bound state ($[^3He]_{J/\\Psi}$) on a $^4He$ target has been investigated using the impulse approximation. The calculations have been performed using several $\\gamma+N \\rightarrow J/\\Psi +N$ models based on the Pomeron-exchange and accounting for the pion-exchange mechanism at low energies. The $J/\\Psi$ wavefunctions in $[^3He]_{J/\\Psi}$ are generated from various $J/\\Psi$-nucleus potentials which are constructed by either using a procedure based on the Pomeron-quark coupling mechanism or folding a $J/\\Psi$-N potential ($v_{J/\\Psi,N}$) into the nuclear densities. We consider $v_{J/\\Psi,N}$ derived from the effective field theory approach, Lattice QCD, and Pomeron-quark coupling mechanism. The upper bound of the predicted total cross sections is about $0.1 - 0.3$ pico-barn. We also consider the possibility of photo-production of a six quark-$J/\\Psi$ bound state ($[q^6]_{J/\\Psi})$ on the $^3He$ target. The Compound Bag Model of $NN$ scattering and the quark cluster model o...
Stum, Bernard Le; Quirós, Adolfo
2013-01-01
We introduce the notions of quantum characteristic and quantum flatness for arbitrary rings. More generally, we develop the theory of quantum integers in a ring and show that the hypothesis of quantum flatness together with positive quantum characteristic generalizes the usual notion of prime positive characteristic. We also explain how one can define quantum rational numbers in a ring and introduce the notion of twisted powers. These results play an important role in many different areas of ...
Entanglement and coherence in quantum state merging
Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-01-01
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging where two parties aim to merge their parts of a tripartite quantum state. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered as an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process, and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to ...
Quantum Inequality Bounds for Free Rarita-Schwinger Field in Flat Spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although quantum field theory allows the local energy density negative, it also places severe restrictions on the negative energy. One of the restrictions is the quantum energy inequality (QEI), in which the energy density is averaged over time, or space, or over space and time. By now temporal QEIs have been established for various quantum fields, but less work has been done for the spacetime quantum energy inequality. In this paper we deal with the free Rarita-Schwinger field and present a quantum inequality bound on the energy density averaged over space and time. Comparison with the QEI for the Rarita-Schwinger field shows that the lower bound is the same with the QEI. At the same time, we find the quantum inequality for the Rarita-Schwinger field is weaker than those for the scalar and Dirac fields. This fact gives further support to the conjecture that the more freedom the field has, the more easily the field displays negative energy density and the weaker the quantum inequality becomes.
Quantum Inequality Bounds for Free Rarita-Schwinger Field in Flat Spacetime
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Wei-Xing; YU Hong-Wei; LI Fei; WU Pu-Xun; REN Zhong-Zhou
2006-01-01
Although quantum field theory allows the local energy density negative, it also places severe restrictions on the negative energy. One of the restrictions is the quantum energy inequality (QEI), in which the energy density is averaged over time, or space, or over space and time. By now temporal QEIs have been established for various quantum fields, but less work has been done for the spacetime quantum energy inequality. In this paper we deal with the free Rarita-Schwinger field and present a quantum inequality bound on the energy density averaged over space and time.Comparison with the QEI for the Rarita-Schwinger field shows that the lower bound is the same with the QEI. At the same time, we find the quantum inequality for the Rarita-Schwinger field is weaker than those for the scalar and Dirac fields. This fact gives further support to the conjecture that the more freedom the field has, the more easily the field displays negative energy density and the weaker the quantum inequality becomes.
The beauty of impurities: Two revivals of Friedel's virtual bound-state concept
Georges, Antoine
2016-03-01
Jacques Friedel pioneered the theoretical study of impurities and magnetic impurities in metals. He discovered Friedel oscillations, introduced the concept of virtual bound-state, and demonstrated that the charge on the impurity is related to the scattering phase-shift at the Fermi level (Friedel sum-rule). After a brief review of some of these concepts, I describe how they proved useful in two new contexts. The first one concerns the Coulomb blockade in quantum dots, and its suppression by the Kondo effect. The second one is the dynamical mean-field theory of strong electronic correlations. xml:lang="fr"
Electric dipole transition rates of the bound states of the b bar b system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the E1 decay rates of the bound states of the b bar b system in the nonsingular potential model of Gupta, Repko, and Suchyta (GRS) and compare them with the recent experimental results. We get predictions somewhat different from the original GRS results and overall these new results are in better agreement with experiment. We point out the importance of including both the relativistic corrections to the wave function and the finite-size corrections to the E1 decay rates, especially for transitions which involve a change of more than one unit in the radial quantum number
Gluons in the QCD bound state problem - a way to exact solution
Ter-Martirosyan, K. A.
2000-01-01
The colored objects -- quarks and gluons -- being confined in a small volume $V\\sim R_0^3,$ $R_0\\sim 0.5$fm inside the QCD bound state get there not small masses $m_{q\\bar q}\\sim 1$GeV, $m_g\\sim 0.5$GeV. This drastically simplifies the QCD dynamics, as now the probabilities e.g. of production of one extra massive valent gluon or extra $q\\bar q$ pair, turned to be small due to a large gap between corresponding energy levels. The ordinary quantum mechanical perturbation theory calculations made...
Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Cima, O.M. del [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2002-04-01
By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e{sup -}e{sup -} interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e{sup -}e{sup -} binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. (author)
Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario. (paper)
Colour-octet bound states, induced by Higgs mechanism
Bladwell, S; Flambaum, V V; Kozlov, A
2012-01-01
The current limits for fourth generation quarks allows to expect their mass of the order of 500 GeV. In this mass region for quark-anti-quark pair the additional Yukawa-type attraction due to Higgs mechanism is expected to emerge. This Higgs induced attraction greatly exceeds strong interaction between quarks and leads to the formation of bound states in both colour octet $S^{(8)}$ and singlet $S^{(1)}$ states. In the key of recent works on significance of colour octet channel for production of colour singlet state of fourth generation $Q\\bar{Q}$ we calculated the binding energies for both octet and singlet states. Such attraction localizes quarks in extremely small area. Hence colour octet pair of fourth generation quarks can form the "nucleus" and together with colour neutralizing light particle that is captured by strong interaction in orbit around the nucleus, create particle, similar by its structure to Deuterium.
A narrow quasi-bound state of the DNN system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have investigated a charmed system of DNN (composed of two nucleons and a D meson) by a complementary study with a variational calculation and a Faddeev calculation with fixed-center approximation (Faddeev-FCA). In the present study, we employ a DN potential based on a vector–meson exchange picture in which a resonant Λc(2595) is dynamically generated as a DN quasi-bound state, similarly to the Λ(1405) as a K¯N one in the strange sector. As a result of the study of variational calculation with an effective DN potential and three kinds of NN potentials, the DNN(Jπ=0−,I=1/2) is found to be a narrow quasi-bound state below Λc(2595)N threshold: total binding energy ∼225 MeV and mesonic decay width ∼25 MeV. On the other hand, the Jπ=1− state is considered to be a scattering state of Λc(2595) and a nucleon. These results are essentially supported by the Faddeev-FCA calculation. By the analysis of the variational wave function, we have found a unique structure in the DNN(Jπ=0−,I=1/2) such that the D meson stays around the center of the total system due to the heaviness of the D meson
Quantization ambiguities and bounds on geometric scalars in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
Singh, Parampreet
2013-01-01
We study quantization ambiguities in loop quantum cosmology that arise for space-times with non-zero spatial curvature and anisotropies. Motivated by lessons from different possible loop quantizations of the closed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we find that using open holonomies of the extrinsic curvature, which due to gauge-fixing can be treated as a connection, leads to the same quantum geometry effects that are found in spatially flat cosmologies. More specifically, in contrast to the quantization based on open holonomies of the Ashtekar-Barbero connection, the expansion and shear scalars in the effective theories of the Bianchi type II and Bianchi type IX models have upper bounds, and these are in exact agreement with the bounds found in the effective theories of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I models in loop quantum cosmology. We also comment on some ambiguities present in the definition of inverse triad operators and their role.
Bound states of fermions in external and self-consistent fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of spin-1/2 fields in strong external potentials are investigated in order to determine what happens to the electron orbitals as the charge of the nucleus is increased without bounds. Strongly interacting quantum fields are investigated, motivated by the picture of quark bags, in which light quanta provide all the internal structure. Several general properties of the solutions of fermion fields interacting with meson fields are considered with the help of field theory analogues of virial relations. A description of the algorithm used to generate examples of the self-consistent solutions in three-space dimensions is also presented. Since it is difficult to associate the properties of strongly bound states with those of weakly interacting quasi-particles, several options for the candidates for the relevant interaction are considered. The present investigations deal only with Abelian fields. (Auth.)
Quantum state discrimination and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum state discrimination underlies various applications in quantum information processing tasks. It essentially describes the distinguishability of quantum systems in different states, and the general process of extracting classical information from quantum systems. It is also useful in quantum information applications, such as the characterization of mutual information in cryptographic protocols, or as a technique for deriving fundamental theorems on quantum foundations. It has deep connections to physical principles such as relativistic causality. Quantum state discrimination traces a long history of several decades, starting with the early attempts to formalize information processing of physical systems such as optical communication with photons. Nevertheless, in most cases, the problems of finding optimal strategies of quantum state discrimination remain unsolved, and related applications are valid in some limited cases only. The present review aims to provide an overview on quantum state discrimination, covering some recent progress, and addressing applications in some selected areas. This review serves to strengthen the link between results in quantum state discrimination and quantum information applications, by showing the ways in which the fundamental results are exploited in applications and vice versa. (topical review)
Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states
Piani, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-01-01
Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered as a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming, and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific rele...
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states.
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Generalized Bell States and Quantum Teleportation
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2001-01-01
We make a brief comment on measurement of quantum operators with degenerate eigenstates and apply to quantum teleportation. We also try extending the quantum teleportation by Bennett et al [5] to more general situation by making use of generalized Bell states.
Quantum computation with mesoscopic superposition states
Oliveira, M. C.; Munro, W. J.
2000-01-01
We present a strategy to engineer a simple cavity-QED two-bit universal quantum gate using mesoscopic distinct quantum superposition states. The dissipative effect on decoherence and amplitude damping of the quantum bits are analyzed and the critical parameters are presented.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Photonic Bound State in the Continuum for Strong Light-matter Interaction
Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Xu-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
The photonic bound state in the continuum (BIC) is discovered in a hybrid photonic circuit with low refractive index waveguide on a high refractive index thin membrane, where the optical dissipation is forbidden because of the destructive interference of different leakage channels. Based on the photonic BIC, the low mode area in a hybrid waveguide and high quality factor in a microresonator can be applied to enhance the light-matter interaction. Taking the fabrication-friendly polymer structure on diamond membrane as an example, those excellent optical performances can exist in a wide range of structure parameters with large fabrication tolerance and induce the strong coupling between photon and nitrogen-vacancy center in the diamond for scalable quantum information processors and networks. Such a fabrication-friendly structure with photonic BIC is also very promising in laser, nonlinear optical and quantum optical applications.
The inverse problem in the case of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the inverse problem for bound states in the D = 3 dimensional space. The potential is assumed to be local and spherically symmetric. The present method is based on relationships connecting the moments of the ground state density to the lowest energy of each state of angular momentum l. The reconstruction of the density ρ(r) from its moments is achieved by means of the series expansion of its Fourier transform F(q). The large q-behavior is described by Pade approximants. The accuracy of the solution depends on the number of known moments. The uniqueness is achieved if this number is infinite. In practice, however, an accuracy better than 1% is obtained with a set of about 15 levels. The method is tested on a simple example, and applied to three different spectra
The search for deeply bound kaonic states with FOPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: New formation mechanisms for the creation of dense, exotic nuclear systems involving strangeness were recently proposed by Y. Akaishi and T. Yamazaki. Their calculations show that a K- might form deeply bound states in light nuclei - so called kaonic clusters - with central densities of several times the normal nuclear density. In the presentation a short overview of these exotic nuclear systems will be given and a new experiment with FOPI at GSI will be discussed. The aim of this experiment was to search for the simplest cluster - a ppK- state. This state is produced at GSI in the following high energy reaction: p + ''d'' → ppK- + K+ + n'' with incident energies of 3.5 GeV. The experimental set-up will be presented in detail. (author)
Autodetachment spectroscopy of the aluminum oxide anion dipole bound state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mascaritolo, Kyle J.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Heaven, Michael C., E-mail: mheaven@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)
2015-09-21
The {sup 1}Σ{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} ground state to dipole bound state (DBS) electronic transition of AlO{sup −} has been studied by means of autodetachment spectroscopy. Vibrational and rotational molecular constants for AlO{sup −} have been determined for both the ground state (υ″ = 0, 1) and the excited DBS (υ′ = 0, 1). These data provide an improved determination of the electron affinity for AlO (2.6110(7) eV) that is consistent with an earlier measurement. The electron binding energy of the DBS was found to be 52 ± 6 cm{sup −1}. Experimental results are compared with the predictions from high level ab initio calculations.
Configuration space Faddeev formalism: Λ + n + n bound state search
Suslov, Vladimir; Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav
2015-04-01
The HypHI Collaboration has recently reported the evidence for bound state of Λ + n + n system (Phys. Rev. C 88, 041001(R) (2013)). However, the theoretical analysis did not find Λ3n bound state (see, for instance, Phys. Lett. B 736, 93 (2014)). In the present work we will describe our attempt to construct a phenomenological three-body ΛNN force with the spin-isospin dependence that is attractive in the channel T=1, S=1/2. This dependence was tested to reproduce the value of ground state energy for Λ3H hypernuclei. The formalism of the configuration-space Faddeev equations is applied for Λ + n + n and Λ + n + p systems. As Λ + n interaction the s-wave potential simulating model NSC97f is used. This potential reproduces well the hyperon binding energy for Λ3H nuclei (J. Phys. G: 31, 389 (2005)). The details of the model and obtained results will be presented. This work is supported by the NSF (HRD-1345219) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).
Approximate Relativistic Bound State Solutions of the Tietz-Hua Rotating Oscillator for Any κ-State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with Tietz-Hua (TH) potential are obtained for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number κ using the Pekeris approximation scheme to deal with the spin-orbit coupling terms κ(κ±1)r-2. In the presence of exact spin and pseudo-spin symmetric limitation, the bound state energy eigenvalues and associated two-component wave functions of the Dirac particle moving in the field of attractive and repulsive TH potential are obtained using the parametric generalization of the Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The cases of the Morse potential, the generalized Morse potential and non-relativistic limits are studied. (author)
Geometry of quantum evolution for mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The geometric formulation of quantum mechanics is a very interesting field of research which has many applications in the emerging field of quantum computation and quantum information, such as schemes for optimal quantum computers. In this work we discuss a geometric formulation of mixed quantum states represented by density operators. Our formulation is based on principal fiber bundles and purifications of quantum states. In our construction, the Riemannian metric and symplectic form on the total space are induced from the real and imaginary parts of the Hilbert–Schmidt Hermitian inner product, and we define a mechanical connection in terms of a locked inertia tensor and moment map. We also discuss some applications of our geometric framework. (paper)
Quantum communication based on orthogonal states enables quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2011-01-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But basing on a formerly proposed quantum communication scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the impossibility proofs of QBC are based. Thus unconditional security can be achieved. Our protocol is very feasible with currently available technology. It re-opens the venue for other "post-cold-war" multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g., unconditionally secure quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2012-01-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the o...
Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beane, S. R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S. D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-06-11
Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.
R-Matrix Calculations for Few-Quark Bound States
Shalchi, M A
2016-01-01
The R-matrix method is implemented to study the heavy charm and bottom diquark, triquark, tetraquark and pentaquarks in configuration space, as the bound states of quark-antiquark, diquark-quark, diquark-antidiquark and diquark-antitriquark systems, respectively. The mass spectrum and the size of these systems are calculated for different partial wave channels. The calculated masses are compared with recent theoretical results obtained by %the solution of Lippmann-Schwinger equation other methods in momentum and configuration spaces and also by available experimental data.
Three-body bound states in finite volume with EFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three particles with large scattering length display a universal spectrum of three-body bound states called ''Efimov trimers''. We calculate the modification of the Efimov trimers of three identical bosons in a finite cubic box and compute the dependence of their energies on the box size using effective field theory. The renormalization of the effective field theory in the finite volume is explicitly verified. We investigate the effects of partial wave mixing and study the behavior of shallow trimers near the dimer energy. Finally, we present first results for the triton in a finite volume.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Applying perturbative QCD methods recently seen to give a good description of the two-body hadronic decays of the B meson, we address the question of bound-state effects on the decay B→K*γ. Consistent with most analyses, we demonstrate that gluonic penguin diagrams, with photonic bremsstrahlung off a quark, change the decay rate by only a few percent. Using an asymptotic distribution amplitude for the K* and just the standard model, we can obtain a branching ratio of a few x10-5, consistent with the observed rate
Bound states of string networks and D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the existence of nonthreshold bound states of (p, q) string networks and D3-branes, preserving 1/4 of the full type-IIB supersymmetry, interpreted as string networks 'dissolved' in D3-branes. We also explicitly write down the expression for the mass density of the system and discuss the extension of the construction to other Dp -branes. Differences in our construction of string networks with the ones interpreted as dyons in N=4 gauge theories are also pointed out
Hydrogenic states of monopoles in diluted quantum spin ice
Petrova, Olga; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, S. L.
2015-09-01
We consider the effect of adding quantum dynamics to a classical topological spin liquid, with a particular view of how to best detect its presence in experiment. For the Coulomb phase of spin ice, we find quantum effects to be most visible in the gauge-charged monopole excitations. In the presence of weak dilution with nonmagnetic ions we find a particularly crisp phenomenon, namely, the emergence of hydrogenic excited states in which a magnetic monopole is bound to a vacancy at various distances. Via a mapping to an analytically tractable single particle problem on the Bethe lattice, we obtain an approximate expression for the dynamic neutron scattering structure factor.
Jensen-Shannon divergence as a measure of distinguishability between mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss an alternative to relative entropy as a measure of distance between mixed quantum states. The proposed quantity is an extension to the realm of quantum theory of the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) between probability distributions. The JSD has several interesting properties. It arises in information theory and, unlike the Kullback-Leibler divergence, it is symmetric, always well-defined, and bounded. We show that the quantum JSD shares with the relative entropy most of the physically relevant properties, in particular those required for a 'good' quantum distinguishability measure. We relate it to other known quantum distances and we suggest possible applications in the field of the quantum information theory
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission.
Naghiloo, M; Foroozani, N; Tan, D; Jadbabaie, A; Murch, K W
2016-01-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893
Statistics for Particles Having Internal Quantum State
Yan, Zhi-Tao
1997-01-01
A new kind of quantum statistics which interpolates between Bose and Fermi statistics is proposed beginning with the assumption that the quantum state of a many-particle system is a functional on the internal space of the particles. The quantum commutation relations for such particle creation and annihilation operators are derived, and statistical partition function and thermodynamical properties of an ideal gas of the particles are investigated. The application of this quantum statistics for...
Efficient solid state memories for quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long distance quantum cryptography requires quantum repeaters which use quantum memories. The latter are designed to store and retrieve photon quantum states on demand. Although quantum memories have been demonstrated in atomic vapors and ultra cold gases, a solid state alternative may better fulfill quantum memories requirements. Rare earth based crystals, which exhibit long coherence lifetimes, are actively studied for this purpose. Memory efficiency, i.e. the probability to retrieve a photon after storage, should be close to unity for practical applications. This can be achieved in highly doped crystals. Although Pr-Pr interactions could be detrimental in this case, we show that in a 3% Pr3+ doped La2(WO4)3 crystal ground state hyperfine coherence lifetime is still close to that measured at low Pr concentration. Since the latter determines the memory storage time, this result suggests that highly doped crystals may be useful for efficient quantum memories.
Quantum state tomography and fidelity estimation via Phaselift
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Yiping; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Qing, E-mail: qzhaoyuping@bit.edu.cn
2015-09-15
Experiments of multi-photon entanglement have been performed by several groups. Obviously, an increase on the photon number for fidelity estimation and quantum state tomography causes a dramatic increase in the elements of the positive operator valued measures (POVMs), which results in a great consumption of time in measurements. In practice, we wish to obtain a good estimation of fidelity and quantum states through as few measurements as possible for multi-photon entanglement. Phaselift provides such a chance to estimate fidelity for entangling states based on less data. In this paper, we would like to show how the Phaselift works for six qubits in comparison to the data given by Pan’s group, i.e., we use a fraction of the data as input to estimate the rest of the data through the obtained density matrix, and thus goes beyond the simple fidelity analysis. The fidelity bound is also provided for general Schrödinger Cat state. Based on the fidelity bound, we propose an optimal measurement approach which could both reduce the copies and keep the fidelity bound gap small. The results demonstrate that the Phaselift can help decrease the measured elements of POVMs for six qubits. Our conclusion is based on the prior knowledge that a pure state is the target state prepared by experiments.
Upper bound for SL-invariant entanglement measures of mixed states
Osterloh, Andreas
2016-05-01
An algorithm is proposed that serves to handle full-rank density matrices when coming from a lower-rank method to compute the convex roof. This is in order to calculate an upper bound for any polynomial SL-invariant multipartite entanglement measure E . This study exemplifies how this algorithm works based on a method for calculating convex roofs of rank-2 density matrices. It iteratively considers the decompositions of the density matrix into two states each, exploiting the knowledge for the rank-2 case. The algorithm is therefore quasiexact as far as the rank-2 case is concerned, and it also hints where it should include more states in the decomposition of the density matrix. Focusing on the measure of three-way entanglement of qubits (called three-tangle), I show the results the algorithm gives for two states, one of which is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Werner (GHZ-W ) state, for which the exact convex roof is known. It overestimates the three-tangle in the state, thereby giving insight into the optimal decomposition the GHZ-W state has. As a proof of principle, I have run the algorithm for the three-tangle on the transverse quantum Ising model. I give qualitative and quantitative arguments why the convex roof should be close to the upper bound found here.
Fingerprints of Majorana Bound States in Aharonov-Bohm Geometry
Tripathi, Krashna Mohan; Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi
2016-04-01
We study a ring geometry, coupled to two normal metallic leads, which has a Majorana bound state (MBS) embedded in one of its arms and is threaded by Aharonov-Bohm (A B ) flux ϕ . We show that by varying the A B flux, the two leads go through resonance in an anticorrelated fashion while the resonance conductance is quantized to 2 e2/h . We further show that such anticorrelation is completely absent when the MBS is replaced by an Andreev bound state (ABS). Hence this anti-correlation in conductance when studied as a function of ϕ provides a unique signature of the MBS which cannot be faked by an ABS. We contrast the phase sensitivity of the MBS and ABS in terms of tunneling conductances. We argue that the relative phase between the tunneling amplitude of the electrons and holes from either lead to the level (MBS or ABS), which is constrained to 0 ,π for the MBS and unconstrained for the ABS, is responsible for this interesting contrast in the A B effect between the MBS and ABS.
Topological nature of bound states in the radiation continuum
Zhen, Bo; Lu, Ling; Stone, A Doug; Soljacic, Marin
2014-01-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are unusual solutions of wave equations describing light or matter: they are discrete and spatially bounded, but exist at the same energy as a continuum of states which propagate to infinity. Until recently, BICs were constructed through fine-tuning parameters in the wave equation or exploiting the separability of the wave equation due to symmetry. More recently, BICs that that are both robust and not symmetry-protected (accidental) have been predicted and experimentally realized in periodic structures; the simplest such system is a periodic dielectric slab, which also has symmetry-protected BICs. Here we show that both types of BICs in such systems are vortex centers in the polarization direction of far-field radiation. The robustness of these BICs is due to the existence of conserved and quantized topological charges, defined by the number of times the polarization vectors wind around the vortex centers. Such charges can only be generated or annihilated by making large c...
Signatures of Majorana bound states in one-dimensional topological superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topological states of matter have fascinated condensed matter physicists for the past three decades. Famous examples include the integer and fractional quantum Hall states exhibiting a spectacular conductance quantization as well as topological insulators in two and three dimensions featuring gapless Dirac fermions at the boundary. Very recently, novel topological phases in superconductors have been subject of intense experimental and theoretical investigation. One-dimensional topological superconductors are particularly intriguing as they host exotic Majorana end states. These are zero-energy bound states with nonabelian exchange statistics potentially useful for topologically protected quantum computing. Recent theoretical and experimental advances have put the realization of Majorana states within reach of current measurement techniques. In this thesis we investigate signatures of Majorana bound states in realistic experiments aiming to improve the theoretical understanding of ongoing experimental efforts and to design novel measurement schemes, which exhibit convincing signatures of Majoranas. In particular we account for nonideal experimental conditions which can lead to qualitatively new features. Possible signatures of Majoranas can be accessed in the Josephson current through a weak link between two topological superconductors although the signatures in the dc Josephson effect are typically obscured by inevitable quasiparticle relaxation in the superconductor. Here we propose a measurement scheme in mesoscopic superconducting rings, where Majorana signatures persist even for infinitely fast relaxation. In a separate project we outline an alternative to the standard Josephson experiment in topological superconductors based on quantum wires. We delineate how Majoranas can be detected, when the Josephson current is induced by noncollinear magnetic fields applied to the two banks of the junction instead of a superconducting phase difference. Another important
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx
2001-09-14
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D2+ k2)φ=uφ, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution φ, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
Quantum Sensors: Improved Optical Measurement via Specialized Quantum States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David S. Simon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classical measurement strategies in many areas are approaching their maximum resolution and sensitivity levels, but these levels often still fall far short of the ultimate limits allowed by the laws of physics. To go further, strategies must be adopted that take into account the quantum nature of the probe particles and that optimize their quantum states for the desired application. Here, we review some of these approaches, in which quantum entanglement, the orbital angular momentum of single photons, and quantum interferometry are used to produce optical measurements beyond the classical limit.
Quantum states for Heisenberg limited interferometry
Uys, Hermann; Meystre, Pierre
2007-06-01
An important aspect of quantum metrology is the engineering of quantum states with which to achieve Heisenberg limited measurement precision. In this limit the measurement uncertainty is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles, N, a 1/√N improvement over the standad quantum limit. We have used numerical global optimization strategies to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that achieve Heisenberg limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of candidates so obtained with that of non-classical states already known to yield Heisenberg limited uncertainty.
Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: From quantum engines to refrigerators
Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Kurizki, G.
2014-08-01
We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios.
Quantum control theory for state transformations: Dark states and their enlightenment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many quantum information protocols such as state transfer, entanglement transfer, and entanglement generation, standard notions of controllability for quantum systems are too strong. We introduce the weaker notion of accessible pairs and prove an upper bound on the achievable fidelity of a transformation between a pair of states based on the symmetries of the system. A large class of spin networks is presented for which this bound can be saturated. In this context, we show how the inaccessible dark states for a given excitation-preserving evolution can be calculated and illustrate how some of these can be accessed using extra catalytic excitations. This emphasizes that it is not sufficient for analyses of state transfer in spin networks to restrict to the single excitation subspace. One class of symmetries in these spin networks is exactly characterized in terms of the underlying graph properties.
Nonadiabatic quantum state engineering driven by fast quench dynamics
Herrera, Marcela; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Duzzioni, Eduardo I.; Serra, Roberto M.
2014-02-01
There are a number of tasks in quantum information science that exploit nontransitional adiabatic dynamics. Such a dynamics is bounded by the adiabatic theorem, which naturally imposes a speed limit in the evolution of quantum systems. Here, we investigate an approach for quantum state engineering exploiting a shortcut to the adiabatic evolution, which is based on rapid quenches in a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution. In particular, this procedure is able to provide state preparation faster than the adiabatic brachistochrone. Remarkably, the evolution time in this approach is shown to be ultimately limited by its "thermodynamical cost," provided in terms of the average work rate (average power) of the quench process. We illustrate this result in a scenario that can be experimentally implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance setup.
Comparison of methods for quantum state tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estimation of quantum states is a basic task in quantum information science. The major problem is that the number of measurements scales exponentially with respect to the number of particles. Several methods can be used to extract information about the quantum state with a limited number of measurements, e.g. maximum likelihood estimation, hedged maximum likelihood estimation, compressed sensing, and Bayesian mean estimation. Here we do a comparison between these methods and show advantages/disadvantages as well as open problems.
Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation
Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond
1997-01-01
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computa...
Optimal Unambiguous Discrimination of Quantum States
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Rezaei, M.; N. Karimi; Amiri, A. R.
2007-01-01
Unambiguously distinguishing between nonorthogonal but linearly independent quantum states is a challenging problem in quantum information processing. In this work, an exact analytic solution to an optimum measurement problem involving an arbitrary number of pure linearly independent quantum states is presented. To this end, the relevant semi-definite programming task is reduced to a linear programming one with a feasible region of polygon type which can be solved via simplex method. The stre...
Confidential Deterministic Quantum Communication Using Three Quantum States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr ZAWADZKI
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A secure quantum deterministic communication protocol is described. The protocol is based on transmission of quantum states from unbiased bases and exploits no entanglement. It is composed form two main components: a quantum quasi secure quantum communication supported by a suitable classical message preprocessing layer. Contrary to many others propositions, it does not require large quantum registers. A security level comparable to classic block ciphers is achieved by a specially designed, purely classic, message pre- and post-processing. However, unlike to the classic communication, no key agreement is required. The protocol is also designed in such a way, that noise in the quantum channel works in advantage to legitimate users improving the security level of the communication.
Improved quantum state transfer via quantum partially collapsing measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Man, Zhong-Xiao, E-mail: manzhongxiao@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Ba An, Nguyen, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@mail.qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China)
2014-10-15
In this work, we present a general scheme to improve quantum state transfer (QST) by taking advantage of quantum partially collapsing measurements. The scheme consists of a weak measurement performed at the initial time on the qubit encoding the state of concern and a subsequent quantum reversal measurement at a desired time on the destined qubit. We determine the strength q{sub r} of the post quantum reversal measurement as a function of the strength p of the prior weak measurement and the evolution time t so that near-perfect QST can be achieved by choosing p close enough to 1, with a finite success probability, regardless of the evolution time and the distance over which the QST takes place. The merit of our scheme is twofold: it not only improves QST, but also suppresses the energy dissipation, if any. - Highlights: • A scheme using weak/reversal measurements is devised to improve quantum state transfer. • It can suppress dissipation allowing optimal quantum state transfer in open system. • Explicit condition for achieving near-perfect quantum state transfer is established. • Applications to spin chain and cavity array are considered in detail.
Practical security bounds against the Trojan-horse attack in quantum key distribution
Lucamarini, Marco; Choi, Iris; Ward, Martin B.; Dynes, James F.; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J.
2015-01-01
In the quantum version of a Trojan-horse attack, photons are injected into the optical modules of a quantum key distribution system in an attempt to read information direct from the encoding devices. To stop the Trojan photons, the use of passive optical components has been suggested. However, to date, there is no quantitative bound that specifies such components in relation to the security of the system. Here, we turn the Trojan-horse attack into an information leakage problem. This allows u...
Lower Bounds on Quantum Query Complexity for Read-Once Formulas with XOR and MUX Operators
Fukuhara, Hideaki; Takimoto, Eiji
We introduce a complexity measure r for the class F of read-once formulas over the basis {AND, OR, NOT, XOR, MUX} and show that for any Boolean formula F in the class F, r(F) is a lower bound on the quantum query complexity of the Boolean function that F represents. We also show that for any Boolean function f represented by a formula in F, the deterministic query complexity of f is only quadratically larger than the quantum query complexity of f. Thus, the paper gives further evidence for the conjecture that there is an only quadratic gap for all functions.
Pedrelli, Danilo C; Braga, Alessandra N; Alves, Danilo T
2016-01-01
We propose a model for energy-dependent $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ interactions which yields scattering coefficients exhibiting full transmission for high-energy incident particles, also computing the bound solutions in one-dimension nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
Matrix product states for quantum metrology
Jarzyna, Marcin; Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that the optimal states in lossy quantum interferometry may be efficiently simulated using low rank matrix product states. We argue that this should be expected in all realistic quantum metrological protocols with uncorrelated noise and is related to the elusive nature of the Heisenberg precision scaling in presence of decoherence.
Quantum state discrimination and enhancement by noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Discrimination between two quantum states is addressed as a quantum detection process where a measurement with two outcomes is performed and a conclusive binary decision results about the state. The performance is assessed by the overall probability of decision error. Based on the theory of quantum detection, the optimal measurement and its performance are exhibited in general conditions. An application is realized on the qubit, for which generic models of quantum noise can be investigated for their impact on state discrimination from a noisy qubit. The quantum noise acts through random application of Pauli operators on the qubit prior to its measurement. For discrimination from a noisy qubit, various situations are exhibited where reinforcement of the action of the quantum noise can be associated with enhanced performance. Such implications of the quantum noise are analyzed and interpreted in relation to stochastic resonance and enhancement by noise in information processing. - Highlights: • We consider stochastic resonance or enhancement by noise for information processing. • An extension is realized to quantum state discrimination with quantum noise. • The optimal detector minimizing the discrimination error is derived and analyzed. • Forms of enhancement by noise are reported in the optimal detector performance. • This represents the first exploration of stochastic resonance for quantum detection
Is the exotic $X(5568)$ a bound state?
Chen, Xiaoyun
2016-01-01
Stimulated by the recent observation of the exotic $X(5568)$ state by D0 Collaboration, we study the four-quark system $us\\bar{b}\\bar{d}$ with quantum numbers $J^P=0^+$ in the framework of chiral quark model. Two structures, diquark-antidiquark and meson-meson, with all possible color configurations are investigated by using Gaussian expansion method. The results show that energies of the tetraquark states with diquark-antiquark structure are too high to the candidate of $X(5568)$, and no molecular structure can be formed in our calculations. The calculation is also extended to the four-quark system $us\\bar{c}\\bar{d}$ and the same results as that of $us\\bar{b}\\bar{d}$ are obtained.
On Possible S-Wave Bound States for an N-(N) System Within a Constituent Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHANG Chao-Hsi; PANG Hou-Rong
2005-01-01
We try to apply a constituent quark model (a variety chiral constituent quark model) and the resonating group approach for the multi-quark problems to compute the effective potential between the NN- in S-wave (the quarks in the nucleons N and N-, and the two nucleons relatively as well, are in S wave) so as to see the possibility if there may be a tight bound state of six quarks as indicated by a strong enhancement at threshold of pp- in J/ψ and B decays. The effective potential which we obtain in terms of the model and approach shows if the experimental enhancement is really caused by a tight S-wave bound state of six quarks, then the quantum number of the bound state is very likely to be I = 1, JPC= 0-+.
Parametric separation of symmetric pure quantum states
Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.; Neves, L.
2016-01-01
Quantum state separation is a probabilistic map that transforms a given set of pure states into another set of more distinguishable ones. Here we investigate such a map acting onto uniparametric families of symmetric linearly dependent or independent quantum states. We obtained analytical solutions for the success probability of the maps—which is shown to be optimal—as well as explicit constructions in terms of positive operator valued measures. Our results can be used for state discrimination strategies interpolating continuously between minimum-error and unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination, which, in turn, have many applications in quantum information protocols. As an example, we show that quantum teleportation through a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel can be accomplished with higher probability than the one provided by unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination and with higher fidelity than the one achievable by minimum-error discrimination. Finally, an optical network is proposed for implementing parametric state separation.
Donor bound or negatively charged excitons in thin CdTe/Cd1-xMnxTe quantum wells
Paganotto, N.; Siviniant, J.; Coquillat, D.; Scalbert, D.; Lascaray, J.-P.; Kavokin, A. V.
1998-08-01
Magnetophotoluminescence spectroscopy of unintentionally doped thin CdTe/(Cd,Mn)Te single and double quantum wells (QW's) revealed a pronounced excitonic transition that can be associated with either an exciton bound to a neutral donor (D0X) or a negatively charged exciton (X-). Comparative experimental study and theoretical analysis of this transition in quantum wells of different thicknesses allowed us to attribute it to the D0X complex in a single QW and to the X- state in the double QW. A record X- binding energy of 3.7 meV has been detected. The double QW structure was shown to be favorable for the formation of X- in the wide well due to the efficient interwell electron tunneling.
Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states
Cheng, Fang
2016-09-01
We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.
Nonlocal edge state transport in the quantum spin Hall state
Roth, Andreas; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Maciejko, Joseph; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2009-01-01
We present direct experimental evidence for nonlocal transport in HgTe quantum wells in the quantum spin Hall regime, in the absence of any external magnetic field. The data conclusively show that the non-dissipative quantum transport occurs through edge channels, while the contacts lead to equilibration between the counter-propagating spin states at the edge. We show that the experimental data agree quantitatively with the theory of the quantum spin Hall effect.
Production and decay of scalar stoponium bound states
Drees, Manuel
1994-01-01
In this paper we discuss possible signatures for the production of scalar \\stst\\ (stoponium) bound states \\sigst\\ at hadron colliders, where \\st\\ is the lighter scalar top eigenstate. We first study the decay of \\sigst; explicit expressions are given for all potentially important decay modes. If \\st\\ has unsuppressed two--body decays, they will always overwhelm the annihilation decays of \\sigst. Among the latter, we find that usually either the $gg$ or $hh$ final state dominates, depending on the size of the off--diagonal entry of the stop mass matrix; $h$ is the lighter neutral scalar Higgs boson of the minimal supersymmetric model. If \\msig\\ happens to be close to the mass of one of the neutral scalar Higgs bosons, $Q \\bar{Q}$ final states dominate ($Q=b$ or $t$). \\ww\\ and $ZZ$ final states are subdominant. We argue that $\\sigst \\rightarrow \\gamgam$ decays offer the best signal for stoponium production at hadron colliders. The tevatron should be able to close the light stop window left open by LEP searches,...
Quantum Light States Engineering via Quantum Feedback Control
Negretti, A; Poulsen, U V; Molmer, Klaus; Negretti, Antonio; Poulsen, Uffe V.
2007-01-01
We present a protocol for deterministic generation of Fock states and Schroedinger cat-like states in an optical cavity by quantum non-demolition photon number measurements and coherent feeding of the cavity. We show how a careful feedback protocol design helps to achieve high success rates for generation of states with high fidelity.
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in a hybrid superconductor–ferromagnetic nanostructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, it is considered a hybrid nanostructure composed by a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads and a superconductor lead. It is shown that the zero-bias transmittance for the co-tunneling between the ferromagnetic leads presents Fano anti-resonances due to the destructive interference between the two spin channels mixing by the relative orientation of the magnetizations in the leads. When the superconductor is coupled to the system, electron–hole correlations between different spin states lead to a resonance in the place of the dip appearing in the transmittance. Such an effect is accompanied by two Fano anti-resonances explained by a “leakage” of conduction channels from the co-tunneling to the Andreev transport. In the non-equilibrium regime, correlations within the quantum dot introduce a dependence of the resonance condition on the finite bias applied to the ferromagnetic leads. However, it is still possible to observe signatures of the same interference effect in the electrical current. - Highlights: • We have studied an hybrid nanostructure composed by quantum dot coupled to a superconductor and two ferromagnets. • The interplay between spin polarization and Andreev bound states leads to a Fano-like effect. • The Fano-like effect manifests as a resonance in the transmittance for the transport between the ferromagnets
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in a hybrid superconductor–ferromagnetic nanostructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siqueira, E.C., E-mail: ezcostta@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, 84016210, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Orellana, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago (Chile); Cestari, R.C. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-859, SP (Brazil)
2015-10-16
In this work, it is considered a hybrid nanostructure composed by a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads and a superconductor lead. It is shown that the zero-bias transmittance for the co-tunneling between the ferromagnetic leads presents Fano anti-resonances due to the destructive interference between the two spin channels mixing by the relative orientation of the magnetizations in the leads. When the superconductor is coupled to the system, electron–hole correlations between different spin states lead to a resonance in the place of the dip appearing in the transmittance. Such an effect is accompanied by two Fano anti-resonances explained by a “leakage” of conduction channels from the co-tunneling to the Andreev transport. In the non-equilibrium regime, correlations within the quantum dot introduce a dependence of the resonance condition on the finite bias applied to the ferromagnetic leads. However, it is still possible to observe signatures of the same interference effect in the electrical current. - Highlights: • We have studied an hybrid nanostructure composed by quantum dot coupled to a superconductor and two ferromagnets. • The interplay between spin polarization and Andreev bound states leads to a Fano-like effect. • The Fano-like effect manifests as a resonance in the transmittance for the transport between the ferromagnets.
Universal Bounds on Charged States in 2d CFT and 3d Gravity
Benjamin, Nathan; Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Kachru, Shamit
2016-01-01
We derive an explicit bound on the dimension of the lightest charged state in two dimensional conformal field theories with a global abelian symmetry. We find that the bound scales with $c$ and provide examples that parametrically saturate this bound. We also prove than any such theory must contain a state with charge-to-mass ratio above a minimal lower bound. We comment on the implications for charged states in three dimensional theories of gravity.
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M
2013-01-01
Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en
Tetra quark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Fischer, Christian S., E-mail: christian.fischer@theo.physik.uni-giessen.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2012-12-05
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f{sub 0}(600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Fischer, Christian S
2012-01-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f_0(600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2012-12-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f0 (600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Baryons as relativistic three-quark bound states
Eichmann, Gernot; Williams, Richard; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S
2016-01-01
We review the spectrum and electromagnetic properties of baryons described as relativistic three-quark bound states within QCD. The composite nature of baryons results in a rich excitation spectrum, whilst leading to highly non-trivial structural properties explored by the coupling to external (electromagnetic and other) currents. Both present many unsolved problems despite decades of experimental and theoretical research. We discuss the progress in these fields from a theoretical perspective, focusing on nonperturbative QCD as encoded in the functional approach via Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We give a systematic overview as to how results are obtained in this framework and explain technical connections to lattice QCD. We also discuss the mutual relations to the quark model, which still serves as a reference to distinguish 'expected' from 'unexpected' physics. We confront recent results on the spectrum of non-strange and strange baryons, their form factors and the issues of two-photon proce...
The structure of the D0-D4 bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a set of equations for the wavefunction describing the marginal bound state of a single D0-brane with a single D4-brane. These are equations determining the vacuum of an N=8 Abelian gauge theory with a charged hypermultiplet. We then solve these equations for the most general possible zero-energy solution using a Taylor series. We find that there are an infinite number of such solutions of which only one must be normalizable. We explore the structure of a normalizable solution under the assumption of an asymptotic expansion. Even the leading terms in the asymptotic series, which should reflect the supergravity solution, are unusual. Through the Spin(5) flavor symmetry, the modes which are massive at long distance actually influence the leading behavior. Lastly, we show that the vacuum equations can quite remarkably be reduced to a single equation involving one unknown function. The resulting equation has a surprisingly simple and suggestive form
Cooperativity, partially bound states, and enthalpy-entropy compensation.
Hunter, Christopher A; Tomas, Salvador
2003-11-01
Efforts to develop a quantitative understanding of molecular recognition rely on the additivity of individual intermolecular interactions, and cooperativity represents one of the major potential stumbling blocks. A chemical double-mutant cycle has been used to experimentally measure cooperativity between functional group interactions within a complex framework. The interaction between two aromatic groups varies by 0.2 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-1) in synthetic H-bonded complexes that differ by 8-13 kJ mol(-1) in overall stability. In these systems, the free energies associated with individual intermolecular interactions can therefore be reliably treated in an additive fashion. The results suggest that alternative explanations should be considered for cooperative phenomena observed in other systems, and a rationale based on the population of partially bound states in flexible molecules is proposed to account for the enthalpic chelate effect and enthalpy-entropy compensation. PMID:14652069
Bound states in the continuum in open acoustic resonators
Lyapina, A A; Pilipchuk, A S; Sadreev, A F
2015-01-01
We consider bound states in the continuum (BSC) or embedded trapped modes in two- and three-dimensional acoustic axisymmetric duct-cavity structures. We demonstrate numerically that under variation of the length of the cavity multiple BSCs occur due to the Friedrich-Wintgen two-mode full destructive interference mechanism. The BSCs are detected by tracing the resonant widths to the points of the collapse of Fano resonances where one of the two resonant modes acquires infinite life-time. It is shown that the approach of the acoustic coupled mode theory cast in the truncated form of a two-mode approximation allows us to analytically predict the BSC frequencies and shape functions to a good accuracy in both two and three dimensions.
Rapid thermal co-annihilation through bound states
Kim, Seyong
2016-01-01
The co-annihilation rate of heavy particles close to thermal equilibrium, which plays a role in many classic dark matter scenarios, can be "simulated" in QCD by considering the pair annihilation rate of a heavy quark and antiquark at a temperature of a few hundred MeV. We show that the so-called Sommerfeld factors, parameterizing the rate, can be defined and measured non-perturbatively within the NRQCD framework. Lattice measurements indicate a modest suppression in the octet channel, in reasonable agreement with perturbation theory, and a large enhancement in the singlet channel, much above the perturbative prediction. We suggest that the additional enhancement originates from bound state formation and subsequent decay, omitted in previous estimates of thermal Sommerfeld factors, which were based on Boltzmann equations governing single-particle phase space distributions.
Tetra quark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f0(600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Minimal time trajectories for two-level quantum systems with two bounded controls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boscain, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.boscain@polytechnique.edu [CNRS, CMAP Ecole Polytechnique, France and Team GECO, INRIA Saclay (France); Grönberg, Fredrik, E-mail: gronb@kth.se [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); Long, Ruixing, E-mail: ruixing.long@gmail.com [General Motors of Canada, 1908 Colonel Sam Drive, Oshawa (Canada); Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States)
2014-06-15
In this paper we consider the minimum time population transfer problem for a two level quantum system driven by two external fields with bounded amplitude. The controls are modeled as real functions and we do not use the Rotating Wave Approximation. After projection on the Bloch sphere, we treat the time-optimal control problem with techniques of optimal synthesis on 2D manifolds. Based on the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, we characterize a restricted set of candidate optimal trajectories. Properties on this set, crucial for complete optimal synthesis, are illustrated by numerical simulations. Furthermore, when the two controls have the same bound and this bound is small with respect to the difference of the two energy levels, we get a complete optimal synthesis up to a small neighborhood of the antipodal point of the initial condition.
Quantum engineering of squeezed states for quantum communication and metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the experimental realization of squeezed quantum states of light, tailored for new applications in quantum communication and metrology. Squeezed states in a broad Fourier frequency band down to 1 Hz have been observed for the first time. Nonclassical properties of light in such a low frequency band are required for high efficiency quantum information storage in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media. The states observed also cover the frequency band of ultra-high precision laser interferometers for gravitational wave detection and can be used to reach the regime of quantum non-demolition interferometry. Furthermore, they cover the frequencies of motion of heavy macroscopic objects and might therefore support attempts to observe entanglement in our macroscopic world
Quantum Statistical Properties of k-Quantum Nonlinear Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Ji-Suo; LIU Tang-Kun; FENG Jian; SUN Jin-Zuo
2004-01-01
In our preceding work, a class of k-quantum nonlinear coherent states, i.e., the k eigenstates of the powersBk (k ≥ 3) of the annihilation operator B=-a1/f(N) of f-oscillators, are introduced. In this paper, we introduce a newkind of higher-order squeezing and an antibunching effect. The quantum statistical properties of the k states are studied.The result shows that the M-th order [M = (n + 1/2)k; n = 0, 1,...] squeezing effects exist in all of the k states when kis even. There is the antibunching effect in all of the k states.