Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons
Maghrebi, M F; Bienias, P; Choi, S; Martin, I; Firstenberg, O; Lukin, M D; Büchler, H P; Gorshkov, A V
2015-01-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Lieb-Thirring Bounds for Interacting Bose Gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundholm, Douglas; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2015-01-01
We study interacting Bose gases and prove lower bounds for the kinetic plus interaction energy of a many-body wave function in terms of its particle density. These general estimates are then applied to various types of interactions, including hard sphere (in 3D) and hard disk (in 2D) as well as a...
In-medium antikaon interactions and bound states
Gal, Avraham; Barnea, Nir; Cieplý, Aleš; Mareš, Jiří; Gazda, Daniel
2014-01-01
Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.
The Constant Growth Rate of the Bound-Zone Peculiar Velocity Profile
Lee, Jounghun
2016-01-01
We present a numerical evidence that the amplitude and slope of the bound-zone peculiar velocity profile grow at the constant rates in a LambdaCDM universe. Analyzing the friends-of-friends halo catalogs from the Millennium-II simulations at various redshifts, we measure the average peculiar velocity profile of the objects located in the bound zone around massive group-size halos and compare it to an analytic formula characterized by the amplitude and slope parameters. It is shown that the amplitude and slope of the bound-zone peculiar velocity profile remain constant in the dark matter dominated epoch but begin to grow linearly with redshift after the onset of the Lambda-domination. Our explanation for this phenomenon is that as the balance between the gravitational attraction of the massive groups and the repulsive force of the Hubble expansion cracks up in the Lambda-dominated epoch, the gravitational influence on the bound-zone halos diminishes more rapidly with the increment of the radial distances. Spec...
Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry
Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.
Unitarity bounds on scalar dark matter effective interactions at LHC
YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiro
2014-01-01
We have investigated the compatibility of the unitarity bound and the 8 TeV LHC on the effective theory of scalar dark matter. In several signals of effective interactions, monojet events with missing energy were studied. We found that if the dark matter mass is about 800 GeV or heavier, the contributions of events violating unitarity are not negligible. The unitarity conditions in the 14 TeV LHC are also calculated.
Interaction measurement of particles bound to a lipid membrane
Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric
2015-03-01
The local shape and dynamics of the plasma membrane play important roles in many cellular processes. Local membrane deformations are often mediated by the adsorption of proteins (notably from the BAR family), and their subsequent self-assembly. The emerging hypothesis is that self-assembly arises from long-range interactions of individual proteins through the membrane's deformation field. We study these interactions in a model system of micron-sized colloidal particles adsorbed onto a lipid bilayer. We use fluorescent microscopy, optical tweezers and particle tracking to measure dissipative and conservative forces as a function of the separation between the particles. We find that particles are driven together with forces of order 100 fN and remain bound in a potential well with a stiffness of order 100 fN/micron.
Bounds on non-standard neutrino interactions using PINGU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandhya Choubey
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the impact of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs on atmospheric neutrinos using the proposed PINGU experiment. In particular, we focus on the matter NSI parameters εμτ and |εττ−εμμ| that have previously been constrained by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. First, we present approximate analytical formulas for the difference of the muon neutrino survival probability with and without the above-mentioned NSI parameters. Second, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino events at PINGU in the energy range (2–100 GeV, which follow the trend outlined on probability level. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis of PINGU. Using three years of data, we obtain bounds from PINGU given by −0.0043 (−0.0048<εμτ<0.0047(0.0046 and −0.03 (−0.016<εττ<0.017(0.032 at 90% confidence level for normal (inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, which improve the Super-Kamiokande bounds by one order of magnitude. In addition, we show the expected allowed contour region in the εμτ–εττ plane if NSIs exist in Nature and the result suggests that there is basically no correlation between εμτ and εττ.
Interactive Volumetry Of Liver Ablation Zones
Egger, Jan; Brandmaier, Philipp; Seider, Daniel; Gawlitza, Matthias; Strocka, Steffen; Voglreiter, Philip; Dokter, Mark; Hofmann, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard; Hann, Alexander; Chen, Xiaojun; Alhonnoro, Tuomas; Pollari, Mika; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Moche, Michael
2015-01-01
Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique that destroys cancer cells by heat. The heat results from focusing energy in the radiofrequency spectrum through a needle. Amongst others, this can enable the treatment of patients who are not eligible for an open surgery. However, the possibility of recurrent liver cancer due to incomplete ablation of the tumor makes post-interventional monitoring via regular follow-up scans mandatory. These scans have to be carefully inspected for any conspicuousness. Within this study, the RF ablation zones from twelve post-interventional CT acquisitions have been segmented semi-automatically to support the visual inspection. An interactive, graph-based contouring approach, which prefers spherically shaped regions, has been applied. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the algorithm's results, manual slice-by-slice segmentations produced by clinical experts have been used as the gold standard (which have also been compared among each o...
Three-nucleon problem: trinucleon bound states and trinucleon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The assumptions underlying the formulation and solution of the Schroedinger equation for three nucleons in configuration space are reviewed, in conjunction with those qualitative aspects of the two-nucleon problem which are important. The geometrical features of the problem and the crucial role of the angular momentum barrier are developed. The boundary conditions for scattering are discussed qualitatively, and the Faddeev-Noyes equation is motivated. The method of splines and orthogonal collocation are shown to provide convenient techniques for generating numerical solutions. Properties of the many numerical solutions for the bound states and zero-energy scattering states are discussed. The evidence for three-body forces is reviewed, and the results of the recent calculations including such forces are discussed. The importance of electromagnetic interactions in the three-nucleon systems is motivated. Relativistic corrections and meson-exchange currents are discussed in the context of ''rules of scale'', and the pion-exchange currents of nonrelativistic order are derived. The experimental results for trinucleon electromagnetic interactions are reviewed, including recent tritium data. Conclusions are presented. 56 refs., 23 figs
Interaction of peptide-bound beads with lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins.
Suzuki, Masatsugu M; Matsumoto, Megumi; Omi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Nakamura, Akio; Kishi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Sei; Takagi, Takashi
2014-05-01
We previously reported the generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding peptides by phage display and chemical modification. Among them, a dodecapeptide designated Li5-025 (K'YSSSISSIRAC'; K' and C' denote d-lysine and d-cysteine, respectively) showed a high binding affinity for LPS and was resistant to protease digestion (Suzuki et al., 2010). In the current study, Li5-025-bound silica beads, hereafter referred to as P-beads, were generated and found to be devoid of LPS-neutralizing activity. Thus, LPS bound to the P-beads could be directly used in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in solutions of ethanol, pH4, pH10, and 0.5M NaCl and LPS bound to the P-beads was quantitatively assayed. The sensitivity of this assay was observed to be approximately 0.1pg/mL LPS. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in antithrombin III (AT III) solution which is a strong inhibitor of activated factors C and B as well as the clotting enzyme in the LAL assay; the inhibitory effect of AT III was completely reversed upon washing the P-beads with 25% acetonitrile. This was employed as the first step for the detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay. LPS added to human plasma at 0°C followed by application to the P-beads and subsequent washing with 25% acetonitrile resulted in low LPS activity as detected by the LAL assay. However, further washing of the P-beads with 0.1% Triton X100 in 25% acetonitrile resulted in high LPS activity. This is the first instance of quantitative detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay, and the sensitivity of this method was observed to be 1pg/mL of LPS. The proteins eluted in the 0.1% Triton X-100 wash were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands of 28kDa and 18kDa were predominantly observed. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the 28kDa and 18kDa bands corresponded to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), respectively. Apo
Unitarity bounds on dark matter effective interactions at LHC
Motoi Endo; Yasuhiro Yamamoto
2014-01-01
The perturbative unitarity bound is studied in the monojet process at LHC. The production of the dark matter is described by the low-energy effective theory. The analysis of the dark matter signal is not validated, if the unitarity condition is violated. It is shown that the current LHC analysis with the effective theory breaks down, at least, when the dark matter is heavier than $ \\mathcal{O}(100) $ GeV. Future prospects for $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 14 TeV are also discussed. The result is independent...
Interacting quantum walkers: two-body bosonic and fermionic bound states
Krapivsky, P. L.; Luck, J. M.; Mallick, K.
2015-11-01
We investigate the dynamics of bound states of two interacting particles, either bosons or fermions, performing a continuous-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional lattice. We consider the situation where the distance between both particles has a hard bound, and the richer situation where the particles are bound by a smooth confining potential. The main emphasis is on the velocity characterizing the ballistic spreading of these bound states, and on the structure of the asymptotic distribution profile of their center-of-mass coordinate. The latter profile generically exhibits many internal fronts.
Pedrelli, Danilo C; Braga, Alessandra N; Alves, Danilo T
2016-01-01
We propose a model for energy-dependent $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ interactions which yields scattering coefficients exhibiting full transmission for high-energy incident particles, also computing the bound solutions in one-dimension nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
Approximate Treatment of Hermitian Effective Interactions and a Bound on the Error
Okamoto, R; Ellis, Paul J; Hao, J; Li, Z; Kuo, T T S; Hao, Jifa; Li, Zibang
1994-01-01
The Hermitian effective interaction can be well-approximated by (R+R^dagger)/2 if the eigenvalues of omega^dagger omega are small or state-independent(degenerate), where R is the standard non-Hermitian effective interaction and omega maps the model-space states onto the excluded space. An error bound on this approximation is given.
Positron-molecule interactions: resonant attachment, annihilation, and bound states
Gribakin, G F; Surko, C M; 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.2557
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of current understanding of the interaction of low-energy positrons with molecules with emphasis on resonances, positron attachment and annihilation. Annihilation rates measured as a function of positron energy reveal the presence of vibrational Feshbach resonances (VFR) for many polyatomic molecules. These resonances lead to strong enhancement of the annihilation rates. They also provide evidence that positrons bind to many molecular species. A quantitative theory of VFR-mediated attachment to small molecules is presented. It is tested successfully for selected molecules (e.g., methyl halides and methanol) where all modes couple to the positron continuum. Combination and overtone resonances are observed and their role is elucidated. In larger molecules, annihilation rates from VFR far exceed those explicable on the basis of single-mode resonances. These enhancements increase rapidly with the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. While the details are as yet unclear, intr...
Relationships between humic substance-bound mercury contents and soil properties in subtropical zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Gui-fen; WU Hong-tao; JIANG Xin; HE Wen-xiang; QING Chang-le
2006-01-01
The bioavailability of humic substance-bound mercury (HS-Hg) has been established, while the distribution of HS-Hg in soils in relation to soil properties remains obscure. Path analysis and principal component analysis were employed in present study to investigate how soil factors influence the contents of HS-Hg in soils. Results showed that HS-Hg ranged from 0.0192 to 0.2051 mg/kg in soils. The two fractions existed in soils as humic acid-bound mercury (HA-Hg) ＞ fulvic acid-bound mercury (FA-Hg) and the ratio of HA-Hg/FA-Hg was 1.61 on the average. Soil organic carbon (OC) and HS favorably determined soil HS-Hg and the two fractions.The mercury source forming HS-Hg derived from soil total mercury and HS-Hg. FA-Hg and HA-Hg served as mercury source for each other. In acidic soils, FA-Hg and HA-Hg consistently rose with the increase of OC, and generally HA-Hg increased more dramatically.Soils with lower pH and lighter texture contained more HS-Hg, particularly fraction of FA-Hg. Among all influencing factors, organic material source showed the strongest effect, followed by other soil properties and soil mercury source.
Efficient Localization Bounds in a Continuous N-Particle Anderson Model with Long-Range Interaction
Chulaevsky, Victor
2016-04-01
We establish strong dynamical and exponential spectral localization for a class of multi-particle Anderson models in a Euclidean space with an alloy-type random potential and a sub-exponentially decaying interaction of infinite range. For the first time in the mathematical literature, the uniform decay bounds on the eigenfunction correlators (EFCs) at low energies are proved, in the multi-particle continuous configuration space, in the (symmetrized) norm-distance, which is a natural distance in the multi-particle configuration space, and not in the Hausdorff distance. This results in uniform bounds on the EFCs in arbitrarily large but bounded domains in the physical configuration space, and not only in the actually infinite space, as in prior works on multi-particle localization in Euclidean spaces.
Synthesis and characterization of S-Au interaction in gold nanoparticle bound polymeric beads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic examination of S-Au interaction in gold nanoparticle bound to Polystyrene-Divinyl Benzene (PS-DVB) micro beads was carried out. Gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of the commercially available PS-DVB beads using a simple one step procedure. Influence of polystyrene backbone on the electronic structure of the gold nanoparticles was observed through X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of Au at L III edge. An additional structure in the white line of the S K-edge XANES spectrum confirmed the presence of S-Au bonding. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies coupled with Selected Area Electron Diffraction Pattern and X-ray Diffraction studies revealed the morphology of the Au nanoparticles bound to the micro beads
Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seth Zippel
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract The importance of waves in the Arctic Ocean has increased with the significant retreat of the seasonal sea-ice extent. Here, we use wind, wave, turbulence, and ice measurements to evaluate the response of the ocean surface to a given wind stress within the marginal ice zone, with a focus on the local wind input to waves and subsequent ocean surface turbulence. Observations are from the Beaufort Sea in the summer and early fall of 2014, with fractional ice cover of up to 50%. Observations showed strong damping and scattering of short waves, which, in turn, decreased the wind energy input to waves. Near-surface turbulent dissipation rates were also greatly reduced in partial ice cover. The reductions in waves and turbulence were balanced, suggesting that a wind-wave equilibrium is maintained in the marginal ice zone, though at levels much less than in open water. These results suggest that air-sea interactions are suppressed in the marginal ice zone relative to open ocean conditions at a given wind forcing, and this suppression may act as a feedback mechanism in expanding a persistent marginal ice zone throughout the Arctic.
Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing 'universal' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (authors)
Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing ''universal'' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (orig.)
Liquid-bubble Interaction under Surf Zone Breaking Waves
Derakhti, M.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.
2014-12-01
Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves, is still poorly understood. Derakhti and Kirby (2014a,b) have recently studied bubble entrainment and turbulence modulation by dispersed bubbles under isolated unsteady breaking waves along with extensive model verifications and convergence tests. In this presentation, we continue this examination with attention turned to the simulation of periodic surf zone breaking waves. In addition, the relative importance of preferential accumulation of dispersed bubbles in coherent vortex cores is investigated. Heavier-than-liquid particles, i.e. sediment, tend to accumulate in regions of high strain rate and avoid regions of intense vorticity. In contrast, lighter-than-liquid particles such as bubbles tend to congregate in vortical regions. We perform a three dimensional (3D) large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Navier-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation for the polydisperse bubble phase. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used for free surface tracking. The model accounts for momentum exchange between dispersed bubbles and liquid phase as well as bubble-induced dissipation. We investigate the formation and evolution of breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures (BTCS) under both plunging and spilling periodic breaking waves as well as BTCS's role on the intermittent 3D distributions of bubble void fraction in the surf zone. We particularly examine the correlation between bubble void fractions and Q-criterion values to quantify this interaction. Also, the vertical transport of dispersed bubbles by downburst type coherent structures in the transition region is compared to that by obliquely descending eddies. All the results are summarized at different zones from outer to inner surf zone.
Bounds on very weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) from cosmology and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many weakly interacting sub-electronVolt particles (WISPs) are easily accommodated in extensions of the standard model. Generally the strongest bounds on their existence come from stellar evolution and cosmology, where to the best of our knowledge observations seem to agree with the standard budget of particles. In this talk I review the most demanding constraints for axions and axion-like-particles, hidden photons and mini-charged particles. (orig.)
Study of -nucleus interaction through the formation of -nucleus bound state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Jha; B J Roy; A Chatterjee; H Machner
2006-05-01
The question of possible existence of -mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using the GeV proton beam, currently being performed at COSY.
Interacting Three Fluid System and Thermodynamics of the Universe Bounded by the Event Horizon
Mazumder, Nairwita; Biswas, Ritabrata; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2010-01-01
The work deals with the thermodynamics of the universe bounded by the event horizon. The matter in the universe has three constituents namely dark energy, dark matter and radiation in nature and interaction between then is assumed. The variation of entropy of the surface of the horizon is obtained from unified first law while matter entropy variation is calculated from the Gibbss' law. Finally, validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is examined and conclusions are written po...
Four-body long-range interactions between ultracold weakly-bound diatomic molecules
Lepers, Maxence; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Dulieu, Olivier
2015-01-01
Using the multipolar expansion of electrostatic and magnetostatic potential energies, we characterize the long-range interactions between two weakly-bound diatomic molecules, taking as an example the paramagnetic Er$_2$ Feshbach molecules which were produced recently. Since inside each molecule, individual atoms conserve their identity, the intermolecular potential energy can be expanded as the sum of pairwise atomic potential energies. In the case of Er$_2$ Feshbach molecules, we show that the interaction between atomic magnetic dipoles gives rise to the usual $R^{-3}$ term of the multipolar expansion, with $R$ the intermolecular distance, but also to additional terms scaling as $R^{-5}$, $R^{-7}$, and so on. Those terms are due to the interaction between effective molecular multipole moments, and are strongly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the molecules. Similarly the atomic pairwise van der Waals interaction results in $R^{-6}$, $R^{-8}$, ... terms in the intermolecular potential energy. By...
Bounds on four-fermion contact interactions induced by string resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on tree-level open-string scattering amplitudes in the low string-scale scenario, we derive the massless fermion scattering amplitudes. The amplitudes are required to reproduce those of the Standard Model at tree level in the low energy limit. We then obtain four-fermion contact interactions by expanding in inverse powers of the string scale and explore the constraints on the string scale from low energy data. The Chan-Paton factors and the string scale are treated as free parameters. We find that data from the neutral and charged current processes at HERA, Drell-Yan process at the Tevatron, and from LEP-II put lower bounds on the string scale MS, for typical values of the Chan-Paton factors, in the range MS≥0.9-1.3 TeV, comparable to Tevatron bounds on Z' and W' masses. (author)
Bounds on self-interacting fermion dark matter from observations of old neutron stars
Bramante, Joseph; Kumar, Jason; Stopnitzky, Elan
2014-01-01
The existence of old neutron stars deeply constrains self-interacting fermion dark matter, which can form star-killing black holes. We quantify this constraint on dark matter-nucleon scattering, considering collapse scenarios that broaden bounds over intermediate masses. We then find the self- and co-annihilation rates necessary to lift these dark matter-nucleon scattering bounds. For Yukawa-coupled dark matter that fits dwarf galaxy halo profiles with a coupling $\\alpha = 10^{-1}-10^{-4}$, a scalar mediator mass $m_\\phi = 1-500$ MeV, and DM mass $m_X = 0.1-10^7$ GeV, we show that fermion dark matter is unconstrained if it self-annihilates at a rate greater than $10^{-40} ~ \\rm{cm^3/s}$ or co-annihilates with baryons at a rate greater than $10^{-50} ~ \\rm{cm^3/s}$.
ATR-IR Investigation of Solvent Interactions with Surface-Bound Polymers
2016-01-01
Solvent interactions with bulk and surface-bound polymer brushes are crucial for functionalities such as controlled friction and thermoresponsive adhesion. To study such interactions, the temperature-induced solvent-quality changes and the effect of surface tethering on the mechanical and tribological properties of poly(dodecyl methacrylate) (P12MA) brushes have been investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM). These results have been compared with temperature-dependent UV–visible spectrophotometry (UV–vis) data for the corresponding bulk polymer solutions. The ATR-IR results clearly show that increasing temperature enhances ethanol uptake in P12MA, which results in film swelling. This is accompanied by a marked increase in both adhesion and friction. We have also shown that a combination of solvents, such as toluene and ethanol, can lead to a temperature-dependent solvent partitioning within the polymer brush. To our knowledge this is the first time preferential solvent uptake in a grafted-from brush has been monitored via in situ ATR-IR. Moreover, we have observed remarkably different behavior for polymer chains in solution compared to the behavior of similar chains bound to a surface. The presented findings on the temperature-dependent solvent interactions of surface-grafted P12MA reveal previously unknown solvation phenomena and open up a range of possible applications in the area of stimuli-responsive materials. PMID:27397856
Excited hadrons and the analytical structure of bound-state interaction kernels
El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, Eduardo; Serna, Fernando E
2016-01-01
We highlight Hermiticity issues in bound-state equations whose kernels are subject to a highly asymmetric mass and momentum distribution and whose eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex for radially excited states. We trace back the presence of imaginary components in the eigenvalues and wave functions to truncation artifacts and suggest how they can be eliminated in the case of charmed mesons. The solutions of the gap equation in the complex plane, which play a crucial role in the analytic structure of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel, are discussed for several interaction models and qualitatively and quantitatively compared to analytic continuations by means of complex-conjugate pole models fitted to real solutions.
Song, Y F; Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y
2016-01-25
We report on the experimental observation of vector and bound vector solitons in a fiber laser passively mode locked by graphene. Localized interactions between vector solitons, vector soliton with bound vector solitons, and vector soliton with a bunch of vector solitons are experimentally investigated. We show that depending on the soliton interactions, various stable and dynamic multiple vector soliton states could be formed. PMID:26832559
Bounds on Higgs and Gauge-Boson Interactions from LEP2 Data
Éboli, Oscar J P; Lietti, S M; Novaes, S F
1998-01-01
We derive bounds on Higgs and gauge--boson anomalous interactions using the LEP2 data on the production of three photons and photon pairs in association with hadrons. In the framework of $SU(2)_L \\otimes U(1)_Y$ effective Lagrangians, we examine all dimension--six operators that lead to anomalous Higgs interactions involving $\\gamma$ and $Z$. The search for Higgs boson decaying to $\\gamma\\gamma$ pairs allow us to obtain constrains on these anomalous couplings that are comparable with the ones originating from the analyses of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. Our results also show that if the coefficients of all ``blind'' operators are assumed to have same magnitude, the indirect constraints on the anomalous couplings obtained from this analyses, for Higgs masses $M_H \\lesssim$ 140 GeV, are more restrictive than the ones coming from the $W^+W^-$ production.
Relativistic wave equations for two interacting particles and zero mass bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct relativistic wave equations for two interacting particle systems involving spin-o bosons and/or spin-1/2 fermions. The method consists in quantizing the manifestly covariant formalism with constraints of classical relativistic hamiltonian mechanics. In this formalism the two-particle wave function satisfies two independent, but compatible, wave equations, which thus determine in a definite way its relative time evolution. We classify the interaction potentials according to their tensor structure, such as scalar, pseudoscalar, vector. We apply these results to the construction of confining systems with ground states having zero or small masses. For fermion-antifermion systems, we exhibit a general class of interactions, of the pseudoscalar type, with arbitrary confining potentials, which produce a zero mass pseudoscalar meson bound state. This feature is not altered by the presence of short range vector interactions. For fermion-boson systems, we exhibit a general class of interactions of the vector type, with arbitrary confining potentials, which preserve chiral symmetry except for the free mass terms, and produce an infinite number of light fermions with degenerate masses which are proportional to the free masses of the constituent particles. In the classification scheme of quantum numbers j, l, n these fermions have the quantum numbers j=l+1/2; l=o, 1, ...; n=o. For the massive particles the spectrum displays parity doublets. The introduction of short range vector interactions removes the mass degeneracies but leaves in general unchanged the qualitative feature of the existence of an infinite number of light fermions with increasing spins. We show that the introduction of some additional secondary interactions of the axial vector type, acting as an L-S coupling, might give masses to the high spin light fermions
Relativistic wave equation for the bound states of a system of interacting particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for obtaining the relativistic wave equation for the bound states of a system of interacting charged particles without consideration of spin is proposed. An expansion of the wave function of the system in a complete basis of orthonormal wave functions of vacuum states for each type of particle is used in this equation. It is shown that this equation contains two types of solutions for a proton + electron system. The first type corresponds to Bohr bound states. Exact expressions are obtained for the energy and Bohr radius of the ground state with consideration of the finite mass of the particles. An influence of the energy of translational motion of the system as a whole on the structure of the atomic levels in the laboratory frame is predicted. This effect is due to the finite value of m/M, and leads to removal of the degeneracy of the levels with respect to orbital angular momentum l, and partial removal of the degeneracy with respect to its projection. The second type of solution represents states of the system with binding energy Eb=M+m-√(|M2-m2|) and an exponential wave function damping radius equal to the Compton wavelength of the electron. A complete description of this state requires consideration of the electronic vacuum polarization
Unitarity bounds for gauged axionic interactions and the Green-Schwarz mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the effective actions of anomalous models in which a four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism is invoked for the cancellation of the anomalies, and we compare it with those models in which gauge invariance is restored by the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. Some issues concerning an apparent violation of unitarity of the mechanism, which requires Dolgov-Zakharov poles, are carefully examined, using a class of amplitudes studied in the past by Bouchiat-Iliopoulos-Meyer (BIM), and elaborating on previous studies. In the Wess-Zumino case we determine explicitly the unitarity bound using a realistic model of intersecting branes (the Madrid model) by studying the corresponding BIM amplitudes. This is shown to depend significantly on the Stueckelberg mass and on the coupling of the extra anomalous gauge bosons and allows one to identify standard-model-like regions (which are anomaly-free) from regions where the growth of certain amplitudes is dominated by the anomaly, separated by an inflection point, which could be studied at the LHC. The bound can even be around 5-10 TeV for a Z' mass around 1 TeV and varies sensitively with the anomalous coupling. The results for the WZ case are quite general and apply to all the models in which an axion-like interaction is introduced as a generalization of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, with a gauged axion. (orig.)
Interactions of Aquaculture and Waste Disposal in the Coastal Zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAI Xuemei; Hawkins S.J.
2002-01-01
Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper.Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture.Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.
Photonic Bound State in the Continuum for Strong Light-matter Interaction
Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Xu-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
The photonic bound state in the continuum (BIC) is discovered in a hybrid photonic circuit with low refractive index waveguide on a high refractive index thin membrane, where the optical dissipation is forbidden because of the destructive interference of different leakage channels. Based on the photonic BIC, the low mode area in a hybrid waveguide and high quality factor in a microresonator can be applied to enhance the light-matter interaction. Taking the fabrication-friendly polymer structure on diamond membrane as an example, those excellent optical performances can exist in a wide range of structure parameters with large fabrication tolerance and induce the strong coupling between photon and nitrogen-vacancy center in the diamond for scalable quantum information processors and networks. Such a fabrication-friendly structure with photonic BIC is also very promising in laser, nonlinear optical and quantum optical applications.
Three-body bound states in atomic mixtures with resonant p-wave interaction
Efremov, Maxim A; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Schleich, Wolfgang P
2013-01-01
We employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to find the effective potential in a three-body system consisting of a light particle and two heavy ones when the heavy-light short-range interaction potential has a resonance corresponding to a non-zero orbital angular momentum. In the case of an exact resonance in the p-wave scattering amplitude, the effective potential is attractive and long-range, namely it decreases as the third power of the inter-atomic distance. Moreover, we show that the range and power of the potential, as well as the number of bound states are determined by the mass ratio of the particles and the parameters of the heavy-light short-range potential.
Interaction dynamics of multiple autonomous mobile robots in bounded spatial domains
Wang, P. K. C.
1989-01-01
A general navigation strategy for multiple autonomous robots in a bounded domain is developed analytically. Each robot is modeled as a spherical particle (i.e., an effective spatial domain about the center of mass); its interactions with other robots or with obstacles and domain boundaries are described in terms of the classical many-body problem; and a collision-avoidance strategy is derived and combined with homing, robot-robot, and robot-obstacle collision-avoidance strategies. Results from homing simulations involving (1) a single robot in a circular domain, (2) two robots in a circular domain, and (3) one robot in a domain with an obstacle are presented in graphs and briefly characterized.
Foot, Robert
2016-01-01
We argue that a charged scalar particle $\\chi$ of mass around 375 GeV charged under both $\\mathrm{SU}(3)_{c}$ and a new confining non-abelian gauge interaction can explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. After pair production, these interactions confine the exotic scalar into non-relativistic bound states whose decays into photons can explain the discrepancy. Taking the new confining group to be $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$, we find $\\chi$ must carry an electric charge of $Q \\approx 1/2$ to fit the data. Interestingly, we find that pair production of the scalars and the subsequent formation of the bound state dominates over direct bound state resonance production. This explanation is quite weakly constrained by current experimental bounds, and we expect future constraints to come from dijet, mono-jet and possibly dilepton searches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Designed peptides that would selectively interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin and fold into specific conformations could serve as important scaffolds toward the development of antisepsis compounds. Here, we describe solution structure of a designed amphipathic peptide, H2N-YVKLWRMIKFIR-CONH2 (YW12D) in complex with endotoxin as determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The conformation of the isolated peptide is highly flexible, but undergoes a dramatic structural stabilization in the presence of LPS. Structure calculations reveal that the peptide presents two amphipathic surfaces in its bound state to LPS whereby each surface is characterized by two positive charges and a number of aromatic and/or aliphatic residues. ITC data suggests that peptide interacts with two molecules of lipid A. In activity assays, YW12D exhibits neutralization of LPS toxicity with very little hemolysis of red blood cells. Structural and functional properties of YW12D would be applicable in designing low molecular weight non-toxic antisepsis molecules
Entropy on a null surface for interacting quantum field theories and the Bousso bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We study the vacuum-subtracted von Neumann entropy of a segment on a null plane. We argue that for interacting quantum field theories in more than two dimensions, this entropy has a simple expression in terms of the expectation value of the null components of the stress tensor on the null interval. More explicitly $\\Delta S = 2\\pi \\int d^{d-2}y \\int_0^1 dx^+\\, g(x^+)\\, \\langle T_{++}\\rangle$, where $g(x^+)$ is a theory-dependent function. This function is constrained by general properties of quantum relative entropy. These constraints are enough to extend our recent free field proof of the quantum Bousso bound to the interacting case. This unusual expression for the entropy as the expectation value of an operator implies that the entropy is equal to the modular Hamiltonian, $\\Delta S = \\langle \\Delta K \\rangle $, where $K$ is the operator in the right hand side. We explain how this equality is compatible with a non-zero value for $\\Delta S$. Finally, we also compute explicitly the function $g(x^+)$ for theori...
Constraining Flavor Changing Interactions from LHC Run-2 Dilepton Bounds with Vector Mediators
Queiroz, Farinaldo S; Valle, José W F
2016-01-01
Within the context of vector mediators, is a new signal observed in flavor changing interactions, particularly in the neutral mesons systems $K^{0}-\\bar{K}^{0}$, $D^{0}-\\bar{D}^{0}$ and $B^0-\\bar{B^0}$, consistent with dilepton resonance searches at the LHC? In the attempt to address this very simple question, we discuss the complementarity between flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) and dilepton resonance searches at the LHC run 2 at $13$TeV with $3.2\\, {\\rm fb^{-1}}$ of integrated luminosity, in the context of vector mediators at tree level. Vector mediators, are often studied in the flavor changing framework, specially in the light of the recent LHCb anomaly observed at the rare B decay. However, the existence of stringent dilepton bound severely constrains flavor changing interactions, due to restrictive limits on the $Z^{\\prime}$ mass. We discuss this interplay explicitly in the well motivated framework of a 3-3-1 scheme, where fermions and scalars are arranged in the fundamental representation of the...
Bounds on Leptoquark and Supersymmetric, R-parity violating Interactions from Meson Decays
Herz, M
2003-01-01
We present constraints on products of two leptoquark (LQ) coupling constants. The bounds are obtained from meson decays, in particular leptonic \\pi, K, D, D_s, B, B_s decays. Furthermore semileptonic meson decays and mixing in neutral meson systems are discussed. We use the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler-model for scalar and vector LQs. Bounds on R-parity violation can be extracted directly from the corresponding LQ bounds. Our results are listed in the Tables 6 (for LQs) and 7 (for SUSY particles) with english captions. The bounds of Davidson/Bailey/Campbell were updated. The SUSY-bounds of Dreiner/Polesello/Thormeier were reproduced.
Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem
2016-09-01
This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ < 1) in the target zones. Furthermore, our nascent results will provide a baseline record of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) concentrations in the indoor and outdoor dust of Pakistan. PMID:27346442
CLIMATE INTERACTIONS ON INFRASTUCTURE STABILITY IN THE DISCONTINUOUS PERMAFROST ZONE
Sarrazin, D.; Allard, M.; Leclerc, A.; L'Hérault, E.
2009-12-01
Remote airport infrastructures in northern communities are an essential link to major cities in the South for the transportation of persons, goods, and supplies. The stability of airport infrastructures is therefore a major concern given the essential services they provide. The impact of climate warming on their stability is of even greater concern for those located in the discontinuous permafrost zone because of its sensitivity to thawing. The Kuujjuaq airport is a major hub for satellite communities in Nunavik, near Ungava Bay. It is underlined by permafrost and the principal runway consists of a paved surface. The initial goal of this study was to assess the stability of the infrastructure in the context of warming since very little information is known on permafrost distribution and its characteristics for this area. The surface geology was studied and the properties of the permafrost under the runway were determined using several methods, which include excavation with machinery, ground penetrating radar surveys, drilling and sediment analysis. Thermistor strings were installed in six boreholes to depths ranging from 4 to 8 meters and automated data logging since 2006 has provided valuable information on the thermal regime surrounding the infrastructure. This study assesses the interactions between climate and infrastructure stability over warming permafrost, discusses factors affecting the ground thermal regime, and relates the observed impacts. The soil under the runway is dominated by till and coarse glacial drift that varies in thickness from about 1.5 m to over 9 m over bedrock. The active layer has a thickness of about 3 meters and its yearly freezing and thawing rates vary depending on ground surface conditions and the surface drainage regime which are particularly affected by the sharp contrast between the paved runway surface and the unpaved shoulders and natural terrain. This spatial and temporal variability of the active layer influences the ground
Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chaudhuri, Tandrima; Moulik, Satya Priya; Banerjee, Manas
2016-01-01
Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) binds calf thymus (ct-) DNA like anionic biopolymers electrostatically and established equilibrium both in the ground as well as in excited state in aqueous medium at pH 7. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) does not show even hydrophobic interaction with ct-DNA at low concentration. On contrary, SDS can establish well defined equilibrium with DNA bound CTAB in ground state where the same CTAB-DNA isosbestic point reappears. First report of internal charge transfer (ICT) based binding of CTAB with ct-DNA as well as ICT based interaction of anionic SDS with DNA bound CTAB that shows dynamic quenching contribution also. The reappearance of anodic peak and slight increase in cathodic peak current with increasing concentration (at lower range) of anionic SDS, possibly reflect the release of CTAB from DNA bound CTAB by SDS.
Wang, J; Wada, R; Hagel, K; Kowalski, S; Materna, T; Qin, L; Chen, Z; Natowitz, J B; Ma, Y G; Murray, M; Keksis, A L; Martin, E; Ruangma, A; Shetty, D V; Souliotis, G A; Veselsky, M; Winchester, E M; Yennello, S J; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Rizzi, V; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Prete, G; Cibor, J; Zipper, W; Majka, Z; Staszel, P; Masri, Y E; Alfarro, R; Martínez-Davalos, A; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Ono, A
2006-01-01
The sizes, temperatures and free neutron to proton ratios of the initial interaction zones produced in the collisions of 40 MeV/nucleon $^{40}$Ar + $^{112}$Sn and 55 MeV/nucleon$^{27}$Al + $^{124}$Sn are derived using total detected neutron plus charged particle multiplicity as a measure of the impact parameter range and number of participant nucleons. The size of the initial interaction zone, determined from a coalescence model analysis, increases significantly with decreasing impact parameter. The temperatures and free neutron to proton ratios in the interaction zones are relatively similar for different impact parameter ranges and evolve in a similar fashion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we obtain the approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Dirac particle with the generalized Yukawa potential within the framework of spin and pseudospin symmetries for the arbitrary κ state with a generalized tensor interaction. The generalized parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions in closed form. We also report some numerical results and present figures to show the effect of the tensor interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ikot, Akpan N. [University of Uyo, Uyo (Nigeria); Maghsoodi, Elham; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Obu, Joseph A. [University of Calabar, Calabar (Nigeria)
2014-05-15
In this paper, we obtain the approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Dirac particle with the generalized Yukawa potential within the framework of spin and pseudospin symmetries for the arbitrary κ state with a generalized tensor interaction. The generalized parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions in closed form. We also report some numerical results and present figures to show the effect of the tensor interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present the approximate bound state solutions of the Dirac equation within the framework of spin and pseudospin symmetries for Eckart potential for arbitrary κ—state using Nikiforov–Uvarov method. The tensor interactions of Coulomb-like and Yukawa-like form are considered and the effects of these tensors and the degeneracy removing role are discussed in detail. Numerical results and figures to show the effect of the tensor interactions are also reported. (author)
Huang, Chun-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y
2016-11-01
Health risk of residents dwelling around e-waste recycling zones has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. The present study was intended to evaluate the potential health risk of residents through inhalation exposure to size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals in a typical e-waste recycling zone, South China. Anthropogenic metals (Zn, Se, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd) were predominantly enriched in fine particles (Dp1.8μm). Although the daily inhalation intakes of the target metals were significantly lower than those through food consumption and ingestion of house dust, the hazard quotients of total metals for adults (95% CI: 1.0-5.5) and children (95% CI: 3.0-17) were greater than 1. Moreover, the incremental lifetime cancer risks of five carcinogenic metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd) for adults and children were 1.3×10(-3) (95% CI: 4.1×10(-4)-3.0×10(-3)) and 3.9×10(-3) (95% CI: 1.3×10(-3)-8.6×10(-3)), respectively, substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range of 10(-6)-10(-4). All these findings suggested that health risks were high for local residents dwelling around the e-waste recycling zone through inhalation exposure to particle-bound heavy metals, for both adults and children. PMID:27322902
Wang, J.; Keutgen, T.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Kowalski, S.; Materna, T.; L. Qin; Chen, Z.; Natowitz, J. B.; Ma, Y. G.; Murray, M; Keksis, A.; Martin, E.; Ruangma, A.; Shetty, D. V.
2006-01-01
The sizes, temperatures and free neutron to proton ratios of the initial interaction zones produced in the collisions of 40 MeV/nucleon $^{40}$Ar + $^{112}$Sn and 55 MeV/nucleon$^{27}$Al + $^{124}$Sn are derived using total detected neutron plus charged particle multiplicity as a measure of the impact parameter range and number of participant nucleons. The size of the initial interaction zone, determined from a coalescence model analysis, increases significantly with decreasing impact paramet...
Nitrogen processing in the hyporheic zone and its response to stream-groundwater interactions
Grant, Stanley; Azizian, Morvarid; Boano, Fulvio
2016-04-01
Modeling and experimental studies have shown that stream-groundwater interactions reduce hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for hyporheic zone function are not yet clear. In this study we develop and test a simple process-based model for nitrate cycling in the hyporheic zone of a gaining or losing stream. Our model reproduces field measurements of nitrate uptake velocity and predicts that stream-groundwater interactions: (1) reduce hyporheic exchange; (2) reduce the residence time of water in the hyporheic zone; (3) slow denitrification; and (4) can cause stream sediments to switch from a net sink to source of nitrate. Stream-groundwater interactions attenuate denitrification across at least two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial dunes and riffle-pool bedforms). These results suggest that changes in regional groundwater hydrology (e.g., brought on by climate change) can indirectly affect stream nitrogen budgets by altering the form and function of the hyporheic zone.
Derivation of a Closed Expression of the B-S Interaction Kernel for Quark-Antiquark Bound States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU Jun-Chen
2002-01-01
The interaction kernel in the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) equation for quark-antiquark bound states is derivedfrom B-S equations satisfied by the quark-antiquark four-point Green's function. The latter equations are establishedbased on the equations of motion obeyed by the quark and antiquark propagators, the four-point Green's function andsome other kinds of Green's functions, which follow directly from the QCD generating functional. The derived B-Skernel is given by a closed and explicit expression which contains only a few types of Green's functions. This expressionis not only convenient for perturbative calculations, but also applicable for nonperturbative investigations. Since thekernel contains all the interactions taking place in the quark-antiquark bound states, it actually appears to be the mostsuitable starting point of studying the QCD nonperturbative effect and quark confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a high-Q Fabry-Perot resonator with cylindrical mirrors, operating near fundamental mode and filled with an alkali vapor, as the photonic analog to the electronic quantum wire. The internal photons constitute a 1D Bose gas with pairwise interactions. We solve for the two-photon bound state which determines a resonance for the two-photon transmission function. Emphasis is placed on the experimental feasibility of observing these quasiparticles
Y. P. Wang; Kolb, A; M. Buck; Wen, J.; O'Gara, F.; Buc, H
1998-01-01
The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an activator of sigma70-dependent transcription. Analysis of the sigma54-dependent dctA promoter reveals a novel negative regulatory function for CRP. CRP can bind to two distant sites of the dctA promoter, sites which overlap the upstream activator sequences for the DctD activator. CRP interacts with Esigma54 bound at the dctA promoter via DNA loop formation. When the CRP-binding sites are deleted, CRP still interacts in a cAMP-dependent manner with the sta...
Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Agrawal, Alok
2004-01-01
C-reactive protein (CRP) binds with high affinity to fibronectin (Fn), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), but at physiological pH the binding is inhibited by calcium ions (Ca2+). Because CRP circulates in the blood in Ca2+-bound form, the occurrence of CRP-Fn interactions in vivo has been doubtful. To define the basis of inhibition of CRP-Fn interaction by Ca2+ at pH 7.0, we hypothesized that Fn-binding site on CRP consisted of amino acids co-ordinating Ca2+. Site-directed m...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, H; Gregorski, B; Joy, K I
2004-06-24
In this paper we present an occlusion culling method that uses hardware-based depth queries on oriented bounding boxes to cull unseen geometric primitives efficiently. An out-of-core design enables this method to interactively display data sets that are too large to fit into main memory. During a preprocessing phase, a spatial subdivision (such as an octree or BSP tree) of a given data set is constructed where, for each node, an oriented bounding box containing mesh primitives is computed using principal component analysis (PCA). At runtime, the tree indicated by the spatial subdivision is traversed in front-to-back order, and only nodes that are determined to be visible, based on a hardware accelerated depth query, are rendered.
Cellular polarization: Interaction between extrinsic bounded noises and the wave-pinning mechanism
de Franciscis, Sebastiano; d'Onofrio, Alberto
2013-09-01
Cell polarization (cued or uncued) is a fundamental mechanism in cell biology. As an alternative to the classical Turing bifurcation, it has been proposed that the onset of cell polarity might arise by means of the well-known phenomenon of wave-pinning [Gamba , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0503974102 102, 16927 (2005)]. A particularly simple and elegant deterministic model of cell polarization based on the wave-pinning mechanism has been proposed by Edelstein-Keshet and coworkers [Biophys. J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1529/biophysj.107.120824 94, 3684 (2008)]. This model consists of a small biomolecular network where an active membrane-bound factor interconverts into its inactive form that freely diffuses in the cell cytosol. However, biomolecular networks do communicate with other networks as well as with the external world. Thus, their dynamics must be considered as perturbed by extrinsic noises. These noises may have both a spatial and a temporal correlation, and in any case they must be bounded to preserve the biological meaningfulness of the perturbed parameters. Here we numerically show that the inclusion of external spatiotemporal bounded parametric perturbations in the above wave-pinning-based model of cellular polarization may sometimes destroy the polarized state. The polarization loss depends on both the extent of temporal and spatial correlations and on the kind of noise employed. For example, an increase of the spatial correlation of the noise induces an increase of the probability of cell polarization. However, if the noise is spatially homogeneous then the polarization is lost in the majority of cases. These phenomena are independent of the type of noise. Conversely, an increase of the temporal autocorrelation of the noise induces an effect that depends on the model of noise.
Three-Dimensional Low-Momentum Interaction in Two-Body Bound State Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The deuteron binding energy and wave function are calculated by using the recently developed three-dimensional form of low-momentum nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction. The homogeneous Lippmann–Schwinger equation is solved in momentum space by using the low-momentum two-body interaction, which is constructed from Malfliet–Tjon potential. The results for both, deuteron binding energy and wave function, obtained with low-momentum interaction, are compared with the corresponding results obtained with bare potential. (author)
Improved branch and bound algorithm for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer
Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Hong
2013-01-01
Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes derived from distinct pathways are associated with a breast cancer risk. Identifying possible SNP-SNP interactions in genome-wide case–control studies is an important task when investigating genetic factors that influence common complex traits; the effects of SNP-SNP interaction need to be characterized. Furthermore, observations of the complex interplay (interactions) between SNPs for high-dimensional combinations are still computati...
Dynamic simulation of interactions between major earthquakes on the Xianshuihe fault zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The authors firstly evaluate the strain accumulation rate of the Xianshuihe fault zone based on earth- quake activity. We calculated the stress and seismic moment accumulation rate for each subsection of the Xianshuihe fault zone based on the distribution of geological slip rate and GPS survey results. According to the results, we get the recurrence intervals of characterized earthquakes on each sub- section respectively. A three-dimensional finite element model for western Sichuan is constructed to discuss the earthquakes triggering among major earthquakes (M>6.7) that occurred along the Xianshuihe fault zone since 1893. The calculated Coulomb failure stress changes (ΔCFS) show that 5 of the 6 earthquakes with Ms>6.7 were triggered by positive ΔCFS. The interactions between major earthquakes not only influence recurrence intervals of characterized earthquakes on each subsection, but also change recurrence behavior of major earthquakes along the whole fault zone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The parameters of separable coupled channels s-wave potentials for the strong /bar K/N interaction are determined from low energy K-p scattering data with additional constraints from π-p → πΣK0 production data. The shifts and widths of the Coulomb bound states in kaonic hydrogen are calculated with these potentials and compared with experiment. Optical potentials are constructed from /bar K/N t-matrices derived from the separable potentials, and these optical potentials are used to calculate kaonic helium and kaonic carbon shifts and widths which are also compared with experiment. 68 refs., 50 figs., 9 tabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was applied to study the interaction between netropsin and a 14mer double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The binding constant of this interaction calculated from Scatchard plot was (1.07±0.10)×105 (mol/L)-1. The binding stoichiometry was 1:1. The use of polyacrylamide coated capillary showed better effect in the analysis of DNA than noncoated capillary.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming GUO; Qing Sen YU; Jian Wei YAN; Fei TAN; Guo Zheng MA
2004-01-01
Three capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods of the frontal analysis (FA), vacancy peak (VP) and simplified Hummel-Dreyer (SHD) were applied to investigate interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lomefloxacin, the experimental condition was established after a large number of tests. Based on the site-binding model, the binding parameters were measured according to the site model by Scatchard.
Bounded-Choice Statements for User Interaction in Imperative and Object-Oriented Programming
Kwon, Keehang; Seo, Jeongyoon; Kang, Daeseong
2013-01-01
Adding versatile interactions to imperative programming -- C, Java and Android -- is an essential task. Unfortunately, existing languages provide only limited constructs for user interaction. These constructs are usually in the form of $unbounded$ quantification. For example, existing languages can take the keyboard input from the user only via the $read(x)/scan(x)$ construct. Note that the value of $x$ is unbounded in the sense that $x$ can have any value. This construct is thus not useful f...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The interaction kernel in the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-antiquark bound states is derived newly from QCD in the case where the quark and the antiquark are of different flavors. The technique of the derivation is the usage of the irreducible decomposition of the Green's functions involved in the Bethe-Salpeter equation satisfied by the quark-antiquark four-point Green's function. The interaction kernel derived is given a closed and explicit expression which shows a specific structure of the kernel since the kernel is represented in terms of the quark, antiquark and gluon propagators and some kinds of quark, antiquark and/or gluon three, four, five and six-point vertices. Therefore,the expression of the kernel is not only convenient for perturbative calculations, but also suitable for nonperturbative investigations.
Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.
Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee
2014-06-19
Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law. PMID:24943952
Optical beam interactions with a periodic array of Fresnel zone plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interactions of first-order elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams (ELG) with a two-dimensional periodic array are analysed theoretically and numerically. The structure consists of a periodic composition of two-zone Fresnel plates engraved in a silver film. The beam field is composed of periodic sequences of beams of circular or polar polarization incidence upon the structure. The beam axes coincide with the symmetry axes of every fourth Fresnel zone plate placed periodically along two orthogonal coordinates of a horizontal plane of the structure. It is shown that the beam-structure interaction results in substantial cross-polarization coupling, higher-order mode excitation, strong focussing and the extraordinary transmission of the optical field. An interpretation of the results is given per an analogy to the beam-structure interactions observed at planar, homogeneous and isotropic dielectric interfaces and layers. (paper)
Unitarity Bounds for Gauged Axionic Interactions and the Green-Schwarz Mechanism
Coriano, Claudio; Morelli, Simone
2008-01-01
We analize the effective actions of anomalous models where a four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism is invoked for the cancellation of the anomalies and we compare it against those models where gauge invariance is restored by the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. Some issues concerning an apparent violation of unitarity of the mechanism, which requires Dolgov-Zakharov poles, are carefully examined, using a class of amplitudes analized in the past by Bouchiat-Iliopoulos-Meyer (BIM), and elaborating on previous studies. In the Wess-Zumino case we determine explicitely the unitarity bound using a realistic model of intersecting branes (the Madrid model) by studying the corresponding BIM amplitudes. This is shown to depend significantly on the St\\"uckelberg mass and on the coupling of the extra anomalous gauge bosons and allows to identify Standard-Model like regions (which are anomaly-free) from regions where the growth of certain amplitudes is dominated by the anomaly, separated by an inflection ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovčić Nataša S.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used
The η′N interaction from a chiral effective model and η′-N bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The η′ mass reduction in the nuclear medium is expected owing to the degeneracy of the pseudoscalar-singlet and octet mesons in the restoration of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In this study, we investigate the η′N 2body interaction, which is the fundamental interaction of the in-medium η′ properties, using the linear sigma model as a chiral effective model. The η′N interaction in the linear sigma model comes from the scalar meson exchange with U A(1) symmetry effect and is found to be fairly strong attraction. The transition amplitude of η′N to the ηN channel is relatively small compared to that of elastic channel. From the analysis of the η′N 2body system, we find a η′N bound state with the binding energy 12.3-3.3iMeV. We expect that this strongly attractive two body interaction leads to a deep and attractive optical potential
Solar Wind at 33 AU: Setting Bounds on the Pluto Interaction for New Horizons
Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Lisse, C M; McComas, D J; McNutt,, R L; Richardson, J D; Smith, C W; Strobel, D F
2015-01-01
The NASA New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto on July 14, 2015, carrying two instruments that detect charged particles. Pluto has a tenuous, extended atmosphere that is escaping the weak gravity of the planet. The interaction of the solar wind with the escaping atmosphere of Pluto depends on solar wind conditions as well as the vertical structure of the atmosphere. We have analyzed Voyager 2 particles and fields measurements between 25 and 39 AU and present their statistical variations. We have adjusted these predictions to allow for the declining activity of the Sun and solar wind output. We summarize the range of SW conditions that can be expected at 33 AU and survey the range of scales of interaction that New Horizons might experience. Model estimates for the solar wind stand-off distance vary from approximately 7 to 1000 RP with our best estimate being around 40 RP (where we take the radius of Pluto to be RP=1184 km).
Solar wind at 33 AU: Setting bounds on the Pluto interaction for New Horizons
Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Elliott, H. A.; Hill, M. E.; Lisse, C. M.; McComas, D. J.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Richardson, J. D.; Smith, C. W.; Strobel, D. F.
2015-09-01
NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto on 14 July 2015, carrying two instruments that detect charged particles. Pluto has a tenuous, extended atmosphere that is escaping the planet's weak gravity. The interaction of the solar wind with Pluto's escaping atmosphere depends on solar wind conditions as well as the vertical structure of Pluto's atmosphere. We have analyzed Voyager 2 particles and fields measurements between 25 and 39 AU and present their statistical variations. We have adjusted these predictions to allow for the Sun's declining activity and solar wind output. We summarize the range of SW conditions that can be expected at 33 AU and survey the range of scales of interaction that New Horizons might experience. Model estimates for the solar wind standoff distance vary from ~7 to ~1000 RP with our best estimate being around 40 RP (where we take Pluto's radius to be RP = 1184 km).
Solar Wind at 33 AU: Setting Bounds on the Pluto Interaction for New Horizons
Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Elliott, H. A.; Hill, M. E.; Lisse, C. M.; McComas, D. J.; McNutt, JR; Richardson, J. D.; Smith, C W; Strobel, D. F.
2015-01-01
The NASA New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto on July 14, 2015, carrying two instruments that detect charged particles. Pluto has a tenuous, extended atmosphere that is escaping the weak gravity of the planet. The interaction of the solar wind with the escaping atmosphere of Pluto depends on solar wind conditions as well as the vertical structure of the atmosphere. We have analyzed Voyager 2 particles and fields measurements between 25 and 39 AU and present their statistical variations. W...
In-medium eta N interactions and eta nuclear bound states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cieplý, Aleš; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 925, MAY (2014), s. 126-140. ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/2126; GA MŠk LG14038 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : N(star) (1535 resonance * meson-baryon interactions * mesons in nuclear matter * mesic nuclei Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.202, year: 2014
Bulgakov, Evgeny N; Sadreev, Almas F
2016-07-01
We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase. PMID:27165662
Using mixed-initiative human-robot interaction to bound performance in a search task
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtis W. Nielsen; Douglas A. Few; Devin S. Athey
2008-12-01
Mobile robots are increasingly used in dangerous domains, because they can keep humans out of harm’s way. Despite their advantages in hazardous environments, their general acceptance in other less dangerous domains has not been apparent and, even in dangerous environments, robots are often viewed as a “last-possible choice.” In order to increase the utility and acceptance of robots in hazardous domains researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory have both developed and tested novel mixed-initiative solutions that support the human-robot interactions. In a recent “dirty-bomb” experiment, participants exhibited different search strategies making it difficult to determine any performance benefits. This paper presents a method for categorizing the search patterns and shows that the mixed-initiative solution decreased the time to complete the task and decreased the performance spread between participants independent of prior training and of individual strategies used to accomplish the task.
C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Remans
2014-07-01
Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.
Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards
Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.
2011-12-01
We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due
Wang, J.; Keutgen, T.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Kowalski, S.; Materna, T.; Qin, L.; Chen, Z.; Natowitz, J. B.; Ma, Y. G.; Murray, M.; Keksis, A.; Martin, E.; Ruangma, A.; Shetty, D. V.; Souliotis, G.; Veselsky, M.; Winchester, E. M.; Yennello, S. J.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Cibor, J.; Majka, Z.; Staszel, P.; Zipper, W.; Masri, Y. El; Alfaro, R.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Ono, A.
2007-01-01
The sizes, temperatures, and free neutron-to-proton ratios of the initial interaction zones produced in the collisions of 40 MeV/nucleon Ar40+Sn112 and 55 MeV/nucleon Al27+Sn124 are derived using total detected neutron plus charged particle multiplicity as a measure of the impact parameter range and number of participant nucleons. The size of the initial interaction zone, determined from a coalescence model analysis, increases significantly with decreasing impact parameter. The temperatures and free neutron-to-proton ratios in the interaction zones are relatively similar for different impact parameter ranges and evolve in a similar fashion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg
2005-02-22
Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.
Chang, Cristian; Calzado, Carmen J.; Amor, Nadia Ben; Marin, Jose Sanchez; Maynau, Daniel
2012-09-01
A new multireference configuration interaction method using localised orbitals is proposed, in which a molecular system is divided into regions of unequal importance. The advantage of dealing with local orbitals, i.e., the possibility to neglect long range interaction is enhanced. Indeed, while in the zone of the molecule where the important phenomena occur, the interaction cut off may be as small as necessary to get relevant results, in the most part of the system it can be taken rather large, so that results of good quality may be obtained at a lower cost. The method is tested on several systems. In one of them, the definition of the various regions is not based on topological considerations, but on the nature, σ or π, of the localised orbitals, which puts in evidence the generality of the approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melisa C Monteleone
Full Text Available PTP1B is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER anchored enzyme whose access to substrates is partly dependent on the ER distribution and dynamics. One of these substrates, the protein tyrosine kinase Src, has been found in the cytosol, endosomes, and plasma membrane. Here we analyzed where PTP1B and Src physically interact in intact cells, by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC in combination with temporal and high resolution microscopy. We also determined the structural basis of this interaction. We found that BiFC signal is displayed as puncta scattered throughout the ER network, a feature that was enhanced when the substrate trapping mutant PTP1B-D181A was used. Time-lapse and co-localization analyses revealed that BiFC puncta did not correspond to vesicular carriers; instead they localized at the tip of dynamic ER tubules. BiFC puncta were retained in ventral membrane preparations after cell unroofing and were also detected within the evanescent field of total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM associated to the ventral membranes of whole cells. Furthermore, BiFC puncta often colocalized with dark spots seen by surface reflection interference contrast (SRIC. Removal of Src myristoylation and polybasic motifs abolished BiFC. In addition, PTP1B active site and negative regulatory tyrosine 529 on Src were primary determinants of BiFC occurrence, although the SH3 binding motif on PTP1B also played a role. Our results suggest that ER-bound PTP1B dynamically interacts with the negative regulatory site at the C-terminus of Src at random puncta in the plasma membrane/substrate interface, likely leading to Src activation and recruitment to adhesion complexes. We postulate that this functional ER/plasma membrane crosstalk could apply to a wide array of protein partners, opening an exciting field of research.
Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change
Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele
2016-04-01
Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)
2014-10-07
We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.
Scala, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Festa, G.
2015-12-01
Largest earthquakes occur along subduction zones, where normal and tangential stress coupling drives the earthquake rupture due to the geometry of the subduction interface between dissimilar materials and the interaction with waves reflected from free surface as the rupture propagates toward the trench. We numerically investigate these effects in the context of dynamic rupture simulations. We revisit the problem of in-plane interface rupture propagation between dissimilar elastic media, in the case of slip-weakening friction, by performing a numerical study using the Spectral Element Method with a non-smooth contact formulation. For classical slip-weakening friction, the problem is ill posed due to a missing length or time scale in the response of the frictional shear stress to dynamic normal stress perturbations. We first perform a parametric study of the regularization formulation proposed by Rubin and Ampuero (2007). We show that the dynamic regularization, driven by local slip rate does not allow for a proper modeling of the asymptotic rupture propagation. We propose a new regularization approach based on the non-local length scale, associated to the actual size of the process zone. Numerical results are shown to be consistent with mathematical modeling of dynamic interface rupture propagation with a process zone ahead of the rupture front. The numerical study is extended to inclined ruptures intersecting a free surface at different angles. We investigate interaction between rupture propagation and stress changes induced by waves reflected from the free surface, in the generation of large interface slip, transient healing and opening effects. Finally, preliminary in-plane dynamic simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, incorporating the along-dip structure and geometry of the subduction interface, are presented enlightening the role of the geometry of the bi-material interface and of the free surface in the rupture propagation and radiation.
Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding
Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.
2009-12-01
Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered
Bound states and the Bekenstein bound
Bousso, R
2004-01-01
We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S <= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width a. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.
Plasminogen Improves Mouse IVF by Interactions with Inner Acrosomal Membrane-Bound MMP2 and SAMP14.
Ferrer, Marvin J S; Xu, Wei; Shetty, Jagathpala; Herr, John; Oko, Richard
2016-04-01
Spermatozoa must penetrate the outer investments of the oocyte, the cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida (ZP), in order for fertilization to occur. This may require exposure of enzymes on the sperm's inner acrosomal membrane (IAM), one of which is matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, to factors in oviductal fluid. Plasminogen is present in oviductal fluid and activates MMP2 in somatic tissues. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine possible interactions between plasminogen and IAM-bound plasminogen activator receptor (SAMP14) and -MMP2, 2) to demonstrate plasminogen's presence in the extracellular environment at the site of fertilization, and 3) to provide evidence that plasminogen plays a role in fertilization. Zymographs of sonicated bull and rat sperm extracts incubated with plasmin and/or plasminogen (plasmin/ogen) showed acceleration of initiation of MMP2 activity in concentrations as low as 1 μg/ml. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis of plasmin/ogen revealed its presence in the cytoplasm of mouse ovarian and oviductal oocytes, oviductal epithelium, around the ZP, and amongst the cumulus cells. We modified the standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) approach to more closely mimic natural fertilization by reducing sperm concentration during insemination by ∼100× and also comparing cumulus-intact and denuded oocytes. In mice, addition of plasminogen in IVF medium significantly improved fertilization, while MMP2 antibody significantly inhibited sperm penetration in these conditions. IVF improvement by plasminogen was blocked by SAMP14 antibody. Furthermore, MMP2 antibody inhibition was coincident with a failure by spermatozoa to disperse the cumulus oophorus. We provide evidence that plasminogen on its own and through an MMP2-related mechanism improves the ability of oocytes to be fertilized, and demonstrate its effect in sperm penetration of oocyte investments. PMID:26935599
Saric, Dragomir
2006-01-01
We give a short proof of the fact that bounded earthquakes of the unit disk induce quasisymmetric maps of the unit circle. By a similar method, we show that symmetric maps are induced by bounded earthquakes with asymptotically trivial measures.
Forest-snow interactions at Critical Zone Observatories of the Western U.S. (Invited)
Molotch, N. P.; Harpold, A. A.
2013-12-01
Forest structure exerts strong controls on the hydrology of mountainous regions by influencing snow accumulation, snowmelt, and partitioning of melt water to runoff and evapotranspiration. Predicting the hydrological fluxes and states of these montane systems has been limited by an inability to represent snow-vegetation interactions across complex terrain and variable climate. This is particularly important in Western U.S. forests, where recent evidence indicates forest disturbance from fire and insects has uneven impacts on water availability. Instrument clusters deployed in the Central and Southern Rockies and the Sierra Nevada reveal the dominant role of vegetation in controlling the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and snowmelt. In this regard, vegetation structure largely controlled the distribution of snow accumulation with greater snow accumulation in open versus sub-canopy positions across the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network; 11% greater in the Jemez River Basin (JRB) CZO, 24% greater in the Boulder Creek (BC) CZO and 13% in the Southern Sierra (SS) CZO. Similarly, snow ablation rates were greater in open versus under-canopy positions; 17% greater at JRB, 6% greater in BC, and 2% greater in SS. The canopy structure had varying controls on the date of snow disappearance at the different sites. At JRB, snow disappeared an average of 3 days later in under canopy versus open positions. Conversely, at both the SS and BC snow persisted an average of 7 days longer in open versus under-canopy positions. Despite high inter-annual snowpack variability, the timing of peak soil moisture was strongly linked to the timing of snow disappearance at all sites. Peak soil moisture was nearly synchronous with snow disappearance at JRB and BC, with deviations of less than one week. Conversely, peak soil moisture consistently preceded snow disappearance by 1 to 2 weeks at the SS sites. These results highlight the importance of vegetation structure with regard to
Calculating the habitable zones of multiple star systems with a new interactive Web site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed a comprehensive methodology and an interactive Web site for calculating the habitable zone (HZ) of multiple star systems. Using the concept of spectral weight factor, as introduced in our previous studies of the calculations of HZ in and around binary star systems, we calculate the contribution of each star (based on its spectral energy distribution) to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet, and use the models of the HZ of the Sun to determine the boundaries of the HZ in multiple star systems. Our interactive Web site for carrying out these calculations is publicly available at http://astro.twam.info/hz. We discuss the details of our methodology and present its application to some of the multiple star systems detected by the Kepler space telescope. We also present the instructions for using our interactive Web site, and demonstrate its capabilities by calculating the HZ for two interesting analytical solutions of the three-body problem.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tian Qinjian; Ding Guoyu; Hao Ping
2007-01-01
The interaction zone between southern Tianshan and northern Tarim is located at the northeast side of Pamir.It is a region with high seismicity.We constructed a seismotectonic model for the west part of this zone from geological profiles,deep crust seismic detection and earthquake focal mechanisms data.Based on the synthesized geological features,deep crust structure,and earthquake focal mechanisins,we think that the main regional tectonic feature is that the Tianshan recto-lithostratigraphic unit overthrusts on the Tarim block.The Tianshan tectonic system includes the Maidan fault and thrust sheets in front of the fault;The Tarim tectonic system includes the underground northern Tarim margin fault,conjugate faults in basement and overthrust fault in shallow.The northern Tarim margin fault is a high angle fault deep in the Tarim crust, adjusting difierent trending deformation between Tianshan and Tarim.It is a major active fault that can generate large earthquakes.The other faults,such as the Tianshan overthrnst system and the Tarim basement faults in this area may generate moderately strong earthquakes with different styles.
KARSLI, ORHAN; SADIKLAR, FARUK AYDIN & M. BURHAN
2004-01-01
Plagioclase crystals characterized by compositional zoning are typical of the Zigana Granitoid (ZG), NE Turkey. The zoned crystals, which show textural equilibrium with the assemblage quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + hornblende + biotite + pyroxene + magnetite + ilmenite, exhibit oscillatory zoning. The zoned plagioclase crystals, ranging in size from 3 to 6 mm, are oval and larger than normal lath-shaped crystals. The zoned crystals are divided petrographically into two main types: (i) cr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the structure and formation of deeply bound π- states in heavy nuclei, which are expected to be narrow due to the repulsive π--nucleus interaction. Possible experiments to produce those states are described. (author)
Bradford, R. A. W.
2015-10-01
Stationary, static, spherically symmetric solutions of the Maxwell-Dirac system, treated as classical fields, have been found which are localised and normalisable. The solutions apply to any bound energy eigenvalue in the range 0 self-energy is negative. It is this which results in the states being bound (E self-sustaining bound state solution of the Maxwell-Dirac system which is localised, normalisable, and requires no arbitrarily added "external" features (i.e., it is a soliton). As far as the author is aware, this is the first time that such an exact solution with a positive energy eigenvalue has been reported. However, the solution is not unique since the energy eigenvalue is arbitrary within the range 0 < E < m. The stability of the solution has not been addressed.
Rollins, John C.; Stein, Ross S.
2010-01-01
The Gorda deformation zone, a 50,000 km2 area of diffuse shear and rotation offshore northernmost California, has been the site of 20 M ≥ 5.9 earthquakes on four different fault orientations since 1976, including four M ≥ 7 shocks. This is the highest rate of large earthquakes in the contiguous United States. We calculate that the source faults of six recent M ≥ 5.9 earthquakes had experienced ≥0.6 bar Coulomb stress increases imparted by earthquakes that struck less than 9 months beforehand. Control tests indicate that ≥0.6 bar Coulomb stress interactions between M ≥ 5.9 earthquakes separated by Mw = 7.3 Trinidad earthquake are consistent with the locations of M ≥ 5.9 earthquakes in the Gorda zone until at least 1995, as well as earthquakes on the Mendocino Fault Zone in 1994 and 2000. Coulomb stress changes imparted by the 1980 earthquake are also consistent with its distinct elbow-shaped aftershock pattern. From these observations, we derive generalized static stress interactions among right-lateral, left-lateral and thrust faults near triple junctions.
Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.
2010-01-01
balance. Overall, the model was successful in capturing the complex interactions between biogeochemical reactions and multicomponent gas transport processes. However, despite employing a process-based modeling approach, honoring observed parameter ranges, and generally obtaining good agreement between field observations and model simulations, accurate quantification of natural attenuation rates remains difficult. The modeling results are affected by uncertainties regarding gas phase saturations, tortuosities, and the magnitude of CH4 and CO2 flux from the smear zone. These findings highlight the need to better delineate gas fluxes at the model boundaries, which will help constrain contaminant degradation rates, and ultimately source zone longevity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Shevchenko
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.
Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.
2014-05-01
Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated
M.A.A. Derkyi
2012-01-01
Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heuristic arguments are given that the C-, T-violating resonant electroexcitation amplitudes in the second resonance region are approx. (R/subK//R/subJ/) times the C-, T-conserving amplitudes, where R/subK/ (R/subJ/) is a typical interaction radius for the C-, T-violating (conserving) electromagnetic interaction. This result allows the use of an existing amplitude analysis in order to estimate that the expected Christ-Lee asymmetry in this energy region should be about (R/subK//R/subJ/) times (30 to 40 %) for q2 ma -0.5 (GeV/c)2. The experimental upper bound ( ma 2%) then gives a bound R/subK//R/subJ/ 0 decay asymmetries. This result is also in agreement with the bound R/subK//R/subJ/ approximately-less-than 1/20 obtained by previous authors in a dispersive calculation of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Such small radii are shown to have unfavorable implications for the theory, and these are briefly discussed
Constraining the range of Yukawa gravity interaction from S2 star orbits II: bounds on graviton mass
Zakharov, A. F.; Jovanović, P.; Borka, D.; Borka Jovanović, V.
2016-05-01
Recently LIGO collaboration discovered gravitational waves [1] predicted 100 years ago by A. Einstein. Moreover, in the key paper reporting about the discovery, the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg law such as a modifications of Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In particular, we obtain bounds on a graviton mass based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center.
Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter
2014-05-01
The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture
Inside-Out Planet Formation. III. Planet-disk interaction at the dead zone inner boundary
Hu, Xiao; Tan, Jonathan C; Chatterjee, Sourav
2015-01-01
The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-Out Planet Formation (IOPF) has been proposed to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a ring, and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet migrates significantly from its formation location. Thus planet-disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. We present numerical simulations that first assess migration of planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity rapidly increases in the radially inward direction. We find that the disk's...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. S. Ahring
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Groundwater and surface water interactions within riparian corridors impact the distribution of phreatophytes that tap into groundwater stores. The changes in canopy area of phreatophytes over time is related to changes in depth to groundwater, distance from a stream or river, and hydrologic soil group. Remote sensing was used to determine the location of trees with predevelopment and post-development aerial photography over the Ogallala Aquifer in the central plains of the United States. It was found that once the depth to groundwater becomes greater than about 3 m, tree populations decrease as depth to water increases. This subsequently limited the extent of phreatophytes to within 700 m of the river. It was also found that phreatophytes have a higher likelihood of growing on hydrologic soil groups with higher saturated hydraulic conductivity. Phreatophytes exist along portions of the Arkansas River corridor where significant decreases in groundwater occurred as long as alluvium exists to create perched conditions where trees survive dry periods. Significant decreases (more that 50% in canopy cover exists along river segments where groundwater declined by more than 10 m, indicating areas with good hydraulic connectivity between surface water and groundwater. Thus, interpretation of changes in phreatophyte distribution using historical and recent aerial photophaphy is important in delineating zones of enhanced recharge where aquifers might be effectively recharged through diversion of surface water runoff.
Groundwater surface water interactions and the role of phreatophytes in identifying recharge zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. S. Ahring
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Groundwater and surface water interactions within riparian corridors impact the distribution of phreatophytes that tap into groundwater stores. The changes in canopy area of phreatophytes over time is related to changes in depth to groundwater, distance from a stream or river, and hydrologic soil group. Remote sensing was used to determine the location of trees with pre-development and post-development aerial photography over the Ogallala Aquifer in the central plains of the United States. It was found that once the depth to groundwater becomes greater than about 3 m, tree populations decrease as depth to water increases. This subsequently limited the extent of phreatophytes to within 700 m of the river. It was also found that phreatophytes have a higher likelihood of growing on hydrologic soil groups with higher saturated hydraulic conductivity. Phreatophytes exist along portions of the Arkansas River corridor where significant decreases in groundwater occurred as long as alluvium exists to create perched conditions where trees survive dry periods. Significant decreases (more that 50% in canopy cover exists along river segments where groundwater declined by more than 10 m, indicating areas with good hydraulic connectivity between surface water and groundwater. Thus, interpretation of changes in phreatophyte distribution using historical and recent aerial photography is important in delineating zones of enhanced recharge where aquifers might be effectively recharged through diversion of surface water runoff.
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰
2002-01-01
This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.
Constraining the range of Yukawa gravity interaction from S2 star orbits II: Bounds on graviton mass
Zakharov, Alexander F; Borka, Dusko; Jovanovic, Vesna Borka
2016-01-01
Recently LIGO collaboration discovered gravitational waves \\cite{Abbott_16} predicted 100 years ago by A. Einstein. Moreover, in the key paper reporting about the discovery, the joint LIGO \\& VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as $m_g < 1.2 \\times 10^{-22} eV$ (Abbott et al. (LIGO collaboration) PRL 116 (2016) 061102). Since the graviton mass limit is so small the authors concluded that their observational data do not show violations of classical general relativity. We consider another opportunity to evaluate a graviton mass from phenomenological consequences of massive gravity and show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could bound graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and expected with forthcoming pulsar timing observations for gravitational wave detection. It gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a wonderful tool not only for an evaluation specific para...
Tang, Yong; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Tan, Shu-Tang; Xue, Hong-Wei
2016-08-01
Normal leaf margin development is important for leaf morphogenesis and contributes to diverse leaf shapes in higher plants. We here show the crucial roles of an atypical type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, PI4Kγ5, in Arabidopsis leaf margin development. PI4Kγ5 presents a dynamics expression pattern along with leaf development and a T-DNA mutant lacking PI4Kγ5, pi4kγ5-1, presents serrated leaves, which is resulted from the accelerated cell division and increased auxin concentration at serration tips. Studies revealed that PI4Kγ5 interacts with and phosphorylates a membrane-bound NAC transcription factor, ANAC078. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound transcription factors regulate gene transcription by undergoing proteolytic process to translocate into nucleus, and ANAC078 undergoes proteolysis by cleaving off the transmembrane region and carboxyl terminal. Western blot analysis indeed showed that ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal is significantly reduced in pi4kγ5-1, indicating that PI4Kγ5 is important for the cleavage of ANAC078. This is consistent with the subcellular localization observation showing that fluorescence by GFP-ANAC078 is detected at plasma membrane but not nucleus in pi4kγ5-1 mutant and that expression of ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal, driven by PI4Kγ5 promoter, could rescue the leaf serration defects of pi4kγ5-1. Further analysis showed that ANAC078 suppresses the auxin synthesis by directly binding and regulating the expression of auxin synthesis-related genes. These results indicate that PI4Kγ5 interacts with ANAC078 to negatively regulate auxin synthesis and hence influences cell proliferation and leaf development, providing informative clues for the regulation of in situ auxin synthesis and cell division, as well as the cleavage and functional mechanism of membrane-bound transcription factors. PMID:27529511
EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE
Dmitriev A.; Dyachenko, A. I.; Grodzinsky, D. M.
2012-01-01
It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal) and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn.) of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka') grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced...
Derkyi, M.A.A.
2012-01-01
Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories, the book provides an integrated framework for the analysis of natural resource conflicts. Recognising conflict management as a key building block of forest governance, it proposes constructive conf...
Bixio, A.; Gambolati, G.; Paniconi, C.; Putti, M.; Shestopalov, V.; Bublias, V.; Bohuslavsky, A.; Kasteltseva, N.; Rudenko, Y.
2002-06-01
Morphogenetic depressions or "dishes" in the Chernobyl exclusion zone play an important role in the transport of water and solutes (in particular the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr), functioning as accumulation basins and facilitating their transfer between the surface and subsurface via return flow (under conditions of high soil water saturation) and infiltration. From a digital elevation model (DEM) of the 112-km2 study area, 583 dishes (covering about 10% of the area) are identified and classified into four geometric types, ranging in size from 2,500 to 22,500 m2, and a with a maximum depth of 2 m. The collective influence of these depressions on the hydrology of the study basin is investigated with a coupled model of three-dimensional saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow and one-dimensional (along the rill or channel direction s) hill-slope and stream overland flow. Special attention is given to the handling of dishes, applying a "lake boundary-following" procedure in the topographic analysis, a level pool routing algorithm to simulate the storage and retardation effects of these reservoirs, and a higher hydraulic conductivity in the topmost 3 m of soil relative to non-dish cells in accordance with field observations. Modeling the interactions between the surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes requires careful consideration of the distinction between potential and actual atmospheric fluxes and their conversion to ponding, overland flow, and infiltration, and this coupling is described in some detail. Further consideration is given to the treatment of snow accumulation, snowmelt, and soil freezing and thawing processes, handled via linear and step function variations over the winter months in atmospheric boundary conditions and in upper soil hydraulic conductivities. A 1-year simulation of the entire watershed is used to analyze the water table response and, at the surface, the ponding heads and the infiltration/exfiltration fluxes. Saturation patterns and
Wang, Yong; Coulombe, René; Cameron, Dale R; Thauvette, Louise; Massariol, Marie-Josée; Amon, Lynn M; Fink, Dominique; Titolo, Steve; Welchner, Ewald; Yoakim, Christiane; Archambault, Jacques; White, Peter W
2004-02-20
Interaction between the E2 protein and E1 helicase of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. We recently described a series of small molecules that bind to the N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of HPV type 11 E2 and inhibits its interaction with E1 in vitro and in cellular assays. Here we report the crystal structures of both the HPV11 TAD and of a complex between this domain and an inhibitor, at 2.5- and 2.4-A resolution, respectively. The HPV11 TAD structure is very similar to that of the analogous domain of HPV16. Inhibitor binding caused no significant alteration of the protein backbone, but movements of several amino acid side chains at the binding site, in particular those of Tyr-19, His-32, Leu-94, and Glu-100, resulted in the formation of a deep hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the indandione moiety of the inhibitor. Mutational analysis provides functional evidence for specific interactions between Tyr-19 and E1 and between His-32 and the inhibitor. A second inhibitor molecule is also present at the binding pocket. Although evidence is presented that this second molecule makes only weak interactions with the protein and is likely an artifact of crystallization, its presence defines additional regions of the binding pocket that could be exploited to design more potent inhibitors. PMID:14634007
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Avenue del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)], E-mail: konst@citedi.mx
2009-02-28
In this paper we consider the localization problem of compact invariant sets of the system describing the laser-plasma interaction. We establish that this system has an ellipsoidal localization for simple restrictions imposed on its parameters. Then we improve this localization by applying other localizing functions. In addition, we give sufficient conditions under which the origin is the unique compact invariant set.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;
2014-01-01
interaction with opposing flow from above and assisting flow from below; and secondly, implication of such a flow interaction on the particle transport from the feet to the breathing zone is examined. The results reveal that the human body heat transports the pollution to the breathing zone and increases......This study aims to investigate the interaction between the human convective boundary layer (CBL) and uniform airflow from two directions and with different velocities. The study has two objectives: first, to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin under its...
Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Tucholska, Monika; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude
2014-01-01
Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is an effective means of identifying protein-protein interactions to better understand biological functions. However, issues associated with sample preparation still limit the success of AP-MS for specific classes of proteins, including those associated with chromatin that exhibit overall poor solubility in the protocols normally used for AP-MS analysis. Here, we wanted to provide a generally applicable method to simultaneously identi...
Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Wen-Long; Li, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Yan; Qi, Mei-Yun; Lv, Na; Wang, Ding-Zhen; Khan, Afed Ulla
2016-07-01
In this study we investigated the distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air done in Harbin city, northeastern China. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor sampling was done to collect 264 PM2.5 samples from four sites during winter, summer, and spring. Infiltration of PAHs into indoors was estimated using Retene, Benzo [ghi]perylene and Chrysene as reference compounds, where the latter compound was suggested to be a good estimator and subsequently used for further calculation of infiltration factors (IFs). Modeling with positive matrix factorization (PMF5) and estimation of diagnostic isomeric ratios were applied for identifying sources, where coal combustion, crop residues burning and traffic being the major contributors, particularly during winter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been utilized to show the distribution patterns of individual PAH congeners. LDA showed that, the greatest seasonal variability was attributed to high molecular weight compounds (HMW PAHs). Potential health risk of PAHs exposure was assessed through relative potency factor approach (RPF). The levels of the sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs during colder months were very high, with average values of 377 ± 228 ng m(-)(3) and 102 ± 75.8 ng m(-)(3), for the outdoors and indoors, respectively. The outdoor levels reported to be 19 times higher than the outdoor concentrations during warmer months (summer + spring), while the indoor concentrations were suggested to be 9 times and 10 times higher than that for indoor summer (average 11.73 ± 4 ng m(-3)) and indoor spring (9.5 ± 3.3 ng m(-3)). During nighttime, outdoor PAHs revealed wider range of values compared to datytime which was likely due to outdoor temperature, a weather parameter with the strongest negative influence on ∑16PAHs compared to low impact of relative humidity and wind speed. PMID:27108365
Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine
2016-07-01
Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.
ANNUAL REPORT. TECHNETIUM ATTENUATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE: ROLE OF MINERAL INTERACTIONS
High-level waste (HLW) has leaked into the vadose zone from buried single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. Contaminant plumes containing radionuclides are slowly migrating toward the groundwater table. The accepted model of contaminant migration places technetium (Tc) at the lead...
EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitriev A.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.
Improvement of train-track interaction in transition zones via reduction of ballast damage
Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Shevtsov, I.Y.
2015-01-01
Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the vertical stiffness of the rail support. Typically they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts, tunnels and level crossings. In such locations, the differential settlement always exists and c
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZI; Xuemin; ZHANG; Runchu
2006-01-01
Fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) designs have an important value of investigation for their special structures.There are two types of factors in an FFSP design: the whole-plot (WP) factors and sub-plot (SP) factors,which can form three types of two-factor interactions:WP2fi,WS2fi and SP2fi.This paper considers FFSP designs with resolution Ⅲ or Ⅳ under the clear effects criterion.It derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum numbers of clear WP2fis and WS2fis for FFSP designs,and gives some methods for constructing the desired FFSP designs.It further examines the performance of the construction methods.
Improvement of train-track interaction in transition zones via reduction of ballast damage
Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Shevtsov, I.Y.
2015-01-01
Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the vertical stiffness of the rail support. Typically they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts, tunnels and level crossings. In such locations, the differential settlement always exists and continually grows without proper maintenance. Due to the effect of the differential settlement and bending stiffness of the rails, hanging sleepers may exist, which are invisible under ordinary circ...
Inside-Out Planet Formation. III. Planet-disk interaction at the dead zone inner boundary
Hu, Xiao; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav
2015-01-01
The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-Out Planet Formation (IOPF) has been proposed to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a ring, and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncat...
Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Abbad
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.
Towards the inclusion of wave-ice interactions in large-scale models for the Marginal Ice Zone
Williams, Timothy; Dumont, Dany; Squire, Vernon; Bertino, Laurent
2012-01-01
A wave-ice interaction model for the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is reported, which involves both the attenuation of ocean surface waves by sea ice and the concomitant breaking of the ice by waves. It is specifically designed to embed wave-ice interactions in an operational ice/ocean model for the first time. We investigate different methods of including the wave forcing, and different criteria for determining if they cause floes to break. We also investigate and discuss the effects of using various attenuation models, finding that predicted MIZ widths are quite sensitive to the choice of model. Additional sensitivity tests are performed on: (i) different parameterizations of the floe size distribution (FSD), including the initial FSD used; (ii) the properties of the wave field; and (iii) the sea ice properties such as concentration, thickness and breaking strain. Results are relatively insensitive to FSD parameterization but vary noticeably and systematically with its initial configuration, as they do with prope...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Da Zhi LI; Xin Ya HE; Hui WANG; Li SUN; Bing Cheng LIN
2004-01-01
The interactions between amnesic red-tide toxin, domoic acid (DA) and 14mer double-stranded DNA (dsDNA with three kinds of sequences) were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). For the dsDNA with a sequence of 5'-CCCCCTATACCCGC-3', the amount of free dsDNA decreases with the increase of added DA; and the signal of DA-dsDNA complex was observed. Meanwhile, the other two dsDNAs, 5'-(C)12GC-3' and 5'-(AT)7-3', the existence of DA could not lead to the change of dsDNA signal and indicated that there is no interaction between DA and these two dsDNAs.
D'Souza, Francis; Chitta, Raghu; Gadde, Suresh; Zandler, Melvin E; McCarty, Amy L; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu
2005-07-18
Two types of structurally well-defined, self-assembled zinc porphyrin-fullerene conjugates were formed by "two-point" binding strategies to probe the effect of axial ligation or pi-pi-type interactions on the photochemical charge stabilization in the supramolecular dyads. To achieve this, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin was functionalized to possess one or four [18]crown-6 moieties at different locations on the porphyrin macrocycle while fullerene was functionalized to possess an alkyl ammonium cation, and a pyridine or phenyl entities. As a result of the crown ether-ammonium cation complexation, and zinc-pyridine coordination or pi-pi-type interactions, stable zinc porphyrin-fullerene conjugates with defined distance and orientation were formed. Evidence for the zinc-pyridine complexation or pi-pi-type interactions was obtained from the spectral and computational studies. Steady-state and time-resolved emission studies revealed efficient quenching of the zinc-porphyrin singlet excited state in these dyads, and the measured rates of charge separation, k(CS) were found to be slightly better in the case of the dyads held by axial coordination and crown ether-cation complexation. Nanosecond transient absorption studies provided evidence for the electron transfer reactions, and these studies also revealed charge stabilization in these dyads. The lifetimes of the radical ion pairs were found to depend upon the type of porphyrins utilized to form the dyads, that is, porphyrin possessing the crown ether moiety at the ortho position of one of the phenyl rings yielded prolonged charge stabilized states. Addition of pyridine to the supramolecular dyads eliminated the zinc-pyridine coordination or pi-pi-type interactions of the "two-point" bound systems due to the formation of a new zinc-pyridine axial bond thus giving a unique opportunity to probe the effect of axial coordination or pi-pi interactions on k(CS) and k(CR). Under these conditions, the measured electron transfer rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
Interactions between climate change, hydrology and soil erosion in different climatic zones in Italy
Capra, A.; Pavanelli, D.
2010-03-01
In Italy, during last century the mean annual temperature (Tym) increased by 0.4°C/100 years in Northern areas (N) (continental zone) and by 0.7°C/100 years in Central (C) and Southern (S) parts (peninsular zones). A negative trend of annual rainfall (Py) was evident in both N and S areas. Extreme events had different tendencies, corresponding to increases in rainfall intensity and in drought conditions in both N and S areas. Climate change affects both vegetation water availability and runoff and erosion. Different results on climatic trends were obtained for smaller sub-regions of Southern Italy. Therefore, climate change studies at a regional level should also account for geographical factors (e.g. distance from the sea, elevation, aspect). In the current study trend in precipitation recorded during last century in three different climatic zones in Italy were investigated and compared. The three zones are: a typical Tuscan-Emilian Apennines watershed (the Reno river) located in the continental area, the Calabria region located in the peninsular zone, and the Sicily region, an island located in the South of Italy. For Reno river mountain watershed (2.597 km2), an attempt was made to gain some knowledge about the changes in the 20th century of the land use and of the climate, connected to the erosion soil risk. The Italian Apennines, from the 16th century, were exploited for farming and for agro forestry and pastoral activities. This human activities encouraged intense erosive processes, but an important factor controlling the intense morphodynamics is the contemporary increase of rainfall in the "Little Ice Age". From the beginning of the 1900, have been led two conflicting and simultaneous phenomena: population moving both to cities and valley bottoms and agricultural mechanization. Their consequences have been evident on land use: abandonment of unproductive fields, of forestry practices and enlargement of the remaining plots. The Calabria region is a long
Marocchi, M.; Mair, V.; Tropper, P.; Bargossi, G. M.
2009-03-01
We investigated the contact zone between peridotite lenses and host gneisses located on the northern side of the Hochwart peak, also known as Vedetta Alta (Ulten Zone, Alto Adige -Südtirol) where metasomatic contact bands occur. The country rocks are gneisses consisting mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, garnet, kyanite, biotite and muscovite. The ultramafic body consists of a hectometre-sized garnet peridotite and harzburgite lens. The reaction zone shows mineralogic zoning from phlogopite-rich to tremolite-anthophyllite-talc-rich rocks from the host gneiss towards the peridotite. In some cases, lenses of serpentine and talc in association with chlorite, and trondhjemitic pods develop at the ultramafic rocks border to the gneisses. Trondhjemite dikes with pegmatoid texture also crosscut the peridotite body. Phlogopite aggregates with accessory zircon, Cl-apatite and tourmaline and phlogopite-hornblende aggregates also occur. The combination of petrography, mineral chemistry and mass balance calculations constrains the gains and losses of elements during metasomatism. Reaction zone formation involved extensive addition of H2O, K2O and LILE from the fluid, whereas MgO, CaO and Al2O3 were removed from the peridotite. Thus, the formation of the reaction zones between the mantle rocks and the gneisses was triggered by considerable fluid/melt circulation, causing crystallisation of mainly phlogopite, anthophyllite and talc, and the release of a trondhjemitic residual melt. Field mapping provides evidence that the internal structures of the host migmatites (folds) and those of the peridotites (foliation, fluid texture) are discordant. Pseudosection calculations give insights into the P-T conditions (T 660-700°C; P 0.5-0.7 GPa) of metasomatism responsible for the formation of reaction zones, which is related to the retrograde path of the Ulten Zone peridotites. Our results suggest that the redistribution of major and trace elements in subduction zones is strongly influenced
Paul, Bijan K; Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Mukherjee, Saptarshi
2016-05-01
The modulation of the prototropic equilibrium of a cancer cell photosensitizer, norharmane (NHM), within a niosome microheterogeneous environment has been investigated. The contrasting effects of temperature and extrinsically added salt on the photophysics of niosome-bound drug have been meticulously explored from steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The cation ⇌ neutral prototropic equilibrium of NHM is found to be preferentially favored toward the neutral species with increasing salt concentration, and the results are rationalized on the basis of water penetration to the hydration layer of niosome. The effects are typically reversed with temperature. The differential rotational relaxation behavior of NHM under various conditions has also been addressed from fluorescence anisotropy decay. Further, the study delineates the application of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a potential host system, leading to drug sequestration from the niosome-encapsulated state. To this end, a detailed investigation of the thermodynamics of the niosome:βCD interaction has been undertaken by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to unravel the notable dependence of the thermodynamic parameters on temperature. Consequently, a critical analysis of the variation of the enthalpy change (ΔH) of the process with temperature leads to the unique observation of a positive heat capacity change (ΔCp) marking the hallmark of hydrophobic hydration. PMID:27082934
A two-way interaction between the Hainan plume and the Manila subduction zone
Mériaux, Catherine A.; Duarte, João. C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Mériaux, Anne-Sophie
2015-07-01
The interaction between mantle plumes and subducting slabs is well accepted, but the influence of slabs on plumes has more often been portrayed than the reverse. Here we present three-dimensional upper mantle laboratory models in which a compositional plume rises underneath a subducting plate. Slab/plume buoyancy flux ratios ranged between 7 and 18. The models exhibit a two-way interaction. While the plume conduit increasingly tilts away from the trench as a result of slab rollback-induced toroidal mantle flow, the slab subduction rate decreases as a function of the amount of plume buoyancy opposing that of the slab, which gets subducted beneath the slab. We propose that our models apply to the Hainan/Manila system and explain the recently imaged tilt of the Hainan plume by the Manila slab-induced mantle return flow. The Hainan plume could lessen the Manila subduction rate from 8 Ma into the future.
Martins, Marta; Santos, José M; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Pedro M
2016-09-01
Even though PAHs are considered priority marine pollutants, information on the interaction effects between these compounds is scarce, furthermore under ecologically-relevant circumstances. Semi-quantitative and quantitative histological analyses were enforced on the gills of the seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), exposed to two model PAHs, single or combined, through a series of 28-day laboratory bioassays. Fish exposed to sediments contaminated with either PAH (250-800ngg(-1)), isolated or combined, exhibited most significant gill histopathological alterations after 28 days of exposure, as determined through weighted condition indices, especially in animals exposed to the potential carcinogen benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) and to mixtures of this compound with its lower, non-carcinogenic counterpart Phenanthrene (Phe). Negative correlations between interlamellar hyperplasia (the most remarkable alteration) and goblet cell counts suggest that fish exposed to sediments contaminated with B[b]F or mixed PAHs increased the thickness of epithelial cells as a response to insult, albeit compromising cell differentiation, to which is likely added impaired gas exchange and osmotic balance. In contrast, animals exposed to Phe increased the number of chloride and goblet cells relatively to control fish at early stages of exposure, suggesting then a more efficient protective mechanism. The results also showed that histopathological alterations in mixture-exposed animals do not match the expected additive effects. Overall, the findings indicate that chronic exposures to sediment-bound PAHs, under realistic scenarios, may induce lesions in gills that may imply significant hindering of basal metabolic/homeostatic pathways in marine fish whose interpretation may be hindered by complicated interaction effects and unknown factor involving, more that dose-response, time-dependent effects. PMID:27117279
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Bober
Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen and surface structures allow it to adhere to, colonize and invade the human host. Proteins containing leucine rich repeats (LRR have been identified in mammals, viruses, archaea and several bacterial species. The LRRs are often involved in protein-protein interaction, are typically 20-30 amino acids long and the defining feature of the LRR motif is an 11-residue sequence LxxLxLxxNxL (x being any amino acid. The streptococcal leucine rich (Slr protein is a hypothetical lipoprotein that has been shown to be involved in virulence, but at present no ligands for Slr have been identified. We could establish that Slr is a membrane attached horseshoe shaped lipoprotein by homology modeling, signal peptidase II inhibition, electron microscopy (of bacteria and purified protein and immunoblotting. Based on our previous knowledge of LRR proteins we hypothesized that Slr could mediate binding to collagen. We could show by surface plasmon resonance that recombinant Slr and purified M1 protein bind with high affinity to collagen I. Isogenic slr mutant strain (MB1 and emm1 mutant strain (MC25 had reduced binding to collagen type I as shown by slot blot and surface plasmon resonance. Electron microscopy using gold labeled Slr showed multiple binding sites to collagen I, both to the monomeric and the fibrillar structure, and most binding occurred in the overlap region of the collagen I fibril. In conclusion, we show that Slr is an abundant membrane bound lipoprotein that is co-expressed on the surface with M1, and that both these proteins are involved in recruiting collagen type I to the bacterial surface. This underlines the importance of S. pyogenes interaction with extracellular matrix molecules, especially since both Slr and M1 have been shown to be virulence factors.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHIZHOU; WANGRENCHAO; 等
1999-01-01
Integration of soil information system (SIS) and interactive self-organizing data(ISODATA) was studied to establish proper agricultural developing zones in red soil region of southern China which are of crucial importance to farmers,researchers,and decision maders while utilizing and managing red soil resources.SIS created by using ARC/INFO was used to provide data acquisition,systematic model parameter assignment,and visual display of analytic results.Topography,temperature,soil component(e.g.,organic matter and pH) and condition of agricultural production were selected as parameters of ISODATA model.Taking Longyou County,Zhejiang Province as the case study area,the effect of the integration and recommendations are discussed for future research.
Raia, Federica; Deng, Mario C.
2011-12-01
We discuss Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson Jones and Victor Rodriguez's hermeneutic study of formation and function of kinship-like relationships among inner city male students of color in a college physics classroom. From our Critical Complexity Science framework we first discuss the reading erlebnisse of students laughing at and with each other as something that immediately captured our attention in being transformative of the classroom. We continue by exploring their classroom and research experience as an emergent structure modifying their collective as well as their individual experiences. As we analyze both the classroom and the research space as a complex system, we reflect on the instructor/students interactions characterized by an asymmetrical "power" relationship. From our analysis we propose to consider the zone of proximal development as the constantly emerging and transforming person experience ( erlebnisse and erfahrung).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Spilak, Michal;
2014-01-01
Inhaled air quality at a reduced supply of clean air was studied by controlling the airflow interaction at the breathing zone of a person using lobed jets as part of personalized ventilation (PV). Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room at 23°C (73.4°F) with a breathing thermal manikin...... seated at a workstation, with realistic free-convection flow around the body and a normal breathing cycle. The air in the room was mixed with tracer gas R134a. Clean air was supplied isothermally from three nozzles with circular, four-leafed clover, and six-edged star openings of 0.025 m (0.08 ft...
Garcilazo, H
2016-01-01
We have used realistic local interactions based on the recent update of the strangeness $-2$ Nijmegen ESC08c potential to calculate the bound state problem of the $\\Xi NN$ system in the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{1}{2})\\frac{3}{2}^+$ state. We found that this system presents a deeply bound state lying $13.5$ MeV below the $\\Xi d$ threshold. Since in lowest order, pure S$-$wave configuration, this system can not decay into the open $\\Lambda\\Lambda N$ channel, its decay width is expected to be very small. We have also recalculated the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{3}{2})\\frac{1}{2}^+$ state and we have compared with results of quark-model based potentials.
Petawatt laser absorption bounded
Levy, Matthew C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G
2014-01-01
The interaction of petawatt ($10^{15}\\ \\mathrm{W}$) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light $f$, and even the range of $f$ is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that $f$ exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.
Modelling the interaction between volcanic sources and fault zones at the Etna Mount
Aloisi, Marco; Mattia, Mario; Monaco, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Fabio
2010-05-01
Analytical and numerical modeling techniques are jointly applied to simulate geophysical processes in the Earth's crust. The methods are of a complementary nature. Analytical models have been used traditionally due to the lightness of the request computational resources but they are strongly limited in the ability to quantify observables, to describe multiphysics processes and to use more complicated material rheologies and Earth's topography. All these properties can be achieved by using numerical models even though it requires long time of calculation and the deep knowledge of the studied geophysical system. The 2002-2003 Etna eruptive event involved two different sectors of the volcano providing a big amount of geophysical data. The eruption produced severe fires in the woods, destroyed many tourist infrastructures and interrupted one of the principal roads. It was heralded, accompanied and followed by an intense seismic activity that was culminated with the earthquake (M ~ 4.4) on October 29 that produced severe damages in the S. Venerina village. The eruption was deeply analyzed by analytical (e.g., Aloisi et al., 2003; Aloisi et al., 2006; Bonforte et al., 2007; Currenti et al., 2008a) and numerical modeling (Walter et al., 2005; Currenti et al., 2008b). The numerical models have proved that the medium heterogeneities and the area topography strongly affect the volcano deformation field. The Etna Mount, jointly with a motley lithological setting, is characterized by a complex tectonic scenery that influences the structural evolution of the volcanic edifice. Important fault zones intersect the volcano edifice, perturbing the deformation pattern produced by the volcanic sources. The displacement and stress of blocks are affected by the deformation of discontinuities to a degree (Liu and Zhongkui, 2007), therefore the fault zones can not be neglected in an overall study. In this work, we present a numerical model for the 2002-2003 Etna eruption that kept in
Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient in a discontinuous permafrost zone
Johnson, Kristofer D.; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, A. David; Clark, Mark; Yuan, Fengming; Finley, Andrew O.
2013-01-01
Permafrost is tightly coupled to the organic soil layer, an interaction that mediates permafrost degradation in response to regional warming. We analyzed changes in permafrost occurrence and organic layer thickness (OLT) using more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships between permafrost probability (PF), OLT, and other topographic factors were investigated using structural equation modeling in a multi-group analysis. Groups were defined by slope, soil texture type, and shallow (permafrost sharply increased by 0.32 for every 10-cm OLT increase in shallow OLT soils (OLTs) due to an insulation effect, but PF decreased in deep OLT soils (OLTd) by 0.06 for every 10-cm increase. Across the MAT gradient, PF in sandy soils varied little, but PF in loamy and silty soils decreased substantially from cooler to warmer temperatures. The change in OLT was more heterogeneous across soil texture types—in some there was no change while in others OLTs soils thinned and/or OLTd soils thickened at warmer locations. Furthermore, when soil organic carbon was estimated using a relationship with thickness, the average increase in carbon in OLTd soils was almost four times greater compared to the average decrease in carbon in OLTs soils across all soil types. If soils follow a trajectory of warming that mimics the spatial gradients found today, then heterogeneities of permafrost degradation and organic layer thinning and thickening should be considered in the regional carbon balance.
Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient in a discontinuous permafrost zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Permafrost is tightly coupled to the organic soil layer, an interaction that mediates permafrost degradation in response to regional warming. We analyzed changes in permafrost occurrence and organic layer thickness (OLT) using more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships between permafrost probability (PF), OLT, and other topographic factors were investigated using structural equation modeling in a multi-group analysis. Groups were defined by slope, soil texture type, and shallow (<28 cm) versus deep organic (≥28 cm) layers. The probability of observing permafrost sharply increased by 0.32 for every 10-cm OLT increase in shallow OLT soils (OLTs) due to an insulation effect, but PF decreased in deep OLT soils (OLTd) by 0.06 for every 10-cm increase. Across the MAT gradient, PF in sandy soils varied little, but PF in loamy and silty soils decreased substantially from cooler to warmer temperatures. The change in OLT was more heterogeneous across soil texture types—in some there was no change while in others OLTs soils thinned and/or OLTd soils thickened at warmer locations. Furthermore, when soil organic carbon was estimated using a relationship with thickness, the average increase in carbon in OLTd soils was almost four times greater compared to the average decrease in carbon in OLTs soils across all soil types. If soils follow a trajectory of warming that mimics the spatial gradients found today, then heterogeneities of permafrost degradation and organic layer thinning and thickening should be considered in the regional carbon balance. (letter)
Complex bounds for multimodal maps: bounded combinatorics
Smania, Daniel
2000-01-01
We proved the so called complex bounds for multimodal, infinitely renormalizable analytic maps with bounded combinatorics: deep renormalizations have polynomial-like extensions with definite modulus. The complex bounds is the first step to extend the renormalization theory of unimodal maps to multimodal maps.
Bound States of Double Flavor Hyperons
Froemel, F; Riska, D O
2005-01-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the $\\Xi_c^{'}$ and $\\Xi_{cc}$ charm hyperons as well as between $\\Xi$ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two $\\Sigma_c$ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons
Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.
2005-04-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turbulent mixing zones that appear at the various interfaces of Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) facilities can be modeled in 1D as multiphase flows mixtures. The difficulty with this type of modeling relies in the closure relations. We have started a research program based on a new homogenization method for multiphase flows. This method, used also for other applications (detonations and front propagations), is named the Discrete Equations Method (DEM). and is detailed in Abgrall and Saurel (2003) and Saurel et al. (2003a). The main advantage for the present application is that important closure relations like drag force and pressure relaxation rate are automatically. determined. Thank to this nice property, the rate of kinetic energy stored as turbulence has been determined in Saurel et al. (2003a) for a two-phase mixture of heavy and Light gases. It has been validated against direct numerical simulation of shock-bubble interaction. In the present paper we first recall the main results of this study. Second, we introduce plasma effects in both phases. The resulting multiphase model couples the dynamics of the two mixtures of ions and electrons under thermal non equilibrium. Turbulent effects are involved in each fluid. Turbulence is involved in the model by the way of an equation of state for thermodynamic turbulent variables. This thermodynamics of turbulence provides a simple and nice structure of equations. In this context, each fluid possesses its own density, velocity, pressures (ions, electrons. and turbulence) as well as associated internal energies. The resulting model involves 11 partial differential equations. It is unconditionally hyperbolic and involves non conservative terms that are correctly computed by the numerical scheme, even in the presence of shock wave and volume fraction discontinuities. A discrete equation method (DEM) based on the averaging of the discrete equations of pure inviscid turbulent plasmas has been proposed. It approximates
Higgs mass bounds from the functional RG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate a Top-Yukawa toy model to study Higgs mass bounds in the framework of the functional renormalization group (RG). Starting the calculations with a quartic ultraviolet (UV) potential we get a finite range of values for the Higgs mass in the infrared for a given cutoff. The bounds appear in a natural way as a consequence of the RG flow. The lower mass bound is approached for a vanishing UV quartic coupling. Furthermore, we study the influence of higher-dimensional operators on the lower Higgs mass bound. We find that even seemingly RG irrelevant interactions can take a substantial influence on the lower bound for the Higgs mass.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
Brustein, Ram
2000-01-01
The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso's holographic bound are stronger than Bekenstein's, while naive holography is too tight, and hence typically wrong.
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.;
2013-01-01
In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Global warming is related to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration increase and especially anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Geologic sequestration has the potential capacity and the longevity to significantly diminish anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This sequestration in deep geological formation induces leakage risks from the geological reservoir. Several leakage scenarios have been imagined. Since it could continue for a long period, inducing environmental issues and risks for human, the scenario of a diffusive leakage is the most worrying. Thus, monitoring tools and protocols are needed to set up a near-surface monitoring plan. The present thesis deals with this problematic. The aims are the characterisation, the quantification and the modelling of transport and interactions of CO2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone. This was achieved following an experimental approach on a natural pilot site in Saint-Emilion (Gironde, France), where diffusive gas leakage experiments were set up in a carbonate unsaturated zone. Different aspects were investigated during the study: natural pilot site description and instrumentation; the physical and chemical characterisation of carbonate reservoir heterogeneity; the natural functioning of the carbonate unsaturated zone and especially the set-up of a CO2 concentrations baseline; the characterisation of gas plume extension following induced diffusive leakage in the carbonate unsaturated zone and the study of gas-water-rock interactions during a CO2 diffusive leakage in a carbonate unsaturated zone through numerical simulations. The results show the importance of the carbonate reservoir heterogeneity characterisation as well as the sampling and analysing methods for the different phases. The baseline set-up is of main interest since it allows discrimination between the induced and the natural CO2 concentrations variations. The transfer of CO2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone is varying in function of physical and chemical properties. This
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Variance bounding Markov chains
Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal
2008-01-01
We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Faug
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental investigation with dry granular flows passing over an obstacle down a rough inclined channel has been performed. The aim is to improve our understanding of the interaction between dense snow avalanches and defence structures. Specific attention was directed to the study of the zone of influence upstream from the obstacle, linked to the formation of a dead zone. The dead zone length L was systematically measured as a function of the obstacle height H and the channel inclination θ, for several discharges. In a whole range of channel inclinations, all the data are shown to collapse into a single curve when properly scaled. The scaling is based on the introduction of a theoretical deposit length (depending on H, θ and the internal friction angle of the material, φ and a Froude number of the flow depending on the obstacle height.
Brustein, R; Veneziano, G
1999-01-01
The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As the boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy, p-borono phenylalanine (BPA) is the boron compound which has been clinically used together with sodium borocaptate. It was found by the electrophoresis behavior that the BPA interacted with organic carboxylic acids in its dissolved state. In this paper, the electrophoresis behavior of general amino acids as seen in three-spot zone electrophoresis and the peculiar interaction of the amino acids having dihydroxyboryl radical are described. Zone electrophoresis has been developed as separation means, and three-spot process excludes the errors due to accidental factors as far as possible. The behaviors of zone electrophoresis of ordinary neutral amino acids, orthoboric acid and p-BPA are reported. For utilizing the features of boron neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to develop the carrier which is singularly taken into cancer cells. There is not a good method for discriminating normal cells and cancer cells. As for the administration of BPA to patients, its solubility is insufficient, therefore, its fructose complex has been used. The research on the biochemical peculiarity of boron is important. (K.I.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Bousso, Raphael
2016-01-01
We show that known entropy bounds constrain the information carried off by radiation to null infinity. We consider distant, planar null hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat spacetime. Their focussing and area loss can be computed perturbatively on a Minkowski background, yielding entropy bounds in terms of the energy flux of the outgoing radiation. In the asymptotic limit, we obtain boundary versions of the Quantum Null Energy Condition, of the Generalized Second Law, and of the Quantum Bousso Bound.
Tang, D. Y.; B. Zhao; Shen, D. Y.; Lu, C.
2009-01-01
Experimental study on the soliton dynamics of a passively mode locked fiber ring laser firstly revealed a state of bound soliton operation in the laser, where two solitons bind together tightly with fixed pulse separation. We further report on the properties of the bound-soliton emission of the laser. In particular, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that, like the single pulse soliton operation of the laser, the bound soliton emission is another intrinsic feature of the laser.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosorius, O; Issinger, O G; Braulke, T
1996-01-01
in microsomal and synaptosomal fractions. Furthermore, the formation of cross-link complexes with membrane proteins appeared to be developmentally and regionally regulated in the brain and inhibited upon ATP hydrolysis. The data suggest the requirement of specific protein interactions for MPR 300...
Holbach, Andreas; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Hu, Wei; Schleicher, Nina; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan
2013-10-01
Increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir, China, are widely discussed with regard to changed hydrodynamics and nutrient transport and distribution processes. Insights into water exchange and interaction processes between water masses related to large-scale water level fluctuations in the reservoir are crucial to understand water quality and eutrophication dynamics. Therefore, confluence zones of tributaries with the Yangtze River main stream are dedicated key interfaces. In this study, water quality data were recorded in situ and on-line in varying depths with the MINIBAT towed underwater multi-sensor system in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River close to Wushan City during 1 week in August 2011. Geostatistical evaluation of the water quality data was performed, and results were compared to phosphorus contents of selective water samples. The strongly rising water level throughout the measurement period caused Yangtze River water masses to flow upstream into the tributary and supply their higher nutrient and particulate loads into the tributary water body. Rapid algal growth and sedimentation occurred immediately when hydrodynamic conditions in the confluence zone became more serene again. Consequently, water from the Yangtze River main stream can play a key role in providing nutrients to the algal bloom stricken water bodies of its tributaries. PMID:23247524
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, L.F.
1993-05-01
Since its beginnings in 1949, hydrogeologic investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have resulted in an extensive collection of technical publications providing information concerning ground water hydraulics and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy through the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office in a grant to compile an INEL-wide summary of unsaturated zone studies based on a literature search. University of Idaho researchers are conducting a review of technical documents produced at or pertaining to the INEL, which present or discuss processes in the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions. Results of this review are being compiled as an electronic database. Fields are available in this database for document title and associated identification number, author, source, abstract, and summary of information (including types of data and parameters). AskSam{reg_sign}, a text-based database system, was chosen. WordPerfect 5.1{copyright} is being used as a text-editor to input data records into askSam.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since its beginnings in 1949, hydrogeologic investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have resulted in an extensive collection of technical publications providing information concerning ground water hydraulics and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy through the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office in a grant to compile an INEL-wide summary of unsaturated zone studies based on a literature search. University of Idaho researchers are conducting a review of technical documents produced at or pertaining to the INEL, which present or discuss processes in the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions. Results of this review are being compiled as an electronic database. Fields are available in this database for document title and associated identification number, author, source, abstract, and summary of information (including types of data and parameters). AskSam reg-sign, a text-based database system, was chosen. WordPerfect 5.1 copyright is being used as a text-editor to input data records into askSam
Nagaraj, Karuppiah; Sakthinathan, Subramanian; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam
2015-08-01
The interaction of two surfactant cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(ip)2(DA)2](ClO4)3 1 and cis-[Co(dpq)2(DA)2](ClO4)3 2 where ip = imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2‧-3‧-f]quinoxaline with yeast tRNA have been explored by using electronic absorption, competitive binding, electrochemical studies and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that these complexes can bind to tRNA by intercalation. The presence of hydrophobic diimine ligand and the long aliphatic double chains of these complexes facilitate its intercalative interaction with the hydrophobic interior of the tRNA. The extent of tRNA binding of complex 2 has greater affinity than that of complex containing imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligands.
Yoshinaga, N.; Arima, A.; Zhao, Y. M.
2006-01-01
In this report we study the origin of spin-zero ground-state dominance for even-even nuclei in the presence of random two-body interactions. We evaluate the ground-state energy in terms of the energy centroid and the width of the random Hamiltonian. For both fermions and bosons in a single orbital, we obtain excellent agreement between the spin-I ground state probabilities predicted by using our formula and those obtained by diagonalizing the random Hamiltonian.
Banzhaf, Stefan
2013-01-01
Die hyporheische Zone ist der Bereich im Umfeld eines Gewässers in dem Interaktion von Oberflächen- und Grundwasser stattfindet. Standort für die vorliegenden Untersuchungen war der Bach Mess in Luxemburg, welcher von Liassischen Mergeln und mergeligen Sanden unterlagert wird. Wechsel von effluenten zu influenten Grundwasserverhältnissen führen zu einem Eintrag von im Bach nachgewiesenen Pharmazeutika sowie zu Temperaturänderungen im ufernahen Grundwasser. Auch eine Abhängigkeit dieser Stoffe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...
de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.
Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.
2014-12-01
When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.
Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J. W.
2012-03-01
We report on morphologic evidence of a complex succession of ice-volcano interactions in the Galaxias region, Mars, and reconsider the emplacement properties of volcanoclastic outflow deposit under martian conditions.
Bowden, W. B.; Greenwald, M. J.; Gooseff, M. N.; McNamara, J. P.; Bradford, J.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Brosten, T.
2007-12-01
We used conservative tracer (Rhodamine WT) additions to examine flow paths in two arctic tundra streams with contrasting physical characteristics (high and low gradient, cobble and peat substrate). We installed mini- piezometers in the same streams to examine nutrient patterns longitudinally and with depth. The combination of the flow and nutrient data allowed us to estimate nutrient regeneration rates. In a separate study, we used whole- stream metabolism methods to estimate whole-system photosynthesis and respiration. Comparison to chamber-based metabolism methods showed that most of the whole-system respiration could be attributed to heterotrophic activity in the hyporheic zone. We found that regeneration of C in the hyporheic zone (respiration) was in reasonable stoichiometric agreement with the regeneration of N and P. Increasing temperature and discharge had relatively modest impacts on ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis. We concluded that a substantial portion of the N and P required to support ecosystem photosynthesis in these permafrost-dominated streams can be obtained from hyporheic regeneration. Second, a substantial portion of the excess C (supersaturated CO2) in these streams may be due to hyporheic respiration rather than terrestrial runoff of CO2-laden groundwater. Third, the expected changes in future climate in the arctic foothills may have only a limited effect on the instantaneous rates of C, N, and P processing. The larger effect is likely to be on annual processing rates, due to the longer flowing water season.
Physics with loosely bound nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chhanda Samanta
2001-08-01
The essential aspect of contemporary physics is to understand properties of nucleonic matter that constitutes the world around us. Over the years research in nuclear physics has provided strong guidance in understanding the basic principles of nuclear interactions. But, the scenario of nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare nuclei are posing new challenges to both theory and experiments. Fortunately, nature has provided a few loosely bound stable nuclei that have been studied thoroughly for decades. Attempts are being made to ﬁnd a consistent picture for the unstable nuclei starting from their stable counterparts. Some signiﬁcant differences in the structure and reaction mechanisms are found.
Cavalier, Michael C; Melville, Zephan; Aligholizadeh, Ehson; Raman, E Prabhu; Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Lei; Alasady, Milad; Pierce, Adam D; Wilder, Paul T; MacKerell, Alexander D; Weber, David J
2016-06-01
Structure-based drug discovery is under way to identify and develop small-molecule S100B inhibitors (SBiXs). Such inhibitors have therapeutic potential for treating malignant melanoma, since high levels of S100B downregulate wild-type p53 tumor suppressor function in this cancer. Computational and X-ray crystallographic studies of two S100B-SBiX complexes are described, and both compounds (apomorphine hydrochloride and ethidium bromide) occupy an area of the S100B hydrophobic cleft which is termed site 3. These data also reveal novel protein-inhibitor interactions which can be used in future drug-design studies to improve SBiX affinity and specificity. Of particular interest, apomorphine hydrochloride showed S100B-dependent killing in melanoma cell assays, although the efficacy exceeds its affinity for S100B and implicates possible off-target contributions. Because there are no structural data available for compounds occupying site 3 alone, these studies contribute towards the structure-based approach to targeting S100B by including interactions with residues in site 3 of S100B. PMID:27303795
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ-) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2Heπ-) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ-) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
Rundle, John B.; Kanamori, Hiroo
1987-01-01
In recent years it has been recognized that the level of shear and normal stress along a fault can vary; thus the stress is spatially and temporally inhomogeneous. Moreover, it has also been suspected that faults might interact in some way, with the result that a variety of earthquake magnitudes might be produced along a given length of fault at varying times. In order to explore these ideas we have developed a quantitative formalism, which we call the interaction matrix method, to express th...
Generalized Sphere Packing Bound
Fazeli, Arman; Vardy, Alexander; Yaakobi, Eitan
2014-01-01
Kulkarni and Kiyavash recently introduced a new method to establish upper bounds on the size of deletion-correcting codes. This method is based upon tools from hypergraph theory. The deletion channel is represented by a hypergraph whose edges are the deletion balls (or spheres), so that a deletion-correcting code becomes a matching in this hypergraph. Consequently, a bound on the size of such a code can be obtained from bounds on the matching number of a hypergraph. Classical results in hyper...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-12-31
This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.
Cheng, Sara Y; Chou, George; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark W; Compton, Campbell; Cheng, Kwan H
2016-03-01
We used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the effects of asymmetric transbilayer distribution of anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids on the structure of a protein on the membrane surface and subsequent protein-lipid interactions. Our simulation systems consisted of an amyloidogenic, beta-sheet rich dimeric protein (D42) absorbed to the phosphatidylcholine (PC) leaflet, or protein-contact PC leaflet, of two membrane systems: a single-component PC bilayer and double PC/PS bilayers. The latter comprised of a stable but asymmetric transbilayer distribution of PS in the presence of counterions, with a 1-component PC leaflet coupled to a 1-component PS leaflet in each bilayer. The maximally asymmetric PC/PS bilayer had a non-zero transmembrane potential (TMP) difference and higher lipid order packing, whereas the symmetric PC bilayer had a zero TMP difference and lower lipid order packing under physiologically relevant conditions. Analysis of the adsorbed protein structures revealed weaker protein binding, more folding in the N-terminal domain, more aggregation of the N- and C-terminal domains and larger tilt angle of D42 on the PC leaflet surface of the PC/PS bilayer versus the PC bilayer. Also, analysis of protein-induced membrane structural disruption revealed more localized bilayer thinning in the PC/PS versus PC bilayer. Although the electric field profile in the non-protein-contact PS leaflet of the PC/PS bilayer differed significantly from that in the non-protein-contact PC leaflet of the PC bilayer, no significant difference in the electric field profile in the protein-contact PC leaflet of either bilayer was evident. We speculate that lipid packing has a larger effect on the surface adsorbed protein structure than the electric field for a maximally asymmetric PC/PS bilayer. Our results support the mechanism that the higher lipid packing in a lipid leaflet promotes stronger protein-protein but weaker protein-lipid interactions for a dimeric protein on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The VIP model, which simulates the concentration profiles of the hazardous compounds in the soil, water, and the air phases, assumes a fixed oily phase. The purpose of this study was to measure oil migration in soil systems and to determine its effect on the VIP model output. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the mobility of an oil through the unsaturated zone of the soil. The studies were conducted in laboratory scale glass columns. A light petroleum oil and two types of soil were used. The experiments demonstrated that oil migrates down significantly through the soil columns. The extent of migration depended on the volume of oil applied and the type of soil. However, the applied oil was completely immobilized in the columns. The model was modified to incorporate oil migration. The modified model can be expected to produce more realistic contaminant concentration profiles during land treatment of oily wastes when compared to that produced by the present version of the VIP model. (Author)
Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.
2004-01-01
Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.
Hoyer, Paul
2016-01-01
Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...
Bounding species distribution models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Lower and Upper Bounds for Deniable Public-Key Encryption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendlin, Rikke; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian;
2011-01-01
impossible to construct a non-interactive bi-deniable public-key encryption scheme with better than polynomial security. Specifically, we give an explicit bound relating the security of the scheme to how efficient the scheme is in terms of key size. Our impossibility result establishes a lower bound on the...... security. As a final contribution we give constructions of deniable public-key encryption schemes which establishes upper bounds on the security in terms of key length. There is a gap between our lower and upper bounds, which leaves the interesting open problem of finding the tight bounds....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI XiaoHui; XU XiangDe; XIE LiAn
2008-01-01
Through analysis of the distribution pattern and changing characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the East Asia region during warm seasons in recent 20 a and beyond as well as their possible interac-tive relationship with a variety of meteorological elements, it is found that the high-value zone of aerosol optical depth derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), its significant negative correlation zones in terms of sunshine duration (SD) and surface air temperature (SAT) and its significant positive correlation zones with low-level cloud amount (LCC) are co-located in the South China region during warm periods. Based on this finding, the region is referred to as a "significant impact zone" (SI zone) affected by aerosols. Then, a comparative analysis is made on variation differ-ences of observed SAT, SD and LCC, etc. In different regions. It is also found that the LCC is increased and the SD is decreased within the "SI zone" over eastern China during the warm season. These characteristics are more evident than those beyond the zone, while the warming trend within the zone is evidently weaker than that outside it. Studies show that since recent 20 a, under the influence of aerosols, the LCC tend to increase substantially with a clear decrease of SD and an unnoticeable warming trend within the "SI zone". Comparing with the climate change beyond the zone, the difference is significant. Therefore, the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate is possibly one of the contri-butions to the difference of climate change existed between the southern and northern parts of the Eastern China during a warm season.
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.
2008-12-01
Geodetically-derived motions for Arabia and Nubia relative to Eurasia agree within 1 standard deviation with plate rates estimated from geologic observations (McQuarrie et al., GRL, 2003) for the past 11 Myr for Nubia and greater than 25 Myr for Arabia. Furthermore, fault slip rates derived from an elastic block model constrained by GPS agree within uncertainties (about +/- 15 percent) with geologically determined, long-term slip rates in this complex area of plate interaction. Detailed geomorphological studies of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) constrained by quantitative dating (Kozaci et a al., Geology, 2007) indicate slip rates that agree within uncertainties, but appear to be systematically lower than geodetic rates. While real rate changes of a few mm/yr cannot be ruled out at present, we note that geodetic inversions for coseismic fault slip on the NAF, and most other faults well constrained by geodetic observations, indicate larger slip at depth than at the surface. If this difference persists throughout the earthquake deformation cycle, it would account for the small difference in geodetic and geologic rates. Extrapolating present-day geodetic motions for Arabia relative to Nubia and Somalia to the time of initiation of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden extension indicates that Arabia separated from Nubia and Somalia simultaneously along the full extent of both rifts at about 25 Myr BP, consistent with independent geologic estimates for the style, and age of initiation of Red Sea extension (Omar and Steckler, 1995, Science). In addition, structural offsets across the Gulf of Suez (GoS) and Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) are consistent with a transfer of strain form the GoS to the GoA at around 12 Ma BP, roughly consistent with the age on initiation of the Dead Sea fault system. We further show that the apparent discrepancy between geodetic deformation of the Aegean (plate-like motion with low internal deformation), and geologic deformation (extensive crustal thinning
A rock mechanics study of fracture zone 2 at the Finnsjoen site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comprehensive field investigations at the Finnsjoen study site have revealed a subhorizontal zone, termed Zone 2, that exhibits anomalous characteristics in terms of high hydraulic conductivity, governing the groundwater transport pattern on a regional scale. The present study provides an assessment of the characteristics of Zone 2. Thus, estimates of the deformational characteristics of the zone, based on available borehole information, show that the zone forms a diffuse and rather moderate mechanical contrast to the surrounding bedrock. As also verified by stress measurement results, major stress anomalies attributable to the zone are therefore not to be expected. Bound estimates of stress conditions during periods of glaciation and deglaciation are also derived, and possible impacts of these loadings on the fracture zone are discussed. It is concluded that glaciation represents stable conditions, whilst the complex loading mechanisms encountered during deglaciation may trigger reactivation of structures at shallow depth. Taking the above results as an example, implications of a feature like Zone 2 on the integrity of a hypothetical repository are discussed in more general terms. Considering the likely spatial extension of the mechanical disturbances related to the repository excavations and the fracture zone respectively, it is suggested that a mutual distance of the order of one hundred metres is sufficient to avoid mechanical interaction. (au)
Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks
Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun
2010-01-01
The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In ...
On Entropy Bounds and Holography
Halyo, Edi
2009-01-01
We show that the holographic entropy bound for gravitational systems and the Bekenstein entropy bound for nongravitational systems are holographically related. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that the Bekenstein bound on the boundary is obtained from the holographic bound in the bulk by minimizing the boundary energy with respect the AdS radius or the cosmological constant. This relation may also ameliorate some problems associated with the Bekenstein bound.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Venturi, Daniele
Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e...... bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires a...... public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...
Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.
2013-12-01
Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.
Towards Secure Distance Bounding
Boureanu, Ioana; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Vaudenay, Serge
2013-01-01
Relay attacks (and, more generally, man-in-the-middle attacks) are a serious threat against many access control and payment schemes. In this work, we present distance-bounding protocols, how these can deter relay attacks, and the security models formalizing these protocols. We show several pitfalls making existing protocols insecure (or at least, vulnerable, in some cases). Then, we introduce the SKI protocol which enjoys resistance to all popular attack-models and features provable security....
Kahneman, Daniel
2002-01-01
The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...
KETENCI, Uktu Gorkem; Bremond, Roland; Auberlet, Jean Michel; GRISLIN, Emmanuelle
2010-01-01
There are two kinds of perception : active and passive. This paper is an attempt to take advantage of active perception to improve the agent's perception of relevant information. Through the data filtering capacity, active perception is a useful tool for modeling human-like bounded perception. Using such filters, either the agent or the environment take an active role. We determine several unsolved issues in active perception and do several proposals to implement our concept on the active per...
Banderier, Cyril; Nicodeme, Pierre
2010-01-01
This article tackles the enumeration and asymptotics of directed lattice paths (that are isomorphic to unidimensional paths) of bounded height (walks below one wall, or between two walls, for \\emphany finite set of jumps). Thus, for any lattice paths, we give the generating functions of bridges (``discrete'' Brownian bridges) and reflected bridges (``discrete'' reflected Brownian bridges) of a given height. It is a new success of the ``kernel method'' that the generating functions of such wal...
Reflecting Magnon Bound States
Ahn, C; Rey, S J
2008-01-01
In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm tha...
Warburton-Pitt, Simon R. F.; Jauregui, Andrew R.; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Juan; Leroux, Michel R.; Barr, Maureen M.
2012-01-01
The cystic kidney diseases nephronophthisis (NPHP), Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS) share an underlying etiology of dysfunctional cilia. Patients diagnosed with NPHP type II have mutations in the gene INVS (also known as NPHP2), which encodes inversin, a cilia localizing protein. Here, we show that the C. elegans inversin ortholog, NPHP-2, localizes to the middle segment of sensory cilia and that nphp-2 is partially redundant with nphp-1 and nphp-4 (orthologs of human NPHP1 and NPHP4, respectively) for cilia placement within the head and tail sensilla. nphp-2 also genetically interacts with MKS ciliopathy gene orthologs, including mks-1, mks-3, mks-6, mksr-1 and mksr-2, in a sensilla-dependent manner to control cilia formation and placement. However, nphp-2 is not required for correct localization of the NPHP- and MKS-encoded ciliary transition zone proteins or for intraflagellar transport (IFT). We conclude that INVS/NPHP2 is conserved in C. elegans and that nphp-2 plays an important role in C. elegans cilia by acting as a modifier of the NPHP and MKS pathways to control cilia formation and development. PMID:22393243
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is a product generated by faculty at the University of Idaho in support of research and development projects on Unsaturated Zone Contamination and Transport Processes, and on Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions and Regional Groundwater Flow at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These projects are managed by the State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program under a grant from the US Department of Energy. In particular, this report meets project objectives to produce a site-wide summary of hydrological information based on a literature search and review of field, laboratory and modeling studies at INEL, including a cross-referenced index to site-specific physical, chemical, mineralogic, geologic and hydrologic parameters determined from these studies. This report includes abstracts of 149 reports with hydrological information. For reports which focus on hydrological issues, the abstracts are taken directly from those reports; for reports dealing with a variety of issues beside hydrology, the abstracts were generated by the University of Idaho authors concentrating on hydrology-related issues. Each abstract is followed by a ''Data'' section which identifies types of technical information included in a given report, such as information on parameters or chemistry, mineralogy, stream flows, water levels. The ''Data'' section does not include actual values or data
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rat...
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal ...
Deeply bound kaonic states in nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yi-He; WU Shi-Shu
2009-01-01
Using a new phenomenological (K)N interaction which reproduces A(1405) as an I = 0 bound state of (K)N, we have investigated K- -3 He(T = 0) and K- -4 He(T = 1/2) within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock(BHF) theory. Our calculations show that the above kaonic nuclear systems are both deeply bound. The binding energy BK- is 124.4 MeV(94.1 MeV) and the width Γ is 11.8 MeV(25.8 MeV) for K- -3 He(T = 0)(K- -4 He(T= 1/2)).
Better-Reply Strategies with Bounded Recall
Andriy Zapechelnyuk
2007-01-01
A decision maker (an agent) is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the agent is to guarantee to himself the long-run average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature?s empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. An agent with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: An agent with bounded r...
Botschwina, Peter; Oswald, Rainer; Dopfer, Otto
2011-08-21
Explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory at the CCSD(T)-F12x level (T. B. Adler, G. Knizia, and H.-J. Werner, J. Chem. Phys.127, 221106, 2007) has been employed to study structures and vibrations of complexes of type c-C(3)H(3)(+)·L and H(2)C(3)H(+)·L (L = Ne, Ar, N(2), CO(2), and O(2)). Both cations have different binding sites, allowing for the formation of weak to moderately strong hydrogen bonds as well as "C-bound" or "π-bound" structures. In contrast to previous expectations, the energetically most favourable structures of all H(2)C(3)H(+)·L complexes investigated are "C-bound", with the ligand bound to the methylenic carbon atom. The theoretical predictions enable a more detailed interpretation of infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra than was possible hitherto. In particular, the bands observed in the range 3238-3245 cm(-1) (D. Roth and O. Dopfer, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4, 4855, 2002) are assigned to essentially free acetylenic CH stretching vibrations of the propargyl cation in "C-bound" H(2)C(3)H(+)·L complexes. PMID:21637871
Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas
2015-01-01
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L \\le 2 \\pi k_B T/\\hbar$. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Tight Bernoulli tail probability bounds
Dzindzalieta, Dainius
2014-01-01
The purpose of the dissertation is to prove universal tight bounds for deviation from the mean probability inequalities for functions of random variables. Universal bounds shows that they are uniform with respect to some class of distributions and quantity of variables and other parameters. The bounds are called tight, if we can construct a sequence of random variables, such that the upper bounds are achieved. Such inequalities are useful for example in insurance mathematics, for constructing...
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...... bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....
Novel Bounds on Marginal Probabilities
Mooij, Joris M.; Kappen, Hilbert J
2008-01-01
We derive two related novel bounds on single-variable marginal probability distributions in factor graphs with discrete variables. The first method propagates bounds over a subtree of the factor graph rooted in the variable, and the second method propagates bounds over the self-avoiding walk tree starting at the variable. By construction, both methods not only bound the exact marginal probability distribution of a variable, but also its approximate Belief Propagation marginal (``belief''). Th...
Separable subgroups have bounded packing
Yang, Wen-yuan
2010-01-01
In this note, we prove that separable subgroups have bounded packing in ambient groups. The notion bounded packing was introduced by Hruska-Wise \\cite{HrWi} and in particular, our result confirms a conjecture in \\cite{HrWi} which states each subgroup of a virtually polycyclic group has the bounded packing property.
On bound entanglement assisted distillation
Vedral, V.
1999-01-01
We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.
Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective
Hoyer, Paul
2011-01-01
These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...
Mori, Yasushi; Shigeno, Miki; Nishiyama, Tadao
2014-12-01
The slab-mantle interface in subduction zones is a site of tectonic mixing of crustal and mantle rocks. It is the interface for fluid flow of slab-derived components into the mantle wedge. To assess the fluid-rock interaction along the slab-mantle interface, we studied the bleaching of pelitic schist in an ultramafic mélange. The Nishisonogi metamorphic rocks in Kyushu, Japan, comprise ultramafic mélanges intercalated with epidote-blueschist facies schists. The ultramafic mélange consists of tectonic blocks of various lithologies and a matrix of chlorite-actinolite schist and serpentinite. Along the contact with the mélange matrix, pelitic schist blocks are bleached mainly due to the modal increase of albite and the consumption of carbonaceous material. The bleaching is probably attributed to infiltration of Na-rich external fluid from the mélange matrix. Mass balance analysis indicates losses of C, Rb, K2O, Ba, Pb, and SiO2 from the bleached pelitic schist, although Al2O3, TiO2, Sc, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, and Nd remain immobile. This suggests fractionation of large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and Pb from the high-field-strength elements and rare earth elements during the bleaching. If this ultramafic mélange is analogous to the slab-mantle interface, similar infiltration metasomatism will promote liberation of C, Si, LILE, and Pb from subducting metapelites and enhance metasomatism of the mantle wedge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Swartz
2014-06-01
Full Text Available If λ is a scalar sequence space, a series P Zj in a topological vector space Z is λ multiplier convergent in Z if the series P ∞J =1 tj Zj converges in Z for every t = {tj} ∈ λ-If λ satisfies appropriate conditions, a series in a locally convex space X which is λ multiplier convergent in the weak topology is λ multiplier convergent in the original topology ofthe space (the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem but may fail to be λ multiplier convergent in the strong topology of the space. However, we show under apprpriate conditions on the multiplier space λ that the series will have strongly bounded partial sums.
Weakly bound states of polar molecules in bilayers
Fedorov, D V; Zinner, N T; Jensen, A S
2011-01-01
We investigate a system of two polarized molecules in a layered trap. The molecules reside in adjacent layers and interact purely via the dipole-dipole interaction. We determine the properties of the ground state of the system as a function of the dipole moment and polarization angle. A bound state is always present in the system and in the weak binding limit the bound state extends to a very large distance and shows universal behavior.
Enzer, Selwyn
1977-01-01
Futures research offers new tools for forecasting and for designing alternative intervention strategies. Interactive cross-impact modeling is presented as a useful method for identifying future events. (Author/MV)
Iterative arrays with small time bounds
Buchholz, Thomas; Klein, Andreas; Kutrib, Martin
1999-01-01
An iterative arrays is a line of interconnected interacting finite automata. One distinguished automaton, the communication cell, is connected to the outside world and fetches the input serially symbol by symbol. Sometimes in the literature this model is referred to as cellular automaton with sequential input mode. We investigate deterministic iterative arrays (IA) with small time bounds between real-time and linear-time. It is shown that there exists an infinite dense hierarchy of strictly i...
Better-Reply Dynamics with Bounded Recall
Andriy Zapechelnyuk
2008-01-01
A decision maker is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the decision maker is to guarantee to himself the average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature's empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. The decision maker with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: The decision maker with ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD
, and demonstrated in public settings. We then describe INTERACT, a proposed research project that stages the robotic marionettes in a live performance. The interdisciplinary project brings humanities research to bear on scientific and technological inquiry, and culminates in the development a live......This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
A balance for Dark Matter bound states
Nozzoli, F.
2016-01-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. T...
Tommaso, Giovanardi; Alberto, Zanetti; Maurizio, Mazzucchelli; Tomoaki, Morishita; Antonio, Langone
2016-04-01
The Finero Phlogopite-Peridotite (FPP) is a mantle unit outcropping in the northernmost tip of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ, Southern Alps). It shows a virtually complete recrystallization due to pervasive to channelled melt migration. The pervasive metasomatism formed a main lithologic association constituted by phlogopite harzburgites associated to phlogopite pyroxenites (mainly olivine-websterites, websterites and orthopyroxenites). These lithologies are also rich in amphibole and do not show significant chemical gradients among them (Zanetti et al., 1999). The channelled migration stages formed dunite bodies, which sometimes contain stratiform chromitites and, more rarely, pyroxenite layers similar to those associated to phlogopite harzburgite. The FPP also shows a discrete number of other, subordinate rock-types, which are characterised by the presence of apatite usually associated to carbonates (i.e. calcite or dolomite) and exhibit marked modal and chemical gradients with respect to the host phlogopite harzburgite. Examples of these lithologies are apatite-dolomite-bearing wehrlites and harzburgites (e.g. Zanetti et al. 1999; Morishita et al., 2008), apatite-calcite zircon-syenites and hornblendites. Ar-Ar amphibole analysis and U-Pb zircon and apatite data return Triassic ages for these rocks, which have been considered to document the time of melt/fluid injection. Notwithstanding the apparent mineralogical and chemical differences with the main lithologic sequences, apatite-carbonates-bearing rocks have been frequently interpreted as cogenetic to phlogopite harzburgites. To debate the petrogenesis of these rocks, a detailed field, petrological and geochemical investigation has been carried out on a swarm of apatite-calcite-bearing gabbroic veins that randomly cut the main lithologic association. Preliminary investigation evidenced as these veins show complex metasomatic haloes and a symmetric internal layering, characterised by crystallisation of magmatic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as...
Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-07-01
The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The bound neutron β-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-α photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H-, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.
Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oktay Sürücü
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang
2009-01-01
We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.
Higher-order Boltzmann machines and entropy bounds
Apolloni, Bruno; Battistini, Egidio; de Falco, Diego
1999-07-01
We examine some aspects of the interface area between mathematical statistics and statistical physics relevant to the study of Boltzmann machines. The Boltzmann machine learning algorithm is based on a variational principle (Gibbs' lemma for relative entropy). This fact suggests the possibility of a scheme of successive approximations: here we consider successive approximations parametrized by the order of many-body interactions among individual units. We prove bounds on the gain in relative entropy in the crucial step of adding, and estimating by Hebb's rule, a new parameter. We address the problem of providing, on the basis of local observations, upper and lower bounds on the entropy. While upper bounds are easily obtained by subadditivity, lower bounds involve localization of Hirschman bounds on a dual quantum system.
Dynamics of Nonlinear Waves on Bounded Domains
Maliborski, Maciej
2016-01-01
This thesis is concerned with dynamics of conservative nonlinear waves on bounded domains. In general, there are two scenarios of evolution. Either the solution behaves in an oscillatory, quasiperiodic manner or the nonlinear effects cause the energy to concentrate on smaller scales leading to a turbulent behaviour. Which of these two possibilities occurs depends on a model and the initial conditions. In the quasiperiodic scenario there exist very special time-periodic solutions. They result for a delicate balance between dispersion and nonlinear interaction. The main body of this dissertation is concerned with construction (by means of perturbative and numerical methods) of time-periodic solutions for various nonlinear wave equations on bounded domains. While turbulence is mainly associated with hydrodynamics, recent research in General Relativity has also revealed turbulent phenomena. Numerical studies of a self-gravitating massless scalar field in spherical symmetry gave evidence that anti-de Sitter space ...
Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M De Sanctis
2013-09-01
Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other authors, a semirelativistic wave equation is solved using an accurate numerical method to determine the binding energies of these possible superheavy fermion-bound states. The interaction given by the Yukawa potential of the Higgs boson exchange is considered; the corresponding relativistic corrections are calculated by means of a model based on the covariance properties of the Hamiltonian. We study the effects given by the Coulomb force. Moreover, we calculate the contributions given by the Coulombic and confining terms of the strong interaction in the case of superheavy quark bound states. The results of the model are critically analysed.
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang
2007-01-01
Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs
G-factors of hole bound states in spherically symmetric potentials in cubic semiconductors
Miserev, Dmitry; Sushkov, Oleg
2016-03-01
Holes in cubic semiconductors have effective spin 3/2 and very strong spin orbit interaction. Due to these factors properties of hole bound states are highly unusual. We consider a single hole bound by a spherically symmetric potential, this can be an acceptor or a spherically symmetric quantum dot. Linear response to an external magnetic field is characterized by the bound state Lande g-factor. We calculate analytically g-factors of all bound states.
G-factors of hole bound states in spherically symmetric potentials in cubic semiconductors
Miserev, D. S.; Sushkov, O. P.
2015-01-01
Holes in cubic semiconductors have effective spin 3/2 and very strong spin orbit interaction. Due to these factors properties of hole bound states are highly unusual. We consider a single hole bound by a spherically symmetric potential, this can be an acceptor or a spherically symmetric quantum dot. Linear response to an external magnetic field is characterized by the bound state Lande g-factor. We calculate analytically g-factors of all bound states.
Occurrence of organically bound tritium in the Mohelno lake system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study was focused on the 3Hactivitylevels in the unique 'tritium valley' around the Mohelno reservoir, which receives outlet cooling waters from the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Tritium activity levels above the background reference value were found in water from the reservoir and from the effluent part of the Jihlava water, in air moisture and in plant tissues tissue free water tritium(TFWT), and nonexchangeable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT). These zones were discernible that had noticeably different TFWT and NE-OBT values: (1) littoral zones, (2) slopes above the reservoir, (3) plateaus above the reservoir/river. (author)
Mishustin, I N; Buervenich, T J; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W
2005-01-01
We study the possibility of producing a new kind of nuclear systems which in addition to ordinary nucleons contain a few antibaryons (antiproton, antilambda, etc.). The properties of such systems are described within the relativistic mean-field model by employing G-parity transformed interactions for antibaryons. Calculations are first done for infinite systems and then for finite nuclei from He to Pb. It is demonstrated that the presence of a real antibaryon leads to a strong rearrangement of a target nucleus resulting in a significant increase of its binding energy and local compression. Noticeable effects remain even after the antibaryon coupling constants are reduced by factor 3-4 compared to G-parity motivated values. We have performed detailed calculations of the antibaryon annihilation rates in the nuclear environment by applying a kinetic approach. It is shown that due to significant reduction of the reaction Q-values, the in-medium annihilation rates should be strongly suppressed leading to relativel...
Schulz, M D; Vidal, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
Curvature bounds for configuration spaces
Erbar, Matthias; Huesmann, Martin
2014-01-01
We show that the configuration space over a manifold M inherits many curvature properties of the manifold. For instance, we show that a lower Ricci curvature bound on M implies for the configuration space a lower Ricci curvature bound in the sense of Lott-Sturm-Villani, the Bochner inequality, gradient estimates and Wasserstein contraction. Moreover, we show that the heat flow on the configuration space, or the infinite independent particle process, can be identified as the gradient flow of t...
Entropy bounds for uncollapsed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, Gabriel; Visser, Matt, E-mail: Gabriel.Abreu@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: Matt.Visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operation Research Victoria University of Wellington Wellington (New Zealand)
2011-09-22
In any static spacetime the quasilocal Tolman mass contained within a volume can be reduced to a Gauss-like surface integral involving the flux of a suitably defined generalized surface gravity. By introducing some basic thermodynamics, and invoking the Unruh effect, one can then develop elementary bounds on the quasilocal entropy that are very similar in spirit to the holographic bound, and closely related to entanglement entropy.
Finite Domain Bounds Consistency Revisited
Choi, Chiu Wo; Harvey, Warwick; Lee, Jimmy Ho-Man; Stuckey, Peter J.
2004-01-01
A widely adopted approach to solving constraint satisfaction problems combines systematic tree search with constraint propagation for pruning the search space. Constraint propagation is performed by propagators implementing a certain notion of consistency. Bounds consistency is the method of choice for building propagators for arithmetic constraints and several global constraints in the finite integer domain. However, there has been some confusion in the definition of bounds consistency. In t...
Magnetic moment of a bound electron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical predictions underlying determinations of the fine structure constant α and the electron-to-proton mass ratio me/mp are reviewed, with the emphasis on the bound electron magnetic anomaly g-2. The theory of the interaction of hydrogen-like ions with a magnetic field is discussed. The status of efforts aimed at the determination of O(α(Zα)5) and O(α2(Zα)5) corrections to the g factor is presented. The reevaluation of analogous corrections to the Lamb shift and the hyperfine splitting is summarized.
Novel Bound States in Graphene with Impurities
Gupta, Kumar S
2008-01-01
We obtain a novel bound state spectrum of the low energy excitations near the Fermi points of graphene in the presence of a charge impurity. The effects of possible short range interactions induced by the impurity are modelled by suitable boundary conditions. The spectrum in the subcritical region of the effective Coulomb coupling is labelled by a parameter which characterizes the boundary conditions and determines the inequivalent quantizations of the system. In the supercritical region we obtain a renormalization group flow for the effective Coulomb coupling.
Topological edge states of bound photon pairs
Gorlach, Maxim A
2016-01-01
We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. Energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. Despite the unexpected breakdown of the Zak phase technique and the edge mixing of internal and center-of-mass motion we link the edge state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity, thus uncovering the topological nature of the many-body problem in complex lattices.
On a Generalization of Kingman's Bounds
Liu, Zhen; Nain, Philippe; Towsley, Don
1994-01-01
In this paper we develop a framework for computing upper and lower bounds of an exponential form for a class of single server queueing systems with non-renewal inputs. These bounds generalize Kingman's bounds for queues with renewal inputs.
Deville, Eric; Mascle, A.; Callec, Y.; Huyghe, P.; Lallemant, S.; Lerat, O.; Mathieu, X; De Carillo, C. Padron; Patriat, Martin; Pichot, Thibaud; Loubrieux, B.; Granjeon, D
2015-01-01
Several marine geophysical data and piston-coring surveys acquired during the last decade allow one to better understand the close dynamic interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. These interactions have been active since Eocene time as illustrated by the study of outcrops onshore Barbados Island. Because of strong morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the present-day Orinoco turbiditic ...
Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.
2012-01-01
range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...
Simulation bounds for system availability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed
A balance for Dark Matter bound states
Nozzoli, F
2016-01-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. The existence of bound states, with binding energy larger than $\\sim$1 meV, would offer the possibility to test in laboratory capture cross sections of the order of a barn (or larger). The signature of the detection of a mass increasing of cryogenic samples, due to the possible Dark Matter accumulation, would allow the investigation of Dark Matter particles with mass up to the GUT scale. A proof of concept for a possible detection set-up and the evaluation of some noise sources are described.
Refining Castelnuovo-Halphen bounds
Di Gennaro, Vincenzo
2011-01-01
Fix integers $r,d,s,\\pi$ with $r\\geq 4$, $d\\gg s$, $r-1\\leq s \\leq 2r-4$, and $\\pi\\geq 0$. Refining classical results for the genus of a projective curve, we exhibit a sharp upper bound for the arithmetic genus $p_a(C)$ of an integral projective curve $C\\subset {\\mathbb{P}^r}$ of degree $d$, assuming that $C$ is not contained in any surface of degree $ \\pi$. Next we discuss other types of bound for $p_a(C)$, involving conditions on the entire Hilbert polynomial of the integral surfaces on which $C$ may lie.
Bounding solutions of Pfaff equations
Esteves, E.; Kleiman, S
2003-01-01
Let \\omega be a Pfaff system of differential forms on a projective space. Let S be its singular locus, and Y a solution of \\omega=0. We prove Y\\cap S is of codimension at most 1 in Y, just as Jouanolou suspected; he proved this result assuming \\omega is completely integrable, and asked if the integrability is, in fact, needed. Furthermore, we prove a lower bound on the Castelnuovo--Mumford regularity of Y\\cap S. As in two related articles, we derive upper bounds on numerical invariants of Y, ...
Bound orbits and gravitational theory
Dadhich, Naresh; Ghosh, Sushant G.(School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, 4000, Durban, South Africa); Jhingan, Sanjay
2013-01-01
It can be easily shown that bound orbits around a static source can exist only in 4 dimension and in none else for any long range force. This is so not only for Maxwell's electromagnetic and Newton's gravity but also for Einstein's gravitation theory. In contrast to Maxwell's electrodynamics and Newton's gravity, GR has a natural higher dimensional generalization in Lovelock gravity which remarkably admits bound orbits around a static black hole in all even d=2N+2 dimensions where $N$ is degr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Parker, Kyle R.; Waichler, Scott R.; Williams, Mark D.
2013-10-01
This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale model of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address “what if” questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.
Stieglitz, T. C.
2013-05-01
Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.
2001-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2001), s. 66-70. ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * dispersion mechanism * wall interaction versus microheterogeneity Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the salt tolerance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions and to examine the interactive effects of salinity and nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on yield. The present study shows the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels (270 ...
Understanding the Fluvial Critical Zone
Bätz, N.; Lane, S. N.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Lang, F.
2012-04-01
Geomorphological modelling has evolved significantly the representation of the link between river morphology, flow processes and sediment transport; notably recently, with an emphasis upon the interactions between vegetation dynamics and morphodynamics. Nevertheless, vegetation dynamics have tended to be treated as a simplistic "black box" in which time replaces the more complex underlying processes. Thus, riparian vegetation dynamics not only result from interactions between surface-flow, topography and vegetation resistance to disturbance, but also soil development within the fluvial zone, which affects nutrient and water supply. More generally labeled the critical zone, there is a lack of considering the "critical fluvial zone" in geomorphological models. Understanding the key drivers of this system, thus the processes interrelating vegetation, topography, soil (formation), subsurface- and surface-flow, are crucial to understand how riverine landscapes respond to increasing human pressure and to climate change. In this poster, we consider the likely nature of a braided river critical fluvial zone. Braided rivers in deglaciated forelands provide an opportunity to study the fluvial critical zone due to their dynamic properties, the restricted physical size, the simple ecosystems and the space-for-time relation caused by glacier retreatment after the "Little Ice Age". The poster aims to commence a discussion on the fluvial critical zone, showing first results about: a) the system understanding of a braided river set in a recently deglaciated alpine foreland; b) methodological approaches to quantify the identified interrelating key processes; c) how quantitative understanding can be integrated into fluvial geomorphological modelling.
Bound states of 'dressed' particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...
Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002. ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2014
Unconditional lower bounds against advice
H. Buhrman; L. Fortnow; R. Santhanam
2009-01-01
We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in NP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
1992-01-01
In the context of abstract interpretation the authors study the number of times a functional needs to be unfolded in order to give the least fixed point. For the cases of total or monotone functions they obtain an exponential bound and in the case of strict and additive (or distributive) functions...
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
2010-01-01
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Improved Bounds for Geometric Permutations
Rubin, Natan; Sharir, Micha
2010-01-01
We show that the number of geometric permutations of an arbitrary collection of $n$ pairwise disjoint convex sets in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, for $d\\geq 3$, is $O(n^{2d-3}\\log n)$, improving Wenger's 20 years old bound of $O(n^{2d-2})$.
Universal Entropy Bound for Rotating Systems
Hod, Shahar
1999-01-01
We conjecture a universal upper bound to the entropy of a rotating system. The entropy bound follows from application of the generalized second law of thermodynamics to an idealized gedanken experiment in which an entropy-bearing rotating system falls into a black hole. This bound is stronger than the Bekenstein entropy bound for non-rotating systems.
2002-01-01
NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the
Question of η- and K−- Nucleus Bound States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Interaction of the η-meson and that of the K−-meson with nucleons is of special interest because both of them are strongly attractive near threshold. This raises the strong possibility that we may find in nature the bound η- and K−-nuclear (quasi) bound states. This led to experimental programs to hunt for the existence of these states and theoretical studies to keep pace with them. The efforts had positive results. The η-meson studies had been there for several years by now, while those with the K−-meson had been relatively recent. The talk gives a brief critical overview of the η-nuclear interaction studies, especially in context with the η-mesic state explorations. For the K−-meson we give a brief summary of the efforts in understanding the basic K−-nucleon interaction and theoretical explorations for the existence of K−-nucleus bound states. We critically examine the FINUDA measurements as a signal for the existence of the K−-nucleus bound states, especially in context with the contribution of the single nucleon knock-out final state interaction in the (K−, pΛ) reaction.
Bound States and Supercriticality in Graphene-Based Topological Insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reinhold Egger
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the bound state spectrum and the conditions for entering a supercritical regime in graphene with strong intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions within the topological insulator phase. Explicit results are provided for a disk-shaped potential well and for the Coulomb center problem.
Quark model study of the triton bound stat
Juliá-Díaz, B.; Fernández, F.; Valcarce, A.; Haidenbauer, J.
2001-01-01
The three-nucleon bound state problem is studied employing nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from a basic quark-quark interaction. We analyze the effects of the nonlocalities generated by the quark model. The calculated triton binding energies indicate that quark-model nonlocalities can yield additional binding in the order of few hundred keV.
K-nuclear bound states in a dynamical model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2006-01-01
Roč. 770, 1/2 (2006), s. 84-105. ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : kaonic atoms * K-nuclear bound states * K-nucleus interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.155, year: 2006
Predicting Short-Term Remembering as Boundedly Optimal Strategy Choice
Howes, Andrew; Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Kalidindi, Kiran; Tseng, Yuan-Chi; Lewis, Richard L.
2016-01-01
It is known that, on average, people adapt their choice of memory strategy to the subjective utility of interaction. What is not known is whether an individual's choices are "boundedly optimal." Two experiments are reported that test the hypothesis that an individual's decisions about the distribution of remembering between internal and…
Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.
Among the few vibrant ecotopes is the coastal zone, where multifaceted interactions among air, sea and land are dynamically balanced. An area of intense clash of interest of user community, the coastal zone harbouring vast potential of renewable...
Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity
Concentration Bounds for Stochastic Approximations
Frikha, Noufel
2012-01-01
We obtain non asymptotic concentration bounds for two kinds of stochastic approximations. We first consider the deviations between the expectation of a given function of the Euler scheme of some diffusion process at a fixed deterministic time and its empirical mean obtained by the Monte-Carlo procedure. We then give some estimates concerning the deviation between the value at a given time-step of a stochastic approximation algorithm and its target. Under suitable assumptions both concentration bounds turn out to be Gaussian. The key tool consists in exploiting accurately the concentration properties of the increments of the schemes. For the first case, as opposed to the previous work of Lemaire and Menozzi (EJP, 2010), we do not have any systematic bias in our estimates. Also, no specific non-degeneracy conditions are assumed.
Hadron QCD (Bound states in gauge theories)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general principles of the description of bound states in QED and QCD are proposed for the aim of construction of the consistent scheme of calculating hadron spectrum and interaction amplitudes. Such principles are the explicit solution of the Gauss equation for time component, the quantization of the minimal set physical variables and the choice of the time-axis of quantization in accordance with the Markov-Yukawa relativistic theory of bilocal fields. QCD constructed by these principles contains new infrared divergences, changing the behaviour of the Coulomb field on large distances. This divergences (like ones in QED) are removed out with the help of phenomenology, in this case, by taking into account the rising potential as the 'nonperturbative background' for a new perturbation theory. It is shown how in such hadron theory the parton model, nonrelativistic potential spectroscopy, chiral Lagrangian and confinement appear. The Dirac quantization method, renormalization group equations and lattice calculations in their conventional formulation are proved to be untenable for the description of bound states. 23 refs
ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State
Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun
2016-01-01
We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...
Bound anionic states of adenine
Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.
2007-01-01
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine...
Jentschura, U.; Soff, G.; Ivanov, V.; Karshenboim, S.
1997-01-01
We consider the hyperfine structure, the atomic spectrum and the decay channels of the bound mu+ mu- system (dimuonium). The annihilation lifetimes of low-lying atomic states of the system lie in the nanosecond range range. The decay rates could be measured by detection of the decay products (high energy photons or electron-positron pairs). The hyperfine structure splitting of the dimuonic system and its decay rate are influenced by electronic vacuum polarization effects in the far time-like ...
Provably Bounded-Optimal Agents
Russell, S J; Subramanian, D.
1995-01-01
Since its inception, artificial intelligence has relied upon a theoretical foundation centered around perfect rationality as the desired property of intelligent systems. We argue, as others have done, that this foundation is inadequate because it imposes fundamentally unsatisfiable requirements. As a result, there has arisen a wide gap between theory and practice in AI, hindering progress in the field. We propose instead a property called bounded optimality. Roughly speaking, an agent is boun...
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Kim, Hyo-Sil
2011-01-01
We study the motion-planning problem for a car-like robot whose turning radius is bounded from below by one and which is allowed to move in the forward direction only (Dubins car). For two robot configurations $\\sigma, \\sigma'$, let $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ be the shortest bounded-curvature path from $\\sigma$ to $\\sigma'$. For $d \\geq 0$, let $\\ell(d)$ be the supremum of $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$, over all pairs $(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ that are at Euclidean distance $d$. We study the function $\\dub(d) = \\ell(d) - d$, which expresses the difference between the bounded-curvature path length and the Euclidean distance of its endpoints. We show that $\\dub(d)$ decreases monotonically from $\\dub(0) = 7\\pi/3$ to $\\dub(\\ds) = 2\\pi$, and is constant for $d \\geq \\ds$. Here $\\ds \\approx 1.5874$. We describe pairs of configurations that exhibit the worst-case of $\\dub(d)$ for every distance $d$.
Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a 1/r2 force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a 1/r2 force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell's inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Coppin, Fréderic; Floriani, Magali [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vercouter, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DANS, DPC SEARS, LANIE, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sergeant, Claire [Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Camilleri, Virginie [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Berthomieu, Catherine [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Février, Laureline, E-mail: laureline.fevrier@irsn.fr [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2015-03-21
Highlights: • Microbacterium sp. A9 develops various detoxification mechanisms. • Microbacterium sp. A9 promotes metal efflux from the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 releases phosphate to prevent uranium entrance in the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 stores U intracellularly as autunite. - Abstract: Although uranium (U) is naturally found in the environment, soil remediation programs will become increasingly important in light of certain human activities. This work aimed to identify U(VI) detoxification mechanisms employed by a bacteria strain isolated from a Chernobyl soil sample, and to distinguish its active from passive mechanisms of interaction. The ability of the Microbacterium sp. A9 strain to remove U(VI) from aqueous solutions at 4 °C and 25 °C was evaluated, as well as its survival capacity upon U(VI) exposure. The subcellular localisation of U was determined by TEM/EDX microscopy, while functional groups involved in the interaction with U were further evaluated by FTIR; finally, the speciation of U was analysed by TRLFS. We have revealed, for the first time, an active mechanism promoting metal efflux from the cells, during the early steps following U(VI) exposure at 25 °C. The Microbacterium sp. A9 strain also stores U intracellularly, as needle-like structures that have been identified as an autunite group mineral. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this strain exhibits a high U(VI) tolerance based on multiple detoxification mechanisms. These findings support the potential role of the genus Microbacterium in the remediation of aqueous environments contaminated with U(VI) under aerobic conditions.
Causal Entropy Bound for a Spacelike Region
Brustein, R.; Veneziano, G.
2000-06-01
The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic spacelike region. This ``causal entropy bound,'' scaling as EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various ``critical'' situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso's holographic bound are stronger than Bekenstein's, while naive holography is too tight, and hence typically wrong.
Bound states of fermions on 2D lattice in a dilute limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine extended bound states in a dilute limit of the extended Hubbard model on the two-dimensional square lattice. By solving exactly the two-body problem we have determined the binding energies, mobilities and dispersion curves across the Brillouin zone for bound states of various symmetries. It turns out that the d-wave pairing is strongly favoured by the nnn hopping and the intersite local pairs can have small effective masses, even on the case of strong binding.We have also found a possibility of extended s-dx2-y2 mixing of the bound states. (author)
Bounds on Transient Instability for Complex Ecosystems
2016-01-01
Stability is a desirable property of complex ecosystems. If a community of interacting species is at a stable equilibrium point then it is able to withstand small perturbations to component species’ abundances without suffering adverse effects. In ecology, the Jacobian matrix evaluated at an equilibrium point is known as the community matrix, which describes the population dynamics of interacting species. A system’s asymptotic short- and long-term behaviour can be determined from eigenvalues derived from the community matrix. Here we use results from the theory of pseudospectra to describe intermediate, transient dynamics. We first recover the established result that the transition from stable to unstable dynamics includes a region of ‘transient instability’, where the effect of a small perturbation to species’ abundances—to the population vector—is amplified before ultimately decaying. Then we show that the shift from stability to transient instability can be affected by uncertainty in, or small changes to, entries in the community matrix, and determine lower and upper bounds to the maximum amplitude of perturbations to the population vector. Of five different types of community matrix, we find that amplification is least severe when predator-prey interactions dominate. This analysis is relevant to other systems whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of the Jacobian matrix. PMID:27327511
Bounds on Transient Instability for Complex Ecosystems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Caravelli
Full Text Available Stability is a desirable property of complex ecosystems. If a community of interacting species is at a stable equilibrium point then it is able to withstand small perturbations to component species' abundances without suffering adverse effects. In ecology, the Jacobian matrix evaluated at an equilibrium point is known as the community matrix, which describes the population dynamics of interacting species. A system's asymptotic short- and long-term behaviour can be determined from eigenvalues derived from the community matrix. Here we use results from the theory of pseudospectra to describe intermediate, transient dynamics. We first recover the established result that the transition from stable to unstable dynamics includes a region of 'transient instability', where the effect of a small perturbation to species' abundances-to the population vector-is amplified before ultimately decaying. Then we show that the shift from stability to transient instability can be affected by uncertainty in, or small changes to, entries in the community matrix, and determine lower and upper bounds to the maximum amplitude of perturbations to the population vector. Of five different types of community matrix, we find that amplification is least severe when predator-prey interactions dominate. This analysis is relevant to other systems whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of the Jacobian matrix.
Bounds on Transient Instability for Complex Ecosystems.
Caravelli, Francesco; Staniczenko, Phillip P A
2016-01-01
Stability is a desirable property of complex ecosystems. If a community of interacting species is at a stable equilibrium point then it is able to withstand small perturbations to component species' abundances without suffering adverse effects. In ecology, the Jacobian matrix evaluated at an equilibrium point is known as the community matrix, which describes the population dynamics of interacting species. A system's asymptotic short- and long-term behaviour can be determined from eigenvalues derived from the community matrix. Here we use results from the theory of pseudospectra to describe intermediate, transient dynamics. We first recover the established result that the transition from stable to unstable dynamics includes a region of 'transient instability', where the effect of a small perturbation to species' abundances-to the population vector-is amplified before ultimately decaying. Then we show that the shift from stability to transient instability can be affected by uncertainty in, or small changes to, entries in the community matrix, and determine lower and upper bounds to the maximum amplitude of perturbations to the population vector. Of five different types of community matrix, we find that amplification is least severe when predator-prey interactions dominate. This analysis is relevant to other systems whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of the Jacobian matrix. PMID:27327511
Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Colby Coll., Waterville, ME (United States); Neff, J. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)
1993-09-01
The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.
Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva
2012-04-01
Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674
Massmann, Gudrun; Simmons, Craig; Love, Andrew; Ward, James; James-Smith, Julianne
2006-10-01
SummaryUnderstanding the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into fresh surface water can be critical for the effective management of water resources. While variable density flow has been studied intensely in a number of settings, the role it plays on the discharge behaviour of saline groundwater into freshwater streams is often neglected when calculating salt loads into a stream. The aim of this study was to determine what role variable-density flow behaviour plays in surface water/groundwater interaction in a stably-stratified fresh surface water/saline groundwater interface. The mixed convection ratio M, a measure of the ratio of density driven flow to advective driven flow, was defined for a matrix of one-dimensional numerical simulations that employed both varying hydraulic and density gradients. Vertical salt breakthrough into the surface water only occurred in the advection dominated cases ( M 1) vertical discharge of salt into surface water did not occur and the saltwater/freshwater interface migrated downwards with increasing density differences between the two fluids. This study therefore shows that there is a critical concentration difference that maximises salt loads to a surface water body and that a density-invariant approach to estimate the salt flux into the surface water (as the product of flow velocity determined through a potentiometric analysis and groundwater concentration) may be inadequate, especially where large density differences exist between the fresher surface water body and the underlying saline groundwater. The study is a purely theoretical approach and conclusions were drawn from simplified 1D simulations. Hence, further laboratory and modelling work is needed to confirm and test the plausibility of these findings for more realistic 2D and 3D cases.
Efimov effect and higher bound states in a three particle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The J=0 bound states for a system of three identical spinless particles interacting in pairs through delta-shell potentials are studied. The Efimov states are identified, and their wave functions obtained. A new family of bound states, which occurs for higher values of the attractive coupling strength was found
Calculations of deeply bound pionic states in heavy and superheavy atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binding energies and widths of pions bound in the 1s-state of heavy and superheavy atoms are evaluated. The repulsive strong interaction lowers the Coulomb binding energy by up to 50%. The energy width of the strongest bound state investigated becomes comparable with the binding energy. No drastic consequence on the pion propagation in nuclear matter is expected. (orig.)
Radioimmunoassay for free and bound forms of abscisic acid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the quanitation of abscisic acid (ABA) has been developed. The assay is extremely sensitive and measuring ranges extend from 10 pg to 10 ng. Although the assay was free of contaminant interference when applied to avocado material, crude extract analysis yielded a composite of free and bound forms of ABA. Equivalents of 20 mg of plant material were spotted onto silica gel plates (GF245 solvent:toluene:ethyl acetate : acetic acid 25:15:3), developed and the relative Rf zones removed and subjected to RIA. The technique was tested on avocados
Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laha, Ranjan
2015-10-01
It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angular recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.
Properties of a Bound Polaron under a Perpendicular Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We investigate the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on a bound polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor with Rashba effect. The external magnetic field strongly changes the ground state binding energy of the polaron and the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state binding energy of the bound polaron. In this paper, we have shown how the ground state binding energy will be with the change of the external magnetic field, the location of a single impurity, the wave vector of the electron and the electron areal density, taking into account the SO coupling. Due to the presence of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the bound polaron are more stable, and we find that in the condition of week magnetic field, the Zeeaman effect can be neglected.
Monotonicity of the quantum linear programming bound
Eric M. Rains
1998-01-01
The most powerful technique known at present for bounding the size of quantum codes of prescribed minimum distance is the quantum linear programming bound. Unlike the classical linear programming bound, it is not immediately obvious that if the quantum linear programming constraints are satisfiable for dimension K, that the constraints can be satisfied for all lower dimensions. We show that the quantum linear programming bound is indeed monotonic in this sense, and give an explicitly monotoni...
Bound entangled states invariant under Ux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi
2008-01-01
This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function. The...... approximations of a standard (strictly concave)growth model.KEYWORDS: Numerical approximation errors, Bellman contractions, Error bounds...
Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beane, S. R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S. D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-06-11
Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.
Zone distillation: justification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone re-crystallization) is should up
Deville, E.
2011-12-01
Recent marine geophysical acquisitions and piston-coring allow to better understand the close interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. Because of the morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the Orinoco turbiditic pattern system does not exhibit a classic fan geometry. The sea-floor geometry between the slope of the front of the Barbados prism and the slope of the South-American margin induces the convergence of the turbidite channels toward the abyssal plain, at the front of the accretionary prism. Also, whereas in most passive margins the turbidite systems are organized upstream to downstream as canyon, then channel-levee, then lobes, here, due to the tectonic control, the sedimentary system is organized as channel-levee, then canyons, then channelized lobes. At the edge of the Orinoco platform, the system has multiple sources with several distributaries and downward the channel courses are complex with frequent convergences or divergences that are emphasized by the effects of the undulating seafloor tectonic morphologies associated with active thrust tectonics and mud volcanism. On top of the accretionary prism, turbidite sediments are filling transported piggy-back basins whose timing of sedimentation vs. deformation is complex. Erosion processes are almost absent on the highly subsiding Orinoco platform and in the upper part of the turbidite system. Erosion processes develop mostly between 2000 and 4000 m of water depth, above the compressional structures of the Barbados prism (canyons up to 3 km wide and 300 m deep). In the abyssal plain, turbiditic channels develop on very long distance (> 1000 km) joining the mid-Atlantic channel (sourced mostly by the Amazon), filling several elongated basins corresponding to transform faults (notably the Barracuda Basin), and finally sourcing the Puerto-Rico trench, the deepest morphologic depression of this region
van Hemert, Marc C.; Peyerimhoff, Sigrid D.
1991-03-01
Potential energy curves are calculated for the ten lowest states in HeH which correlate with the hydrogen asymptote in the n=1, 2, 3 occupation; these are X, A, C, D, 5 2Σ+, 6 2Σ+, and B, E, 3 2Π as well as the 1 2Δ states. Multireference configuration interaction calculations are employed thereby in an atomic orbital (AO) basis of contracted Gaussians. Extensive calculations of the ∂/∂R, ∂2/∂R2, Lx, and L2 matrix elements are carried out to account explicitly for the effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The positions of rovibrational levels are thereby determined in pairwise close-coupling calculations for the X/A and C/D states of 2Σ+ symmetry for the four isotopomers 4HeH, 3HeH, 4HeD, and 3HeD. Radial, angular, and mass polarization corrections affect the A and C states differently, so that the A-C energy gap increases by 39 cm-1 in 3HeD and by 53 cm-1 in HeH upon introduction of these terms, e.g., whereby the contribution of the mass polarization is by far the smallest. By employing a two-parameter correction function to the calculated electronic potential energy and making use of the calculated non-Born-Oppenheimer terms, a large number of levels for the A, C, and D states as a function of (v,J) quantum numbers are computed which agree with those, which are experimentally available for the C-A and D-A transitions within wave number accuracy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relevance of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed) in contemporary atomic structure theory is reviewed. Recent experimental advances allow both the production of heavy ions of high charge as well as the measurement of atomic properties with a precision never achieved before. The description of heavy atoms with few electrons via the successive incorporation of one, two, etcetera photons in a rigorous manner and within the bound state Furry representation of Qed is technically feasible. For many-electron atoms the many-body (correlation) effects are very important and it is practically impossible to evaluate all the relevant Feynman diagrams to the required accuracy. Thus, it is necessary to develop a theoretical scheme in which the radiative and nonradiative effects are taken into account in an effective way making emphasis in electronic correlation. Preserving gauge invariance, and avoiding both continuum dissolution and variational collapse are basic problems that must be solved when using effective potential methods and finite-basis representations of them. In this context, we shall discuss advances and problems in the description of atoms as Qed bound states. (Author)
Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation
An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rate for direct dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement. The effects are strongest for large dark gauge coupling and when the dark photon mass is smaller than the typical momentum of dark matter in the galaxy. As an example, we show that for thermal dark matter the Fermi gamma ray constraint is substantially increased once bound state effects are taken into account. We also find that bound state effects are not important for dark matter annihilation during the freeze out and recombination epochs.
Bounded generalized Harish-Chandra modules
Penkov, Ivan; Serganova, Vera
2007-01-01
Let $\\gg$ be a complex reductive Lie algebra and $\\kk\\subset\\gg$ be any reductive in $\\gg$ subalgebra. We call a $(\\gg,\\kk)$-module $M$ bounded if the $\\kk$-multiplicities of $M$ are uniformly bounded. In this paper we initiate a general study of simple bounded $(\\gg,\\kk)$-modules. We prove a strong necessary condition for a subalgebra $\\kk$ to be bounded (Corollary \\ref{cor1.6}), i.e. to admit an infinite-dimensional simple bounded $(\\gg,\\kk)$-module, and then establish a sufficient conditio...
Sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the N-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simple sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the system of N particles interacting via a purely attractive two-body potential are provided. This method is based on a variational approach. (Author)
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
Information bounds for Gaussian copulas
Hoff, Peter D; Wellner, Jon A
2011-01-01
Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based procedures are natural candidates as semiparametric estimators of copula parameters. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable, autoregressive and circular correlation, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivari...
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Antibaryon-nucleus bound states
Hrtánková, J
2014-01-01
We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.
Towards Bounded Infeasible Code Detection
Christ, Jürgen; Schäf, Martin
2012-01-01
A first step towards more reliable software is to execute each statement and each control-flow path in a method once. In this paper, we present a formal method to automatically compute test cases for this purpose based on the idea of a bounded infeasible code detection. The method first unwinds all loops in a program finitely often and then encodes all feasible executions of the loop-free programs in a logical formula. Helper variables are introduced such that a theorem prover can reconstruct the control-flow path of a feasible execution from a satisfying valuation of this formula. Based on this formula, we present one algorithm that computes a feasible path cover and one algorithm that computes a feasible statement cover. We show that the algorithms are complete for loop-free programs and that they can be implemented efficiently. We further provide a sound algorithm to compute procedure summaries which makes the method scalable to larger programs.
Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.
Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-12-01
The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416
Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.
2012-04-01
Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new
Production of strongly bound 39K bright solitons
Lepoutre, S; Boissé, A; Berthet, G; Salomon, G; Aspect, A; Bourdel, T
2016-01-01
We report on the production of 39 K matter-wave bright solitons, i.e., 1D matter-waves that propagate without dispersion thanks to attractive interactions. The volume of the soliton is studied as a function of the scattering length through three-body losses, revealing peak densities as high as $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{20} m^{-3}$. Our solitons, close to the collapse threshold, are strongly bound and will find applications in fundamental physics and atom interferometry.
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound
Park, Chanyong
2016-04-01
From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamicslike law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we show that the deformed modular Hamiltonian under a global quench also satisfies the generalized entanglement entropy boundary after introducing a new quantity called the entanglement chemical potential.
Call packing bounds for overflow queues
van Dijk; Sluis, van der, B.
2004-01-01
Finite queueing loss systems are studied with overflow. For these systems there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability or throughput. This paper aims to prove and promote easily computable bounds as based upon the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing a standard product form expression is available. It is proven that call packing leads to a guaranteed upper bound for the loss probability. In addition, an analytic error bound for the accuracy is derived which ...
Bounded rationality and learning in market competition
Tuinstra, J.; Hommes, C.H.; Kopányi, D.
2015-01-01
This thesis promotes the use of bounded rationality in economic models. The assumption of perfect rationality often imposes high informational and computational burden on economic agents and predictions based on this assumption are not in line with observed behavior in some cases. Models of bounded rationality may better explain actual behavior in such situations. In the thesis we consider market models where firms are boundedly rational: they do not know the demand for their product and they...
Volume bounds of conic 2-spheres
Fang, Hao; Lai, Mijia
2016-01-01
We obtain sharp volume bound for a conic 2-sphere in terms of its Gaussian curvature bound. We also give the geometric models realizing the extremal volume. In particular, when the curvature is bounded in absolute value by $1$, we compute the minimal volume of a conic sphere in the sense of Gromov. In order to apply the level set analysis and iso-perimetric inequality as in our previous works, we develop some new analytical tools to treat regions with vanishing curvature.
Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out
Stable Bound Orbits around Black Rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke, E-mail: igata@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)
2011-09-22
We study stable bound orbits of a free particle around a black ring. Unlike the higher-dimensional black hole case, we find that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the ring axis and stable circular orbits on the axis. In addition, radii of stable bound orbits can be infinitely large if the ring thickness is less than a critical value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.
Spontaneous R-Parity violation bounds
Frank, M
2001-01-01
We investigate bounds from tree-level and one-loop processes in generic supersymmetric models with spontaneous R-parity breaking in the superpotential. We analyse the bounds from a general point of view. The bounds are applicable both for all models with spontaneous R-parity violation and for explicit bilinear R-parity violation based on general lepton-chargino and neutrino-neutralino mixings. We find constraints from semileptonic B, D and K decays, leptonic decays of the mu and tau, electric dipole moments, as well as bounds for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.
Conductivity bounds in probe brane models
Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N; Nakai, Yuichiro
2016-01-01
We discuss upper and lower bounds on the electrical conductivity of finite temperature strongly coupled quantum field theories, holographically dual to probe brane models, within linear response. In a probe limit where disorder is introduced entirely through an inhomogeneous background charge density, we find simple lower and upper bounds on the electrical conductivity in arbitrary dimensions. In field theories in two spatial dimensions, we show that both bounds persist even when disorder is included in the bulk metric. We discuss the challenges with finding sharp lower bounds on conductivity in three or more spatial dimensions when the metric is inhomogeneous.
A lower bound and estimates for resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using Schwinger's variational formula for the phase shifts, we deduce a lower bound for the potential strength lambdasub(l)(K) at which deltasub(l)(K)=π/2. The derivation is used to show that the lower bound is a worse estimate than a known upper bound. Whence an improved lower bound is deduced which is then used to obtain an estimate for lambdasub(l)(K). These considerations are then illustrated for some potentials of practical interest, viz., the square well, exponential, Morse and Yukawa, the results being satisfactory. (author)
A violation of the covariant entropy bound?
Masoumi, Ali
2014-01-01
Several arguments suggest that the entropy density at high energy density $\\rho$ should be given by the expression $s=K\\sqrt{\\rho/G}$, where $K$ is a constant of order unity. On the other hand the covariant entropy bound requires that the entropy on a light sheet be bounded by $A/4G$, where $A$ is the area of the boundary of the sheet. We find that in a suitably chosen cosmological geometry, the above expression for $s$ violates the covariant entropy bound. We consider different possible explanations for this fact; in particular the possibility that entropy bounds should be defined in terms of volumes of regions rather than areas of surfaces.
Dipole Moment Bounds on Scalar Dark Matter Annihilation
Fukushima, Keita
2013-01-01
We consider a scalar dark matter annihilations to light leptons mediated by charged exotic fermions. The interaction of this model also adds a correction to dipole moments of light leptons. In the simplified model, these processes will depend upon the same coupling constants. The tight experimental bounds on the dipole moments of light leptons will constrain the coupling constants. Consequently, this bound will then limit the annihilations. We will produce this dipole moment bounds on the annihilation. From this analysis, we report that the bound on annihilation to the electrons is $4.0\\times10^{-7}\\pb$ (g-2) + $8.8\\times 10^{-15}\\pb$ (EDM) and the muons is $5.6\\times 10^{-4}\\pb$ (g-2) + $180\\pb$ (EDM), in the limit where the mediator is much heavier than dark matter. The parentheses indicate the dipole moment used to obtain the values. We note that only the annihilation to muons through a CP-violating (EDM) coupling is not excluded from indirect detection experiments.
Distortion Bounds for Source Broadcast over Degraded Channel
Yu, Lei; Li, Houqiang; Li, Weiping
2016-01-01
The joint source-channel coding problem of sending a memoryless source over a memoryless degraded broadcast channel is considered here. We derive an inner bound and two outer bounds on the achievable distortion region. Moreover, when specialized to Gaussian source broadcast or binary source broadcast, the inner bound and outer bounds could recover the best known inner bound and outer bound. Besides, we also extend the inner bound and outer bounds to Wyner-Ziv source broadcast problem, i.e., s...
Boussaïri, Abderrahim
2011-01-01
Given a graph G, a subset M of V (G) is a module of G if for each v \\in V (G) \\diagdownM, v is adjacent to all the elements of M or to none of them. For instance, V(G), \\varnothing and {v} (v \\in V(G)) are modules of G called trivial. Given a graph G, m(G) denotes the largest integer m such that there is a module M of G which is a clique or a stable set in G with |M|=m. A graph G is prime if |V(G)|\\geq4 and if all its modules are trivial. The prime bound of G is the smallest integer p(G) such that there is a prime graph H with V(H)\\supseteqV(G), H[V(G)] = G and |V(H)\\diagdownV(G)|=p(G). We establish the following. For every graph G such that m(G)\\geq2 and log_2(m(G)) is not an integer, p(G)=\\lceil log_2(m(G)) \\rceil. Then, we prove that for every graph G such that m(G)=2^k where k\\geq1, p(G)=k or k + 1. Moreover p(G)=k+1 if and only if G or its complement admits 2^k isolated vertices. Lastly, we show that p(G) = 1 for every non-prime graph G such that |V(G)|\\geq4 and m(G)=1.
Fuel-Coolant Interactions - some Basic Studies at the UKAEA Culham Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a hypothetical fault sequence important effects of fuel-coolant interactions include voiding and dispersion of core debris as well as the pressure damage usually discussed. The development of the fuel-coolant interaction probably depends on any pre-mixing Weber break-up that may occur, and is therefore a function of the way the fuel and coolant come together. Four contact modes are identified: jetting, shock tube, drops and static, and Culham's experiments have been mainly concerned with simulating the falling drop mode by using molten tin in water. It was observed that the fuel-coolant interaction is a short series of violent coolant oscillations centred at a localized position on the drop, generating a spray of submillimeter sized debris. The interaction started spontaneously at a specific time after the drop first contacted the water. There was a definite limited fuel-coolant interaction zone on a plot of initial coolant temperature versus initial fuel temperature outside which interactions never occurred. The. interaction time was a function of the initial temperatures. Theoretical scaling formulae are given which describe the fuel-coolant interaction zone and dwell time. Bounds of fuel and coolant temperature below which fuel-coolant interactions do not occur are explained by freezing. Upper bounds of fuel and coolant temperatures above which there were no fuel-coolant interactions are interpreted in terms of heat transfer through vapour films of various thicknesses. In conclusion: We have considered the effects of fuel-coolant interactions in a hypothetical fault sequence, emphasising that debris and vapour production as well as the pressure pulse can be important factors. The fuel-coolant interaction has been classified into types, according to possible modes of mixing in the fault sequence. Culham has been studying one type, the self-triggering of falling drops, by simulant experiments. It is found that there is a definite zone of interaction on a plot
Cooperativity, partially bound states, and enthalpy-entropy compensation.
Hunter, Christopher A; Tomas, Salvador
2003-11-01
Efforts to develop a quantitative understanding of molecular recognition rely on the additivity of individual intermolecular interactions, and cooperativity represents one of the major potential stumbling blocks. A chemical double-mutant cycle has been used to experimentally measure cooperativity between functional group interactions within a complex framework. The interaction between two aromatic groups varies by 0.2 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-1) in synthetic H-bonded complexes that differ by 8-13 kJ mol(-1) in overall stability. In these systems, the free energies associated with individual intermolecular interactions can therefore be reliably treated in an additive fashion. The results suggest that alternative explanations should be considered for cooperative phenomena observed in other systems, and a rationale based on the population of partially bound states in flexible molecules is proposed to account for the enthalpic chelate effect and enthalpy-entropy compensation. PMID:14652069
A Cosmological Upper Bound on Superpartner Masses
Hall, Lawrence J; Volansky, Tomer
2013-01-01
If some superpartners were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, and if the lightest superpartner is a cosmologically stable gravitino, then there is a powerful upper bound on the scale of the superpartner masses. Typically the bound is below tens of TeV, often much lower, and has similar parametrics to the WIMP miracle.
Optimal online bounded space multidimensional packing
Epstein, L.; Stee, R. van
2003-01-01
We solve an open problem in the literature by providing an online algorithm for multidimensional bin packing that uses only bounded space. We show that it is optimal among bounded space algorithms for any dimension $d>1$. Its asymptotic performance ratio is $(Pi_{infty})^d$, where $Pi_{infty}approx1
Quantum Lower Bounds by Entropy Numbers
Heinrich, Stefan
2006-01-01
We use entropy numbers in combination with the polynomial method to derive a new general lower bound for the n-th minimal error in the quantum setting of information-based complexity. As an application, we improve some lower bounds on quantum approximation of embeddings between finite dimensional L_p spaces and of Sobolev embeddings.
Holographic Bound in Brans-Dicke Cosmology
Gong, Yungui
1999-01-01
We apply the holographic principle to the Brans-Dicke cosmology. We analyze the holographic bound in both the Jordan and Einstein frames. The holographic bound is satisfied for both the k=0 and k=-1 universe, but it is violated for the k=1 matter dominated universe.
Consumer choice and revealed bounded rationality
Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco
2006-01-01
We study two boundedly rational procedures in consumer behavior. We show that these procedures can be detected by conditions on observable demand data of the same type as standard revealed preference axioms. This provides the basis for a non-parametric analysis of boundedly rational consumer behavior mirroring the classical one for utility maximization.
Polynomially Bounded Sequences and Polynomial Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okazaki Hiroyuki
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize polynomially bounded sequences that plays an important role in computational complexity theory. Class P is a fundamental computational complexity class that contains all polynomial-time decision problems [11], [12]. It takes polynomially bounded amount of computation time to solve polynomial-time decision problems by the deterministic Turing machine. Moreover we formalize polynomial sequences [5].
Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate
Bailleul, Ismael
2010-01-01
We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded above by a negative constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.
Bound states of singlet quarks at LHC
Krasnikov, N. V.
1996-01-01
We discuss the discovery potential of the bound states of singlet quarks at LHC. We find that it is possible to discover bound states of singlet quarks at LHC with singlet quark masses up to 300 Gev for $e_{Q} = \\frac{2}{3}$ and up to 200 Gev for $e_{Q} = -\\frac{1}{3}$.
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities will...
Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate
Bailleul, Ismael
2010-01-01
We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
A Simplicial Branch and Bound Duality-Bounds Algorithm to Linear Multiplicative Programming
Xue-Gang Zhou; Bing-Yuan Cao
2013-01-01
A simplicial branch and bound duality-bounds algorithm is presented to globally solving the linear multiplicative programming (LMP). We firstly convert the problem (LMP) into an equivalent programming one by introducing $p$ auxiliary variables. During the branch and bound search, the required lower bounds are computed by solving ordinary linear programming problems derived by using a Lagrangian duality theory. The proposed algorithm proves that it is convergent to a global mini...
Structural Bounds on the Dyadic Effect
Cinelli, Matteo; Iovanella, Antonio
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider the dyadic effect introduced in complex networks when nodes are distinguished by a binary characteristic. Under these circumstances two independent parameters, namely dyadicity and heterophilicity, are able to measure how much the assigned characteristic affects the network topology. All possible configurations can be represented in a phase diagram lying in a two-dimensional space that represents the feasible region of the dyadic effect, which is bound by two upper bounds on dyadicity and heterophilicity. Using some network's structural arguments, we are able to improve such upper bounds and introduce two new lower bounds, providing a reduction of the feasible region of the dyadic effect as well as constraining dyadicity and heterophilicity within a specific range. Some computational experiences show the bounds' effectiveness and their usefulness with regards to different classes of networks.
Probing bound states of D-branes
Lifschytz, G
1996-01-01
A zero-brane is used to probe non-threshold BPS bound states of ($p$, $p+2$,$p+4$)-branes. At long distances the stringy calculation agrees with the supergravity calculations. The supergravity description is given, using the interpretation of the $D=8$ dyonic membrane as the bound state of a two-brane inside a four-brane. We investigate the short distance structure of these bound states, compute the phase shift of the scattered zero-brane and find the bound states characteristic size. It is found that there should be a supersymmetric solution of type IIa supergravity, describing a bound state of a zero-brane and two orthogonal two-brane, all inside a four-brane , with an additional unbound zero-brane. We comment on the relationship between $p$-branes and $(p-2)$-branes.
Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols
Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore
2010-01-01
Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...
Ds-bounds for cyclic codes: new bounds for abelian codes
J. J. Bernal; Guerreiro, M.; Simón, J. J.
2016-01-01
In this paper we develop a technique to extend any bound for cyclic codes constructed from its defining sets (ds-bounds) to abelian (or multivariate) codes. We use this technique to improve the searching of new bounds for abelian codes.
Urban planning as a trading zone
Mäntysalo, Raine
2013-01-01
'Trading zone' is a concept introduced by Peter Galison in his social scientific research on how scientists representing different sub-cultures and paradigms have been able to coordinate their interaction locally. In this book, Italian and Finnish planning researchers extend the use of the concept to different contexts of urban planning and management, where there is a need for new ideas and tools in managing the interaction of different stakeholders. The trading zone concept is approached as a tool in organizing local platforms and support systems for planning participation, knowledge production, decision making and local conflict management. In relation to the former theses of communicative planning theory that stress the ideals of consensus, mutual understanding and universal reason, the 'trading zone approach', outlined in this book, offers a different perspective. It focuses on the potentiality to coordinate locally the interaction of different stakeholders without requiring the deeper sharing of underst...
Optimized lower bounds in the three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive new lower bounds on three-body ground-state energies in terms of two-body binding energies. For three-body systems with different masses, we obtain a significant improvement as compared to previous results. In particular, the present method leads to exact results in the case of harmonic interactions, as opposed to what was found previously. It sheds light on the mechanism by which such bounds are obtained and appears to be extendable to four and more particles. The numerical results displayed show up to be very accurate estimates of the exact values, and can be used as checks in actual numerical calculations. Possible applications or generalizations are briefly outlined. (orig.)
Bound States in Minkowski Space in 2 + 1 Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Nakanishi perturbative integral representation of the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in three-dimensions (2 + 1) is used to solve the corresponding homogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. The projection of this equation onto the null-plane, as reported here, leads to a bound-state equation for the Nakanishi weight function. The explicit forms of the integral equation for the Nakanishi weight function are shown in the ladder approximation. In addition, the valence light-front wave function is presented. The formal steps of the formalism are illustrated to some extend, with the resulting equation being applied to a bound state system composed by two identical scalar particles of mass m, interacting through the exchange of another massive scalar particle of mass μ. The results reported in this contribution show quite good agreement between our calculations obtained from the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude with the Nakanishi weight function with direct solutions obtained in the Euclidean space. (author)
Understanding the nucleon as a Borromean bound-state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Segovia
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Analyses of the three valence-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory predict that the nucleon may be understood primarily as a Borromean bound-state, in which binding arises mainly from two separate effects. One originates in non-Abelian facets of QCD that are expressed in the strong running coupling and generate confined but strongly-correlated colour-antitriplet diquark clusters in both the scalar–isoscalar and pseudovector–isotriplet channels. That attraction is magnified by quark exchange associated with diquark breakup and reformation. Diquark clustering is driven by the same mechanism which dynamically breaks chiral symmetry in the Standard Model. It has numerous observable consequences, the complete elucidation of which requires a framework that also simultaneously expresses the running of the coupling and masses in the strong interaction. Planned experiments are capable of validating this picture.
Bounds on expectation values of quantum subsystems and perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical investigation of many-body quantum systems usually requires different kinds of physical approximations. The error which is made by these approximations is difficult to estimate and remains unknown in most cases. We examine an upper bound on expectation values of quantum subsystems, which enables the estimation of the maximum error that is made by physical approximations outside the subsystem. This is of special interest for perturbation theory, where the bath is commonly approximated with simplified interactions. A recently realized all-spin-based atomic-scale logic device, consisting of iron atoms and cobalt islands placed on a copper substrate, serves as a specific example for an application of the bound. Strength and weakness of these methods are critically discussed and we provide a quantitative answer to the old question in which cases a small quantum system can be used instead of a large one. (paper)
Direct Detection of Dark Matter Bound to the Earth
Catena, Riccardo
2016-01-01
We study the properties and direct detection prospects of an as of yet neglected population of dark matter (DM) particles moving in orbits gravitationally bound to the Earth. This DM population is expected to form via scattering by nuclei in the Earth's interior. We compute fluxes and nuclear recoil energy spectra expected at direct detection experiments for the new DM population considering detectors with and without directional sensitivity, and different types of target materials and DM-nucleon interactions. DM particles bound to the Earth manifest as a prominent rise in the low-energy part of the observed nuclear recoil energy spectrum. Ultra-low threshold energies of about 1 eV are needed to resolve this effect. Its shape is independent of the DM-nucleus scattering cross-section normalisation.
Lieb-Robinson bounds and the speed of light from topological order
Hamma, A.; Markopoulou, F.; Premont-Schwarz, I.; Severini, S.
2008-01-01
We apply the Lieb-Robinson bounds technique to find the maximum speed of interaction in a spin model with topological order whose low-energy effective theory describes light [see X.-G. Wen, \\prb {\\bf 68}, 115413 (2003)]. The maximum speed of interactions is found in two dimensions is bounded from above less than $\\sqrt{2} e$ times the speed of emerging light, giving a strong indication that light is indeed the maximum speed of interactions. This result does not rely on mean field theoretic me...
Mirror energy difference and the structure of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20
Yuan, Cenxi; Xu, Furong; Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu
2014-01-01
The properties of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20 are investigated within the framework of nuclear shell model. In these nuclei, the strength of the effective interactions involving the loosely bound proton s1=2 orbit are significantly reduced in comparison with those in their mirror nuclei. We evaluate the reduction of the effective interaction by calculating the monopole-baseduniversal interaction (VMU) in the Woods-Saxon basis. The shell-model Hamiltonian in the sd shell, such as USD, can thus be modified to reproduce the binding energies and energy levels of the weakly bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20. The effect of the reduction of the effective interaction on the structure and decay properties of these nuclei is also discussed.
QQqq Four-Quark Bound States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Hai-Xia; ZHANG Zong-Ye
2008-01-01
The possibility of QQqq heavy-light four-quark bound states has been analyzed by means of the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q is the light quark (u, d, or s). We obtain a bound state for the bbnn configuration with quantum number JP=1+, I=0 and for the ccnn (JP=1+, I=0) configuration, which is not bound but slightly above the D*D* threshold (n is u or d quark). Meanwhile, we also conclude that a weakly bound state in bbnn system can also be found without considering the chiral quark interactions between the two light quarks, yet its binding energy is weaker than that with the chiral quark interactions.
Coexistence of bound and virtual-bound states in shallow-core to valence x-ray spectroscopies
Sen Gupta, Subhra; Bradley, J. A.; Haverkort, M. W.; Seidler, G. T.; Tanaka, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.
2011-08-01
With the example of the non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) at the O45 edges (5d→5f) of the actinides, we develop the theory for shallow-core to valence excitations, where the multiplet spread is larger than the core-hole attraction, such as if the core and valence orbitals have the same principal quantum number. This involves very strong final state configuration interaction (CI), which manifests itself as huge reductions in the Slater-Condon integrals, needed to explain the spectral shapes within a simple renormalized atomic multiplet theory. But more importantly, this results in a cross-over from bound (excitonic) to virtual-bound excited states with increasing energy, within the same core-valance multiplet structure, and in large differences between the dipole and high-order multipole transitions, as observed in NIXS. While the bound states (often higher multipole allowed) can still be modeled using local cluster-like models, the virtual-bound resonances (often dipole-allowed) cannot be interpreted within such local approaches. This is in stark contrast to the more familiar core-valence transitions between different principal quantum number shells, where all the final excited states almost invariably form bound core-hole excitons and can be modeled using local approaches. The possibility of observing giant multipole resonances for systems with high angular momentum ground states is also predicted. The theory is important to obtain ground state information from core-level x-ray spectroscopies of strongly correlated transition metal, rare-earth, and actinide systems.
Generalized Fibonacci zone plates
Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang
2015-01-01
We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.
Lability of copper bound to humic acid
Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D.; Bailey, Liz
2015-01-01
Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble ‘non-labile’ Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-depend...
Bounding the volumes of singular Fano threefolds
Lai, Ching-Jui
2012-01-01
Let $(X,\\Delta)$ be an $n$-dimensional $\\epsilon$-klt log $\\QQ$-Fano pair. We give an upper bound for the volume ${\\rm Vol}(-(K_X+\\Delta))=(-(K_X+\\Delta))^n$ when $n=2$ or $n=3$ and $X$ is {$\\QQ$-factorial} of $\\rho(X)=1$. This bound is essentially sharp for $n=2$. Existence of an upper bound for anticanonical volumes is related the Borisov-Alexeev-Borisov Conjecture which asserts boundedness of the set of $\\epsilon$-klt log $\\QQ$-Fano varieties of a given dimension $n$.
The Fitness Level Method with Tail Bounds
Witt, Carsten
2013-01-01
The fitness-level method, also called the method of f-based partitions, is an intuitive and widely used technique for the running time analysis of randomized search heuristics. It was originally defined to prove upper and lower bounds on the expected running time. Recently, upper tail bounds were added to the technique; however, these tail bounds only apply to running times that are at least twice as large as the expectation. We remove this restriction and supplement the fitness-level method ...
Quasi-bound states in continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)
On the reflection of magnon bound states
MacKay, Niall
2010-01-01
We investigate the reflection of two-particle bound states of a free open string in the light-cone AdS_5 x S^5 string sigma model, for large angular momentum J=J_56 and ending on a D7 brane which wraps the entire AdS_5 and a maximal S^3 of S^5. We use the superspace formalism to analyse fundamental and two-particle bound states in the cases of supersymmetry-preserving and broken-supersymmetry boundaries. We find the boundary S-matrices corresponding to bound states both in the bulk and on the boundary.
Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups
2001-01-01
Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.
Influence of uncertainty in delimitation of seismic statistical zone on results of PSHA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘华; 黄玮琼
2003-01-01
The seismic hazard of research area is evaluated by probabilistic analysis method for three different seismic statistical zone scenarios. The influence of uncertainty in seismic statistical zone delimiting on the evaluation result is discussed too. It can be seen that for those local sites along zone's border or withinareas with vast change of upper bound magnitude among different scenarios the influence on seismic hazard result should not be neglected.
New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l-
Alok, A K; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar
2005-01-01
We consider new physics interactions for b --> s l+ l- of the form vector/axial-vector. We derive the upper limit on the branching ratio for the processes B_s --> l+ l-, where l=e or mu, subject to the current experimental bounds on related processes, B --> K l+ l- and B --> K* l+ l-. We obtain 3 sigma upper bounds B(B_s --> e+ e-) mu+ mu-) < 5*10^(-9).
Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated
THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen
2006-01-01
In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.
Bounded sets in fast complete inductive limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Bosch
1984-09-01
Full Text Available Let E1Ã¢ÂŠÂ‚E2Ã¢ÂŠÂ‚Ã¢Â€Â¦ be a sequence of locally convex spaces with all identity maps: EnÃ¢Â†Â’En+1 continuous and E=indlimÃ¢Â€Â‰En fast complete. Then each set bounded in E is also bounded in some En iff for any Banach disk B bounded in E and nÃ¢ÂˆÂˆN, the closure of BÃ¢Â‹Â‚En in B is bounded in some Em. This holds, in particular, if all spaces En are webbed.
Kinematical bound in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes
Shiromizu, T; Tomizawa, S; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ida, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Shinya
2004-01-01
We present positive energy theorems in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes which can be applicable to black strings and charged branes. We also address the bound property of the tension and charge of branes.
Bound phenolics in foods, a review.
Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O
2014-01-01
Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry. PMID:24444905
Redshift-space limits of bound structures
D"unner, R; Meza, A; Araya, P A; Quintana, H; D\\"unner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andr\\'es; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hern\\'an
2006-01-01
An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called "island universes". This new scenario reformulates the question about which will be the largest structures that will remain gravitationally bound, together with requiring a systematic tool that can be used to recognize the limits and mass of these structures from observational data, namely redshift surveys of galaxies. Here we present a method, based on the spherical collapse model and N-body simulations, by which we can estimate the limits of bound structures as observed in redshift space. The method is based on a theoretical criterion presented in a previous paper that determines the mean density contrast that a spherical shell must have in order to be marginally bound to the massive structure within it. Understanding the kinematics of the system, we translated the real-spac...
Lower bounds on fluctuations for internal DLA
Asselah, Amine
2011-01-01
We consider internal diffusion limited aggregation in dimension larger than or equal to two. This is a random cluster growth model, where random walks start at the origin of the d-dimensional lattice, one at a time, and stop moving when reaching a site that is not occupied by previous walks. When n random walks are sent from the origin, we establish a lower bound for the inner and outer errors fluctuations of order square root of the logarithm of n. When dimension is larger or equal to three, this lower bound matches the upper bound recently obtained in independent works of \\cite{AG2} and \\cite{JLS2}. Also, we produce as a corollary of our proof of \\cite{AG2}, an upper bound for the fluctuation of the inner error in a specified direction.
Survey of Bounding Theory in Arabic Language
Ensieh Talebi and; Hossein Seyyedi
2014-01-01
Government and Binding Theory or Principles and Parameters Theory is a universal theory of Chomsky. Linguists of world believe that Chomsky made a revolution in linguistics by this theory. One of the sub-theories of Government and Binding Theory is Bounding Theory which explains the restrictions of grammatical movements. Chomsky claims that his theory is universal and you can perform it in all languages. This essay considers this sub-theory (Bounding Theory) in Arabic language whether is perf...
New spectral features from bound dark matter
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.
Refined Error Bounds for Several Learning Algorithms
Hanneke, Steve
2015-01-01
This article studies the achievable guarantees on the error rates of certain learning algorithms, with particular focus on refining logarithmic factors. Many of the results are based on a general technique for obtaining bounds on the error rates of sample-consistent classifiers with monotonic error regions, in the realizable case. We prove bounds of this type expressed in terms of either the VC dimension or the sample compression size. This general technique also enables us to derive several ...
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Mutually Unbiased Bases and Bound Entanglement
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement; in particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states --for which the state-space forms a "magic" simplex-- we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is ...
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
Catena, Riccardo
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.
Welfare Bounds in a Growing Population
Duygu Yengin
2010-01-01
We study the allocation of collectively owned indivisible goods when monetary transfers are possible. We restrict our attention to incentive compatible mechanisms which allocate the goods efficiently. Among these mechanisms, we characterize those that respect welfare lower bounds. The main characterization involves the identical-preferences lower-bound: each agent should be at least as well off as in an hypothetical economy where all agents have the same preference as hers, no agent envies an...
Bounds for maximin Latin hypercube designs
2009-01-01
Latin hypercube designs (LHDs) play an important role when approximating computer simula- tion models. To obtain good space-filling properties, the maximin criterion is frequently used. Unfortunately, constructing maximin LHDs can be quite time-consuming when the number of dimensions and design points increase. In these cases, we can use approximate maximin LHDs. In this paper, we construct bounds for the separation distance of certain classes of maximin LHDs. These bounds are useful for asse...
Bounds for Maximin Latin Hypercube Designs
van Dam, E.R.; Rennen, G.; Husslage, B.G.M.
2007-01-01
Latin hypercube designs (LHDs) play an important role when approximating computer simula- tion models. To obtain good space-filling properties, the maximin criterion is frequently used. Unfortunately, constructing maximin LHDs can be quite time-consuming when the number of dimensions and design points increase. In these cases, we can use approximate maximin LHDs. In this paper, we construct bounds for the separation distance of certain classes of maximin LHDs. These bounds are useful for asse...
Branch and Bound Algorithm for Multiprocessor Scheduling
Rahman, Mostafizur
2009-01-01
The multiprocessor task graph scheduling problem has been extensively studied asacademic optimization problem which occurs in optimizing the execution time of parallelalgorithm with parallel computer. The problem is already being known as one of the NPhardproblems. There are many good approaches made with many optimizing algorithmto find out the optimum solution for this problem with less computational time. One ofthem is branch and bound algorithm.In this paper, we propose a branch and bound...
Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.
Dawson, D. W.; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R. K.
1984-01-01
Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...
Unified Spectral Bounds on the Chromatic Number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elphick Clive
2015-11-01
Full Text Available One of the best known results in spectral graph theory is the following lower bound on the chromatic number due to Alan Hoffman, where μ1 and μn are respectively the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix: χ ≥ 1+μ1/−μn. We recently generalised this bound to include all eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix.
A Minority Game with Bounded Recall.
Renault, Jérôme; Scarsini, Marco; Tomala, Tristan
2007-01-01
This paper studies a repeated minority game with public signals, symmetric bounded recall, and pure strategies. We investigate both public and private equilibria of the game with fixed recall size. We first show how public equilibria in such a repeated game can be represented as colored subgraphs of a de Bruijn graph. Then we prove that the set of public equilibrium payoffs with bounded recall converges to the set of uniform equilibrium payoffs as the size of the recall increases. We also sho...
Finite blocklength converse bounds for quantum channels
Matthews, William; Wehner, Stephanie
2012-01-01
We derive upper bounds on the rate of transmission of classical information over quantum channels by block codes with a given blocklength and error probability, for both entanglement-assisted and unassisted codes, in terms of a unifying framework of quantum hypothesis testing with restricted measurements. Our bounds do not depend on any special property of the channel (such as memorylessness) and generalise both a classical converse of Polyanskiy, Poor, and Verd\\'{u} as well as a quantum conv...
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with...... positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....
HiggsBounds: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with exclusion bounds from LEP and the Tevatron
Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K. E.
2010-01-01
HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for the Standard Model, for a model with a fourth generation of quarks and leptons and for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with and without CP-violation. The experimental information on the exclusion bounds currently implemented in HiggsBounds will be updated as new results from the Higgs searches become available.
Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion
Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. Conca
2000-12-20
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.
Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show that...
Helping Computers Understand Geographically-Bound Activity Restrictions
Soll, Marcus; Naumann, Philipp; Schöning, Johannes; SAMSONOV, Pavel; Hecht, Brent
2016-01-01
The lack of certain types of geographic data prevents the development of location-aware technologies in a number of important domains. One such type of “unmapped” geographic data is space usage rules (SURs), which are defined as geographically-bound activity restrictions (e.g. “no dogs”, “no smoking”, “no fishing”, “no skateboarding”). Researchers in the area of humancomputer interaction have recently begun to develop techniques for the automated mapping of SURs with the aim of suppo...
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2012-01-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the o...
Exploratory coupled channels calculations for loosely bound carbon isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The loosely bound halo candidates 17C and 19C have been investigated in a neutron+core coupling model. A deformed Woods-Saxon potential is used for the neutron-core interaction and the coupled channels equations are solved with Sturmian expansions of the relative motion wave functions for experimental one-neutron separation energies. The r.m.s. matter radii, longitudinal momentum distributions, E1 strength functions, neutron stripping cross sections and electromagnetic dissociation cross sections are calculated. (K.A.)
Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pichowsky, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kennedy, M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Physics Dept.; Strickland, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
1995-01-18
The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.
Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K V S Shiv Chaitanya
2014-07-01
In this paper, it is shown that Stieltjes electrostatic model and quantum Hamilton Jacobi formalism are analogous to each other. This analogy allows the bound state problem to mimic as unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$, which are placed in between the two fixed imaginary charges arising due to the classical turning points of the potential. The interaction potential between unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$ is given by the logarithm of the wave function. For an exactly solvable potential, this system attains stable equilibrium position at the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials depending upon the interval of the classical turning points.
Experimental studies of antikaon mediated bound nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent experimental studies of the synthesis and properties of deeply bound antikaon mediated nuclear systems are reviewed. Following a brief introduction in the basic properties of the antikaon–nucleon interaction which may lead to cold and dense antikaonic nuclear systems, we review the results of very first experiments which give indications of the existence of such exotic clusters of matter. Then ongoing efforts to substantiate the early findings are presented and future experimental approaches which will allow a very detailed study of the decay modes, the sizes and density distributions of these kaonic nuclear clusters are discussed including their relevance for possible phase transitions in cold dense matter. (author)
Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert,H.; Hill, C.
2006-01-01
Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.
Adaptive Control of Networked Systems in the Presence of Bounded Disturbances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. Tahoun
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The insertion of data network in the feedback adaptive control loops makes the analysis and design of networked control systems more complex than traditional control systems. This paper addresses the adaptive stabilization problem of linear time-invariant networked control systems when the measurements of the plant states are corrupted by bounded disturbances. The case of state feedback is treated in which only an upper bound on the norm of matrix A is needed. The problem is to find an upper bound on the transmission period h that guarantees the stability of the overall adaptive networked control system under an ideal transmission process, i.e. no transmission delay or packet dropout. Rigorous mathematical proofs are established, that relies heavily on Lyapunov's stability criterion and dead-zone Technique. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficacy of our design approach.
Co-Immunoprecipitation of Membrane-Bound Receptors
Avila, Julian R.; Lee, Jin Suk; Torii, Keiko U.
2015-01-01
The study of cell-surface receptor dynamics is critical for understanding how cells sense and respond to changing environments. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms by which signals are perceived and communicated into the cell is necessary to understand immunity, development, and stress. Challenges in testing interactions of membrane-bound proteins include their dynamic nature, their abundance, and the complex dual environment (lipid/soluble) in which they reside. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) of tagged membrane proteins is a widely used approach to test protein-protein interaction in vivo. In this protocol we present a method to perform Co-IP using enriched membrane proteins in isolated microsomal fractions. The different variations of this protocol are highlighted, including recommendations and troubleshooting guides in order to optimize its application. This Co-IP protocol has been developed to test the interaction of receptor-like kinases, their interacting partners, and peptide ligands in stable Arabidopsis thaliana lines, but can be modified to test interactions in transiently expressed proteins in tobacco, and potentially in other plant models, or scaled for large-scale protein-protein interactions at the membrane. PMID:26097438
Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces
Figueroa, Xavier A.; Pollack, Gerald H.
2011-01-01
Many hydrophilic materials in aqueous solution show near-surface zones that exclude suspended colloids and dissolved molecules. These exclusion zones (EZs) can extend for tens to hundreds of micrometers from the hydrophilic surface, and show physicochemical properties that differ from bulk water. So far, only continuous surfaces of polymers, gels, or biological specimens have been studied. In this report, we explore the interactions between exclusion zones generated by discontinuous, regularl...
Directed acyclic graphs with edge-specific bounds
VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tan, Zhiqiang
2011-01-01
We give a definition of a bounded edge within the causal directed acyclic graph framework. A bounded edge generalizes the notion of a signed edge and is defined in terms of bounds on a ratio of survivor probabilities. We derive rules concerning the propagation of bounds. Bounds on causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding are also derived using bounds related to specific edges on a graph. We illustrate the theory developed by an example concerning estimating the effect of antih...
Lability of copper bound to humic acid.
Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H
2015-07-01
Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble 'non-labile' Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-dependent Cu fixation by HA was found during the course of an incubation study (160 d); up to 50% of dissolved HA-bound Cu was not isotopically exchangeable. This result was supported by extraction with EDTA where approximately 40% of Cu remained bound to HA despite dissolution in 0.05 M Na2-EDTA. The presence of a substantial non-labile metal fraction held by HA challenges the assumption of wholly reversible equilibrium which is central to current geochemical models of metal binding to humic substances. PMID:25863164
Bounds for graph regularity and removal lemmas
Conlon, David
2011-01-01
We show, for any positive integer k, that there exists a graph in which any equitable partition of its vertices into k parts has at least ck^2/\\log^* k pairs of parts which are not \\epsilon-regular, where c,\\epsilon>0 are absolute constants. This bound is tight up to the constant c and addresses a question of Gowers on the number of irregular pairs in Szemer\\'edi's regularity lemma. In order to gain some control over irregular pairs, another regularity lemma, known as the strong regularity lemma, was developed by Alon, Fischer, Krivelevich, and Szegedy. For this lemma, we prove a lower bound of wowzer-type, which is one level higher in the Ackermann hierarchy than the tower function, on the number of parts in the strong regularity lemma, essentially matching the upper bound. On the other hand, for the induced graph removal lemma, the standard application of the strong regularity lemma, we find a different proof which yields a tower-type bound. We also discuss bounds on several related regularity lemmas, inclu...
Matroidal Degree-Bounded Minimum Spanning Trees
Zenklusen, Rico
2011-01-01
We consider the minimum spanning tree (MST) problem under the restriction that for every vertex v, the edges of the tree that are adjacent to v satisfy a given family of constraints. A famous example thereof is the classical degree-constrained MST problem, where for every vertex v, a simple upper bound on the degree is imposed. Iterative rounding/relaxation algorithms became the tool of choice for degree-bounded network design problems. A cornerstone for this development was the work of Singh and Lau, who showed for the degree-bounded MST problem how to find a spanning tree violating each degree bound by at most one unit and with cost at most the cost of an optimal solution that respects the degree bounds. However, current iterative rounding approaches face several limits when dealing with more general degree constraints. In particular, when several constraints are imposed on the edges adjacent to a vertex v, as for example when a partition of the edges adjacent to v is given and only a fixed number of elemen...
Bound states in the (2+1)D scalar electrodynamics with Chern-Simons term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work studies the existence of bound states for the 3-dimensions scalar electrodynamics, with the Chern-Simons. Quantum field theory is used for calculation of the Mfi scattering matrices, in the non-relativistic approximation. The field propagators responsible for the interaction in the scattering processes have been calculated, and scattering matrices have been constructed. After obtaining the scattering matrix, the cross section in the quantum field theory has been compared with the quantum mechanic cross section in the Born approximation, allowing to obtain the form of the potential responsible for the interactions in the scattering processes. The possibility of bound states are analyzed by using the Schroedinger equation
Bound states and entanglement in the excited states of quantum spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the entanglement properties of the excited states of the spin- (1/2) Heisenberg (XXX) chain with isotropic antiferromagnetic interactions, by exploiting the Bethe ansatz solution of the model. We consider eigenstates obtained from both real and complex solutions (‘strings’) of the Bethe equations. Physically, the former are states of interacting magnons, whereas the latter contain bound states of groups of particles. We first focus on the situation with few particles in the chain. Using exact results and semiclassical arguments, we derive an upper bound SMAX for the entanglement entropy. This exhibits an intermediate behaviour between logarithmic and extensive, and it is saturated for highly-entangled states. As a function of the eigenstate energy, the entanglement entropy is organized in bands. Their number depends on the number of blocks of contiguous Bethe–Takahashi quantum numbers. In the presence of bound states a significant reduction in the entanglement entropy occurs, reflecting that a group of bound particles behaves effectively as a single particle. Interestingly, the associated entanglement spectrum shows edge-related levels. At a finite particle density, the semiclassical bound SMAX becomes inaccurate. For highly-entangled states SA∝ Lc, with Lc the chord length, signalling the crossover to extensive entanglement. Finally, we consider eigenstates containing a single pair of bound particles. No significant entanglement reduction occurs, in contrast with the few-particle case. (paper)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jia Jia; Xie Chang-Qing
2009-01-01
A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve (PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve (PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same. The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate. We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography.
Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve (PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve (PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same. The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate. We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography. (classical areas of phenomenology)
David, Olivier; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Job, Anne-Sophie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Hoffmann, Dominique,; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe
2011-01-01
International audience Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localize the seizure onset zone and connected neuronal networks in surgical candidates suffering from intractable focal epilepsy. The concept of an epileptogenicity index has been proposed recently to represent the likelihood of various regions being part of the seizure onset zone. It quantifies low-voltage fast activity, the electrophysiological signature of seizure onset usually assessed visually by neurologists. Here, we re...
Colour-octet bound states, induced by Higgs mechanism
Bladwell, S; Flambaum, V V; Kozlov, A
2012-01-01
The current limits for fourth generation quarks allows to expect their mass of the order of 500 GeV. In this mass region for quark-anti-quark pair the additional Yukawa-type attraction due to Higgs mechanism is expected to emerge. This Higgs induced attraction greatly exceeds strong interaction between quarks and leads to the formation of bound states in both colour octet $S^{(8)}$ and singlet $S^{(1)}$ states. In the key of recent works on significance of colour octet channel for production of colour singlet state of fourth generation $Q\\bar{Q}$ we calculated the binding energies for both octet and singlet states. Such attraction localizes quarks in extremely small area. Hence colour octet pair of fourth generation quarks can form the "nucleus" and together with colour neutralizing light particle that is captured by strong interaction in orbit around the nucleus, create particle, similar by its structure to Deuterium.
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
$, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate......-polynomial communication, partly answering Question 25 in the Open Problems in Data Streams list....
Lower bounds for designs in symmetric spaces
Eidelstein, Noa
2010-01-01
We prove lower bounds on designs in spaces with a large group of symmetries. These spaces include globally symmetric Riemannian spaces (of any rank) and commutative association schemes with 1-transitive group of symmetries. Our bounds are, in general, implicit, relying on estimates on the spectral behavior of certain symmetry-invariant linear operators. They reduce to the first linear programming bound for designs in globally symmetric Riemannian spaces of rank 1 or in distance regular graphs. The proofs are different though, coming from viewpoint of abstract harmonic analysis in symmetric spaces. As a dividend we obtain the following geometric fact: a design is large because a union of "spherical caps" around its points "covers" the whole space.
Covalently bound lipids in keratinizing epithelia.
Chang, F; Swartzendruber, D C; Wertz, P W; Squier, C A
1993-07-25
Covalently bound lipids have been identified and compared in keratinizing porcine epithelia including epidermis and oral epithelium from palate and gingiva. Stratum corneum was isolated by tryptic digestion, and after extensive extraction of lipids using a series of chloroform-methanol mixtures, the residual tissue was subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to release covalently bound lipids. The lipids so released were analyzed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Stratum corneum from each of the three anatomical sites contained omega-hydroxyceramides, omega-hydroxyacids and fatty acids. In epidermal stratum corneum the total covalently bound lipids represented 2.4% of the dry weight of the tissue, but in the oral epithelia this figure was consistently lower: 0.24% in palatal stratum corneum and 0.20% in gingival stratum corneum. Transmission electron microscopy before and after lipid extraction confirms the presence of a lipid envelope in epidermal stratum corneum and demonstrates the absence of this structure in oral stratum corneum. PMID:8334143
Organically bound tritium, OBT: Its true constitution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tritium which is analytically determined to be non exchangeable bound in tissue solids is assumed to be bound to carbon. Furthermore, it is followed, the biochemical Powys's by photosynthesis or enzymatic transfer reactions are retarded by the kinetic isotope effect leading to discrimination of tritium in biomolecules. Contradictory, the logistic growth analysis of plants discloses a larger intrinsic growth rate of OBT than of OBH resulting in tritium accumulation in biomolecules. Exchange experiments providing fractionation factors of 1.4 and 2 confirm this accumulation. In summary, a larger part of the so called OBT is not carbon bound but consists of tritium positioned in hydrogen bridges of biopolymers which have been occupied during formation of the molecules and which became later inacessible for exchange (so called buried hydrogens). Furthermore, there are experimental results indicating even rapid exchange during the 'in vivo'-state but inhibited in the 'in vitro'-state which is commonly given in biosamples prepared for analysis. (author)
A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds
Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then...... (1) there exists a query requiring N/(M. ·~O(δ)) I/Os, and (2) there exists a query requiring Ω(logδlog2N ~ I/Os when δ is O(B/log3 N) and N is at least M2. For both lower bound we describe data structures which give matching upper bounds for a wide range of parameters, thereby showing the lower...
Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na2SO4 impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 3500C over a period of hours
Sethi, S K; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark
1998-01-01
We study the existence of D-brane bound states at threshold in Type II string theories. In a number of situations, we can reduce the question of existence to quadrature, and the study of a particular limit of the propagator for the system of D-branes. This involves a derivation of an index theorem for a family of non-Fredholm operators. In support of the conjectured relation between compactified eleven-dimensional supergravity and Type IIA string theory, we show that a bound state exists for two coincident zero-branes. This result also provides support for the conjectured description of M-theory as a matrix model. In addition, we provide further evidence that there are no BPS bound states for two and three-branes twice wrapped on Calabi-Yau vanishing cycles.
Bounds on Codes Based on Graph Theory
Rouayheb, Salim Y El; Soljanin, E; Sprintson, A
2008-01-01
Let $A_q(n,d)$ be the maximum order (maximum number of codewords) of a $q$-ary code of length $n$ and Hamming distance at least $d$. And let $A(n,d,w)$ that of a binary code of constant weight $w$. Building on results from algebraic graph theory and Erd\\H{o}s-ko-Rado like theorems in extremal combinatorics, we show how several known bounds on $A_q(n,d)$ and $A(n,d,w)$ can be easily obtained in a single framework. For instance, both the Hamming and Singleton bounds can derived as an application of a property relating the clique number and the independence number of vertex transitive graphs. Using the same techniques, we also derive some new bounds and present some additional applications.
Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Ngai Chung
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.
Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. W. Hall
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.
Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Volovich
2001-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.
Bounded link prediction in very large networks
Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew
2016-09-01
Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.
HiggsBounds: Confronting Arbitrary Higgs Sectors with Exclusion Bounds from LEP and the Tevatron
Bechtle, Philip; Heinemeyer, Sven; Weiglein, Georg; Williams, Karina E
2008-01-01
HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for a model with a fourth generati...
Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle
2010-01-01
We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…
Proof of a quantum Bousso bound
Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-08-01
We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ΔS≤(A-A')/4Gℏ, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ΔS is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Lower bounds for the strict invariance entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present a new method for obtaining lower bounds of the strict invariance entropy by combining an approach from the theory of escape rates and geometric methods used in the dimension theory of dynamical systems. For uniformly expanding systems and for inhomogeneous bilinear systems we can describe the lower bounds in terms of uniform volume growth rates on subbundles of the tangent bundle. In particular, we obtain criteria for positive entropy. We also apply the estimates to bilinear systems on projective space
Díaz, J; Mitsche, D; Perez-Gimenez, X
2008-01-01
We show that a randomly chosen 3-CNF formula over n variables with clauses-to-variables ratio at least 4.4898 is, as n grows large, asymptotically almost surely unsatisfiable. The previous best such bound, due to Dubois in 1999, was 4.506. The first such bound, independently discovered by many groups of researchers since 1983, was 5.19. Several decreasing values between 5.19 and 4.506 were published in the years between. The probabilistic techniques we use for the proof are, we believe, of independent interest.
Torons and D-Brane Bound States
Guralnik, Z.; Ramgoolam, S.
1997-01-01
We interpret instantons on a torus with twisted boundary conditions, in terms of bound states of branes. The interplay between the SU(N) and U(1) parts of the U(N) theory of N 4-branes allows the construction of a variety of bound states. The SU(N) and U(1) parts can contribute fractional amounts to the total instanton number which is integral. The geometry of non-self intersecting two-cycles in $T^4$ sheds some light on a number of properties of these solutions.
The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture
Klainerman, Sergiu; Rodnianski, Igor; Szeftel, Jeremie
2012-01-01
This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect...
Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes a...... can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products in...
Learning within bounds and dream sleep
Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.
1987-12-01
In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.
Bounding errors of Expectation-Propagation
Dehaene, Guillaume P; Barthelmé, Simon
2016-01-01
Expectation Propagation is a very popular algorithm for variational inference, but comes with few theoretical guarantees. In this article, we prove that the approximation errors made by EP can be bounded. Our bounds have an asymptotic interpretation in the number $n$ of datapoints, which allows us to study EP's convergence with respect to the true posterior. In particular, we show that EP converges at a rate of $\\mathcal{0}(n^{-2})$ for the mean, up to an order of magnitude faster than the tr...
Naturalness bounds on gauge mediated soft terms
Ciafaloni, P; Ciafaloni, Paolo; Strumia, Alessandro
1996-01-01
After a general discussion about the quantitative meaning of the naturalness upper bounds on the masses of supersymmetric particles, we compute these bounds in models with gauge-mediated soft terms. We find interesting upper limits on the right-handed slepton masses that, unless the messenger fields are very light, disfavor minimal models with large messenger content. Deep unphysical minima, that however turn out to be non dangerous, are usually present in such models. The mu-problem can be solved by adding a light singlet only at the price of a large amount of fine tuning that gives also rise to heavy sparticles and large tan\\beta.
Violation of Energy Bounds in Designer Gravity
Hertog, Thomas
2006-01-01
We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from a superpotential P and the scalar reaches an extremum of P at infinity. We show, however, there are superpotentials for which these bounds do n...
Weakly bound systems, continuum effects, and reactions
Jaganathen, Y; Ploszajczak, M
2012-01-01
Structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond standard Shell Model and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. We approach this problem using the Gamow Shell Model which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We present in this paper the first application of the GSM for a description of the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on 6He.
Bounds on Codes Based on Graph Theory
Rouayheb, Salim Y. El; Georghiades, C. N.; Soljanin, E.; Sprintson, A.
2008-01-01
Let $A_q(n,d)$ be the maximum order (maximum number of codewords) of a $q$-ary code of length $n$ and Hamming distance at least $d$. And let $A(n,d,w)$ that of a binary code of constant weight $w$. Building on results from algebraic graph theory and Erd\\H{o}s-ko-Rado like theorems in extremal combinatorics, we show how several known bounds on $A_q(n,d)$ and $A(n,d,w)$ can be easily obtained in a single framework. For instance, both the Hamming and Singleton bounds can derived as an applicatio...
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...... of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive...
Bounds on Integrals of the Wigner Function
Bracken, A J; Wood, J G
1999-01-01
The integral of the Wigner function over a subregion of the phase-space of a quantum system may be less than zero or greater than one. It is shown that for systems with one degree of freedom, the problem of determining the best possible upper and lower bounds on such an integral, over all possible states, reduces to the problem of finding the greatest and least eigenvalues of an hermitian operator corresponding to the subregion. The problem is solved exactly in the case of an arbitrary elliptical region. These bounds provide checks on experimentally measured quasiprobability distributions.
The Lovasz bound and some generalizations
Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H. C., Jr.
1978-01-01
The zero error capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is defined as the largest rate at which information can be transmitted over the channel with zero error probability. One channel with five inputs and outputs whose zero capacity remained unsolved until very recently is considered. An extremely powerful and general technique phased in terms of graph theory, for studying combinatorial packing problems is presented. In particular, Delsarte's linear programming bound for cliques in association schemes appears as a special case of the Lovasz bound.
Spin and relativistic motion of bound states
JÃ€rvinen, Matti
2007-01-01
The wave functions of moving bound states may be expected to contract in the direction of motion, in analogy to a rigid rod in classical special relativity, when the constituents are at equal (ordinary) time. Indeed, the Lorentz contraction of wave functions is often appealed to in qualitative discussions. However, only few field theory studies exist of equal-time wave functions in motion. In this thesis I use the Bethe-Salpeter formalism to study the wave function of a weakly bound state suc...
A lower bound on web services composition
Muscholl, Anca; Walukiewicz, Igor
2008-01-01
A web service is modeled here as a finite state machine. A composition problem for web services is to decide if a given web service can be constructed from a given set of web services; where the construction is understood as a simulation of the specification by a fully asynchronous product of the given services. We show an EXPTIME-lower bound for this problem, thus matching the known upper bound. Our result also applies to richer models of web services, such as the Roman model.
Bounds on positive interior transmission eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper contains lower bounds on the counting function of the positive eigenvalues of the interior transmission problem when the latter is elliptic. In particular, these bounds justify the existence of an infinite set of interior transmission eigenvalues and provide asymptotic estimates from above on the counting function for the large values of the wave number. They also lead to certain important upper estimates on the first few interior transmission eigenvalues. We consider the classical transmission problem as well as the case when the inhomogeneous medium contains an obstacle. (paper)
Subconvex bounds for compact toric integrals
Wu, Han
2016-01-01
We generalize our method for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ to the subconvexity for $L$-functions appearing in Waldspurger's formulae, a special case for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_2$. In this sense, the case for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ is regarded as the subconvexity for split toric integral. Both were sketched in Venkatesh's paper. Surprisingly enough, this bound survives from the best known bounds for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ and for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_2$ with a large "probability". This is in some sense equivalent ...
75 FR 3859 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone
2010-01-25
..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY... establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Baltimore zone....
Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 12 (2015), s. 1712-1726. ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933.2015.1043910
Call packing bound for overflow loss systems
N.M. van Dijk; E. van der Sluis
2009-01-01
Finite loss queues with overflow naturally arise in a variety of communications structures. For these systems, there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability. This paper proves and promotes easily computable bounds based on the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing, a
Call packing bounds for overflow queues
N.M. van Dijk; E. van der Sluis
2004-01-01
Finite queueing loss systems are studied with overflow. For these systems there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability or throughput. This paper aims to prove and promote easily computable bounds as based upon the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing a standard pro
Upper bounds for Steklov eigenvalues on surfaces
Girouard, Alexandre; Polterovich, Iosif
2012-01-01
We give explicit isoperimetric upper bounds for all Steklov eigenvalues of a compact orientable surface with boundary, in terms of the genus, the length of the boundary, and the number of boundary components. Our estimates generalize a recent result of Fraser-Schoen, as well as the classical inequalites obtained by Hersch-Payne-Schiffer, whose approach is used in the present paper.
Java Programs do not have Bounded Treewidth
Gustedt, Jens; Mæhle, Ole A.; Telle, Jan Arne
2000-01-01
We show that the control-flow graphs of Java programs, due to the labelled break and continue statements, have no upper bound on their treewidth. A single Java method containing $k$ labels and a loop nesting depth of $k+1$ can give a control-flow-graph with treewidth $2k+1$.
Assessment of Wellness in Upward Bound Students.
Owen, T. Ross
1997-01-01
A study investigated the validity and reliability of a new instrument for assessing the wellness lifestyles of Upward Bound students. Subjects were 42 students from five high schools using the program. The study examined 14 variables, including total scores, 10 subscales, and three demographic variables (age, race, gender), and concluded that the…
Do $\\Xi\\Xi$ bound states exist?
Haidenbauer, J; Petschauer, S
2014-01-01
The existence of baryon-baryon bound states in the strangeness sector is examined in the framework of SU(3) chiral effective field theory. Specifically, the role of SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms that arise at next-to-leading order in the employed Weinberg power counting scheme is explored. We focus on the 1S0 partial wave and on baryon-baryon channels with maximal isospin since in this case there are only two independent SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms. At the same time, those are the channels where most of the bound states have been predicted in the past. Utilizing $pp$ phase shifts and $\\Sigma^+ p$ cross section data allows us to pin down one of the SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms and a clear indication for the decrease of attraction when going from the NN system to strangeness S=-2 is found, which rules out a bound state for $\\Sigma\\Sigma$ with isospin I=2. Assuming that the trend observed for S=0 to S=-2 is not reversed when going to $\\Xi\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi\\Xi$ makes also bound states in ...
Improved bounds in Weaver and Feichtinger Conjectures
Bownik, Marcin; Casazza, Peter G.; Marcus, Adam W.; Speegle, Darrin
2015-01-01
We sharpen the constant in the $KS_2$ conjecture of Weaver \\cite{We}, which was validated by Marcus, Spielman, and Srivastava \\cite{MSS} in their solution of the Kadison--Singer problem. We then apply this result to prove optimal asymptotic bounds on the size of partitions in the Feichtinger conjecture.
On operators with bounded approximation property
Reinov, Oleg
2013-01-01
It is known that any separable Banach space with BAP is a complemented subspace of a Banach space with a basis. We show that every operator with bounded approximation property, acting from a separable Banach space, can be factored through a Banach space with a basis.
Improved bounds on the supremum of autoconvolutions
Matolcsi, Máté; Vinuesa, Carlos
2009-01-01
We give a slight improvement of the best known lower bound for the supremum of autoconvolutions of nonnegative functions supported in a compact interval. Also, by means of explicit examples we disprove a long standing natural conjecture of Schinzel and Schmidt concerning the extremal function for such autoconvolutions.
Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.
1971-01-01
Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is...
Scattering theory methods for bound state problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)
A Simple Condition for Bounded Displacement
Solomon, Yaar
2011-01-01
We study separated nets that correspond to substitution tilings of the Euclidean space. We give a simple condition, in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenspaces of the substitution matrix, to know whether the separated net is a bounded displacement of the integer lattice or not.
Strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds
Afendras, G.; Papadatos, N.
2014-01-01
Let $X$ be an absolutely continuous random variable from the integrated Pearson family and assume that $X$ has finite moments of any order. Using some properties of the associated orthonormal polynomial system, we provide a class of strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds.
A lower bound on tunnel number degeneration
Schirmer, Trent
2014-01-01
We prove a theorem which bounds Heegaard genus from below under special kinds of toroidal amalgamations of $3$-manifolds. As a consequence, we conclude $t(K_1\\# K_2)\\geq \\max\\{t(K_1),t(K_2)\\}$ for any pair of knots $K_1,K_2\\subset S^3$, where $t(K)$ denotes the tunnel number of $K$.
Bound - states for truncated Coulomb potentials
Odeh, Maen; Mustafa, Omar
2000-01-01
The pseudoperturbative shifted - $l$ expansion technique PSLET is generalized for states with arbitrary number of nodal zeros. Bound- states energy eigenvalues for two truncated coulombic potentials are calculated using PSLET. In contrast with shifted large-N expansion technique, PSLET results compare excellently with those from direct numerical integration.
Relativistic bound states at Born level
Hoyer, Paul
2012-01-01
Theoretical and phenomenological studies indicate that the QCD coupling \\alpha_s(Q^2) freezes in the infrared. Hadrons may then be described by a perturbative expansion around "Born" states bound only by a confining potential. A linear potential results from the QCD equations of motion when Gauss' law for A^0 is solved with F_{\\mu\
Optimal bounds for quantum bit commitment
Chailloux, André
2011-01-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive with numerous applications. Quantum information allows for bit commitment schemes in the information theoretic setting where no dishonest party can perfectly cheat. The previously best-known quantum protocol by Ambainis achieved a cheating probability of at most 3/4[Amb01]. On the other hand, Kitaev showed that no quantum protocol can have cheating probability less than 1/sqrt{2} [Kit03] (his lower bound on coin flipping can be easily extended to bit commitment). Closing this gap has since been an important and open question. In this paper, we provide the optimal bound for quantum bit commitment. We first show a lower bound of approximately 0.739, improving Kitaev's lower bound. We then present an optimal quantum bit commitment protocol which has cheating probability arbitrarily close to 0.739. More precisely, we show how to use any weak coin flipping protocol with cheating probability 1/2 + eps in order to achieve a quantum bit commitment protocol with ...
Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure
Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A. [University of Campinas (Brazil)
2015-03-10
We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.
On Quantum Capacity and its Bound
Ohya, Masanori; Volovich, Igor V.
2004-01-01
The quantum capacity of a pure quantum channel and that of classical-quantum-classical channel are discussed in detail based on the fully quantum mechanical mutual entropy. It is proved that the quantum capacity generalizes the so-called Holevo bound.
Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2009-01-01
Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 829-860. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * approximate counting * universal hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009
Combined perturbation bounds: Ⅱ. Polar decompositions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen LI; Wei-wei SUN
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study the perturbation bounds for the polar decomposition A= QH where Q is unitary and H is Hermitian. The optimal (asymptotic) bounds obtained in previous works for the unitary factor, the Hermitian factor and singular values of A are σ2r||△Q||2F ≤ ||△A||2F,1/2||△H||2F ≤ ||△A||2F and ||△∑||2F ≤ ||△A||2F, respectively, where ∑ = diag(σ1, σ2,..., σr, 0,..., 0) is the singular value matrix of A and σr denotes the smallest nonzero singular value. Here we present some new combined (asymptotic)perturbation bounds σ2r ||△Q||2F+1/2||△H||2F≤ ||△A||2F and σ2r||△Q||2F+||△∑ ||2F ≤||△A||2F which are optimal for each factor. Some corresponding absolute perturbation bounds are also given.
On the Bound States of Matrix Strings
Sahakian, Vatche
1997-01-01
We investigate excitations in Matrix Theory on T^2 corresponding to bound states of strings. We demonstrate the Dirichlet aspect of R-R charged vacua through a non-trivial connection between the U(1) and SU(n) sectors of the matrix SYM.
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao
2012-01-01
SAT-based bounded model checking （BMC） is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language （IEEE-1850） describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.
Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larry Landau
2000-07-01
Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.
A Characterization of Complete Bounded Domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
殷慰萍; 苏简兵; 赵振刚
2002-01-01
@@ 1 IntroductionThis paper is concerned with biholomorphic mappings between two bounded domains D and G both in Cn.Consequently,an important question is whether the domain D is biholomorphic to G? We give an answer for this question under a very weak condition.
Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter
Skomorowski, Wojciech; Koch, Christiane P
2012-01-01
We predict feasibility of the photoassociative formation of Sr_2 molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels of the electronic ground state based on state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. Key is the strong spin-orbit interaction between the c^3\\Pi_u, A^1\\Sigma_u^+ and B^1\\Sigma_u^+ states. It creates not only an effective dipole moment allowing free-to-bound transitions near the ^1S + ^3P_1 intercombination line but also facilitates bound-to-bound transitions via resonantly coupled excited state rovibrational levels to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the ground X^1\\Sigma_g^+ potential, with v" as low as v"=6. The spin-orbit interaction is responsible for both optical pathways. Therefore, those excited state levels that have the largest bound-to-bound transition moments to deeply bound ground state levels also exhibit a sufficient photoassociation probability, comparable to that of the lowest weakly bound excited state level previously observed by Zelevinsky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203201 (2006)]. Ou...
Construction of bound entangled states based on permutation operators
Zhao, Hui; Guo, Sha; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shaoming
2016-04-01
We present a construction of new bound entangled states from given bound entangled states for arbitrary dimensional bipartite systems. One way to construct bound entangled states is to show that these states are positive partial transpose (PPT) and violate the range criterion at the same time. By applying certain operators to given bound entangled states or to one of the subsystems of the given bound entangled states, we obtain a set of new states which are both PPT and violate the range criterion. We show that the derived bound entangled states are not local unitary equivalent to the original bound entangled states by detail examples.
Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro
2016-03-01
In the Japan subduction zone, a locally depressed 660 discontinuity has been observed beneath northeast Asia, suggesting downwelling of materials from the mantle transition zone (MTZ). Vertical transport of water-rich MTZ materials across the major mineral phase changes could lead to water release and to partial melting in surrounding mantle regions, causing seismic low-velocity anomalies. Melt layers implied by low-velocity zones (LVZs) above the 410 discontinuity have been detected in many regions, but seismic evidence for partial melting below the 660 discontinuity has been limited. High-frequency migrated Ps receiver functions indicate LVZs below the depressed 660 discontinuity and above the 410 discontinuity in the deep Japan subduction zone, suggesting dehydration melting induced by water transport out of the MTZ. Our results provide insights into water circulation associated with dynamic interactions between the subducted slab and surrounding mantle.
Exponential Lower Bounds for AC^{0}-Frege Imply Superpolynomial Frege Lower Bounds
Filmus, Yuval; Pitassi, Toniann; Santhanam, Rahul
2011-01-01
We give a general transformation which turns polynomial-size Frege proofs to subexponential-size AC0-Frege proofs. This indicates that proving exponential lower bounds for AC0-Frege is hard, since it is a longstanding open problem to prove super-polynomial lower bounds for Frege. Our construction is optimal for tree-like proofs. As a consequence of our main result, we are able to shed some light on the question of weak automatizability for bounded-depth Frege systems. First, we present a simp...
Solving Multistage Influence Diagrams using Branch-and-Bound Search
Yuan, Changhe; Wu, Xiaojian; Hansen, Eric A.
2012-01-01
A branch-and-bound approach to solving influ- ence diagrams has been previously proposed in the literature, but appears to have never been implemented and evaluated - apparently due to the difficulties of computing effective bounds for the branch-and-bound search. In this paper, we describe how to efficiently compute effective bounds, and we develop a practical implementa- tion of depth-first branch-and-bound search for influence diagram evaluation that outperforms existing methods for solvin...
A search for unexpected bound states in 15B
Hoffman, Calem R.
2014-09-01
Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound states in 15B and ii) to assign total angular momenta to known excited states for the first time. At present only two bound states have been observed in 15B, neither with firm spin or parity assignments. The present work to be discussed is aimed at determining whether an excited 3 /2- state, a state with identical spin-parity as the ground state, resides below the neutron separation energy in 15B. Such an excited 3 /2- state is not predicted to appear below the 15B Sn by shell-model calculations using various p- sd interactions. However, a robust systematic, probably related to the s-wave trends found in the single-neutron states in this region, has been observed for neutron-rich N=10 nuclei and it suggests that the state may appear lower in excitation energy than expected. Providing some measure of validation for the N=10 prediction is a similar trend noticed in the energy differences between ground (p)2 neutron states and excited (sd)2 neutron states in the N=8 neutron-rich isotones. In addition to a search for this unexpected state, additional spectroscopic information on 15B will better aid in the understanding of the N=10 isotones when transitioning from 16C into sparsely probed 14Be. Details of the experimental procedures and motivation will be presented and discussed. Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound
Bound states of fermions in external and self-consistent fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of spin-1/2 fields in strong external potentials are investigated in order to determine what happens to the electron orbitals as the charge of the nucleus is increased without bounds. Strongly interacting quantum fields are investigated, motivated by the picture of quark bags, in which light quanta provide all the internal structure. Several general properties of the solutions of fermion fields interacting with meson fields are considered with the help of field theory analogues of virial relations. A description of the algorithm used to generate examples of the self-consistent solutions in three-space dimensions is also presented. Since it is difficult to associate the properties of strongly bound states with those of weakly interacting quasi-particles, several options for the candidates for the relevant interaction are considered. The present investigations deal only with Abelian fields. (Auth.)