WorldWideScience

Sample records for boulder city area

  1. City of Boulder, Colorado Municipal Tree Resource Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.L. Gardner; K.E. Vargas; Q. Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Boulder is a vibrant city, renowned for its livability and cultural wealth and well known for its Smart Growth policies that protect and restore environmental quality while enhancing economic opportunity. The city maintains trees as an integral component of the urban infrastructure. Research indicates that healthy trees can mitigate impacts associated with the built...

  2. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  3. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  4. Tracking Boulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a trough in the Sirenum Fossae region. On the floor and walls of the trough, large -- truck- to house-sized -- boulders are observed at rest. However, there is evidence in this image for the potential for mobility. In the central portion of the south (bottom) wall, a faint line of depressions extends from near the middle of the wall, down to the rippled trough floor, ending very near one of the many boulders in the area. This line of depressions is a boulder track; it indicates the path followed by the boulder as it trundled downslope and eventually came to rest on the trough floor. Because it is on Mars, even when the boulder is sitting still, this once-rolling stone gathers no moss. Location near: 29.4oS, 146.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  5. 77 FR 64333 - Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project, Boulder County, NV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... transmission system: 1. Protection of the desert tortoise through compliance with the FHWA Biological Opinion... Division Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box..., are met before its action is implemented. FHWA filed a Biological Assessment with the U.S Fish and...

  6. Developing Capacity for Cities to Adapt to a Changing Climate-a Case Study in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, R.; Groves, D. G.; Nason, M.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Boulder in Colorado has undertaken many progressive climate-related initiatives, from signing the Kyoto protocol to passing a Climate Action Tax. But as the city prepared to launch its Climate Commitment document and lead a community process, it realized that one critical group that had not been fully engaged in the process was its own staff. It became clear that for organizational change to occur and for the city to meet its goals, city staff needed to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of the climate goals while also learning better how to use these goals to guide their long-term planning. In early 2016, the city launched a year-long "Climate Leaders" initiative which comprised of a series of workshops that brought together over 70 staff members with climate scientists and experts in climate adaptation planning. The first two workshops, billed as Climate 101 and 201, reviewed the best available scientific information about climate threats and potential impacts, and worked with participants to understand how climate changes could affect diverse city functions. These interactive workshops also explored ways to help city staff feel comfortable preparing for a significantly different climate and discussed ways to communicate this information to the public. From there the group split into two tracks. A "mitigation" track focused on the ways in which Boulder could meet its aggressive emissions reduction targets. The "adaptation" track developed integrated scenarios for citywide planning to highlight Boulder's vulnerability to climate change and guide adaptation planning. Bringing these two conversations together is helping city staff to explore critical linkages between mitigation and adaptation, develop common messages to build community support for climate action, and inform comprehensive climate resiliency planning. We will describe how Boulder successfully partnered with scientists and planning experts to program a year of interactive

  7. Proposed Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Federal Volatility Control Program in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice proposes establishing an applicable standard of 7.8 pounds (psi) Reid vapor pressure under the federal volatility control program, in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area.

  8. Behavioural changes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after marine boulder reef restoration: Implications for coastal habitat management and Natura 2000 areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Stenberg, Claus

    2017-01-01

    While marine reefs are degraded globally, the responses of fish to marine reef restoration remain uncertain, particularly in temperate waters. This study measured the effect of marine boulder reef restoration on the behaviour of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., in a Natura 2000 area using acoustic...... telemetry. Cod were tagged and released in the study area before and after the restoration and tracked continuously for six months. A larger fraction of the released fish remained in the study area after restoration (94%) than before (53%). Moreover, throughout the study period, cod spent significantly more...... hours per day and prolonged their residence time in the study area after the restoration. The study indicates that marine reefs subjected to boulder extraction can be restored and function as favourable cod habitats. Temperate marine boulder reef restoration represents a valuable management tool...

  9. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained....... The data collection part of the investigation was made on the basis of geological expert advice (Gunnar Larsen, Århus) by the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI).The statistical data analysis combined with stochastic modeling based on geometry and sound wave diffraction theory gave a point estimate...

  10. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  11. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  12. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The Rates will... by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits on the Colorado River...

  13. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)), and other acts that specifically apply to the project...

  14. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates... subsequent laws, particularly section 9(c) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and...

  16. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates...) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and other acts that specifically apply to...

  17. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous inactive volcanic cones. Two of them, Mount Iya and Mount Kelimutu are included to Ende Regency. The northern foot of Mount Iya is only about 1 km away from the southern outskirts of Ende city. But the presence of Mount Meja and Mount Roja as the barrier, and the orientation of the active crater (K2, the highly explosive eruption of Iya Volcano may not directly endanger the city of Ende. Most pyroclastic flows of previous eruptions and other eruptive material emplaced into the sea, but due to a short horizontal distance between Mount Iya and Ende City, the ejected rock fragments can endanger the city of Ende especially its southern parts. A crack has developed around the active crater (K2 of Iya Volcano. It seems that the crack indicates a major weakness within the volcano, which could result in a giant landslide, entering the sea in future eruptions of Iya Volcano. The kinetic energy which is transmitted through the water may probably generate a tsunami. The Ende City also experienced significant damages in the 1992 earthquake. Luckily this city is located on a solid rock instead of alluvial sediments which can potentially undergo liquefaction.  

  18. Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway L10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Filbà, Marta; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria; Jubany, Jordi; Carrasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a layer of hard boulders up to 1 m in size within the soft sediments of the Holocene Llobregat delta in the SW of Barcelona city caused the damage and stoppage of the EPB-type tunnel boring machine that excavated the subway L10 line. This layer constitutes a detrital deposit of exceptionally large grain size developed in the base of the delta. It originated as an alluvial fan in the northern margin of the delta during the last fall of the Mediterranean Sea level, at the end o...

  19. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  20. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly

  1. Magnetic Characterization of Sand and Boulder Samples from Citarum River and Their Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Citarum River is a nationally strategic river located near Bandung, the capital city of West Java Province. The feasibility of using magnetic methods for monitoring pollution level is currently being tested in the river. Due to its location in a volcanic area, the sediments from the river are expected to be highly magnetic. In this study, sand and boulder samples from Balekambang, a relatively pristine upstream area of the river, were subjected to magnetic and geochemical characterizations to establish the baseline for unpolluted sediments. Such baseline is important for future magnetic monitoring of sediments in the river. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of boulder samples was found to be varied from 819.2 to 2340.5 × 10-8m3 kg-1 while that of sand samples varied from 2293.9 to 3845.3 × 10-8m3 kg-1. These high magnetic susceptibility values infer that river sediments are highly magnetic even before being contaminated by industrial and household wastes. The predominant magnetic mineral in sand samples was multi-domain magnetite while that in boulder samples was single to pseudo-single domain magnetite. These differences were supported by the results from petrographic and XRF analyses, implying that the sand and boulder samples originated from different geological formations.

  2. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  3. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  4. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  5. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  6. Selection of City Distribution Locations in Urbanized Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a

  7. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  8. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  9. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, M.S.; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, V.H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  10. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  11. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  12. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  13. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  14. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  15. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  16. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  17. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  18. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  19. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  20. Assessing the role of coastal characteristics in erosional process of rocky shores by boulder quarrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causon Deguara, Joanna; Gauci, Ritienne

    2017-04-01

    Rocky coasts are considered as relatively stable coastlines, subject to erosional processes that change the landscape over long periods of time. Block quarrying is one such process, occurring when hydraulic pressure from wave impact dislodges boulders from within the outcropping bedrock. These dislodged boulders can be either deposited inland or dragged seaward by further wave action. This process can be evidenced from boulder deposits on the coast, as well as sockets and detachment scarps that are identified at the shoreline and in the backshore. This study seeks to identify the role of attributes such as aspect, geological structure and water depth have on erosion of rocky coasts through boulder quarrying processes. This is being done through observation of coastline morphology and an analysis of boulder accumulations and erosional features identified on a 3km stretch of rocky shore. The study area is situated on the SE coast of the Island of Malta (Central Mediterranean). The coastline being analysed generally trends NW - SE and consists of a series of limestone beds that dip slightly towards the NE. The boulder deposits observed along the site vary in size, quantity and position with respect to the shoreline. Whilst some areas exhibit large boulder accumulations, other areas are distinguished by the complete absence of such deposits. Taking into consideration the wave climate, the variable size, quantity and distribution of boulder accumulations observed along the site may indicate that geological structure and aspect play an important role in boulder dislodgment by wave action. Key words: rock coast, boulder quarrying, erosional process, Malta

  1. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Chen

    1988-01-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion

  2. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1998-01-01

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m 3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  3. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  4. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  5. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  6. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  7. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  8. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  10. Examining of solid waste generation and community awareness between city center and suburban area in Medan City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, H.; Putri, C. N.; Dalimunthe, R. A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2018-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is still an issue in many cities in Indonesia including Medan. Understanding the waste generation, its characteristic and communities involvement could provide effective solid waste management. This research compares waste generation from people who live in the city center and suburban area. The research also examines the willingness and participation of community about environmental aspect, especially solid waste management. The method of waste generation used Indonesian Nasional Standard 19-3964-1994. The city center generates 0.295 kg/person/day of solid waste and 0.180 kg/person/day for suburbs. The result showed that there are the common amount of waste compositions between the city center and suburban area. The majority waste composition was an organic fraction. Questionnaires were distributed to examine the community awareness. The descriptive statistic used to analyze the data. The result showed that people living in the city center are slightly higher in community awareness than in the suburb. This paper highlights that area of living could give some effect to solid waste generation, waste composition and rate of awareness.

  11. Engineering modeling of traffic noise in shielded areas in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Polinder, Henk; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han; Borst, Hieronymous C; Miedema, Henk M E

    2009-11-01

    A computational study of road traffic noise in cities is presented. Based on numerical boundary-element calculations of canyon-to-canyon propagation, an efficient engineering algorithm is developed to calculate the effect of multiple reflections in street canyons. The algorithm is supported by a room-acoustical analysis of the reverberant sound fields in the source and receiver canyons. Using the algorithm, a simple model for traffic noise in cities is developed. Noise maps and exposure distributions of the city of Amsterdam are calculated with the model, and for comparison also with an engineering model that is currently used for traffic noise impact assessments in cities. Considerable differences between the two model predictions are found for shielded buildings with day-evening-night levels of 40-60 dB at the facades. Further, an analysis is presented of level differences between the most and the least exposed facades of buildings. Large level differences are found for buildings directly exposed to traffic noise from nearby roads. It is shown that by a redistribution of traffic flow around these buildings, one can achieve low sound levels at quiet sides and a corresponding reduction in the percentage of highly annoyed inhabitants from typically 23% to 18%.

  12. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  13. 78 FR 67333 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... ``usage-driven'' FTZ sites for operators/users located within a grantee's ``service area'' in the context... City; Site 3 (9,667 acres total)--within the 10,000-acre Kansas City International Airport facility...,000 acres)--CARMAR Underground Business Park/CARMAR Industrial Park, No. 1 Civil War Road, Carthage...

  14. Changes On the Housing Market of the Downtown Area in Selected Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rącka Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square. The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.

  15. The utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setioko, Bambang; Olivia, Deasy; Pandelaki, Edward E.; Murtini, Titien Woro

    2017-06-01

    The rapid growth of settlement in border areas is often considered as a problem of big cities in Indonesia, where people from rural areas prefer to move out and settle in the border areas of big cities due to the provision of better social facilities. Border areas generally do not receive adequate attention and are often overlooked by the local government. It is a common phenomenon in Indonesian cities, including in Semarang City. Increased number of settlements in the border areas in Semarang City is in linear with spontaneous urbanization processes which indicate the heterogeneity emerging of settlement areas. In the early stages of Semarang City spatial planning, the need for social facilities in border areas is included based on the regular standard which is commonly applied to the urban core. In a very short period, the numbers and types of existing social facilities are insufficient to fulfill the needs of the community. Nowadays, in the context of rapid urbanization, the growth of social facilities in border areas is very high. The intense growth of settlements in border areas is very high due to the low price of land in Demak Regency in compared to those of other areas in Semarang City. However, only a few developers involved social facilities as a part of housing estate construction. Consequently, most of the occupants utilize a limited number of social facilities provided by the municipal government, which are actually intended to serve the citizens of Semarang City. This research was conducted at Sendang Mulyo Village which is located in the border of Semarang municipal administrative area and included in Demak Regency. This paper discusses the utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang City, with the aim to get the trigger factors. The method analysis consisted of a statistical test and descriptive analysis. The utilization characteristics were formulated based on the relationship between neighborhood and human

  16. 3D Visualization of Urban Area Using Lidar Technology and CityGML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dragana; Govedarica, Miro; Jovanovic, Dusan; Radulovic, Aleksandra; Simeunovic, Vlado

    2017-12-01

    3D models of urban areas have found use in modern world such as navigation, cartography, urban planning visualization, construction, tourism and even in new applications of mobile navigations. With the advancement of technology there are much better solutions for mapping earth’s surface and spatial objects. 3D city model enables exploration, analysis, management tasks and presentation of a city. Urban areas consist of terrain surfaces, buildings, vegetation and other parts of city infrastructure such as city furniture. Nowadays there are a lot of different methods for collecting, processing and publishing 3D models of area of interest. LIDAR technology is one of the most effective methods for collecting data due the large amount data that can be obtained with high density and geometrical accuracy. CityGML is open standard data model for storing alphanumeric and geometry attributes of city. There are 5 levels of display (LoD0, LoD1, LoD2, LoD3, LoD4). In this study, main aim is to represent part of urban area of Novi Sad using LIDAR technology, for data collecting, and different methods for extraction of information’s using CityGML as a standard for 3D representation. By using series of programs, it is possible to process collected data, transform it to CityGML and store it in spatial database. Final product is CityGML 3D model which can display textures and colours in order to give a better insight of the cities. This paper shows results of the first three levels of display. They consist of digital terrain model and buildings with differentiated rooftops and differentiated boundary surfaces. Complete model gives us a realistic view of 3D objects.

  17. Changes in the area of urban green space in cities of western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżaniak Michał

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive and continuous areas of urban greenery are essential for the proper functioning of cities and for achieving optimal natural conditions. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in the areas of public green space of Szczecin, Poznań and Wrocław in the years 1996–2013, and compare data on public greenery with demographic data and changes in the spatial development of the described cities. We used a linear regression and exponential regression to explain the results. In our opinion, it is necessary to establish the appropriate proportion of public greenery to the built-up areas in cities. Otherwise, we will be observing an adverse reduction of green areas in relation to residential areas. Surveys also indicate the need for action to prevent the outflow of population to the suburban areas.

  18. City of Richland 300 Area industrial wastewater permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Labs and Westinghouse Hanford Co. are responsible for operating most of the facilities within the 300 Area; other contractors are also involved. The document gives briefly water/wastewater data: water sources, water usage, water discharge/loss, NPDES permit status, plant sewer outlets size and flow, etc. The document also includes the following attachments: 300 Area building list, Oct. 1993-Oct. 1994 300 Area water balance, waste shipments for CY 1994, complete chemical listing, sanitary sewer sampling results (12/19/94, 1/18/95, 1/15/95), and priority pollutant listings

  19. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  20. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  1. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Factors Related to Customer Satisfaction with MoDOT in the Kansas City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey was sent to approximately twenty thousand citizens from District Four (Kansas City Area) residents in order to gather statistical evidence for : supporting or eliminating reasons for the satisfaction discrepancy between Kansas City Ar...

  3. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  4. An urban heat island in tropical area investigated by remote sensing: Belo Horizonte City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelois, B.C.R.J.; de Assis, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The inappropriate urbanization process in tropical areas causes local climatic alterations forming heat islands over the cities. In order to guide urban planning in the control of the environmental urban quality, as for the thermal comfort is concerned, it has developed a method to evaluate the thermal behavior of built and urban green areas. Two TM-LANDSAT images from Belo Horizonte City, the study area, were chosen based on summer and winter typical days statistically characterized. Bands 3 and 4 of these images were combined to produce a local vegetation index map. Band 6 was used to observe the warmer and cooler areas in the city. Some heat nucleons were identified through data analysis of remote sensing, meteorological and urban land use. The mean maximum temperature of the principal heat nuclei exceeds, in summer, the limit value of diurnal thermal comfort for the city climate, using Givoni's Bioclimatic Chart. During the day period, the areas with a lower vegetation index, more density and predominating horizontal settlements were the most warmer. The cooling effect of urban green areas was very local. Thus, it should be regularly distributed in the built areas. The limits of occupation density and edification could be fixed, too, considering its impacts on the urban thermal environment

  5. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  6. Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Buker

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. MEDHODS: 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. RESULTS: 51.8% of the participants living in a city and 42.8% living in rural area were aged 65-69 years. Of the participants living in a city, 59.4% were living with their partners (61.5% of the participants living in rural area. While 63.9% of the participants living in a city reported that they had a private room in their homes, 53.8% of the participants living in rural area reported that they had a private room in their homes. 2.1% of participants living in a city had an excellent home safety score. Percentage for participants living in rural area was 0.5. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study show that majority of houses of the elderly living in Turkey were unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, health providers and architects should work together to prevent home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 297-300

  7. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications, or third generation technology (GSM/3G), have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony...... was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122 461...

  8. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  9. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  10. Polycentric Development for Sustainable Cities: An Evaluation for the Ankara Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aydan Sat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban population growth and the accompanying urban growth and expansion are seen as the main problems of metropolitan cities; this keeps the issues of how to consider the social, economic, spatial and environmental dimensions of cities within the framework of a concept of sustainability, and how to shape cities within this context, on the agenda. In today’s world, cities are accepted as the main hubs of energy consumption and environmental pollution, as centers of capital, culture and innovation, and as the places of residence of millions of people. Expanding and sprawling urban forms are seen as unsustainable in terms of land use, energy and the consumption of environmental resources. Thus, the question ‘How should the urban development model be applied to create sustainable cities?’ is on the agenda of theorists, politicians and practitioners alike. Taking these discussions into consideration, this study searches for an answer to the question of whether the polycentric urban development model can be used as a tool for sustainable cities by taking into account the current literature and practices, and evaluating the case of the Ankara metropolitan area.

  11. Restoration of a boulder reef in temperate waters: Strategy, methodology and lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dahl, Karsten; Niemann, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats are a global problem, particularly in coastal areas. While boulder reefs in temperate waters hold high biomass and biodiversity, and may be unable to recover from anthropogenic stressors without restoration efforts, little is known about how to restore and...

  12. 78 FR 79436 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... customers of electric utilities. The marketing criteria should include municipal corporations and political... Pool AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of final marketing criteria and... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), announces the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) post-2017...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  14. Approach of Urban Design Elements in Preservation Area Kampung Bandar Senapelan Towards Pekanbaru Metropolitan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Yose; Cheris, Rika; Repi

    2017-12-01

    The development of Pekanbaru City is very rapid, consequently is constantly experiencing changes in buildings, areas or cultural objects that need to be preserved to be disrupted, replaced by economic-oriented development - commercial. The contradiction between the construction of the metropolis will be the beginning of the problem for urban areas. Kampong Bandar Senapelan is an early town of Pekanbaru town located on the banks of the Siak River. The settlement has a typology of Malay and vernacular Malay architecture. The existence of these villages experienced concern as a contradiction of the city's development toward the metropolis which resulted in degradation of the historical value of urban development in this region. This study was conducted to make an important assessment of preserving Kampung Bandar Senapelan as the oldest area and its great influence on the development of metropolis. Preservation of historical and cultural heritage with conservation and preservation measures is one of the urban design elements to be considered for all city stakeholders to safeguard the civilization of a generation. Considerations that will become a benchmark is the history, conservation and urban development towards the metropolis. The importance of awareness of the conservation of the city through conservation and preservation in this area can lead to new characters and values to the building and its environment and will create an atmosphere different from the rapid development (modern style). In addition, this preservation will be evident in a harmonious life with a high tolerance between multi-ethnicity that co-existed in the past.

  15. Wake patterns behind boulders in the rings of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brattli, A.; Havnes, O.; Melandsoe, F.

    2002-01-01

    The flow of charged dust around an electrically charged boulder moving through an environment thought to be typical of planatery rings is studied. As the boulder moves through the ring dust it will excite a V-shaped Mach cone pattern of a form and complexity which varies significantly with boulder size, relative velocity between the boulder and the dust, and with dust plasma conditions. Parameters relevant to the Saturnian ring system are used to compute examples which demonstrate the change in Mach cone patterns with the relevant parameters. Shortcomings of the model are discussed and ways to improve the calculations of Mach cone patterns are pointed out

  16. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  17. Energy and the environment: the case of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan N, G.

    1992-01-01

    The inefficient use of energy by the different types of consumers of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM, this means, Mexico city and the municipalities of the Estado de Mexico, which constitute a single economic population unit), is one of the main causes for the production of polluting emissions into the atmosphere, specially of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. This originates a deterioration of the environment, which injures the health of the population. As a consequence, the private and public sectors have been forced to establish programs in order to improve the use of energy, as well as to preserve the environment. (Author)

  18. CITY HOTSPOT: LINKAGES BETWEEN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND BIODIVERSITY OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Železnikar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green areas in cities and their ecosystem services (ES offer residents various benefits. The range of services depends on biodiversity of a green space. The aim was to determine the relationship between biodiversity in different categories of green areas in the city and the ecosystem services, which appear in it. We made 108 relevés in the autumn and spring time, within nine categories of green areas in the Municipality of Ljubljana. In each category the range of ES was assessed based on field analysis and compared with literature assessed ecosystem services. Results showed that the category of forests differ from others. Other categories were similar to each other, in particular grassland categories. Also, a positive relationship linkage was found - more plant species mean more assessed ecosystem services in a specific green infrastructure category.

  19. What was the transport mode of large boulders in the Campine Plateau and the lower Meuse valley during the mid-Pleistocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brue, Hanne; Poesen, Jean; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2015-01-01

    The Campine Plateau in northeastern Belgium, a remnant of an alluvial fan deposited by the Meuse River during the mid-Pleistocene, is characterised by the presence of boulders with maximum dimensions of up to 2 m, embedded in a gravel matrix. These boulders originated in the Ardennes region and are generally assumed to have been transported by ice-rafting processes. This paper investigates for the first time quantitatively the possibility of purely hydraulic transport of the boulders, taking into account channel and flow characteristics in the boulder provenance area during the mid-Pleistocene. Empirical transport relations that describe incipient motion thresholds in nonuniform river beds as a function of the relative grain size, or the ratio between the grain size of interest and the median grain size of the channel bed, are applied in order to calculate critical water depths for transport of boulders of various sizes. Results indicate that hydraulic transport of boulders with intermediate diameters < 1 m could have occurred within limited reaches of the palaeoriver, more specifically in the palaeo-Amblève tributary; whereas the small slope gradient of the palaeo-Meuse most probably inhibited boulder movement by hydraulic forces only. Although calculations of the ice volume required to lift a boulder to the water surface and comparison of the ice floe's dimensions with palaeochannel morphology do suggest that ice rafting is theoretically possible, several alternative, more probable transport mechanisms for the larger boulders of the Campine Plateau are proposed, requiring much smaller critical ice volumes and water depths than ice-rafting processes or purely hydraulic transport. These hypotheses include decreased bed friction and effective boulder density caused by a limited ice layer attached to the river bed and the boulder, hence lowering hydraulic transport thresholds, as well as the formation of ice jams and dams inducing catastrophic flooding and

  20. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  1. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Baldassini, Niccoló; Causon Deguara, Joanna; Devoto, Stefano; Di Stefano, Agata; Evans, Julian; Gambin, Timothy; Gauci, Ritienne; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated by either tsunamis or extreme storm events have been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the eastern low-lying rocky coasts of Malta, five sites with large boulder deposits have been investigated, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the nearshore and the lowest parts of the coast by sea wave action. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few tsunamis have been recorded in historical documents to have reached the Maltese archipelago. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of these boulder accumulations, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport 77 coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was given to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations, such as size, density and distance from the coast. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages were determined from selected samples of marine organisms encrusted on some of the coastal boulders. The combination of the results obtained both by the hydrodynamic equations, which provided values comparable with those observed and measured during the storms, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders have been detached and moved by intense storm waves. These boulders testify to the existence of a real hazard for the coasts of Malta, i.e. that of very high storm waves, which, during exceptional storms, are able to detach large blocks of volumes exceeding 10 m3 from the coastal edge and the nearshore bottom, and also to transport them inland. Nevertheless, the occurrence of one or more tsunami events cannot be ruled out, since

  2. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Municipal Service Area - area defined by Ordinance that provides for the City jurisdiction related to development and future growth, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, City of Topeka Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2009. Municipal Service Area - area defined by Ordinance that provides for the City jurisdiction...

  3. Risk to a Changing Climate in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    The issue of climate change has dominated the atmospheric sciences agenda in recent decades. The concern about an increase in climate related disasters, mainly in large population centers, has led to ask whether they are mainly due to changes in climate or in vulnerability.The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is an example of megalopolis under high climate risk, where floods, landslides, health problems, high air pollution events, socioeconomic droughts are becoming important environmental and social problems. As urbanization spreads and population increases exposure to natural hazards increases, and so the magnitude of risk to a changing climate and the negative impacts. Since the late nineteenth century, in the MCMA an average maximum temperature could be around 22°C, whereas today it is about 24.5ºC. That is, the increase in the average temperature in Mexico City is around 3°C in a hundred years. But there are areas where an increase in the average temperature is similar in only thirty years. The heating rate of the city can vary depending on the change in land use. Areas that conserve forested regions in the process of urbanization tend to warm less than areas where the transformation into concrete and cement is almost complete. Thus, the climate of the MCMA shows important changes mainly in relation to land use changes. Global warming and natural climate variability were also analyzed as possible forcing factors of the observed warming by comparing low frequency variations in local temperature and indices for natural forcing. The hydrological cycle of the MCMA has also changed with urbanization. The "bubble of hot air" over the urban area has more capacity to hold moisture now than before the UHI. However, the increased risk to floods, heat or drought appears to be related not only to more frequent intense climatic hazards induced by the urbanization effect. This process also induces increased vulnerability to a changing climate. The establishment of

  4. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  5. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class B airspace area at Salt Lake City, UT. The purpose of these meetings is to provide interested... Road, Ogden, UT, 84405. (2) The meeting on Tuesday, February 1, 2011, will be held in the Conference...

  6. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  7. LAND USE CHANGE IN SUBURBAN AREA: A CASE OF MALANG CITY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuurlaily Rukmana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of suburban areas of Malang City has developed an expansion of built-up areas between urban and suburban areas. There has been a great phenomenon that mostly occurs along the suburban areas where industrial activities took place. This study aims to determine what factors have influenced the land use change in the suburban areas of Malang City by employing “GeoDa” application. It is one of the Geographical Information System applications that particularly deals with statistical analysis. To achieve this purpose, the objectives are: delineating the study area, analyzing the characteristics of land use change, assessing and analyzing the variable influencing the land use change. The results have shown that the characteristics of land use change, such as population, distance, migration, and occupation transformation are directly proportional to the land use change. It has also been identified that the high level of density is only located in the surrounding areas of industries. From the assessed variables through the statistical model, population (X1, density (X2 and migration (X3 are found as the influencing factors of land use change.

  8. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  9. Character analysis of culinary space in Simpang Limun area, Medan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, Rudolf; Puspita Ruahel Hutauruk, Miona

    2018-03-01

    Consumption food is one of the most important necessity in human being. Humans have a tendency to eat by way of grouping. These human groups form characteristic spaces. The hallmark of each space depicts the status and culture found in the groups. Space that becomes a place to eat and process food is also called a culinary space. This research takes place in one of the area of goods and services provider in Medan city that is Simpang Limun area. The purpose of this research is to show the various categories of culinary places based on the characteristics conveyed by Lynn. However, from the observations that have been made, there are some culinary spaces that do not fit the characteristics that have been determined and this culinary space is classified as low class. Findings and benefits in this research are written for the government as a reference to city regulation and structuring.

  10. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  11. Heat-stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas, being warmer than their surroundings, are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine a 35-year convection-permitting climate model integrations with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess heat stress in a typical densely populated mid-latitude maritime region. We show that the heat-stress increase for the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heatwaves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat-stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat-stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our novel insights exemplify the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate-change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  12. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-08-06

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK.We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens).The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets.

  13. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L.; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A. K.; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R.; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2017-11-01

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ˜128–116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past “superstorms,” they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  14. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A K; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J; Raymo, Maureen E

    2017-11-14

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ∼128-116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past "superstorms," they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  15. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  16. Social conflict in response to urban sprawl in rural areas: urban reconfiguration of the Mezquital valley as influence area of the megalopolis of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...

  17. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  18. Nuclear methods used to compare air pollution in a city and a pollution-free area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, G.; Haccoun, A.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison study was made between city pollution and open-area pollution in order to be able to distinguish between air pollution whose source is urban activity (i.e. industry, transportation, etc.) and that in an area free of man's activities. The comparison was made between Beersheba, a city in the south of Isreal, and a spot in the desert, 40 km south of the city. The meteorological conditions at the two places are the same, and it is reasonable to assume that the background pollution (the dust that covers the area), is the same in both places. Neutron activation analysis was used for pollution detection; it is clear that certain elements cannot be detected by this means, though they may be known to exist in the air; hence, certain trace elements of the dust could be detected, but not, for example, the major components such as Ca and Si. The results are classified as typical urban pollutants and non-urban pollutants. Weather condition dependence was also investigated. The major source of urban pollution in Beersheba is bromine, which exists in the air in large quantities. The other urban pollutants are Zn, Cr, and Sb; these elements are found mainly in the city, in smaller quantities than bromine. The concentration of these elements is greatly reduced at night due to cessation of work in industry and reduced vehicular movement. The effect of weather and a seasonal dependence are clearly indicated (e.g. when the wind velocity increases and its direction is from the east, pollution in Beersheba rises). At the end of the winter the air is clearer than at the end of the summer. (author)

  19. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  20. Birds in an urban area of Ipatinga city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of urban areas results in changes of natural landscapes, including the creation of several artificial environments. Thus, many animals find new opportunities for survival in these areas. This study aimed to obtain information about the richness, composition, and frequency of occurrence of the trophic guilds of an urban avian community in Ipatinga city, Minas Gerais State, followed by a general description. Between August 2005 and July 2006, 81 days were spent in sampling. From the method of direct observation, 57 species were recorded. The richness estimate for the area was 74.86 species (Chao2. The number of species between rainy and dry periods did not differ (p>0.05. Trophic guilds remained with a ratio of relatively similar species throughout the year, with a predominance of the omnivores and insectivores. Species such as Pitangus sulphuratus, Furnarius rufus and Sicalis flaveola were favored in the open areas. Two exotic species, Columba livia and Passer domesticus, were abundant. These results emphasize the necessity of the existence of natural areas within the urban context, considering not only the protection of the wildlife, but also the improvement of the quality of life in the cities.

  1. Toward a new paradigm for boulder dislodgement during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert; Sheremet, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Boulders are an important coastal hazard event deposit because they can only be moved by tsunamis and energetic storms effects of storms. Storms and tsunami are competing processes for coastal change along many shorelines. Therefore, distinguishing the boulders that were moved during a storm from those moved by a tsunami is important. In this contribution, we present the results of a parameter study based on the TRIADS model for wave shoaling on mildly sloping beaches, coupled with a boulder-dislodgement model that is based on Newton's Second Law of Motion. The results show how smaller slopes expose the waves longer to the nonlinear processes, thus increasing the energy in the infragravity wave band. More energy in the infragravity wave band means that there are more energy wave lengths that can dislodge larger boulders. At the same time, a steeper slope lowers the threshold for boulder dislodgement (critical angle of dislodgement), making it more likely for larger boulders to be dislodged on a steeper slope. The competition between these two processes govern boulder dislodgement during storms and is investigated inhere.

  2. Built-Up Area Change Analysis in Iasi City Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursu Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the spatial and temporal changes occurred in the builtup area of Iași city and its surrounding areas using cartographic materials from different time periods. The paper aims to highlight the areas where the most significant changes took place by identifying the main evolution patterns, generated by certain natural or human-driven factors. The results of the study were achieved by using specific photo-interpretation methods of the available orthophotomaps form 2006 and 2012, mainly using the professional GIS softwares TNT Mips 7.2., ArcGIS 10.2 and Global Mapper 11. The changes have lead on the one hand to the conversion of the former industrial areas and thus, the urban regeneration, but also to the periurbanization phenomenon, with major functional and structural effects.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF RESIDENTIAL AND TECHNOGENIC AREAS OF GROZNY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Alikhadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The process of territorial expansion of the city is accompanied by intensive construction of industrial and social facilities, road network is actively developed, that leads to the transformation of natural vegetation, the appearance of manmade habitats which are actively colonized by segetal-ruderal species.Aim of the work is inventory of flora of disturbed habitats and the study of its current state, identify the taxonomic composition of phytocenoses.Field works were carried with help of route-floristic method in different growing seasons 2010-2012., technogenic and residential area of the city were studied.According to research a list of vascular plants of disturbed habitats numbering 237 species was compiled. Biomorphological and geographic structure is showed, adventive and indigenous flora fraction is determined.

  4. Invasive alien plants in protected areas within city borders, LODZ (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, B.; Grzegorz, W.J.; Krason, K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the occurrence of invasive alien plant species in two forest reserves: "Las Lagiewnicki"and "Polesie Konstantynowskie", located within the city of Lodz (Central Poland). Currently, five vascular plants (Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) and one moss (Orthodontium lineare) considered as invasive were found in the studied reserves. Invasive plant species accounted for a small percentage of the flora in the studied reserves, and their sites were mainly concentrated in areas transformed by human activity. The most common species were Impatiens parviflora and Padus serotina. Due to the location of the reserves within city borders and the proven negative effect of the found species on ecological systems, their sites should be monitored. (author)

  5. The duty to inform the public about the Rocky Flats plutonium processing plant and impact on public awareness and the real-estate market in the Denver/Boulder area (Colorado, U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagl, R.

    1986-01-01

    The study deals with the impact of information about technological hazards on the local population's state of knowledge, risk awareness, and attitude towards the Rocky Flats plant, a plutonium processing plant for the fabrication of nuclear missile war-heads, and with the question of whether the 'disclosure' of the hazardous nature of the installation really entailed economic disadvantages for the real-estate market in the area, as was presumed. The results concluded by the author are that two information brochures distributed in 1979 and 1982 did not have an impact on the local population's behaviour but could not win them over to a positive attitude towards the installation. The presumed negative effects on the housing and real-estate market in the area could not be verified. Price structures within and without the 10 mile zone around the Rocky Flat plant developed in response to usual market conditions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Integrating UAV Flight outputs in Esri's CityEngine for semi-urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Sandric, Ionut

    2016-04-01

    One of the most pervasive technologies of recent years, which has crossed over into consumer products due to its lowering prince, is the UAV, commonly known as drones. Besides its ever-more accessible prices and growing functionality, what is truly impressive is the drastic reduction in processing time, from days to ours: from the initial flight preparation to the final output. This paper presents such a workflow and goes further by integrating the outputs into another growing technology: 3D. The software used for this purpose is Esri's CityEngine, which was developed for modeling 3D urban environments using existing 2D GIS data and computer generated architecture (CGA) rules, instead of modeling each feature individually. A semi-urban areas was selected for this study and captured using the E-Bee from Parrot. The output point cloud elevation from the E-Bee flight was transformed into a raster in order to be used as an elevation surface in CityEngine, and the mosaic raster dataset was draped over this surface. In order to model the buildings in this area CGA rules were written using the building footprints, as inputs, in the form of Feature Classes. The extrusion heights for the buildings were also extracted from the point cloud, and realistic textures were draped over the 3D building models. Finally the scene was shared as a 3D web-scene which can be accessed by anyone through a link, without any software besides an internet browser. This can serve as input for Smart City development through further analysis for urban ecology Keywords: 3D, drone, CityEngine, E-Bee, Esri, scene, web-scene

  7. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza O. Santana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil -currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation- is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3% with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%. Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  8. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  9. A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferman, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.

  10. Efforts to Overcome Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation Victims in City Tourism Area, Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector has a significant contribution to the economy of Manado City, North Sulawesi Province. However, on the other hand, it has a negative effect on the increase in the number of child commercial sexual exploitation victims and makes children into commercial sex workers. Despite not effective, the Local Government of Manado City, North Sulawesi Province, has made efforts to cope with the child commercial sexual exploitation victims. In connection with the case, this study is designed to analyze the causes of ineffectiveness of Local Government efforts in tackling child commercial sexual exploitation victims. The study was conducted in tourism area of Manado City, North Sulawesi Province. The informants involved in this study were divided into two types: experts and non-experts. The informants were determined by using Opportunistic Sampling, and the sampling is using Snowball Sampling. The results of the study showed that the development of tourism sector has negative effect on children in the communities. Efforts made to cope with child commercial sexual exploitation victims by the local government and relevant parties have not been effective due to limited allocation of budgets and skilled, quality human resources, the lack of harmonious understanding between police with judges and public prosecutors as law apparatus, supervision, and protection of victims in solving the cases of child commercial sexual exploitation victims, the implementation of action committee’s duties and responsibility have been not effect, the number of obstacles facing them.

  11. Measuring Transit Oriented Development of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population in Indian cities is encouraging auto reliance and having unsafe economic, social and environmental consequences. Land-use-change patterns are the outcome of the complex relations between the human and the physical surroundings. To address these issues the planners are moving beyond land use planning to a sustainable development. Transit and Land use planning are important components to achieve sustainable future of urban development. TOD is a planning tool to encourage this integration. This paper discusses the land use scenario and opportunity around four Metro transit stations in Faridabad city. Different methods and various sets of indicators are considered to evaluate and measure TOD index in this study. This study will evaluate and measure the Faridabad city in the context of land use around Metro Stations to support TOD. This paper seeks to answer how to promote walkable communities, compact and transit-oriented development (TOD that incorporates mixed land use development, including neighbourhood schools, retail and business related space and a mix range of housing types within walkable distance. This paper concludes that the stations area which had a low TOD score needs to have policy for improvement. If planned efficiently, TODs can realize the sustainable development with considerable change in the urban development that focuses on pedestrian based neighbourhood planning.

  12. New energy vision of the Noogata city area; 2001 nendo Noogata shi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Noogata City, Fukuoka Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy demand amount of the city, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of the city was estimated at 4,825.4 x 10{sup 6} MJ/y. It consisted of 47.1% in the industrial sector, 26.1% in the commercial/residential sector and 24.9% in the transportation sector. The rate of energy source was 65.7% of petroleum-base energy and 25.1% of electric power. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of wind power generation/photovoltaic power generation to the flower park at the foot of Mt. Fukuchi and Nakanoshima park on the sandbank of the Onga river; introduction of photovoltaic power generation to library. Moreover, as future models of the introduction, the potential study was made on the following: installation of the stockbreeding waste biogas plant at the compost center; installation of fuel cell system using digestion gas from night soil treatment facilities; installation of the natural gas cogeneration system in the project on redevelopment of the urban area, etc. (NEDO)

  13. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  14. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed

  15. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  16. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Filimonenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna; Osipova, Nina Aleksandrovna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Nadeina, Louise Vasilievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics sho...

  17. COMPEREHENSIVE TECHNICAL STUDIES OF FLOOD CONTROL OVER SOLO CITY AREA (CASE STUDY IN DEMANGAN BARRAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Trusharyanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available City of Surakarta, known as Solo City is one of cities in Central Java Province traversed by Bengawan Solo River. Heavy rainfall in upstream area of Bengawan Solo River causes increase in high water level at downstream. Bengawan Solo River will be higher than water level in drainage system which may induce a backwater flow. Since Colonization era, the government has built dikes and barrages against backwater flow and inundation problem. One of the barrages was Demangan Barrage dividing river flow into Bengawan Solo River and Pepe River. It was equipped with total capacity pump of 12,3 m3/s. The inundation is not only caused by the backwater flow coming from Bengawan Solo River, but also surface runoff as the result of the excess rainfall which cannot be drained gravitationally to the main river if the gate was closed. Therefore, comprehensive study combining hydrology and hydraulics analysis is highly needed in order to achieve more effective flood control management. Hydrology analysis was done to estimate the direct runoff hydrograph from catchment area in Solo City to downstream of Pepe River. While in hydraulics case, hydraulic parameter in downstream of Pepe River influenced by Bengawan Solo River stream was analyzed. Both studies were simulated using software HEC-RAS 4.1.0 version. The simulation considered drainage channel, gate, pump system and dike in Pepe River downstream. Simulation using 10 years of return period in Solo City and average annual water level in Bengawan Solo River showed that Pepe River can flow through the gate, while the highest water level is still below the dike. Simulation considering 10 years of return period, water level hydrograph of Bengawan Solo River, existing pump, and gate operation inferred that Pepe River surpassed top of dike. Capacity of required pump should be more than 168,3 m3/s in order to pass 10 years of return period. By combining operational of existing pump and dike elevated up to +87,63 m

  18. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  19. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  20. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  1. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, D; Mostashari, F; Fine, A; Miller, J; O'Leary, D; Murray, K; Huang, A; Rosenberg, A; Greenberg, A; Sherman, M; Wong, S; Layton, M

    2001-06-14

    In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral encephalitis and meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and tissue specimens from patients with suspected cases underwent serologic and viral testing for evidence of arboviral infection. Outbreak surveillance identified 59 patients who were hospitalized with West Nile virus infection in the New York City area during August and September of 1999. The median age of these patients was 71 years (range, 5 to 95). The overall attack rate of clinical West Nile virus infection was at least 6.5 cases per million population, and it increased sharply with age. Most of the patients (63 percent) had clinical signs of encephalitis; seven patients died (12 percent). Muscle weakness was documented in 27 percent of the patients and flaccid paralysis in 10 percent; in all of the latter, nerve conduction studies indicated an axonal polyneuropathy in 14 percent. An age of 75 years or older was an independent risk factor for death (relative risk adjusted for the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 59.1), as was the presence of diabetes mellitus (age-adjusted relative risk, 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 17.3). This outbreak of West Nile meningoencephalitis in the New York City metropolitan area represents the first time this virus has been detected in the Western Hemisphere. Given the subsequent rapid spread of the virus, physicians along the eastern seaboard of the United States should consider West Nile virus infection in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and viral meningitis during the summer months, especially in older patients and in those with muscle weakness.

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  3. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  4. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E.; Humberto Bravo, A.; Violeta Mugica, A.; Pablo Sanchez, A.; Emma Bueno, L.; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City

  5. Complete Evaluation of Suspended Air Particles and Their Composition in the Central Area of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Younesian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air pollution is one of the problems of the recent century caused by vehicles, industries and other urban activities. The City of Yazd faces air pollution due to its high population, vehicular traffic and industrial places around the city. One of the important parameters of air pollution is suspended air particles that have harmful effects on the health of people, plants and objects. Methods: This research has been carried out by first determining a station in the central area of the city (Shahid Beheshti Square of Yazd. The suspended particles were measured during a five-month period from March to July, 2006. A high volume sampler was used for measuring Total Suspended Particles (TSP. The amount of lead content of TSP was measured in samples by using atomic absorption method. In the next stage, the percentage of organic and inorganic particles in the TSP of all samples was measured by using gravimetric methods and by burning in the oven. Results: The results of this study showed that amount of suspended particles in the city of Yazd is higher than national standard and the general mean average of the suspended particles of air in five months was 233 micrograms per cubic meter. The average concentration of suspended air particles from end of March to August during the five month period was 118, 193, 231, 267and 333, respectively. The average concentration of lead was 0.04 microgram per cubic meter and amount of organic and inorganic particles in TSP was 25.31% and 74.68%, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to the results, the minimum amount of TSP concentration was in March. This could be due to reduction in trading and industrial activities and New Year vacations. In addition, the average monthly TSP increased from March to July; the cause of which could be relative decrease in humidity and increase in temperature. The amount of lead in samples was much less than standard, which could be due to omission of lead from petrol

  6. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  7. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  8. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  9. Vulnerability assessment: A comparison of three different city sizes in the coastal area of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwandari Handayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of connecting urbanization phenomena and vulnerability assessments, this paper aims to explore vulnerability assessment in three different city sizes in the northern coast of Central Java province of Indonesia. It compares the vulnerability levels of the three cities based on their sizes (that is, levels of urbanization. It uses the most current secondary data from the lowest administrative levels, called as kelurahan (urban village, for its assessment. There are two indexes used to indicate their vulnerability levels, namely exposure and sensitivity index (ESI and adaptive capacity index (ACI. By combining the ESI and ACI, the study found that the kelurahans in Tegal (the medium sized city have similar vulnerability levels. The kelurahans in Semarang (as the big city have more combination of vulnerability levels—indicating that the city has various sensitivity, exposure, as well as adaptive capacity among its kelurahans. In Lasem (the small sized city, due to limitations imposed by adaptation—mostly because of lack of public services and high dependency on primary economic sectors—all of its kelurahans were found to be vulnerable. The study therefore concluded that the bigger a city is, the more the different areas of that city will have varying levels of vulnerability, leading to a high propensity of vulnerability among its inhabitants. On the other hand, the smaller a city is, the less capacity it will have in reducing its emerging vulnerability challenges.

  10. A Review of Vehicles Speed on School Safety Zone Areas in Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Putri, Lusi; Soehardi, Fitridawati; Saleh, Alfian

    2017-12-01

    School Safety Zone is a location or region on particular roads that are time-based speed zone to set the speed of the vehicle in the school environment. The maximum speed limit permits entering a School Safety Zone, especially in Pekanbaru City is 25 km / h and an outline of the speed limit permit vehicles that pass through the School Safety Zone in Indonesia is generally 20-30 km / h. However, the vehicles speeds that pass School Safety Zone are higher than permit speeds.To ensure the level of vehicle offense across the territory of the School Safety Zone so it is necessary a primary data which is taken randomly based on field survey for 3 days at schools that has that facility ie SDN 3 Jalan Kesehatan Pekanbaru City, SDN 68 Jalan Balam Ujung Kota Pekanbaru and SDN 143 Jalan Taskurun Kota Pekanbaru. Furthermore, the data were taken in good condition that is at 6:30 to 7:30 am and at 12:00 to 13:00 pm. In addition, the data obtained is mileage and travel time of the vehicle. Both of these data can generate good speed value that passes through the area of School Safety Zone. Based on the research findings, the vehicle speed passing through the area of School Safety Zone is incompatible with speed permit at 35 km / h with a maximum average percentage of the rate of offense in the area of the school zone is 91.7%. This indicates that the vehicle passes School Safety Zone not following the rules of the maximum limit area and can be potentially harmful to elementary school students.

  11. Echinococcosis and other parasitic infections in domestic dogs from urban areas of an Argentinean Patagonian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented. The aim of this work was to survey intestinal parasites in canine feces from two low-income urban neighborhoods of Bariloche city, Argentina, and to assess their seasonal variation. During 2016, 188 fresh dog feces were collected from sidewalks in 40 randomly selected blocks from the neighborhoods. Each sample was processed by Sheater flotation and tested for a coproantigen (CAg by ELISA. The percentage of parasitized feces was 65.3% (95% CI: 55.9%-73.8%. Eleven parasite species were found, 3 protozoan, 3 cestodes, and 5 nematodes. Echinococcus sp. was present in 9.3% of the samples (95% CI: 4.7%-16.1%. Canine echinococcosis rates resulted similar to rates found previously in other neighborhoods of the city. The life cycle of Echinococcus sp. is sustained in urban areas by the entry of parasitized livestock, domiciliary slaughtering, and inadequate deposition of offal. The risk of Echinococcus sp. transmission to people in these neighborhoods is very high, due to high density of free-roaming dogs and high percentages of infected feces, similar to percentages observed in rural areas.

  12. Geoenvironmental profile of squares: north area of the city of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concern to the quality and amount of the squares of the north area of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná. The square is a leisure, walk and rest place, besides favoring a closer contact of the population with the nature. The physical aspects of the furniture, presence and type of area of infantile and sporting recreation were analyzed, and also the identification and quantification of the species of trees. The results demonstrated absence of area of infantile recreation, 53% of the squares without furniture and sporting areas in 38% of the places. The amount of trees belonged to 340 individuals, divided in 35 species, with prevalence of 5 species that represents 64% of the total. Such results suggest the improvement of the amount and quality of the furniture, and a better distribution of the species of trees, giving preference for native species. The creation of a GIS, indicating the place of occurrence of the squares and its situation, is important because it facilitates the analysis of the green areas, as well as in the decisions for the urban development.

  13. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

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    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  14. The tourism potential for birdwatching in three green areas in the city of Campo Grande, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Alibio Oppliger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tourism potential of birds found in three public green areas (a park, a square and a pond, in the city of Campo Grande. The qualitative survey of avifauna totaled 55 observation hours, by the method of direct observation by points. The species were recorded and the frequency of occurrence (FO of each species by analyzed area was calculated. We recorded 107 species, totaling 12% of the Cerrado biome and blue-and-gold macaws were the species with absolute frequency of occurrence in the three areas. Each of the areas presented exclusive species and the park, the largest number of recorded species, standing out as an appropriate place to hold the birdwatch. However, the tourism potential for observing these birds should be strengthened by other actions such as check for complementarity between supply and demand, planning and building elements themselves to the observation activities, organize and present the practical arrangements for the birds observation in accordance with the supply constraints and the level of involvement and expertise of birdwatchers. Local people should be mobilized and motivated to know about the birds that are part of the landscape; the private sector can use a formatted tourism product and create new products or needs, such as crafts or printed guides; and the participation of the government is essential in promoting the 'birdwatching urban script ' product, as in the maintenance of urban nature reserves.

  15. FORMATION OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR RESIDANTIAL AREA RECONSTRUCTION OF BIG CITIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the most main state socio-economic tasks is providing of population accessible, economical and energy-efficient habitation which conforms to modern requirements. Methodology. Exposure, on the basis of analysis of labours of known scientists in area of reconstruction of dwelling building, determinatives the system use of which will be instrumental in the decision of problem of providing of population accessible habitation. Findings. Conceptual positions are formulated on perfection of housing policy, taking into account changes which take place in an external and internal environment. Originality. Principles of planning of reconstruction and building of accessible habitation are offered taking into account the town-planning value of territories of the largest cities. Practical value. Realization of the offered principles at development of projects of complex reconstruction and second city land development will allow to save an existent housing fund, promote the level of comfort of existent habitation, shorten running expenses on his maintenance, to provide the increase of dwelling-place without developing new territories.

  16. Comparative differential bacterial load in chicken meat from different areas of Lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, T.; Ayub, M.; Ashraf, M.; Manzoor, M.; Tabinda, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat has tremendously increased, especially in big cities of Pakistan like Lahore, during last few decades, due to low cholesterol level and lesser price as compared to beef and lamb meat. Non- scientific slaughter methods common in practice have increased the risk of bacterial load on chicken meat making it unsafe for human consumption. Keeping in view, the risk of bacterial contamination on chicken meat present study was conducted to determine bacterial load in different areas (Shad Bagh, Samanabad, Sanda) of city Lahore. Pour-plate method was used with differential media of blood agar, and selective medias of eosinmethylene blue, citrimide agar and mannitol agar. Maximum bacteria] growth (35.3 plus minus 0.77 million per gram) was observed in blood agar in Shad Bagh's poultry meat while in Samanabad's poultry meat maximum bacterial growth was observed in eosinmethylene blue agar (9.6 plus minus 0.40 million per gram) while Sanda's poultry meat showed maximum bacterial growth in cetrimide agar (6.9 plus minus 0.43). (author)

  17. New energy vision in Mobara City area (Chiba Prefecture); Mobarashi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    With the saying {sup M}obara, you find good when you live in it' as the target, the 'new energy vision for Mobara City area' was established. The vision is intended to utilize natural gas existing around the city, and utilize energy saving and new energy technologies. Specifically, the vision was established by a discussion committee composed of people of experience and academic standing, related business entities, and organizations, who took into consideration the natural environment, status of energy existence, and economic activities. The activity achievements were put into order by the following seven items: 1) the situation surrounding new energies, 2) district characteristics and viewpoints of introducing new energies, 3) energy demand, 4) existence quantity of new energies, 5) actual status of new energy introduction, and result of hearing investigations, 6) directionality and conception of introducing new energies, and 7) specific project objectives related to new energy introduction. Five projects were set up, including introduction of natural gas fueled automobiles, natural gas utilizing cogeneration and fuel cells, and effective utilization of wastes and bio-mass. (NEDO)

  18. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  19. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area... and Management Program (Program) Power Marketing Initiative (PMI) (10 CFR part 905) to the Boulder... Power Administration (Western), Desert Southwest Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  20. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  1. Rich mineralized boulders of the Rirang River, west Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, S.; Sastratenaya, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Rirang River is a small tributary of the Kalan River. It is 1.5 km long and flows in a N60 deg. E direction. To the west it is separated from the Sampurno Valley by an asymmetric pass with a relatively gentle slope on the Rirang side and a very steep slope down to the Sampurno River. The Rirang Valley lacks outcrops because of a high degree of alteration. It is known to contain mineralized boulders, most of which are of centimetric to decimetric size, but some may exceed 1 m. The uranium content in these boulders varies between 0.6 and 6.67%. Two types of mineralized boulders exist: banded and non-banded types. The former usually have a rounded shape due to erosion on their angles. They are composed of dark centimetric fragments of breccia, roughly aligned, giving a banded aspect, and are cemented by lighter coloured materials of monazite. The mineral composition of the fragments is of fine brown monazite, molybdenite, pyrite, rutile and tourmaline. Uranium minerals are located at the edges of the dark components. Most of the non-banded type boulders are of metasiltstone containing mineralized stringers of uraninite, molybdenite, pyrite, and a little monazite and tourmaline. Some investigations have been carried out, but the geological context and the origin of the boulders are, as yet, not fully understood. (author). 2 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  2. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  3. Perception Environmental Awareness and Green Areas: The Case Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop / MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovia Cecilia Rauber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the environmental perception of a group of residents of two neighborhoods surrounding the Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop-MT, revealing their relationship with the area as well as their involvement in proposing alternatives for the conservation of the Park. With this aim a study on the Botanical Garden Municipal Park was carried out, using the following procedures: documentary research in public agencies; site visits for description of the area and semi-structured interviews with a group of residents of two neighborhoods in the vicinity, Celeste Garden and the Botanical Garden. The presence of fauna, flora and springs that form Ribeirão Nilza within the park indicates the need for its conservation, and the residents consider the area important for the local micro weather, tourism, biodiversity conservation and also to develop researches, contributing significantly to the population's quality of life. Taking into account the above considerations, it is important to consider a new scenario, which aims to mobilize social participation, propitiating the people the feeling of belonging to what they conceive as the environment, giving rise to a participatory management by means of Environmental Education.

  4. Impacts of urban sprawl on the area of downtown lakes in a highly developing city on central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wuhan city in central China is full of water resources and numerous lakes are located. Downtown lakes have significant ecological value and ornamental value for urban inhabitants in Wuhan. Under the rapid process of urban sprawl, downtown lakes are occupied by impervious areas. This research uses Landsat images to extract land uses from 1991 to 2013 in Wuhan city , and attempts to find out how urban sprawl affects the water body area decline in space. Two largest downtown lakes in Wuhan city, Donghu Lake located in central city and Tangxunhu Lake located in suburbs, are taken as case study area. A direction change index (DCI) is proposed to evaluate the changes of a specific land use in different directions. The results reveal that two downtown lakes are undergoing rapid water body area decline from 1991 to 2013, with decline rate are -0.022 in Donghu watershed and -0.011 in Tangxunhu watershed. 68.26% and 62.50% of the reduced water body is occupied by built-up land in Donghu watershed and Tangxunhu watershed, respectively. According to DCI, the water body reduce is highly correlated with built-up land increase in all direction. Moreover, it is found that in the Donghu watershed the north-west part suffered significant water body area decline, which is close to central city. While in Tangxunhu watershed, the area of water body declined in north-west, south-west and north-east part, and the area obstructed from central city by the lake was suffering less water body area decline. It is concluded that the water body area of downtown lakes are highly affected by the process of urban sprawl, and the lakes in central districts trends to suffer higher descend than that of the downtown lake located in suburbs. Meanwhile, even for the same downtown lake, the area orientating and close to the central city may suffer more rapid decline than the area that does not orientate to the central city.

  5. Assessing enigmatic boulder deposits in NE Aegean Sea: importance of historical sources as tool to support hydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vacchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance in the assessment of coastal hazards, several studies have focused on geomorphological and sedimentological field evidence of catastrophic wave impacts related to historical tsunami events. Among them, many authors used boulder fields as important indicators of past tsunamis, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of deposition of clusters of large boulders, consisting of beachrock slabs, which were found on the southern coasts of Lesvos Island (NE Aegean Sea. Methods to infer the origin of boulder deposits (tsunami vs. storm wave are often based on hydrodynamic models even if different environmental complexities are difficult to be incorporated into numerical models. In this study, hydrodynamic equations did not provide unequivocal indication of the mechanism responsible for boulder deposition in the study area. Further analyses, ranging from geomorphologic to seismotectonic data, indicated a tsunami as the most likely cause of displacement of the boulders but still do not allow to totally exclude the extreme storm origin. Additional historical investigations (based on tsunami catalogues, historical photos and aged inhabitants interviews indicated that the boulders are likely to have been deposited by the tsunami triggered by the 6.7 Ms Chios-Karaburum earthquake of 1949 or, alternatively, by minor effects of the destructive tsunami produced by 1956's Amorgos Island earthquake. Results of this study point out that, at Mediterranean scale, to flank numerical models with the huge amount of the available historical data become a crucial tool in terms of prevention policies related to catastrophic coastal events.

  6. Assessment of Interior and Area Artificial Lighting in Hospitals of Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Comfort lighting is one of the most important topics, which provides optimum physical conditions in general environment and workplaces such as hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate general, local and area artificial illumination of Hamadan city hospitals . Methods : In this descriptive-analytical study, general, local and area artificial illumination in seven Hamadan hospitals in 2006 were evaluated. Lighting intensities (illuminance were measured according to recommended IESNA method using the lux meter model (Lutron-Lx102 in the early hours of night. Lighting quality parameters such as color rendering, technical suitability of design and lighting uniformity were evaluated. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13 . Results : The average of interior illuminance was 90.44 ± 46.97 lx, which was lower than the national recommended limits. Maximum and minimum intensity values of interior illuminance were in nursing station and laboratory, respectively. The average of area illuminance was 47.92 ± 53.2 lx and local illuminance was 131.5 ± 60.2 lx, which were lower than the recommended limits. Maximum intensity of local illuminance was in laboratories and the minimum levels were in admitted rooms, checkup and injection units. In total, 90.6% of general interior lighting systems, 83.3% of area lighting systems and 100% of local lighting systems had unaccepted design . Conclusion : The average of general, local and area illuminance in Hamadan hospitals were not within the acceptable limits for comfort lighting. To obtain comfort lighting in studied hospitals, reforming and modifying lightening systems is necessary .

  7. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  8. A story about distributions of dimensions and locations of boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    for making a bored tunnel through the till deposit. Geographical universality was discovered through the statistical analysis of observations of boulder coordinates and dimension measures from wide spread cliff beach locations. One conclusion is that the joint size distribution up to some degree of modeling...... distribution. Moreover, these ratios are independent of the maximal dimension. The random point field structure of the boulder coordinates as isolated points or as clusters of points makes Poisson fields reasonable modeling candidates for the fields of both single points and cluster points. The cluster size...

  9. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  10. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  11. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  12. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  13. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  14. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  15. Predictability and Spatial Characteristics of New-York-City-Area Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Horton, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The origins, characteristics, and predictability of extreme heat waves in the Northeast U.S. are simultaneously examined at multiple scales, using hourly observational data from 1948-2014 and focusing in particular on the region surrounding New York City. A novel definition of heat waves - incorporating both temperature and moisture at hourly resolution - is used to identify 3-to-5-day heat waves whose dynamics are then analyzed from 3 weeks prior to 3 weeks subsequent to the event. Inter-event differences in dynamics such as the strength and position of geopotential-height anomalies; the strength, persistence, and orientation of sea breezes; and the dominant 850-hPa wind azimuth, all of which are filtered via local terrain and land-use to create differences in conditions between events at specific locations. In particular, using composite maps and back trajectories, they are found to play an important role in creating mesoscale differences in low-level moisture content, from one side of the metropolitan area to the other. Evidence is presented supporting the influence of coastline orientation in explaining the differences in the relationships between wind azimuth and temperature & moisture advection between New York City proper and northern New Jersey. Self-organizing maps are employed to classify heat waves based on the small-scale differences in temperature and moisture between events, and the results of this classification are then used in correlations with synoptic- and hemispheric-scale geopotential-height anomalies. Considerable predictability of event type on the small-scale (as well as occurrence of a heat wave of any kind) is found, originating primarily from central Pacific and western Atlantic SSTs.

  16. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  17. Utilization of maternal health care services in slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housne Ara Begum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has one of the highest maternal mortality rates (MMR in the world. The estimated lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy and childbirth related causes in Bangladesh is about 100 times higher compare to developed countries. However, utilization of maternal health care services (MHCS is notably low. This study examines the socio-economic determinants of utilization of MHCS in some slum areas of Dhaka city. The overall utilization was 86.3% of women; however, utilization of different sorts of MHCS was very low, i.e., the mean utilization was found to be 2.25 out of 5 MHCS. Indicator wise, ANC, TT, institutional delivery, delivery assistance by health professional and PNC were received by 61.3%, 80.4%, 12.6%, 33.2% and 55.4% of women respectively. Variation was observed with different socio-economic variables. Multiple regression model could explain 38% of variance (P<0.001. Among the significant determinants, order of last birth negatively explained the most variance (15.2%. Similarly, distance between home and clinic was found to affect the utilization negatively. Besides, some respondents’ socio economic variables had a significant positive effect on MHCS utilization. To reduce maternal mortality in disadvantaged women in slum areas, this study might suggest a few pointers while considering formulation of policies and planning. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 44-48

  18. Boulder Dislodgment Reloaded: New insights from boulder transport and dislodgement by tsunamis and storms from three-dimensional numerical simulations with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Zainali, A.

    2014-12-01

    Boulders can be found on many coastlines around the globe. They are generally thought to be moved either during coastal storms or tsunamis because they are too heavy to be moved by more common marine or coastal processes. To understand storm and tsunami risk at given coastline, the event histories of both events need to be separated to produce a robust event statistics for quantitative risk analyses. Because boulders are most likely only moved by coastal storms or tsunamis, they are very suitable to produce the data basis for such event statistics. Boulder transport problem has been approached by comparing the driving with resisting forces acting on a boulder. However, we argue that this approach is not sufficient because the comparison of resisting and driving forces only constitutes boulder motion, but not for boulder dislodgment. Boulder motion means that the boulder starts to move out of its pocket. However, this motion does not guarantee that the boulder will reach the critical dislodgment position. Boulder dislodgment is a necessary condition to identify whether or not a boulder has moved. For boulder dislodgement, an equation of motion is needed, and that equation is Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSL). We perform fully coupled three-dimensional numerical simulation of boulders moved by waves where the boulders move according to NSL. Our numerical simulations are the first of their kind applied to tsunami and storm boulder motion. They show how storm and tsunami waves interact with boulders in a more realistic physical setting, and highlight the importance of submergence. Based on our simulations we perform a dimensional analysis that identifies the Froude number as important parameter, which can be considered large only in the front of tsunami waves, but small in the rest of tsunami wave and also generally small in storm waves. From a general point of view, our results indicate that the boulder transport problem is more complex than recently considered, and

  19. Chemism of the run-off wastewater from urbanized areas based on the Kielce City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the collector of run-off wastewater (Si9, located in Kielce. Silnica River is a small river cutting through the city of Kielce from the North to the South-West. It has its source in Masłowskie Range at a height of 360 m a.s.l. and it flows into Bobrza River. It is ranked among mountain rivers at a 6.4 ‰ gradient. Its river-bed bas belonged to Kielecki Protected Landscape Area since 2006. Next to Szydłowek estate the artificial water body was build - Kielecki Bay. Beneath Kielecki Bay, Silnica River flows in regu1ated river-bed. Because of no separated storm water drainage, the rainwater washes away pollutants among others from industrial plants, houses, pavements, and streets into Silnica River. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the mouth of the Silnica River. It receives rainwater and snowmelt from the central - eastern part of the city with an area of 62 ha. The primary channel has a length of 1569 m and its diameter varies from 600 mm to 1250 mm. Is attached to the side of seventeen channels (with diameters from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The collector wells are 32 inspection and connection, and 24 entries. The side channels are located 119 wells and 82 outlets. The total length of the sewerage system is equal to 5583 m. The decrease of the collector changes to individual sections from 0.04% to 3.9%, and decreases in side channels to reach 2.61%. On average, one groove receives water from the surface of 0.585 ha. Ordinate the highest point in the catchment area is 271.20 m, 260.0 m above sea level the lowest, the average decrease in surface area is equal to 0.71%. Within the basin was isolated six types of surface runoff: roofs (14.3%, walks (8.4%, roads (17.7%, parking (11.2%, green (47.2% and pitch school (1.3%. Generally, paved areas with a high coefficient of runoff represent 52.83% of the total catchment area, which shows the typical urban character. The run-off wastewater is collected from the roofs by

  20. Ecological planning of urbanized areas in the south of the Far East (Birobidzhan city as an example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanova, V. B.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological planning of urbanized areas is an urgent demand of the time, because more than 70% of Russia’s population lives in cities. The article describes that the city’s ecological planning is an important part of the area’s organization in its development strategy. The principles and features of the urban area’s ecological organization are proposed. The basis for environmental planning is the ecological and functional zoning of urban areas. The algorithm of ecological-functional zoning is developed to optimize the quality of the urban environment. Based on it, it is possible to identify the planning structure’s features, justify anthropogenic pressure on the natural components of the urban environment, etc. The article briefly presents the possibility of using the main conditions of the ecological framework in the planning of urban areas. Considering the perspective trends of the formation and development of cities in the south of the Far East, the ecological problems caused by regional natural and anthropogenic causes (features of relief, climate, functional-planning structure) are considered. The need for environmental planning of cities in the south of the Far East is shown. The results of the ecological framework’s formation of Birobidzhan city based on its ecological and functional zoning are described. The total area of open unreformed spaces in the city is calculated to be 60.8%, which can serve as the main elements of the ecological framework and perspective reserve areas for ecological planning. The cartographic model of Birobidzhan’s ecological framework is presented, which is the result and model of this type of planning. The practical use of the proposed model will facilitate the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at stabilized development of the city.

  1. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  2. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-04-03

    No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.

  3. Solving a problem of establishing a connection between post offices in the area of a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana GRGUROVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to The General Plan of Post Network and in accordance with the criteria for opening branches of postal services for customers numerous postal offices which perform delivery services are located on the territory of every large city area. In case of using the system for combined decentralization one of the offices is assigned the role of the central deliverance post office. If the central office cannot be connected to some other unit directly, their connection is realized through one or more other units which are located in between them. Aside from the idea of the most economical management, the organization of postal offices is limited by some other actors, from the number of available vehicles, their capacity, to the question of the place and time of realizing a transaction. This paper provides information about how the money-saving algorithm for solving the problem of time interval routing can be used in a suitable way in these situations as well.

  4. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  5. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  6. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  7. Reading the landscape: citywide social assessment of New York City parks and natural areas in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Novem Auyeung; Lindsay K. Campbell; Michelle Johnson; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Erika Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) Natural Resources Group created the Forever Wild Program to protect nearly 9,000 acres of forests, wetlands, and meadows citywide. Although these areas were set aside over a decade ago, we have little systematic evidence about how park visitors view, use, and value parks with these...

  8. Incorporating insights from Time Series Analysis in groundwater modelling for the urban area of the city of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafstra, P.; Smits, F.J.C.; Janse, T.

    2017-01-01

    As the public water authority of the city of Amsterdam and surrounding areas, Waternet makes use of both steady-state and transient groundwater models for a variety of purposes involving urban groundwater management. For instance when determining the effect of planned measures on the occurrence of

  9. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  11. The Spatial Reproduction in the Urban Green Areas in the Nampula City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Rodrigues Moreno Muacuveia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: the work presents reflective elements on the changes of the space in the green areas of the city of Nampula due to the trade. He argues that urban green areas built for ecological, aesthetic and even psychic functions, socially produced, become places of exacerbated consumption and, at the same time, the medium of formal and informal commerce. The objective is to analyze the (re production of the space of the urban green areas in Nampula city, as well as the practice of informal commerce, in order to perceive its spatial dynamics. In order to do so, an analysis was carried out from a review of the bibliography in order to understand the conceptual meaning and later, to analyze the trade dynamics practiced in these areas, the spatiality that it reproduces. The results indicate that the green areas of the city have turned into places of practice of formal commerce carried out in stalls and fixed stalls subject to the payment of taxes and the informal practice practiced by mobile strollers who evade taxes. A Reprodução do Espaço nas Áreas Verdes Urbanas na Cidade de Nampula, Moçambique Resumo: o trabalho apresenta elementos reflexivos sobre as alterações do espaço nas áreas verdes da cidade de Nampula em função do comércio. Argumenta como as áreas verdes urbanas construídas para funções ecológicas, estéticas e até psíquicas, socialmente produzidas passam a ser locais de consumo exacerbado e ao mesmo tempo o meio onde se realiza o comércio formal e informal. O objetivo é analisar a (re produção do espaço das áreas verdes urbana da cidade de Nampula, bem como a prática comércio informal, de modo a perceber a sua dinâmica espacial. Para tanto, realizou-se uma análise a partir de revisão da bibliografia de modo a compreender a acepção conceitual e a posterior, analisar a dinâmica do comércio praticado nestas áreas e a espacialidade que ela reproduz. Os resultados indicam que as áreas verdes da cidade

  12. The Concept of Historical Landscape Design at Watugong Archaeological Site Area in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyabudi, I.; Alfian, R.; Hastutiningtyas, W. R.

    2017-10-01

    Malang city has the high historical value. It showed by many archaeological situses found, such as: The Dutch Colonial Building until kingdom era on classical history period. Generally, it could be seen at urban affairs like government building even the ancient house. But the last kingdom archaeological site only found at the village. The oldest archaeological site in Malang city was found on Kanjuruhan Kingdom, which is concentrated in Tlogomas. The Watu Gong Hamlet that was located in Tlogomas Political District had an archaeological site. It was a big stone in which the stone looked like a traditional music instrument, it was called Gong. As the archaeological site in megalithicum, before the Hindu and Budha came in from India, that stone was predicted as the foundation structure of the big building. The Watu Gong Hamlet was located in Tlogomas archeological site area, also Merjosari and Karang Besuki. Three of them are the archeological sites for Kanjuruhan Kingdom at eigth century, until Kahuripan Kingdom around the eleventh century, as the heir of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. The urban government has a program to improve the village required to their region potential and it was possible to revitalize the Tlogomas village, so that the historical character can be seen well. The modernity of a hamlet has impact on the local identity blured. In which, they did not think about economic only and it can be minimized, also the hamlet will be a characterized tourism object. The revitalization purposed to continuing the past, then it’s connected to present. It’s performed as corridored garden planning. The landscape development appropriated to promote about the characters of Kacapiring flower, Rose, Jasmine and Puring. They are the special plants from Kanjuruhan Kingdom, beside the other furniture street model. This research was descriptive explorative and discussed about the concept with architecture design approach, started from data collecting, precedent study

  13. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  14. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  15. Geodetic, Geologic and Seismic Interdisciplinary Research of Tectonically Caused Movements in the Wider Area of the City of Zagreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapo, A.; Pribicevic, B.; Herak, M.; Prelogovic, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since the last great earthquake in 1880 which shook the Zagreb area with IX° MCS, tectonic movements and models of numerous Zagreb faults have been the focal point of Croatian geologists, seismologists and in the last 15 years also geodetic scientists, who all have been working in the scope of their scientific branches on bringing the light to the tectonic mechanisms in the wider Zagreb area. Since it is tectonically very active area and being the Capitol city of the Croatia with very high population density it is of utmost importance to understand those mechanisms and to according to them find the best possible measures for protecting people and valuables. Best results are certainly going to be achieved through the interdisciplinary approach. That is why this paper presents first interdisciplinary results from geodetic, geologic and seismic researches and their contribution to the collective knowledge about tectonic movements in the wider area of the City of Zagreb.

  16. Understanding change: Wildfire in Boulder County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ; Amy L. Telligman

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  17. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Johnson; B. de Foy; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; M. J. Molina; Y. Xie; A. Laskin; V. Shutthanandan

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  18. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , K. S.; De Foy , B.; Zuberi , B.; Molina , L. T.; Molina , M. J.; Xie , Y.; Laskin , A.; Shutthanandan , V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  19. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  20. Map showing ground-water conditions in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, Coconino and Navajo counties, Arizona, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The Kaibito and Tuba City areas include about 2,500 square miles in north-central Arizona. Ground water is obtained from the N aquifer and from alluvium. The N aquifer consists of Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Moenave Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone. The main source of ground water is the Navajo Sandstone. Ground-water development has been slight in the areas. In 1977 the estimated ground-water withdrawals were about 350 acre-feet in the Kaibito area and 650 acre-feet in the Tuba City area. Water levels ranged from flowing at the land surface to 1,360 feet below the land surface. The chemical quality of the water in the N aquifer does not vary greatly in the areas. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water range from 101 to 669 milligrams per liter but generally are less than 300 milligrams per liter. Along some of the valleys in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, the alluvium yields water to many shallow dug wells. The water levels generally are from 5 to 15 feet below the land surface. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the alluvium usually are less than 600 milligrams per liter. Information shown on the map (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, and specific conductance and fluoride concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area, which is regularly affected by flooding, landslides and earthquakes. In order to assist the local emergency commission and the municipality, a pilot study was carried out in the development of a GI...

  2. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lijuan; Chen Bo; Zhuo Weihai; Lu Shuyu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new software system that can directly display the predicted results on an electronic map, in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. Methods: Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack, and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed. Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants, and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors. Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system (GIS), the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city. Results: The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot®. The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind. Conclusions: The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. (authors)

  3. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (approximately 4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (approximately 1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (approximately 100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA's ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more

  4. Toward a Smart Sustainable Development of Port Cities/Areas: The Role of the “Historic Urban Landscape” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fusco Girard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 2008 crisis, smart sustainable development of port areas/cities should be developed on the basis of specific principles: the synergy principle (between different actors/systems, in particular the socio-cultural and economic system, the creativity principle and the circularization principle. The Historic Urban landscape (HUL approach becomes the guarantee that the transition toward the smart city development model is based on specific local cultural resources, and not only on technological innovations. In other words, the eco-town/eco-city strategy becomes culture-led. It stimulates places as spatial “loci” for implementing synergies and circularization processes. Without new evaluation tools and a widespread “evaluation culture” the risks in implementing HUL are very high.

  5. Long-term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation in the New York City Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiello, M.

    1994-11-01

    The results of month-long TLD measurements at seven locations within 150 km of New York City are reported for 12 years at a few locations and for up to 18 years at others. At some locations, multiple dosimeters were deployed to acquire concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements. The sites were varied and include an urban high-rise residence, three suburban backyards, a rural hillside, and the wooded outskirts of a nuclear power plant (nonoperational). Long-term mean dose rates in air ranged from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h -1 (5.8 to 14.1 μR h -1 ) across the area. The typical seasonal dose rate in air variations are presented for two of the sites and are briefly discussed in terms of soil conditions. The data indicate that it is possible to achieve monthly variations from the long-term mean as high as 20 to 40%. One of these locations was monitored for indoor (2 floors) and outdoor air dose rates. This allowed for a time series comparison to be performed illustrating the changing contribution of terrestrial radiation to the total dose rate relative to the steady building material-derived radioactivity. This site also permitted the calculation of indoor/outdoor ratios for two floors. Another suburban location yielded an indoor/outdoor ratio using ground floor dose-rate-in-air measurements. Also presented are mean annual dose rates in air showing a long-term decrease at some locations. A statistical Kendall test was performed to quantify the magnitude of the decrease. A definitive explanation of this trend requires further study

  6. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S.; Pahud, Barbara A.; Weldon, William C.; Curns, Aaron T.; Oberste, M. Steven; Harrison, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012–2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%–96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6–10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2–3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2–3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4–6 y. PMID:28059613

  7. Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Edirne City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Çelik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis may vary according to the influence of the altitude of a geographical area as well as the genetic and environmental factors. This study ained to determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Edirne population.Material and Methods: Patients with a definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald’s criteria, admitted to one of the three MS clinics in Edirne, were included in this two-stage study. Also the records of hospitals in İstanbul serving patients from Edirne, have been evaluated. Results: The prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 33.9/100000 (95% CI: 32-36 in 2003. The mean annual incidence was 3.48/100000 (95% CI: 2.90-4.00. Mean age of the patients was 36.5±9.6 years. Mean age at onset was 29.2±8.5 years. Mean duration of disease was 6.9±5.2 years. Overall, 69.2% had a relapsing-remitting course, 20.5% had a primary progressive course and 10.3% had a secondary progressive course. Mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.04±2.18. The prevalence and annual incidence after one year was 36.5 per 100000 (95% CI: 33.2-38.6 and 2.60 per 100000 (95% CI: 2.1-3.8, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first city-based MS prevalence study performed in Turkey. The MS prevalence in Edirne is similar to that of Greece and Bulgaria but lower than that of European countries.

  8. Parental perception of childhood obesity in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sample of parents living in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy, the perception of weight excess as a problem in childhood and the awareness about the role of physical activity, beliefs about contributors and parties having responsibility in counteracting the obesity crisis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on a convenience sample of parents of 6-13 year-old children who attended grades 1, 3 and 5 of primary and grades 1 and 3 of secondary public schools, respectively. Thirteen schools were selected in an inner urban district of Palermo, Italy, this district being characterized by having a population of low to medium income residents. Parents were asked to come to the school and participate in the investigation. The survey was administered in the spring of 2006. After a descriptive analysis, role of specific demographic and social characteristics – education, gender, age class and BMI - of respondents was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Three hundred eleven parents completed the questionnaire. Eighty-three percent believed that being obese in childhood is a serious health hazard, but one third still interpreted the child’s weight excess as an expression of health. The most significant contributors to childhood obesity were thought to be junk food and beverages (78.0% and fast food (63.2%, followed by lack of exercise in school curriculum (48.7%. Beliefs about responsibilities for combating childhood obesity significantly varied according to education level.

    Conclusions: Public support for environmental changes could more effectively rise with the increasing public awareness that many interrelated obesogenic factors in the modern environment are playing a key role.

  9. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  10. BREAST CANCER RISK FACTORS IN AN URBAN AREA OF YAZD CITY- IRAN, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Lotfi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in many parts of the world. The risk factors for breast cancer cover a broad range of conditions, from age to complex genetic alterations. Present data is showing an increase in the annual incidence rates of disease and it is ranked as the first recorded malignancies among Iranian women after 1999. To study the association of reproductive and non reproductive factors with breast cancer among women with age group 30-75 years residing in urban area of Yazd city, Iran, this community based case-control study was carried out. A total of 160 subjects including 80 cases and 80 community controls were studied. Age was matched for both the case and control groups. Association of various kinds of risk factors with breast cancer was studied using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals through both the univariate and multivariate analysis. The findings based on multivariate analysis showed that being employment in outdoor jobs, positive familial history of breast cancer amongst the first grades, early onset of the first menstruation cycle (≤ 13 ys., delayed age of the first marriage (≥ 19 ys., less number of live children (≤ 3 and less duration of breastfeeding (≤ 2 ys. were significantly associated with breast cancer. However, consumption of OCPs was found to be a protective factor for breast cancer. Our study showed that the role of reproductive factors in the causation of breast cancer was more important than in other factors like socio-economic, psychological, behavior and nutritional factors.

  11. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  12. Multiple severe typhoons in recent history revealed by coral boulders of northwestern Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Yeh; Wu, Tso-Ren; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Siringan, Fernando; Lin, Han-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Meter-sized coral boulders occurred on Holocene reef flat at Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte and Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, Philippines. Boulders larger than 3 meters were located and measured by field survey and UAV photogrammetry. Boulders now distributed 45-140 m away from edge of Holocene reef flat, and above highest high tide. The lithology of those boulders is the same as the underlying Holocene coral reef at the sites, hence believed to be broken from reef edge locally. Fossil corals in those boulders mostly appeal not in upward-growing attitude but overturned or tilted. Several tens of photos were taken around selected boulders from different angles, and 3D models were established from the photos. Dimension and volumes were calculated from 3D models. Boulder volumes can be estimated much more accurately this way than simply multiple X, Y, and Z as many previous studies did. The volumes of boulders larger than 3 m in length vary from 10-52.6 m3. Assuming 2.1 g/cm3 for wet density, weights of boulders are estimated to range from 21-110 metric tons. Boulders of such size and weight obviously can't be moved by normal waves, and likely dislodged by Extreme Wave Event (EWE). Small and well-preserved corals were found in depressions on boulder surface and interpreted to represent timing of final displacement. Corals found on seven boulders at Pasuquin were 230Th dated to be 1782, 1904, 1946, 1957, 1978 and 2003 AD respectively. No tsunami was reported in historical records in northern Luzon for those years, but several documented typhoons could be responsible for displacement of each of those boulders. Another Porites boulder at Cabugao was dated to be tilted five times from 673-838 AD, averaging one EWE every 33 years. Such frequent occurrence of EWE is unlikely resulted from tsunami. Therefore, those coral boulders at Pasuquin and Cabugao are interpreted to be displaced by severe typhoons.

  13. Report on new energy vision establishment in Oga City area; Ogashi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in Oga City in Akita Prefecture. The population of the city is continuing the decreasing trend since 1955 to 30,462 persons as of 2000. The number of employed people by industry is in the trend of decreasing in the primary industry, leveling off in the second industry, and increasing in the tertiary industry. The annual energy demand in this city is 838,000 MWh in electric power and 302 times 10{sup 13} J, accounted for by the consumer department at about 44.4%, the transportation department at about 28.3% and the industrial department at 27.3%. The carbon dioxide emission amount therefrom is estimated 68,100 t-C. The expected usable quantity of new energies in the city would be available in solar heat as the largest source, followed by solar beam and wind power, whose amount is estimated 136.41 times 10{sup 13}J annually in total. The new energy introducing project includes introduction of wind power generation into Namahage Line and its vicinity and the Ikari area, manufacture of fuel from refuses, introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles into the cars used by the city office, introduction of photovoltaic into the general gymnasium and primary and middle schools, and solar heat utilization at the general gymnasium. (NEDO)

  14. The Role of Festivals and Cultural Events in the Strategic Development of Cities. Recommendations for Urban Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Irina POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a good image of a city or state so as to differentiate it and to make it unique in tourists’ minds is a vital condition nowadays, in a world of global competition. This image may be created by taking advantage of local culture and values’ promotion or by organizing festivals and special events. There are various festivals and events held every year somewhere in the world that add image and competitive advantages to host cities. In order to illustrate this idea, the paper presents some less common festivals hosted by different cities that are turning themselves into real “urban agglomerations” during these events. The study analyses the impact of festivals on the strategic development of cities and the importance gained by urban areas after organizing these events. In the final part of the paper there are some recommendations for Romanian cities which might enhance their image and might become more known through the organization of such festivals and cultural events.

  15. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  17. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  18. New energy vision in Kitakata City area; Kitakatashi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in Kitakata City in Fukushima Prefecture. The population of Kitakata City in 2000 was 37,490, not having experienced extreme increase or decrease. Population employed in the tertiary industry occupies the largest ratio at 36.9%, followed by the secondary industry. The energy demand of the entire city is about 3300 trillion Joule, and carbon dioxide emitted therefrom is estimated about 77,000 t-C annually. Calculation of new energy amount in existence reveals about 4190 trillion Joule annually, which corresponds to about 1.3 times the energy demand quantity of the city. The new energy introducing project includes introduction of photovoltaic power generation into the public hall and schools, utilization of solar heat for greenhouses, introduction of solar heat and wind power hybrid power generation into the Green Tourism experiencing facilities, parks, street lights, and evacuation places, introduction of small to medium hydropower generation plants into Kitanogo, Kuranoyu and Happo-Ike, utilization of cold heat of snow, introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles into the public organizations, utilization of bio-mass energy, wastes burning power generation and heat utilization. (NEDO)

  19. Application of Queuing Theory to Petrol Stations in Benin-City Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study conducted on five petrol stations in Benin City, namely: Oando petrol station Akpakpava, AP petrol station Ugbowo, Total petrol station Iselu, NNPC petrol station Benin-Auchi Road and NNPC Mega filling station Benin-Sapele Road. The average arrival rate of customers per hour for the five ...

  20. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  1. Estimation of area and income elasticities of water demand in a number of cities and towns in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. Water demand prediction can be useful for future planning and has a significant economic effect on a city, town or suburb. There are numerous factors influencing water demand and therefore influencing the prediction thereof. The effect of each of these factors on the water demand is called the elasticity of that factor. The main aim of this study is to determine area and income elasticities of demand. This will enable the reader to predict water demand by taking stand size (area) an...

  2. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  3. The impact of urban conditions on different tree species in public green areas in the city of Poznan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżaniak Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parks in urbanised areas fulfil an important function as they create a positive climate in cities and contribute to the good health of their inhabitants. The study gives an answer to the question of which of the species under investigation is the most suitable for planting in urbanised areas. The aim of the research conducted from 2013 to 2014 at selected sites in Poznan (Poland was to determine the state of health of Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L. and Quercus robur L. trees and to compare their state of health depending on the location of the research sites. The aim of the research was also to determine the environmental variables that may have an influence on the state of health of the tree species under analysis. The research included statistical analyses and models based on discriminant analysis. The research revealed that the state of health of the tree species under investigation growing in the city is determined by anthropogenic factors. The closeness of the city centre, main thoroughfares and estates heated with fossil fuels are the factors that have the most negative influence on the state of health of oak, maple and lime trees. Acer platanoides L. was the species in the best state of health in parks, whereas in forests it was Tilia cordata Mill.

  4. Asymmetric correlations in the ozone concentration dynamics of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mexico City is a megalopolis with severe pollution problems caused by vehicles and industrial activity. This condition imposes important risks to human health and economic activity. Based on hourly-sampled data during the last decade, in a recent work (Meraz et al., 2015) we showed that the pollutant dynamics in Mexico City exhibits long-term and scale-dependent persistence effects resulting from the combination of pollutants generation by vehicles and removal by advection mechanisms. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of ozone, a key component reflecting the degree of atmospheric contamination, to determine if its long-term correlations are asymmetric in relation to the actual concentration trend (increasing or decreasing). The analysis is conducted with detrended fluctuation analysis. The results showed that the average ozone dynamics is uncorrelated when the concentration is increasing. In contrast, the ozone dynamics shows long-term anti-persistence effects when the concentration is decreasing.

  5. New energy vision of the Gotsu city area; 2001 nendo Gotsu shi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy consumption amount of the city, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of the city was estimated at 1,558,022 Gcal. By sector, the energy consumption amount consisted of 80.0% in the industrial sector, 11.2% of in the transportation sector, 5.8% in the residential sector and 3.0% in the business sector. In the industrial sector, the main energy consumption industries were the paper manufacturing industry and tile industry. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: project for the wind farm where a lot of wind power generators are installed; park as a symbol having 1 or 2 wind power generators; introduction of solar energy use water warmer/photovoltaic power generation to public facilities; system for promotion of the introduction of solar energy use water warmer/photovoltaic power generation to households; project on CO2 reduction by installation of LNG station; refuse/waste power generation project; project on utilization of the waste heat from tile makers. (NEDO)

  6. Sustainability of existing areas of historic cemeteries in the city organism: A Czech case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folíková Palánová, K.; Juračka, O.

    2018-04-01

    Old public cemeteries are integrated in urbanism as its obvious part what is given by its social function. The witness of these spaces express the relationship and respect to values created by generations ahead of us. There were a lot of forms of graves and cemeteries in a history. A big part of cemeteries preserved until today that we still have in our cities, were founded in 18th and 19th Century. Those burial sites that could be expanded fulfill its function till today. But some of them were closed in an urban organism and remained without use. The others were lost with an aggressive construction and were replaced by the settlements, factories or new parks in some cases, without etic rules. The story of many cemeteries is forgotten. There is a question: What is the fate of old cemeteries, which stopped fulfill their original function? What the investors, the monument care, the heads of cities would to do with it? The aim of the article is to compare the mutual influence of the urban structure of chosen cemeteries in Czech Republic and abroad. The results are obtained by analyzing and comparing the findings of the individual revitalized cemeteries that are still part of urban organism. It is necessary to specify the appropriate transformation of nonfunctional necropolis to become a full part of the city with respect to the dead, to the traditions, to the sacred space.

  7. New energy vision of the Akita city area; 2001 nendo Akita shi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Akita City, an investigational study was conducted of the energy demand of the town, existence amount of new energy, project on new energy introduction, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The population of Akita City was 317,868 as of December 31, 2000, which is continuously on the increase. The amount of energy demand of the whole city was 990,000 kL/y. The energy demand consists of fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and propane gas (77.7%) and electric power (22.3%). The CO2 emissions from these are 2,908,000 t-CO2. As the project on the new energy introduction, study was made on the installation of the photovoltaic power system and wind power system at base centers and introduction of the waste power system at the Goshono Works. As the model project, study was made on the introduction of the photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation to street light and public facilities, road snow melting/space heating and cooling using soil heat, introduction of clean energy vehicles, BDF introduction using waste cooking oil and rate blossoms, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  9. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  10. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened.

  11. Genesis and Development of Soils along Different Geomorphic Surfaces in Kouh Birk Area, Mehrestan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbar Bahoorzahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with correct and complete understanding of its properties. The objectives of the present research were to study 1 genesis and development of soils related to different geomorphic surfaces in Kouh Birk Area (Mehrestan City, 2 Soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy (2014 and WRB (2014 systems, and 3 physicochemical properties, clay mineralogy and micromorphology of soils. Materials and Methods: Mean annual rainfall and soil temperature in the selected location are 153.46 mm and 19.6 oC, respectively. From geological point of view, the studied area is a part of west and south west zones and Flysch zone of east Iran. Soil temperature and moisture regimes of this part are thermic and aridic, respectively. Eight representative pedons on different surfaces including rock pediment, mantled pediment, Alluvial fan and Upper terraces were selected, sampled, and described. Routine physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy, and micromorphological observations performed on soil samples. Soil reaction, texture, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate, and gypsum were identified. Four samples including Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk1 horizon of pedon 4, By2 horizon of pedon 5 and Bk1 horizon of pedon 7 were selected for clay mineralogy investigations. Four slides including Mg saturated, Mg saturated treated with ethylene glycol, K saturated, and K saturated heated up to 550 oC were analyzed. A Brucker X-Ray diffractometer at 40 kV and 30 mA was used for XRD analyses. Undisturbed soil samples from Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk2 horizon of pedon 2, Btn horizon of pedon 3, By2 horizon of pedon 5, Bk1 horizon of pedon 7, and By1 horizon of pedon 8 were selected for micromorphological observations. A vestapol resin with stearic acid and cobalt as hardener was used for soil impregnation. Bk-Pol petrographic microscope was used for micromorphology investigations. Results and Discussion: Due to

  12. [Heat vulnerability assessment in Jinan city: a comparison between residents living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangjun; Xin, Zheng; Zhou, Lin; Bai, Li; Wang, Yongming; Gu, Shaohua; Liu, Shouqin; Li, Mengmeng; Sang, Shaowei; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-06-01

    To find out the differences in regional characteristics of heat vulnerability between people living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city so as to provide basis for the development of adaptation measures to heat. A cross-sectional survey on heat vulnerability was conducted in urban center and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city, using a self-designed questionnaire among 801 residents at the age of 16 years or older in August 2013. Data of 23 indicators related to heat vulnerability were collected and aggregated to 7 dimensions:health and medical insurance, social networks, heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources, living environment and working environment. An index score was calculated using a balanced weighted average approach for each dimension, ranging from 0 to 1, with the closer to 1 as greater vulnerability. The scores on heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources and working environment dimensions for urban-fringe areas were 0.42,0.63,0.55 and 0.62, statistically significantly higher than the urban center area of 0.41,0.51,0.26 and 0.41. Scores of living environment, social networks and health/medical insurance dimensions for urban center area were 0.57,0.49 and 0.31, which were all higher than the urban-fringe areas of 0.50,0.46 and 0.25, with differences statistically significant. Residents living in the urban center might be more vulnerable to heat in terms of living environment, health/medical insurance and social networks while residents living in the urban-fringe areas might more be vulnerable in terms of heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, life resources and working environment. These facts indicated that heat vulnerability among residents could be quite different, even at a fine geographic sale. We would thus suggest that intervention strategies on protecting people from heat, should be more targeted.

  13. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF BUILT-UP AND GREEN AREAS ON THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE KUALA LUMPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Isa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of rapid and uncontrollable urbanization is Urban Heat Island (UHI. It occurs due to the negligence on climate behaviour which degrades the quality of urban climate condition. Recently, addressing urban climate in urban planning through mapping has received worldwide attention. Therefore, the need to identify the significant factors is a must. This study aims to analyse the relationships between Land Surface Temperature (LST and two urban parameters namely built-up and green areas. Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to prepare the necessary data layers required for this study. The built-up and the green areas were extracted from Landsat 8 satellite images either using the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI or Modified Normalize Difference Water Index (MNDWI algorithms, while the mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST. Correlation analysis and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR model were applied to quantitatively analyse the effects of the urban parameters. From the study, it was found that the two urban parameters have significant effects on the LST of Kuala Lumpur City. The built-up areas have greater influence on the LST as compared to the green areas. The built-up areas tend to increase the LST while green areas especially the densely vegetated areas help to reduce the LST within an urban areas. Future studies should focus on improving existing urban climatic model by including other urban parameters.

  15. Small area estimation of obesity prevalence and dietary patterns: a model applied to Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataife, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of previously developed small area estimation techniques to monitor obesity and dietary habits in developing countries and apply the model to Rio de Janeiro city. We estimate obesity prevalence rates at the Census Tract through a combinatorial optimization spatial microsimulation model that matches body mass index and socio-demographic data in Brazil's 2008-9 family expenditure survey with Census 2010 socio-demographic data. Obesity ranges from 8% to 25% in most areas and affects the poor almost as much as the rich. Male and female obesity rates are uncorrelated at the small area level. The model is an effective tool to understand the complexity of the problem and to aid in policy design. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the range mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  19. Modernization of boiler for manufacturing factories in an industrial area of Nanping City, Fujian Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the energy utilization system combined with CCS equipment and cogeneration system to general industry plants at the industrial complex in Nanping City, Fujian Province, China. As a result of the field survey, it was concluded that the capacity suitable for CCS center was 200,000 t/y and the size suitable for pulverized coal boiler at each site was 35 t/h. The energy conservation amount in this project was the coal use reduction amount by 88,000 t/y (48,000 toe/y), and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 90,000 t-CO2/y. As to the economical efficiency of the project, the period of ROI was about 5.1 years, and the internal earning rate at each site was 14-23%. The materialization of the project was confirmed. However, in the case of raising the required funds from city banks in China, financing conditions are strict, and the financing seems to be difficult at each site. It is necessary to raise low-interest funds such as the special environment yen credit. (NEDO)

  20. Design Criteria in Revitalizing Old Warehouse District on the Kalimas Riverbank Area of Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.

  1. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  3. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  5. Reduction of CO2 emission from transportation activities in the area of Pasar Besar in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, K. E.; Sulistyo, D. E.; Utomo, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    The number of vehicles increases every year. Where vehicles are the largest contributor to air pollution up to 70%-80%, while 20%-30% caused by industrial activities. The increasing number of vehicles which perform movements will result in more emissions of vehicles in the free air of the city. Traffic is also influenced by the presence of land use. One of the types of land use that have considerable influence against the movement of traffic is trade. Along with the development of transport activities in the area of Pasar Besar Malang city (the Biggest Traditional Market in Malang), it will cause problems such as traffic jam and air pollution. Therefore, the need for proper handling of the problem of traffic jam and air pollution in the area of Pasar Besar that is to identify the performance of road traffic around area of Pasar Besar and calculate the quantity of CO2 emissions based on the footprint of transport on the area of Pasar Besar. Where is produced that level of service roads on its way around area of Pasar Besar have an average value between LOS A and B, while the quantity of CO2 emissions is based on the footprint of transport on area of Pasar Besar that is amounting to 4,551.42 tons/year. The magnitude of the emissions have exceeded the standard of composition in the air so that the need for recommendations. Recommendations in this research is in the form of simulated users of private vehicle redirects to public transportation based on the level of willingness to switch by the users of private vehicles. The selected simulation that is the second of four simulations with the output of emissions amounting to 3,952.91 tons/year in which can reduce emissions amounting to 598.51 tons/year or approximately 13.15%.

  6. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  7. Demand Supply Gap in Urban Water Supply and Sanitary Services- A Case Study of Mangalore City Corporation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra; Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Today, some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitations. These twin deficits were rooted in institutions and political choices, not in water’s availability. Household water requirements represent a tiny fraction of water use, usually less than 5% of the total, but there is tremendous inequality in access to clean water and to sanitation at a household level. In high-income areas of cities in Asia, Latin America and Sub-Sah...

  8. Urban revitalization at downtown areas: discussions on the case of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nigro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon

  9. Numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  10. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  11. Social Optimality of Cordon Area Congestion Pricing in an Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harya S Dillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kemacetan lalu lintas merupakan epidemi global yang telah melumpuhkan banyak kota. Dari sudut pandang ekonomi mikro, kemacetan dapat dipandang sebagai eksternalitas negatif dimana diperlukan bea Pigovian sebagai solusi atas ekuilibrium yang kurang optimal tersebut. Eksternalitas ini dirasakan dalam bentuk tundaan perjalanan dan pembangunan kota yang rakus lahan. Meskipun teori mengenai ketepatgunaan bea kemacetan (congestion pricing telah mapan sejak akhir 1970-an, penerapan dan implementasi kebijakan tertunda oleh kendala teknologi. Salah satu bentuk implementasi bayaran kemacetan yang sering dijumpai adalah bea lintas-kordon (cordon charging, dimana penglaju yang masuk ke wilayah pusat dibebani sejumlah biaya. Ketepatgunaan dari bea lintas-kordon telah dikaji secara empiris dan juga dengan simulasi numerik, namun penjelasan teoretis belum dilakukan secara tuntas. Penulis mengembangkan model kota monosentris untuk meneliti dampak kebijakan bea lintas-kordon pada kepadatan kota dan permintaan akan lahan kota (equilibrium rent. Bea lintas-kordon akan menaikkan harga lahan di pusat kota dan memperbesar gradien kurva tawaran-sewa (bid-rent curve. Namun yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bahwa besaran ini ditentukan oleh parameter kordon. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa daya manfaat kebijakan ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pilihan parameter kordon yang dibuat perencana.Kata kunci. kemacetan, bea lintas-kordon, kota monosentris, struktur kotaAbstract. Traffic congestion is a global epidemic that at time has put cities to a state of paralysis. From a microeconomics point of view, congestion can be approached as a negative externality that merits a Pigovian tax to correct the suboptimal equilibrium. Externalities manifest in delays and wasteful urbanization. While the efficiency of congestion pricing has been well established since the late 1970s, policy adoption and implementation have been delayed due to technological

  12. Drinking water quality in urban areas of pakistan a case study of gujranwala city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Rashid, H.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the drinking water quality of Gujranwala city. Samples were collected from 16 locations including: 4 tube wells, 4 overhead reservoirs (OHR) and 8 house connections. Twelve physicochemical and two bacteriological parameters were tested, before and after monsoon and compared with National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). The results demonstrated that most of the physicochemical parameters, except lead, nickle and chromium were within NSDWQ before and after monsoon. Bacteriological and heavy metal contamination was found before and after the monsoon. Possible reasons of contamination are: no disinfection, old and leaking water pipes, poor drainage during monsoon and possible cross connections between water and sewerage lines. It is recommended to practice disinfection, laying of water and sewerage pipes on opposite sides of streets and periodic water quality monitoring. (author)

  13. Physicochemical Characteristic of Municipal Wastewater in Tropical Area: Case Study of Surabaya City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. M. W.; Soedjono, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal wastewater is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. In order to prevent the pollution risks, wastewater have to be treated before discharged to the main water. Selection of appropriated treatment process need the characteristic information of wastewater as design consideration. This study aims to analyse the physicochemical characteristic of municipal wastewater from inlet and outlet of ABR unit around Surabaya City. Medokan Semampir and Genteng Candi Rejo has been selected as wastewater sampling point. The samples were analysed in laboratory with parameters, such as pH, TSS, COD, BOD, NH4 +, NO3 -, NO2 -, P, and detergent. The results showed that all parameters in both locations are under the national standard of discharged water quality. In other words, the treated water is securely discharged to the river

  14. Phenix City 10 x 20 NTMS area, Alabama and Georgia: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.B.

    1981-08-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water, surface water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Phenix City 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1153 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 949 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurments are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations above detection limits in the sediment samples ranged from 1.0 to 171, with a mean of 10.6 ppM. Uranium concentrations detected in the ground water samples ranged from 0.006 to 23.1 ppB, with a mean of 0.28 ppB

  15. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  16. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1989-10-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10{sup -1} atm. of P{sub co2} are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author).

  17. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  18. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  19. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Rancangan Jaringan Fiber To The Home Area Jakarta Garden City dengan Metode Eye-Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Zulherman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dalam tulisan ini, kami merancang jaringan akses fiber to the home berbasis gigabit passive optical network (FTTH-GPON pada area Jakarta Garden City. Pemodelan rancangan menggunakan GoogleEarth dan OptiSystem. Rancangan yang kami usulkan menggunakan kecepatan downstream 2,4 Gbps dan upstream 1,2Gbps. Kami mengamati kesesuaian unjuk kerja rancangan terhadap standar FTTH-GPON yang dikeluarkan oleh ITU-T. Kami menggunakan metode perhitungan link power budget dan risetime budget dalam perancangan jaringan FTTH. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan didapatkan link budget sebesar 22 dB dengan margin daya sebesar 3 dB, risetime budgetd downstream sebesar 0,27 ns, dan risetime upstream sebesar 0,25 ns. Pengukuran unjuk kerja rancangan menggunakan metode eye-diagram yang menampilkan jitter, distorsi, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, nilai Q-factor dan nilai BER. Pengukuran unjuk kerja dengan menggunakan power masukan 5 dBm dan panjang gelombang 1490 nm menghasilkan jitter sebesar 16,7 ps, distorsi sebesar 1,07µ a.u., SNR sebesar 6,87, Q Factor sebesar 21,249 dan BER sebesar 1,9×10-99. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan dan analisis terhadap hasil tersebut, rancangan jaringan FTTH pada area Jakarta Garden City yang kami usulkan telah memenuhi standar ITU-T untuk penggunaan layanan internet kecepatan tinggi

  20. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  1. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  2. [Investigation of the arsenic levels in ecosystem aspect in water type of endemic arsenicosis area in Datong City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Fen; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Miao, Yanling; Gao, Yi; Tian, Fengjie; Lü, Yi; Pei, Qiuling

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the arsenic levels in endemic arsenism in Datong City, Shanxi Province. A total of 85 inhabitants from one village in endemic arsenism area in Datong City, Shanxi Province were collected as research subjects. The People's Republic of China health industry standard for endemic arsenism was used to identify and diagnosis the patients. Daily drinking water and soil were collected and detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The content of vegetables were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the study, 85 samples were collected. Arsenic concentration in the daily drinking water were 14.41 - 90.34 μg/L, and the median value was 43.88 μg/L. The arsenic concentration of vegetables were 0.001 - 0.771 mg/kg, and 43.04% of samples, were higher than the maximal permissible limit of As in food. The results that the arsenic concentration of vegetables constant changes in the leaf vegetables > tubers > fruit vegetables. The health risk of intaking arsenic pollution in vegetables up to 71.77%. The arsenic levels in village of four directions were not exceeded the Chinese standards. Arsenic concentration in drinking water and vegetables are high in waterborn endemic arsenicosis area of Shanxi province. Arsenic in drinking water has been considered as a primary cause of arsenism, but direct intake of arsenic from vegetables can not be ignored.

  3. Formation of the City of Belém (PA: Central Area and its Paper Historical and Geographical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Ribeiro Araújo Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th Century the urban life of Belém spread out from a promontorylocated at the meeting point of Guajará Bay and Guamá River. These "natural obstacles" (waterways, floodplains and flooded forest presented momentary setbacks to urban expansion. Overcoming these obstacles the city of Belém developed a central area characerized by change and continuity. By identifying and analyzing historical and geographical changes in the central area of Belém a better understanding can be obtained of new functions and features of urban space in Belém today.

  4. Developing a Hierarchical Model for the Spatial Analysis of PM10 Pollution Extremes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ivan Aguirre-Salado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a spatial model for analysing PM 10 maxima across the Mexico City metropolitan area during the period 1995–2016. We assumed that these maxima follow a non-identical generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and modeled the trend by introducing multivariate smoothing spline functions into the probability GEV distribution. A flexible, three-stage hierarchical Bayesian approach was developed to analyse the distribution of the PM 10 maxima in space and time. We evaluated the statistical model’s performance by using a simulation study. The results showed strong evidence of a positive correlation between the PM 10 maxima and the longitude and latitude. The relationship between time and the PM 10 maxima was negative, indicating a decreasing trend over time. Finally, a high risk of PM 10 maxima presenting levels above 1000 μ g/m 3 (return period: 25 yr was observed in the northwestern region of the study area.

  5. Gender Pay Gap Lower in Large Cities than in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Busch; Elke Holst

    2008-01-01

    For years, the difference between the gross hourly earnings of women and of men has remained constant for German white-collar employees at about 30 percent. It is obvious that regional factors play an important role in explaining this difference. In rural areas, the gender pay gap is especially pronounced (2006: 33 percent) while in metropolitan areas it is considerably lower than the average (2006: 12 percent). This more favorable ratio is mainly due to the increased employment opportunities...

  6. Talking about sexuality at secondary schools of periurban area of Dhaka city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Ara, Iffat

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents constitute 23 percent of population in Bangladesh yet access to information and education on reproductive health is limited for them. To determine the effect of introducing an education booklet on reproductive health knowledge among the adolescents and its acceptability to them. Students of grade IX and X in eight secondary schools (both boys and girls schools) of periurban location of Dhaka city. A quasi-experimental pre-post test design study was conducted during October 2004 to May 2005. The intervention was distribution of an education booklet and conduction of a health education session at the respective classes. Total number of respondents were 1,490 (862 during pre test and 628 during post test). About 4% of parents never attended school, whereas 10.7% of fathers and 3.2% of mothers were graduates. A greater proportion of adolescents could correctly narrate the physiological changes of adolescence, duration of menstrual cycle, fertile period, leucorrhoea, masturbation, and night emission in the post test. Almost all adolescents stated that health education was necessary and should be given in secondary schools. About 95% stated that the education booklet was necessary. They appreciated that the language was easy and fluent, the illustration was meaningful, and some suggested a few modifications. Providing reproductive health information to adolescents can be sustained through inclusion in school curriculum and has the potential to produce health benefits in future.

  7. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  8. Climate Change Anticipation on Supporting Capacity of Fishing Environment in the Coastal Area of Tanjungmas Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Indah Kurniasih Wahyu; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is no longer a debate about its existence but already a problem shared between communities, between agencies, between countries even global for handling serious because so many aspects of life and the environment is affected, especially for communities in coastal environments This climate change is a threat to the Earth, because it can affect all aspects of life and will damage the balance of life of Earth Climate change happens slowly in a fairly long period of time and it is a change that is hard to avoid. These Phenomena will give effect to the various facets of life. Semarang as areas located to Java and bordering the Java Sea are at high risk exposed to the impacts of climate change Also not a few residents of the city of Semarang who settled in the northern part of the city of Semarang and also have a livelihood as farmers/peasants and fishermen Many industrial centers or attractions that are prone to impacted by climate change. Thus, the anticipation of climate change on resources support neighborhood of fishermen in the coastal area of Tanjungmas Semarang interesting for further review. This study aims to find out more the influence of climate change on the environment of fishing identify potential danger due to the impacts of climate change on coastal areas of Tanjungmas Semarang The research was conducted through surveys, interviews and field observation without a list of questions to obtain primary and secondary data As for the analysis undertaken, namely the analysis of climate change on the coastal environment, the analysis of productivity of fishermen as well as the analysis of the likelihood of disaster risk at the coast due to climate change. From the results of the study the occurrence of sea rise as one of the indicators of climate change in the coastal City of Semarang to reach 0.8 mm/year and average soil degradation that ranged between 5 - 12 cm/year cause most coastal communities as well as the social life of the agricultural

  9. Current results of an arachnological survey of some sandstone rock sites in Bohemia (so-called "rock cities"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna of the Adrspach-Teplice rockswas investigated. Some records on spider fauna of other nine sandstone rock areas are included. The phenomenon of "rock cities" manifests itself in three aspects: (1 In the bottom parts are microclimatically cold spaces, frequently hosting northern ot mountain species of invertebrates, which here have an azonal occurence. (2 the sun exposed tops of rocks can host thermophilous species. (3 Some species are limited to the surface of rocks and boulders. These are referred to as lithophilous or lithobiont species.

  10. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) which lasted during approximately 1450 to 1850 (e.g. Grove, 1988) is known as naturally occurring climate fluctuation, so knowing LIA in detail is necessary to improve climate models. Instrumental records can only extend back to about 100 years in many areas, thus paleoclimate records are reconstructed using proxies in tree rings, sediments and so force. However there are differences in reconstructed timings and magnitudes of LIA occurred in each area (Overpack et al., 1997), and most of the records are based mainly on terrestrial proxies such as tree ring records, whereas only limited numbers of marine records are available (Mann et al., 2008). Coral skeletal climatology is a useful tool to reconstruct marine paleoclimate records in tropics and subtropics. Hermatypic corals, Porites spp. have aragonite skeletons and they have annual bands, which are suitable to reconstruct high-resolution paleoclimate in seasonal scale by measuring chemical compositions. Skeletal Sr/Ca ratio in Porites spp. has been widely used as a reliable proxy of SST (Sea Surface Temperature). However, corals grow for approximately several decades to 200 years, hence it is difficult to reconstruct LIA paleoclimate using living corals. Cobb et al. (2003) used fossil corals casted on shore by storms to reconstruct millennial scale paleoclimate. There are fossil coral boulders in the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus, Japan. These fossil coral boulders were casted on shore by paleo Tsunami events, thus they are called "Tsunami boulders" (Araoka et al., 2010). Fossil corals used by Cobb et al. have 30-90-year records while some large Tsunami boulders have multi-centennial continuous records. In this study, we reconstruct paleo SST using the Tsunami boulder from Ishigaki Island. The boulder has 185 years of annual banding. U-series dating shows the boulder was moved on shore at Meiwa earthquake in 1771. We measure Sr/Ca ratio using LA-HR-ICPMS (Laser Ablation High

  11. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  12. Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

  13. The perception of crime from Albanian families that come from rural areas (Case study in the city of Durres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Milloshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime in the family constitutes one of the major concerns of recent years in Albania. Violence in Albanian families remains unnoticed and is not declared by the majority of those affected. The worst is that there are deep rural areas where violence is accepted as normal within a family. Many studies have come to the conclusion that women who have higher education tend to be better prepared to cope with domestic disputes and solve the problems with communication, so are less likely to be victims of physical violence. The economic, cultural, emotional and social factors are sources that generate violence or crime within the family. The transition from a totalitarian to a democratic society brought not only functional changes, but also differences in their implementation. This was accompanied by misunderstandings of the individual crisis and human rights. This misunderstanding is often associated with deviant behavior or by criminal acts. Poverty, unemployment, jealousy, alcohol and drugs are some of the main reasons that cause domestic violence. Albania has long been considered a patriarchal society where men have more rights than women. This difference has led to a situation where husbands continue to see themselves as more superior, and tend to violate their women or children. In recent years poverty has even increased bringing domestic violence to alarming levels. But besides the major problem of growing violence within the family, the biggest problem is the failure of declaration, because of the mentality, shame, lack of trust in government bodies etc. This problem is even greater in rural areas, where there is a lack of police structures, while NGOs cannot cover the whole country. This study was concentrated in the city of Durres, where 600 surveys were undertaken to people of different ages. This paper is focused in the way of how domestic violence is seen by citizens of the city of Durres and those coming from rural areas.

  14. Disentangling neighbourhood problems: Area-based interventions in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.; Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban policies in Western Europe have increasingly taken a territorial focus in addressing social problems through area-based initiatives (ABIs). Policy discourses emphasise the role of the residential environment in the social economic deprivation. However, a territorial focus that tackles both

  15. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 085°47′29″ W; West point—30°07′55″ N, 085°51′05″ W, then northerly to point of origin. (b) The restrictions. (1) For the purposes of this section, “military security zones” are specific portion/s within any... both military and civilian personnel during exercises conducted within the restricted area by...

  16. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  17. The Role of Porosity in the Formation of Coastal Boulder Deposits - Hurricane Versus Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, M.; Boeroecz, Z.; Bahlburg, H.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal boulder deposits are a consequence of high-energy wave impacts, such as storms, hurricanes or tsunami. Distinguishing parameters between storm, hurricane and tsunami origin are distance of a deposit from the coast, boulder weight and inferred wave height. Formulas to calculate minimum wave heights of both storm and tsunami waves depend on accurate determination of boulder dimensions and lithology from the respective deposits. At present however, boulder porosity appears to be commonly neglected, leading to significant errors in determined bulk density, especially when boulders consist of reef or coral limestone. This limits precise calculations of wave heights and hampers a clear distinction between storm, hurricane and tsunami origin. Our study uses Archimedean and optical 3D-profilometry measurements for the determination of porosities and bulk densities of reef and coral limestone boulders from the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands, Netherlands Antilles). Due to the high porosities (up to 68 %) of the enclosed coral species, the weights of the reef rock boulders are as low as 20 % of previously calculated values. Hence minimum calculated heights both for tsunami and hurricane waves are smaller than previously proposed. We show that hurricane action appears to be the likely depositional mechanism for boulders on the ABC Islands, since 1) our calculations result in tsunami wave heights which do not permit the overtopping of coastal platforms on the ABC Islands, 2) boulder fields lie on the windward (eastern) sides of the islands, 3) recent hurricanes transported boulders up to 35 m3 and 4) the scarcity of tsunami events affecting the coasts of the ABC Islands compared to frequent impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes.

  18. Geo-hydrological hazard and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa City (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-04-01

    The Ligurian area has always suffered from significant geo-hydrological events causing casualties and serious damage. The atmospheric circulation in autumn and winter coupled with landform peculiarities are the main causes this hazard becoming a risk to human life, structures, and infrastructures. Genoa city and the surrounding metropolitan area are commonly subject to heavy rainfall that induces violent flash floods and many shallow landslides. The most recent rainfall events occurred on 9-10 October and 15 November 2014, again causing loss of human lives and widespread damage. A troubling trend since the beginning of the new century, is the recurrence of such events with greater frequency than in the past. The city of Genoa serves as a very interesting case-study for geo-hydrological risks. Cloudbursts of few hours seem to have a rainfall intensity basically greater than in the past; that causes increase of hydrometric levels of the watercourses that quickly reach alarming values close to the overflowing. This meteorological factor, added to growing urbanization of the valley floors and slopes located north of Genoa, has inevitably produced a general trend of increasing risk for the city. Urbanization is particularly notable for the narrowing process in all cross-sections of Genoa's watercourses, both in the main ones and in the secondary streams that flow directly into the Gulf of Genoa. The narrowing of the sections resulted from the increasing demand for new spaces owing to both industrial development (which started initially at the coastal areas of Genoa), and the growth of the Genoa population. The number of inhabitants grew from fewer than 200 000 at the beginning of the 19th century tool a peak of over 800 000 in the 1970s modifying the water balance of the basins and increasing the geo-hydrological risk in an unacceptable way. Among the important topics analyzed in this paper are: (i) the meteorological characteristics of these events, (ii) the changes in

  19. Monitoring sensible heat flux over urban areas in a high-altitude city using Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junping; Timmermans, Wim J.; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Bob; Pema, Tsering

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization leads to modifications of surface energy balance which governs the momentum, heat and mass transfer between urban canopy layer and the atmosphere, thus impacts dynamic processes in the urban ABL and ultimately influence the local, regional and even global climate. It is essential to obtain accurate urban ABL observations to enhance our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction process over the urban area and help to improve the prediction ability of numerical model. However, up to now, there are rarely observations in high latitude cities. In one of the highest cities in the world, Lhasa, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements have been ongoing since 10 August 2016 and a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) started to work on 12 November 2016, in addition to a UHI network which has been running since 2012. Taking advantage of these observations, this poster will estimate and analyze the surface energy balance in the winter of 2016 in Lhasa, with an emphasis on sensible heat flux. An analytical footprint model and the radiative surface temperature retrieved from Landsat 8 will be employed to compare EC and LAS measurements.

  20. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  1. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  2. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  3. Non-native tree species in urban areas of the city of Nitra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galis, M

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species are part of our environment. The introduction of these species is huge conditioned by anthropogenic activities, such as the urban environment is characterized by. During the field surveys of selected town Nitra (Chrenova, Mikova Ves, Zobor), we studied the frequency of non-native tree species in the contact zone. Overall, we found out the presence of 10 alien species, observed in this area. Our results show dominant presence of the species Rhus typhina, followed by the Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthus altissima. Individual plants were tied largely to the surrounding of built-up areas, often growns directly in front of houses, or as a part of urban green. (author)

  4. Young people and their relationships with urban areas in a capital city

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez-Pereira, Giovanni; López Rueda, Blanca Aracely; Suárez González, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand how young people who pass by, visit or interact with the new urban area of the "Parque Intercambiador Vial Neomundo" in Bucaramanga, access to cultural goods and services. To identify criteria for making decisions on the offer and cultural consumption of public and private sectors of this project.Methodology: A qualitative study with a descriptive scope that follows phenomenology guidelines was carried out. Participant observation and conversational interviews were us...

  5. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  6. Echinococcosis and other parasitic infections in domestic dogs from urban areas of an argentinean Patagonian city

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo; Garibotti, Gilda; Zacharias, Daniela; Debiaggi, María Florencia; Kabaradjian, Surpik

    2017-01-01

    In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation o...

  7. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations's proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations

  8. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  9. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively.

  10. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  11. A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabibian Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. In this case report, 2 patients from an Afghan family infested with this parasite in rural area of Isfahan, Iran are presented. Clinical signs and symptoms including pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing, yellow nasal and ears discharges, which started 2-3 hours after eating raw goat liver. Nymphs of Linguatula serrata were isolated from their tongues and later, several more parasites were discharged by coughing and sneezing. An ancient belief about nutritional benefits of eating raw liver may causes more Halzoun syndrome in future.

  12. Young people and their relationships with urban areas in a capital city

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez Pereira, Giovanni; López Rueda, Blanca Aracely; Suárez González, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand how young people who pass by, visit or interact with the new urban area of the "Parque Intercambiador Vial Neomundo" in Bucaramanga, access to cultural goods and services. To identify criteria for making decisions on the offer and cultural consumption of public and private sectors of this project.Methodology: A qualitative study with a descriptive scope that follows phenomenology guidelines was carried out. Participant observation and conversational interviews were us...

  13. Meteorological and sulphur dioxide dispersion modelling for an industrial complex near Mexico city metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, V.R.; Sosa, G.; Molina, M.M.; Palmerin-ruiz, M.E.; Melgarejo-flores, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    , and as input to dispersion modelling. Validation of the meteorological model was focused in the variables used as input in the dispersion model, consequently simulated and observed values of profiles of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, and specific humidity and were compared. RAMS mixing heights were overestimated at late morning (0800 LST), but during the afternoon were found to be in good agreement with observations. Simulated potential temperature and specific humidity profiles showed good agreement with the corresponding observed profiles. Simulated wind speed profiles and surface winds presented similar behavior that observations, but surface wind speed was overestimated at late morning and underestimated at the early evening. HYPACT simulations indicate that air quality standard for SO/sub 2/ (=0.13 ppm or 341 mu gm/sup -3/ in 24 hours) was exceed close to source emissions. Models simulations indicate that TVA emissions can reach the Mexico City. HYPACT performed well the general behaviour of surface concentrations of SO/sub 2/ but fails to simulate the observed peaks of the pollutant. (author)

  14. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  15. The effect of industrial vehicles on the road’s level of service of industrial area in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, I. W.; Sumantri, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Malang was a great city that has the characteristics of diverse industries and it was spread in each district. Industry was one of the activities that have the characteristics of the movement with the goal of shipping and distribution. The vehicles used are large vehicles such as trucks and trailers. Problems related to the road’s performance that is the emergence of several points of delay and congestion due to the movement and the volume of vehicles as well as the limited capacity of existing roads. It encourages researchers to do research related to the effect of the industrial vehicle movements on the performance of existing roads in the city of Malang. The main purpose of the research is to analyze the effect of industrial vehicles movement on the road’s level of service of industrial area and to find out alternative solutions to improve the road’s level of service of industrial area. The research used multiple linear regression and do something analysis. The results showed that the types of industry in the city of Malang are ILMETTA, IATT, Agrokim, Sentra and Large Industries. Determining the location of the main observation based on the distribution of industry, have a major impact directly on the street, and the class of the national road are located in Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street. Existing land use in Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street are industrial, healthcare, office and it dominated by trade and services. Related to the variables that affect the movement of industrial vehicles are the number of employees (X3) and the delivery frequency (X6). The road’s level of service of Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo Street are D and E. While the effect of industrial vehicles movement on the road’s level of service which ranged from 13.77 per cent to 22.13 per cent of the total volume of vehicles on the road. Some referrals will be used to handle the problems that the road widening and the selection of alternative routes for the industrial vehicles.

  16. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children residing in slum areas of a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, C I; Egbuonu, I; Ulasi, T O; Ebenebe, J C

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition remains the largest contributor to the global disease burden. Different factors affecting the nutritional status of children need to be studied to determine those to be targeted in a country like Nigeria, characterized by widespread poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth. This study was aimed at ascertaining the relationship between prevailing socioeconomic and environmental factors, and the nutritional status of children residing in a typical urban slum. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage random sampling method from public primary schools in slum and non-slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. Their nutritional status was determined using anthropometric measures. The socioeconomic and environmental variables of interest were analyzed to determine their relationship with undernutrition in the children. Socioeconomic status was the major determinant of nutritional status in this study. Poor housing also affected the nutritional status of the slum children who were significantly from poorer families than those residing in non-slum areas (χ2 = 66.69, P = 0.000). This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums surrounded by factors predisposing them to undernutrition.

  17. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  18. From city’s station to station city. An integrative spatial approach to the (redevelopment of station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Martins da Conceição

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its origin, the railway station has had a complicated relationship with the city, demanding periodical updates, particularly regarding spatial issues. With the aim of improving the liveability of station areas, current redevelopment projects are reconceptualising them as balanced transport ‘nodes’ and ‘places’ in the city. However, the proposed spatial solutions do not fully support the sought after economic, social and environmental performances. These intentions continue to be predominantly bounded with the (abstract planological level, not finding appropriate translation at the (concrete spatial design level. Further, the interdisciplinary nature of the highly complex planning and design processes of station areas, which should contribute to enhance the performance of their spaces, reinforces constraints and relegates architecture to a marginal role in this quest. It is thus necessary to understand how architecture can contribute to the improvement of the spatial performance of contemporary stations areas, supporting their current reconceptualization. To gain this understanding, the research explored the factors which influence the spatial definition and performance of European High Speed Train station areas, using “design research” and “research by design”. Via a theoretical integrative framework, synthesized from knowledge developed by architecture and other sciences, case studies of ‘through’ stations were analysed and compared. Six cases, encapsulating the most recurrent relative positions of the railway (infrastructure and the station building towards the(ir direct built environment, were chosen out of a large sample. For each category (cases with railway tracks at (a ground level, (b elevated level and (c underground level, two cases, featuring an adapted station building and a newly built one, were studied. Their physical and functional characteristics were mapped at several scales and moments (in history, as

  19. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  20. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  1. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years

  2. What are people thinking about floods? A study in two Mediterranean areas: Costa Brava, Spain and Talcahuano City, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A.; Ribas, A.; Cifuentes, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Mediterranean areas are not immune to flood problems. The Spanish Mediterranean coast is a reflection of this, where flooding continues to be the greatest natural hazard with negative effects on the territory. The urbanization of coastal watersheds, very pronounced in the last 15 years, has led to the creation of authentic urban continuums in the seafront and the appearance of residential developments therein. The municipalities of Costa Brava, in the province of Girona, are an example of this dynamic of the increasing risk, exposure, and impact of floods. In Chile, floods are considered one of the main natural hazards, especially in the province of Concepcion. One of the most important cities of this area is Talcahuano, which has suffered continual flood episodes during recent years. Flood episodes could yet increase in the future due to the high frequency of extraordinary atmospheric events and a higher exposure to flood risk created by the development of intensive urbanization processes. However, after the February 27th 8.8 degrees earthquake (Richter scale) that affected the center-south of Chile and originated the tsunami which flooded a large percentage of the residential area and military base of the city of Talcahuano, the risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concepts changed. This research looks at the social perception and social knowledge of Mediterranean residents affected and unaffected by floods, emphasizing which is their risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concept and what kind of measures they proposed to reduce their flood vulnerability. The end objective of this research is to become a framework for future local flood policies and a tool that could be reviewed by specialists in other regions that might be affected by this hazard. This social assessment has been carried out through surveys of residents in Costa Brava and Talcahuano whose endogenous and exogenous characteristics have been significant in explaining their

  3. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  4. New energy vision in Gamagori City area (Aichi Prefecture); Gamagorishi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of early realization of a district society harmonized with the natural environment, a vision was established as a guideline to achieve systematic and effective introduction of new energies, with cooperation from citizens, business entities, and the administration. The activity achievements were put into order by the following six items: 1) movements in introducing new energy systems, 2) identification of the characteristics of the district and major relevant measures, 3) identification of the current status and characteristics of the energy demand structure in the district, 4) estimation of existence and utilizable quantity of new energies, 5) needs of introduction of new energies in the area, and 6) introduction possibilities, realization measures, and proliferation acceleration measures. Item 6 is composed of considerations given from the result of the initial stage investigation, basic ideas, targets of the introduction, introduction policies, and promotion of energy countermeasures. Plans were made on a solar heat hot water supply system, a photovoltaic power generation system, a wind power generation system, and introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles. Annual supply of 221,790 GJ was estimated. The major components are the automobiles, solar heat hot water system, and power generation systems. (NEDO)

  5. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  6. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  7. Landslide prediction using combined deterministic and probabilistic methods in hilly area of Mt. Medvednica in Zagreb City, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The hilly slopes of Mt. Medvednica are stretched in the northwestern part of Zagreb City, Croatia, and extend to approximately 180km2. In this area, landslides, e.g. Kostanjek landslide and Črešnjevec landslide, have brought damage to many houses, roads, farmlands, grassland and etc. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the potential landslides and to enhance landslide inventory for hazard mitigation and security management of local society in this area. We combined deterministic method and probabilistic method to assess potential landslides including their locations, size and sliding surfaces. Firstly, this study area is divided into several slope units that have similar topographic and geological characteristics using the hydrology analysis tool in ArcGIS. Then, a GIS-based modified three-dimensional Hovland's method for slope stability analysis system is developed to identify the sliding surface and corresponding three-dimensional safety factor for each slope unit. Each sliding surface is assumed to be the lower part of each ellipsoid. The direction of inclination of the ellipsoid is considered to be the same as the main dip direction of the slope unit. The center point of the ellipsoid is randomly set to the center point of a grid cell in the slope unit. The minimum three-dimensional safety factor and corresponding critical sliding surface are also obtained for each slope unit. Thirdly, since a single value of safety factor is insufficient to evaluate the slope stability of a slope unit, the ratio of the number of calculation cases in which the three-dimensional safety factor values less than 1.0 to the total number of trial calculation is defined as the failure probability of the slope unit. If the failure probability is more than 80%, the slope unit is distinguished as 'unstable' from other slope units and the landslide hazard can be mapped for the whole study area.

  8. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  9. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  10. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  11. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  12. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  14. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  15. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, M.; Gasca, J.; Gonzalez, U.

    2006-01-01

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  16. Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The Buckeye mine site is located in the Boulder River watershed along Basin Creek, in northern Jefferson County, Montana. This project is part of the Boulder River watershed Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, and is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The site includes a large flotation milltailing deposit, which extends to the stream and meadows below the mine. These tailings contain elevated levels of metals, such as silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Metal-rich fluvial tailings containing these metals, are possible sources of ground and surface water contamination. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the sediments at the Buckeye mine site. Ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetics, DC resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to delineate anomalies that probably correlate with subsurface metal contamination. Subsurface conductivity was mapped using EM-31 and EM-34 terrain conductivity measuring systems. The conductivity maps represent variation of concentration of dissolved solids in the subsurface from a few meters, to an approximate depth of 30 meters. Conductive sulfides several centimeters thick were encountered in a shallow trench, dug in an area of very high conductivity, at a depth of approximately 1 to1.5 meters. Laboratory measurements of samples of the sulfide layers show the conductivity is on the order of 1000 millisiemens. DC resistivity soundings were used to quantify subsurface conductivity variations and to estimate the depth to bedrock. Total field magnetic measurements were used to identify magnetic metals in the subsurface. The EM surveys identified several areas of relatively high conductivity and detected a conductive plume extending to the southwest, toward the stream. This plume correlates well with the potentiometric surface and direction of

  17. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... blasting activities. Background and Purpose Vegas Tunnel Construction will be conducting intermittent blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of 2011... Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined that it is not a ``significant energy action...

  18. Overweight and obesity in school-age children and teenagers of a urban area of Riobamba city, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio David Ramos-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.

  19. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2005-01-01

    deposits along the tunnel line. By use of this important distribution information and of the observed homogeneity of the seismic point source field together with the physical properties of diffraction it became possible to make the wanted prediction. During the excavation the found boulders were counted......This paper reports on the statistical interpretation of seismic diffraction measurements of boulder locations. The measurements are made in a corridor along the planned tunnel line for the later realized bored tunnel through the till deposits under the East Channel of the Great Belt in Denmark...... graphical registrations on seismograms do not make a proper interpretation possible without detailed knowledge about the joint distribution of the primary dimensions of the boulders. Therefore separate measurements were made of the dimensions of boulders deposited visibly on the cliff beaches of the Great...

  20. Geological model for Boulder 1 at Station 2, South Massif, Valley of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    A possible geological model for the origin and history of the materials that make up Boulder 1 is proposed on the basis of firm and probable regional, local, and boulder geological constraints. These constraints are described in detail, unresolved questions are considered, and a model is presented which appears to satisfy all the firm constraints and most of the probable constraints. According to this model, the crystallization of plagioclase and other ANT-suite phases now present in the boulder as clasts and matrix materials took place during the melted-shell stage of lunar history; the original rocks were greatly modified during the cratered-highland stage; and the events that determined the major characteristics of the boulder occurred during the large-basin stage.

  1. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  2. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.

  4. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals.

  5. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Subhan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  6. A climate risk assessment of clean water supply in an urban area: A case study of South Tangerang city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastiti, S. I. W.; Kusnoputranto, H.; Boer, R.; Utomo, S. W.

    2018-03-01

    The demand for clean water in South Tangerang, Indonesia, is very high. At present, this demand is mostly met by groundwater that is much influenced by climate variability, land cover change, and human activities. The local company on water services (PDAM) provides clean water services for only about 9% of the population. The climate risk assessment conducted by South Tangerang Government in 2016 indicates that several areas are potentially exposed to a high risk of climate change. Survey and in-depth interview with communities and sectoral officers suggest that a risk to clean water supply in this city is increasing. This study aims to assess climate potential risks on clean water supply based on the 2016 study. We adopted the method of that study by modifying some of the vulnerability indicators that can represent clean water access and supply. The results of the study demonstrate that many wards in South Tangerang would be exposed to high climate risks of clean water supply. By 2021, about 54% of wards would be exposed from high to the very very high risk of clean water supply. These results signify the tangible need of adaptation actions, to prevent the worsening impacts of climate on clean water supply.

  7. Ecological risk assessment and carcinogen health risk assessment of arsenic in soils from part area of the Daye City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Wang, T.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Zhuang, Z. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Soils in four sampling sites from part area of the Daye City were collected. Concentrations of arsenic (As) in soils in sampling sites were detected by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, ecological risk was calculated by potential ecological risk index (RI) and human health risk was measured by human health risk assessment model established by USEPA. The results showed that, the total content of As in soils in Daye was decreased in the order of S4 (66.58 mg/kg)>S2 (44.73 mg/kg)>S3 (34.86 mg/kg) >S1 (21.84 mg/kg), concentrations in all sampling sites were higher than background values of Hubei Province. The potential risk and human health risk were decreased in the order of S4>S2>S3>S1 and S4>S3>S2>S1, respectively. Specially, S1, S2 and S3 were at low potential ecological risk while S4 was at moderate ecological risk. But there was no carcinogenic risk for human exposure to As in soil in Daye.

  8. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Sediment Leachates of Small Watercourses in the Brno City Suburban Area (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of two small watercourses Leskava and Troubsky Brook in the Brno city suburban area were examined for their ecotoxicity. Using a standard procedure, extracts of the sediments were prepared for diagnostic tests. These extracts were tested for acute toxicity to fresh-water organisms. The ecotoxicological tests were performed on the fresh-water alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the vascular water plant Lemna minor, on a representative of invertebrates – the water flea Daphnia magna and on the Xenopus laevis frog embryo and luminiscent Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Possible toxic effects were evaluated using the test determining the inhibition of the growth of white mustard root Sinapis alba. Results of ecotoxicological assessment of sediment leachates showed that their quality varied significantly during the year. Differences were found between results of sediment evaluations from different collection profiles, which may indicate effects of point source pollution. Of the ecotoxicological tests used, the most sensitive organisms included the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, bioluminiscent bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The highest concentrations of arsenic were found by chemical analysis in both spring and autumn sediment leachate samples collected at Site L1 (Leskava. The highest organic pollutant concentrations were found in autumn sediment leachate samples from Site L1. In total PAH sums, phenanthrene was the dominant pollutant at all the sites investigated.

  9. Synthesis of Household Yard Area Dynamics in the City of San Juan Using Multi-Scalar Social-Ecological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvia Melendez-Ackerman; Christopher Nytch; Luis Santiago-Acevedo; Julio Verdejo-Ortiz; Raul Santiago-Bartolomei; Luis Ramos-Santiago; Tischa Munoz-Erickson

    2016-01-01

    Urban sustainability discourse promotes the increased use of green infrastructure (GI) because of its contribution of important ecosystem services to city dwellers. Under this vision, all urban green spaces, including those at the household scale, are valued for their potential contributions to a city’s social-ecological functioning and associated benefits for human...

  10. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant : Fully renewable integrated transport and energy system design and analysis for smart city areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and affordable future zero emission power, heat and transport systems require efficient and versatile energy storage and distribution systems. This paper answers the question whether for city areas, solar and wind electricity together with fuel cell electric vehicles as energy generators

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Sections 1--16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 4: Appendixes B-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alter native

  13. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  14. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  15. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  16. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  17. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  18. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  19. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  20. Technology campuses and cities: A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Teresa de Jesús Curvelo Magdaniel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the development of technology campuses as built environments and their role  in stimulating innovation. Technology campuses entail a variety of built environments developed to accommodate technology-driven research activities of multiple organisations. The science park is the most common type of technology campus. Other types include the campuses of universities  of technology and corporate R&D parks. In industrialised countries, the demand for developing  technology  campuses  to  stimulate innovation has been growing in line with the attention given to knowledge in global, national and regional policies. There are over 700 technology campuses worldwide occupying hundred thousands  of hectares in- and around cities. This type of built environments have emerged and developed during critical periods of technological advancements throughout the 20th century, to support technology-based development in industrialised countries. With the adoption of the knowledge- based economy, governments in many countries have encouraged research as an essential activity in their science, technology and innovation policies. The infrastructure that supports research is also gaining momentum. The number of registered science parks is steadily increasing since the late 1990s. The number of programmes supporting research infrastructure is growing in the European policy agenda. Municipalities are formally engaged with other public and private parties in the development of urban areas targeted to stimulate innovation. Governments, universities and R&D companies are investing billions of euros in developing the infrastructure that will not only support their core processes, but will help them to remain competitive by attracting and retaining the best talent. Part of these investments are targeted to develop new buildings or entire areas that often result in campuses as we know them: a concentration of buildings accommodating organisations

  1. 3D Modeling of Glacial Erratic Boulders in the Haizi Shan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, M.; Stevens, J.; Radue, M. J.; Strand, P.; Zhou, W.; Putnam, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    The focus of our team's research is to study patterns of glacier retreat in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at the end of the last ice age. Our purpose is to search for what caused this great global warming. Such information will improve understanding of how the climate system may respond to the human-induced buildup of fossil carbon dioxide. To reconstruct past glacier behavior, we sample boulders deposited by glaciers to find the rate of ancient recession. Each sample is tested to determine the age of the boulder using 10Be cosmogenic-nuclide dating. My portion of this research focuses on creating 3D models of the sampled boulders. Such high-resolution 3D models afford visual inspection and analysis of each boulder in a virtual reality environment after fieldwork is complete. Such detailed virtual reconstructions will aid post-fieldwork evaluation of sampled boulders. This will help our team interpret 10Be dating results. For example, a high-resolution model can aid post-fieldwork observations, and allow scientists to determine whether the rock has been previously covered, eroded, or moved since it was deposited by the glacier, but before the sample was collected. Also a model can be useful for recognizing patterns between age and boulder morphology. Lastly, the models can be used for those who wish to review the data after publication. To create the 3D models, I will use Hero4 GoPro and Canon PowerShot digital cameras to collect photographs of each boulder from different angles. I will then process the digital imagery using `structure-from-motion' techniques and Agisoft Photoscan software. All boulder photographs will be synthesized to 3D and based on a standardized scale. We will then import these models into an environment that can be accessed using cutting-edge virtual reality technology. By producing a virtual archive of 3D glacial boulder reconstructions, I hope to provide deeper insight into geological processes influencing these boulders during and

  2. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  3. Attractiveness for Younger Generation of Ostrava - Jih Housing Area Developed in Socialist Era: Through Interviews with the Inhabitants (Ostrava-City, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuno; Kanki, Kiyoko

    2017-10-01

    Ostrava city had developed as an industrial city in socialist era but now faces to deindustrialization. Ostrava-Jih is one of the housing areas developed in the socialist era. In this paper, the attractiveness of Ostrava-Jih for younger generation was showed by interview with inhabitants. As a result, the accessibility to nature around the housing estate, commercial facilities and public facilities, reasonable rent and housing price were evaluated. Besides, the inhabitants have done some activities for making their neighbourhoods more attractive.

  4. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM 10- 2 .5 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1 st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  5. ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TONGLVSHAN MINING AREA IN DAYE CITY, HUBEI PROVINCE BASED ON SPATIOTEMPORAL METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI, Vegetation Index (VI, Water Network Density Index (WNDI, and Land Degradation Index (LDI. The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard “Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation” (HJ/T192-2006)and the “Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion” (SL 190-96). Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal

  6. A Smart Thermo-hygrometric Global Index for the Evaluation of Particularly Critical Urban Areas Quality: the City of Messina Chosen as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the city, as it has grown up to the present day, is no longer sustainable. The design of the city turns toward smart urban development which achieves the theoretical ideal of an environmental sustainability deeply linked to the well-being of the inhabitants. In this perspective, the idea of comfort is related to the achievement of thermohygrometric conditions satisfaction (both indoor and outdoor. The present work proposes an innovative tool evaluating the external environment quality applied to a case study: the Messina’s urban center. The well-being has been investigated from the point of view of temperature and relative humidity, taking not into account other aspects characterizing quality of the urban environment such as traffic, degree of urbanization, air pollution, etc.. For this reason the overall hygrothermal index formulation results of particular interest: this one can be also used to make comparable various results obtained at international level. One of the key properties of the global index is the comparability of the results, when applied to different realities. Such an important property can be exploited to compare the climatic characteristics of different cities and for different areas of the same city. In fact, with the help of multiple monitoring stations within the urban area, you would be able to detect the so-called heat islands. In this way it is possible constructing a map of the hygrometric comfort suitable to achieve better urban planning (for example improving thermal comfort through the construction of green areas.

  7. [Constructing ecological security patterns in mountain areas based on geological disaster sensitivity: A case study in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Guo, Xiao Nan; Hu, Yi Na; Liu, Yan Xu

    2017-02-01

    As one of the key topics in the research of landscape ecology, regional ecological security patterns can effectively promote regional sustainable development and terrestrial ecological barriers construction. It is extremely important for middle Yunnan, with frequent disasters and fragile ecolo-gical environment, to construct ecological security patterns so as to effectively avoid the geological disasters, maintain ecosystem health, and promote the coordinated development of regional ecological system and social economic system. Taking Yuxi City as a case study area, this study firstly estimated the ecosystem services importance of water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, soil conservation, and biodiversity according to the basal characteristics of regional ecological environment, and then identified ecological sources in consideration of the quality of integrated ecosystem services and single types. Secondly, the resistance surface based on land use types was modified by the sensitivity of regional geological disasters. Lastly, the ecological corridors were identified using minimum cumulative resistance model, and as a result, the ecological security pattern of Yuxi City was constructed. The results showed that there were 81 patches for ecological sources in Yuxi City, accounting for 38.4% of the total area, and overlaying 75.2% of nature protection areas. The ecological sources were mainly distributed in the western mountainous areas as well as eastern water areas of the city. The length of ecological corridors was 1642.04 km, presenting a spatial pattern of one vertical and three horizontals, and extending along river valleys and fault basins with high vegetation coverage. This paper constructed ecological security patterns in mountainous areas aiming at the characteristics of geological disasters, providing spatial guidance for development and conservation decision-making in mountain areas.

  8. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  9. Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil from an area in Xi'an city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuduan; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-04-30

    As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1.79, 1.48, 1.41, 1.33, 1.20, 1.07, 1.04, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Evaluation with the aid of the pollution load index (PLI) indicated slight soil contamination by these elements in the study area. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method, we identified four sources of contamination, namely (1) a natural source, (2) traffic emission source, (3) industrial emission source, and (4) mixed source. PMF is an effective tool for source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil. The contribution rates of the natural source, traffic source, mixed source, and industrial source to the heavy metal contamination were specified as 25.04%, 24.71%, 24.99%, and 25.26%, respectively. Considering the above, any attempt to reduce the soil environmental cost of urban development, has to take into account the heavy metal contamination of the topsoil from industries, traffic, and other activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies in severely affected areas of New York City: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.

  11. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  12. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  13. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  14. Geohazard reconnaissance mapping for potential rock boulder fall using low altitude UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for evaluation of risk immediately with photos and 3-dimensional digital element. Aerial photography using UAV ready to give a powerful technique for potential rock boulder fall recognition. High-resolution outputs from this method give the chance to evaluate the site for potential rock boulder falls spatially. The utilization of UAV to capture the aerial photos is a quick, reliable, and cost-effective technique contrasted with terrestrial laser scanning method. Reconnaissance of potential rock boulder susceptible to fall is very crucial during the geotechnical investigation. This process is essential in the view of the rock fall hazards nearby site before the beginning of any preliminary work. Photogrammetric applications have empowered the automated way to deal with identification of rock boulder susceptible to fall by recognizing the location, size, and position. A developing examination of the utilization of digital photogrammetry gives numerous many benefits for civil engineering application. These advancements have made important contributions to our capabilities to create the geohazard map on potential rock boulder fall.

  15. PROPOSING AN INTEGRATIVE-PROGRESSIVE MODEL IN HANDLING TROUBLED INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS IN THE TRANSIT AREA (A SOCIO-LEGAL RESEARCH IN TANJUNG PINANG CITY, KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung Pinang City of the Riau Islands Province (Provinsi Kepulauan Riau is a transit area for the troubled Indonesian overseas workers from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indonesian National Board for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia/BNP2TKI reported that 15,105 troubled Indonesian overseas workers were deported from January to November 2014 via Tanjung Pinang City.  Previous research revealed that citizens of Tanjung Pinang City criticized the treatments given by the local government to the deported workers by reason that they were not the citizens of the Riau Islands Province, yet the local government has to provide shelters and funds prior to returning them to their home towns. The treatments for the deported workers in the transit area have also raised pros and cons among the stakeholders who are in charge of handling the deported workers. This circumstance may not occur if a special regional regulation of the Riau Islands Province has been issued to govern the troubled Indonesian overseas workers in the transit area.  Due to this vacuum of law, this research aims to establish a mechanism in handling the deported workers in the transit area by designing an integrative-progressive model which can be adopted by the stakeholders. The model is to link the legal and non- legal issues and as well as to provide the collaborative mechanisms for the stakeholders based on the approaches of the integrative and progressive legal theory.

  16. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  17. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  18. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  19. Global and local re-impact and velocity regime of ballistic ejecta of boulder craters on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzeck, F.; Schröder, S. E.; Schmedemann, N.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-04-01

    Imaging by the Dawn-spacecraft reveals that fresh craters on Ceres below 40 km often exhibit numerous boulders. We investigate how the fast rotating, low-gravity regime on Ceres influences their deposition. We analyze size-frequency distributions of ejecta blocks of twelve boulder craters. Global and local landing sites of boulder crater ejecta and boulder velocities are determined by the analytical calculation of elliptic particle trajectories on a rotating body. The cumulative distributions of boulder diameters follow steep-sloped power-laws. We do not find a correlation between boulder size and the distance of a boulder to its primary crater. Due to Ceres' low gravitational acceleration and fast rotation, ejecta of analyzed boulder craters (8-31 km) can be deposited across the entire surface of the dwarf planet. The particle trajectories are strongly influenced by the Coriolis effect as well as the impact geometry. Fast ejecta of high-latitude craters accumulate close to the pole of the opposite hemisphere. Fast ejecta of low-latitude craters wraps around the equator. Rotational effects are also relevant for the low-velocity regime. Boulders are ejected at velocities up to 71 m/s.

  20. From Mountains to Plains: The Hydrogeochemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado during High- and Low-Flow Conditions 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P. L.; Murphy, S. F.; McCleskey, R. B.; Barber, L. B.; Roth, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical study of the Boulder Creek watershed was undertaken to evaluate natural and anthropogenic sources of solutes and the geochemical processes that affect stream chemistry. The Boulder Creek watershed, 1160 km{2}, is in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and can be delineated into five physiographic/land use regions: the headwater region (elev. 4100 to 2600 m, tundra to pine/fir forest, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, sparse habitation), the mountain corridor (elev. 2600 to 1750 m, ponderosa pine, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, small mountain communities), the urban region (elev. 1750 to 1560 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, City of Boulder), the wastewater-dominated reach (elev. 1560 to 1540 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, sewage treatment plant effluent), and the agriculture region (elev. 1540 to 1480 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, mixed urban and agricultural). Potential anthropogenic sources of solutes include: mining (hardrock and aggregate), septic systems, highway runoff, urban wastewater, and agricultural practices. A 70 km reach of Boulder Creek (16 sites) and its major inflows (13 sites) were sampled during high- and low-flow conditions in 2000. At all sites, discharge was measured or estimated, and water samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and organic carbon. At selected sites, analyses also included a suite of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater-derived organic compounds and the strontium isotopic composition. Stream water in the headwater region is a dilute Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4- water, and in the mountain corridor a slight increase in solutes was observed. Within the urban reach solute concentrations increased, with the most dramatic increase below the sewage treatment plant. Many constituents continue to increase in concentration through the urban/agriculture region. Similar trends were observed during high- and low-flow conditions with

  1. Cellular Automata Modelling in Predicting the Development of Settlement Areas, A Case Study in The Eastern District of Pontianak Waterfront City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayati, E.; Buchori, I.; Mussadun; Fariz, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Pontianak waterfront city as water-based urban has the potential of water resources, socio-economic, cultural, tourism and riverine settlements. Settlements areas in the eastern district of Pontianak waterfront city is located in the triangle of Kapuas river and Landak river. This study uses quantitative-GIS methods that integrates binary logistic regression and Cellular Automata-Markov models. The data used in this study such as satellite imagery Quickbird 2003, Ikonos 2008 and elevation contour interval 1 meter. This study aims to discover the settlement land use changes in 2003-2014 and to predict the settlements areas in 2020. This study results the accuracy in predicting of changes in settlements areas shows overall accuracy (79.74%) and the highest kappa index (0.55). The prediction results show that settlement areas (481.98 Ha) in 2020 and the increasingly of settlement areas (6.80 Ha/year) in 2014-2020. The development of settlement areas in 2020 shows the highest land expansion in Parit Mayor Village. The results of regression coefficient value (0) of flooding variable, so flooding did not influence to the development of settlement areas in the eastern district of Pontianak because the building’s adaptation of rumah panggung’s settlements was very good which have adjusted to the height of tidal flood.

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  3. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  4. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  5. Gamma-ray measurements in uppermost soil profile of a grazing area around Londrina city, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution .-ray spectrometry, soil profiles were measured to assess the depth distribution of 232 Th, 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs. The surveyed soil is the Latossolo Vermelho Distroferrico, clayey texture, in a soft wave relief area used for grazing, near Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. Knowledge of radioelement depth distributions is important to understand their behavior along soil history, and in the same time, give clues about it, from pedogenesis to more recent events, such as weathering, erosion or interaction with biosphere. Five points were sampled, three of them in increment depths of 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 15 cm, 15 to 20 cm, 20 to 35 cm, and for two of them the increment 35-50 cm was collected either. These totalized 27 samples, each of them dried in open air during 48 hours, sieved through 2 mm mesh, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory. It was employed a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain, with a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. Measurement of the efficiency in the range from 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with certified IAEA 375 soil sample. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232 Th (from 15.4 to 25.1 Bq kg -1 ), 238 U (from 11.0 to 18.9 Bq kg -1 ), 226 Ra (from 4.0 to 10.9 Bq kg -1 ), 40 K (from 36.0 to 133.9 Bq kg -1 ) and 137 Cs (from 0.0 to 2.2 Bq kg -1 ). Average values and respective deviations are 21.0 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 13.8 ± 1.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 7.8 ± 1.9 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 72.8 ± 30.5 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, and 0.8 ± 0.8 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. Depth distributions of each radioelement are presented and possible relations among activities are analyzed (author)

  6. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun–Olarinmoye EO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 WO Adebimpe,1 JO Bamidele,2 OO Odu,2 IO Asekun-Olarinmoye,3 EO Ojofeitimi41Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaObjectives: To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo.Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents' self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0.Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3% of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP, 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%, ignorance (32.6%, misinformation (25.1%, superstition (22.0%, and culture (20.3%. Some reasons were proffered for respondents' nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents' approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and

  7. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Gondim Calvasina; Cíntia Maria Torres Rocha Silva; Gilka de Albuquerque Forte Aguiar; Milena Rebouças Aguiar; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Question...

  8. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  9. The impact of extensive green roofs on the improvement of thermal performance for urban areas in Mediterranean climate with reference to the city of Jijel in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtihet, M. C.; Bouchair, A.

    2018-05-01

    Buildings with dark surfaces, concrete and pavement, needed for the expansion of cities, absorb huge amounts of heat, increasing the mean radiant temperatures of urban areas and offer significant potential for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact of green roofs on the improvement of urban heat performance in Mediterranean climate. A field investigation is carried out using two large-scale modules built in the city of Jijel in the north of Algeria. The first is a bare reinforced concrete slab whereas the second is covered with ivy plants. The experimental site, the air and surface temperature parameters and the various measurement points at the level of the modules are chosen. Measurements are performed using thermo-hygrometer, surface sensors and data acquisition apparatus. The results show that green roofs can be a potential mean of improving the thermal performance of the surrounding microclimate and energy performance of buildings in an urban area. The green roof could be an encouraging strategy against urban heat island effect not only for Mediterranean cities but also for other areas.

  10. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckle, P; Hannaford, P; Sutton, M

    2012-02-17

    To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status) and health than contextual factors (including rurality).

  11. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teckle P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Methods Design: Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Setting: Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Main outcome measures: Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD. Results Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. Conclusion This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status and health than contextual factors (including rurality.

  12. Discrete Element Method Simulation of a Boulder Extraction From an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton K.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The force required to pull 7t and 40t polyhedral boulders from the surface of an asteroid is simulated using the discrete element method considering the effects of microgravity, regolith cohesion and boulder acceleration. The connection between particle surface energy and regolith cohesion is estimated by simulating a cohesion sample tearing test. An optimal constant acceleration is found where the peak net force from inertia and cohesion is a minimum. Peak pulling forces can be further reduced by using linear and quadratic acceleration functions with up to a 40% reduction in force for quadratic acceleration.

  13. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  14. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  15. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  16. Constructing a paleo-DEM in an urban area by the example of the city of Aachen, Germany: Methods and previous results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröschel, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing paleo-landscapes in urban areas is always a special challenge since the research area often witnessed constant human impact over long time periods. Dense building development is a major difficulty, particularly in regard to accessibility to in-situ soils and archaeological findings. It is therefore necessary to use data from various sources and combine methods from different fields to gain a detailed picture of the former topography. The area, which is occupied by the city of Aachen today, looks back on a long history of human influence. Traces of human activity can be dated back to Neolithic time. The first architectural structures and the first road network were built by the Romans about 2000 years ago. From then on, the area of Aachen was more or less continuously inhabited forming today's city. This long history is represented by archaeological findings throughout the city. Several meters of settlement deposits, covering different eras, are present in many locations. Therefore, it can be assumed that the modern topography significantly differs from the pre-roman topography. The main objective of this project is a reconstruction of the paleo-topography of Aachen in order to gain new insights on the spatial preconditions that the first settlers found. Moreover, further attention is given to the question whether and to what extent a paleo-DEM can help to clarify specific open archaeological and historical questions. The main database for the reconstruction are the archaeological excavation reports of the past 150 years, provided by municipal and regional archives. After analyzing these written accounts, we linked this information to drill data, provided by the Geological Service of North Rhine-Westphalia. Together with additional sources like geological and hydrological maps, we generated a GIS-based terrain model. The result is a high-resolution terrain model, representing the undisturbed pre-roman topography of the inner city of Aachen without any

  17. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  18. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  19. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to... of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21...

  20. Mapping geological at risk areas in the city of São Paulo: issues and results from the largest risk survey in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, Luciana; Macedo, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    In the City of São Paulo, the first reports of accidents resulting from landslides are directly related to urban expansion that has been recorded since the 30s. Areas of major environmental fragility, such as slopes and stream-banks, have also ended up being occupied without proper planning. The increased number of deaths due to landslides in the 80s already indicated the need for intervention at these sites by the public authorities. It was important to act to prevent these disasters, not only emergency assistance to victimized families. Therefore, in 1989 the first systematic and official survey on the City's at-risk areas was made. At the time, the at-risk sites had been still unknown, except for the occurrence records and press reports. While some areas were evaluated by experts, others appeared or expanded without any control. The surveys pace could not definitely follow the growth and the density of favelas, and some communities started to trigger the first records of accidents in areas hitherto stable. Considering the universe to be studied and the detail level of the work, it was necessary to use specific methodology to enable evaluation of the entire City in a relatively short period of time. For that purpose,mapping activities were carried out in five phases and involved about 80 professionals in the fields of geology, engineering, architecture, geography, civil defense, and housing, who participated directly or indirectly in all stages of work. Thus, the mapping that has recently been completed by the Municipality of São Paulo and by the Institute for Technological Research of São Paulo State is today the largest geological-risk database in the country. Besides technical information, the survey also shows the types of intervention to be implemented according to the degree of risk and the type of verified occupation, vital data to prioritizing the public-authorities actions. Currently, among the 1,602 favelas and informal settlements in the city, 407

  1. Bridging the gap between traffic generated health stressors in urban areas: Predicting xylene levels in EU cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Michailidou, A.V.; Spyridi, D.; Moussiopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Many citizens live, work, commute, or visit traffic intensive spaces and are exposed to high levels of chemical health stressors. However, urban conurbations worldwide present monitoring “shortage” – due to economical and/or practical constraints – for toxic stressors such as xylene isomers, which can pose human health risks. This “shortage” may be covered by the establishment of associations between rarely monitored substances such as xylenes and more frequently monitored (i.e. benzene) or usually monitored (i.e. CO). Regression analysis is used and strong statistical relationships are detected. The adopted models are applied to EU cities and comparison between measurements and predictions depicts their representativeness. The analysis provides transferability insights in an effort to bridge the gap between traffic-related stressors. Strong associations between substances of the air pollution mixture may be influential to interpret the complexity of the causal chain, especially if a synergetic exposure assessment in traffic intensive spaces is considered. -- Highlights: •EU cities present monitoring shortage for health stressors such as xylenes. •The multi-stressor multi-city stepwise regression modelling approach is presented. •Strong linear relationships between xylenes and toluene, benzene, CO are detected. •Modelling results are in good agreement with the respective available measurements. •Toluene seems the optimal marker to predict xylene trends in traffic environments. -- The multi-stressor, multi-city stepwise regression modelling approach develops reliable statistical associations which capture m,p-xylene and o-xylene trends in EU traffic intensive environments

  2. Results of the post remedial action survey of areas 4 through 10 at the former Kellex site in Jersey City, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Goldsmith, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A post remedial action survey was conducted at the former Kellex Corporation Research Facility in Jersey City, New Jersey. The Kellex facility was involved in the Manhattan Project, particularly in the area of engineering research in gaseous diffusion for uranium enrichment. As a result of those operations, this site was included by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in their Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During comprehensive radiological surveys conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the summer of 1979, ten areas were located with levels of radionuclides in soil in excess of DOE criteria. This report describes the results of radiological surveys conducted in seven of these locations (Areas 4 to 10) following remedial action. Results of these surveys indicate that remedial action was successful in reducing radioactive contamination in these areas to criteria values established by DOE. 7 references, 19 figures, 31 tables

  3. ADULT COHO SALMON AND STEELHEAD USE OF BOULDER WEIRS IN SOUTHWEST OREGON STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The placement of log and boulder structures in streams is a common and often effective technique for improving juvenile salmonid rearing habitat and increasing fish densities. Less frequently examined has been the use of these structures by adult salmonids. In 2004, spawner densi...

  4. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  5. Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenyo, V. A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

  6. The Origin of the Name of the City of Derbent and the Toponymy of the Surrounding Area in the Context of Ethnolinguistic Situation in the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garun-Rashid Abdul-Kadyrovich Guseynov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 438 and included on the World Heritage List in 2003, the ancient city of Derbent emerged in the area which, by the time of its foundation, was known under various names which belong, as it is shown in the paper, to different Bulgar (Turkic languages: province of Chor, Ζουάρ-ος fortress, Chora / Djora way, Τζοΰρ, city of Chora, Chola / Choga / Chol, gate of Chola / Choga, province of Sul. These dialectal place names meaning ʻsteep bank, precipiceʼ meet the localization of the city in a narrow passageway between the Greater Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author argues that all etymologies of the considered oikonyms and horonyms based on linguistic data other than Bulgar should be recognized as inadequate. Their Bulgar origin is supported by the toponymic landscape and the names of the peoples who lived within its borders in the early Middle Ages. The existence of toponymic parallels outside the region in question is explained by the migration, in the first centuries AD, of the Bulgars from the North-Eastern Caucasus and Dagestan to Eastern and Southern Europe — the Volga region, the Balkans and Crimea.

  7. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  8. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  9. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic matter (SOM, pH, available phosphorus (avail. P, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al, and iron (Fe. These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

  10. Urbanization and its impacts on founded areas of big cities in pakistan: case studies of ichra and sanda areas in lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Mayo, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization put immense pressure on urban infrastructure and services. Burdened with unrelenting pressure, the founded areas of Lahore have now been converted into slums. Poor services, urban infrastructure and dilapidated building have made lives of the resident miserable. A significant proportion of the people is living in dangerous buildings which could be declared unfit for habitation under section 34 of Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001 (PLGO 2001). The paper attempts to highlight situations of two founded areas of Lahore namely, Icchra and Sanda in comparison with slums areas to grade living standards of the people. Actions under PLGO 2001 and urban renewal programs are suggested to revitalize such areas. (author)

  11. A modified time-temperature relationship for titanomagnetite and its application to igneous erratic boulders in Hachijo Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-12-01

    On land along shore line in an island all over the world, there are many huge boulders which seem that they had been broken and transported by errastic events (such as extreme waves). The presence of boulders on land provides geological evidence that the region had been suffered by ancient tsunami or storm waves, establishing the evaluation of risk-management policies for future disasters. In volcanic island of Hachijo, Japan, there are huge (>5000 kg) andesitic boulder (20 m altitude high), and basaltic boulders (4 m altitude high) which seem that they had been broken from an outcrop and emplaced from it. Because radiocarbon dating can not be applied to volcanic rocks, a magnetic viscous dating might be powerful tool to determine the rotation history of rocks. Tyson Smith and Vrosub (1994) succeeded in revealing the age of landslide basaltic rocks by geological evidence, using Pullaiah's time-temperature monogram by Neel's relaxation theory of single domain (SD) particles of magnetite (Pullaiah et al. 1975). However, our application of this monogram to igneous boulders fails to determine the age due to a different magnetic mineralogy including titanomagnetite. Therefore, by introducing a modified monogram for single domain particles of titanomagnetite, we tried to reveal a possible reworked age of the boulders. However, our boulders still fail to identify the reworked age. In this presentation, we will present our current situation of the problem and a working hypothesis to solve it.

  12. [Assessment on the short-term impact regarding the community-based interventions to improve physical activities in three urban areas of Hangzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; He, Ping-ping; LV, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the short-term impact of comprehensive community based intervention on physical activity (PA) of adults living in the three urban communities of Hangzhou city. Within the framework of Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Program, a community trial was conducted in two urban areas (Xiacheng district and Gongshu district)and an urban area(Xihu district)as control, by a parallel comparison and random grouping based quasi-experimental design. Two independent questionnaire-based surveys of cross-sectional samples in the intervention and comparison areas were used to assess the short-term impact of the intervention program. A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up stages, completed the survey, including 1016 adults from the intervention areas and 1000 from the comparison area. Over the two-year intervention period, the cognitive level on benefits of physical activity in the intervention areas were trending downward. The changes observed in the comparison area did not show statistical significance. Intervention areas showed a statistically significant increase (1204 vs. 1386, P = 0.023) in the level of physical activity(metabolic equivalent, MET-minutes/week)compared with the comparison area(918 vs. 924, P = 0.201). And results remained the same after eliminating the possible effects of age factor. After a two-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to the level of physical activity. A community-based intervention program on physical activity seemed feasible and effective in the urban areas of Hangzhou.

  13. Using Arc GIS to analyse urban growth towards torrent risk areas (Aswan city as a case study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, Omar; Zhao, Shichen; Salheen, Mohamed A; Eid, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Areas suffering from storm water drains are considered to be the places most at risk, water torrents have an effect on urban areas and can cause a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, there is dangerous situation whereby urban growth is occuring towards at-risk areas. The urban growth rate in risk areas rose up to 24.9% in 2001, and reached 48.8% in 2013. Urban growth in ''Abouelreesh'' village had been influenced by the construction of larger buildings, because most people were looking forward to live in bigger houses. We can discover the previous problem by observing the average size increase of the buildings' areas from 2001 until 2013, especially in risky areas where the average building's area had grown from 254 m2 in 2001 to 411 m2 in 2013. This Phenomenon is considered to be very important factor which attracts the urban growth towards the risky areas in spite of the danger surrounding them

  14. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  15. Social/sexual norms and AIDS in the South. Ethics and the politics of aids: lessons for small cities and rural areas throughout the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, N K

    1991-01-01

    No one denies that the face of AIDS (the "AIDS profile") is changing, and it is clear that we are entering a new phase in our understanding of this disease. As the AIDS profile changes, however, we are seeing a change in attitudes about prevention. In this stage of the epidemic there seems to be a move toward adopting more coercive strategies for breaking the chain of transmission. One concern, obviously, is that newly HIV-infected persons will find that they have little capacity to demand recognition of their rights to consent, to be treated, to confidentiality, to move about freely in society, to work, and so on. Unfortunately, this bodes ill for newly infected persons in previously low-incidence areas. Two very recent studies suggest that rates of high-risk sexual behavior among homosexual/bisexual men in smaller cities and rural areas in the South are much higher than rates now reported for gay men in large city epicenters. This paper attempts to examine the implications of differences in social and sexual behavior norms in the South for the spread of AIDS/HIV and to suggest morally appropriate primary prevention strategies for working within them.

  16. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  17. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  18. Assessment of the risk of introduction of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in municipal solid waste from the quarantine area of New York City to landfills outside of the quarantine area: a pathway analysis of the risk of spread and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Allan N D; Fowler, G; Hennessey, M K; Hogue, A T; Keena, M; Lance, D R; McDowell, R M; Oryang, D O; Sawyer, A J

    2005-02-01

    The risk associated with spread of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), from infested areas in New York City to the wide array of landfills across the eastern United States contracted by the city since 1997 was unknown, but of great concern. Landfills, some as far as South Carolina, Virginia, and Ohio, occupied forest types and climates at high risk of Asian longhorned beetle establishment. The city proposed a separate waste wood collection known as the "311 System;" this was estimated to cost federal and state agencies $6.1 to $9.1 million per year, including the cost of processing and disposal of the wood. Pathway analysis was used to quantify the probability that Asian longhorned beetle present in wood waste collected at curbside would survive transport, compaction, and burial to form a mated pair. The study found that in seven alternate management scenarios, risks with most pathways are very low, especially given existing mitigations. Mitigations included chemical control, removal of infested trees, and burial of wood waste in managed landfills that involved multiple-layering, compaction, and capping of dumped waste with a 15-cm soil cover at the end of each day. Although the risk of business-as-usual collection and disposal practices was virtually nil, any changes of policy or practice such as illegal dumping or disposal at a single landfill increased the risk many thousandfold. By rigorously maintaining and monitoring existing mitigations, it was estimated that taxpayers would save $75 to $122 million dollars over the next decade.

  19. Synthesis of petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data for the Boulder batholith, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith in southwest Montana consists of the Butte Granite and a group of associated smaller intrusions emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and into the Late Cretaceous Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The Boulder batholith is dominated by the voluminous Butte Granite, which is surrounded by as many as a dozen individually named, peripheral intrusions. These granodiorite, monzogranite, and minor syenogranite intrusions contain varying abundances of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, and opaque oxide minerals. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic subsets of the Boulder batholith intrusions are defined principally on the basis of color index. Most Boulder batholith plutons have inequigranular to seriate textures although several are porphyritic and some are granophyric (and locally miarolitic). Most of these plutons are medium grained but several of the more felsic and granophyric intrusions are fine grained. Petrographic characteristics, especially relative abundances of constituent minerals, are distinctive and foster reasonably unambiguous identification of individual intrusions. Seventeen samples from plutons of the Boulder batholith were dated by SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) zircon U-Pb geochronology. Three samples of the Butte Granite show that this large pluton may be composite, having formed during two episodes of magmatism at about 76.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2 samples) and 74.7 ± 0.6 million years ago (Ma) (1 sample). However, petrographic and chemical data are inconsistent with the Butte Granite consisting of separate, compositionally distinct intrusions. Accordingly, solidification of magma represented by the Butte Granite appears to have spanned about 2 million year (m.y.). The remaining Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced during a 6-10 m.y. span (81.7 ± 1.4 Ma to 73.7 ± 0.6 Ma). The compositional characteristics of these plutons are similar to those

  20. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  1. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  2. 77 FR 17408 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Technology Park, 4509 West Stone Drive, Kingsport, Hawkins County, TN; Site 9 (134 acres, expires 6/30/15.... The grantee's proposed service area under the ASF would be the Counties of Sullivan, Hawkins, Greene...

  3. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  5. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. Cold chain food distribution from the Driftless Area : keys to attaining self-reliance in the circle city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, small- to mid-scale farms have increasingly emphasized the importance of branding and establishing : the appropriate identity to enter the value-added market. Farms in the Driftless Area (mostly Southwest Wisconsin) are : slowly deve...

  7. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  8. Earth Resistivity And Self-Potential Study On The Area East Of Sohag City And Their Groundwater Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم; Bakheit, A. A.; Faheem, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen field vertical electrical soundings have been made in the area east of Sohag to provide hydrogeologic information for groundwater exploration. These sounding are interpreted using programs for the automatic processing and interpretation of Schlumberger sounding curves prepared by Zohdy (1989B). Results of the interpretation indicate the presence of shallow water-bearing layer especially in the southern part of the study area. This aquifer is missing towards the east. In certain parts...

  9. Structuring Disaster Recovery Infrastructure Decisions: Lessons from Boulder County's 2013 Flood Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Petropoulos, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Recovery phase decision making processes, as compared to mitigation and response phase decision making processes, require communities make significant financial and capital decisions in the months after a disaster. Collectively, these investments may significantly contribute to the resilience of a community to future hazards. Pre-disaster administrative decisions are well-established within existing planning processes. Post-event recovery requires community decision makers to quickly evaluate technical proposals and manage significant recovery financial resources to ensure their community rebuilds in a manner that will be more resilient to future events. These technical and administrative hurdles in the aftermath of a disaster create a challenging atmosphere to make sound, scientifically-informed decisions leading to resilient recovery. In September 2013, a 1,000-year rain event that resulted in flooding throughout the Front Range of Colorado, significantly impacting Boulder County. While the event is long past, disaster recovery efforts still continue in parts of Boulder County. Boulder County officials formed a county collaborative that adapted the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems to facilitate a goals-based multi-criteria decision making process. Rather than use hazard-based information to guide infrastructure design, the county's decision process established time-to-recovery goals for infrastructure systems that were used as criteria for project design. This presentation explores the decision-making process employed by Boulder County to specify design standards for resilient rebuilding of infrastructure systems and examine how this infrastructure planning model could be extrapolated to other situations where there is uncertainty regarding future infrastructure design standards.

  10. Streamflow predictions under climate scenarios in the Boulder Creek Watershed at Orodell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Williams, M. W.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Mountainous areas have complex geological features and climatic variability, which limit our ability to simulate and predict hydrologic processes, especially in face to a changing climate. Hydrologic models can improve our understanding of land surface water and energy budgets in these regions. In this study, a distributed physically-based hydrologic model is applied to the Boulder Creek Watershed, USA to study streamflow conditions under future climatic scenarios. Model parameters were adjusted using observed streamflow data at 1/16th degree resolution, with a NSE value of 0.69. The results from CMIP5 models can give a general range of streamflow conditions under different climatic scenarios. Two scenarios are being applied, including the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. RCP 8.5 has higher emission concentrations than RCP 4.5, but not very significant in the period of study. Using pair t-test and Mann-Whitney test at specific grid cells to compare modeled and observed climate data, four CMIP5 models were chosen to predict streamflow from 2010 to 2025. Of the four models, two models predicted increased precipitation, while the other two models predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased minimum and maximum temperature in RCP 4.5. Average streamflow decreased by 2% 14%, while maximum SWE varies from -7% to +210% from 2010 to 2025, relative to 2006 to 2010. In RCP 8.5, three models predicted increased precipitation, while the other one model predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased maximum and minimum temperature. Besides one model, the other three models predicted increased average streamflow by 3.5% 32%, which results from the higher increasing magnitude in precipitation. Maximum SWE varies by 6% 55% higher than that from 2006 to 2010. This study shows that average daily maximum and minimum temperature will increase toward 2025 from different climate models, while average streamflow will decrease in RCP 4

  11. Identification of natural hazards and classification of urban areas by TOPSIS model (case study: Bandar Abbas city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Mahdavi Najafabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, among multi-criteria models for complex decision-making and multiple-attribute models for assigning the most preferable choice, the technique for order preference by similarity ideal solution (TOPSIS is implied. The main objective of this research is to identify potential natural hazards in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, using TOPSIS model, which is based on an analytical hierarchy process structure. A set of 12 relevant geomorphologic parameters, including earthquake frequency, distance from the earthquake epicentre, number of faults, flood, talus creep, landslide, land subsidence, tide, hurricane and tidal wave, dust storms with external source, wind erosion and sea level fluctuations are considered to quantify inputs of the model. The outputs of this study indicate that one region, among three assessed regions, has the maximum potential occurrence of natural hazards, while it has been urbanized at a greater rate compared to other regions. Furthermore, based on Delphi method, the earthquake frequency and the landslide are the most and the least dangerous phenomena, respectively.

  12. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  13. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  14. Comparative Study Regarding EU Urban Areas Tourism Promotion Using Official Websites - Examples of Good Practices for Romania's Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century the importance of Internet has gained dimensions which cannot be ignored both in respect of the business environment, as well as in respect of recreational activities. As a result of technological development which made superior technology available for a large part of population, Internet has become one of the most employed marketing channels. In these conditions, the urban destinations for tourists, in order to face the fierce international competition, had to use as a solution the promotion over the Internet, which ultimately makes the difference between success and failure. The present study aims to research a series of practices for tourism promotion of leading cities of the EU (London, Paris and Rome by the creation and use of official websites, in order to identify a set of best practices which will allow the know-how transfer for building a tourism website for the Romanian capital.

  15. Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec City Harbour area of the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L; Chan, H M; de Lafontaine, Y; Mikaelian, I

    2001-07-01

    Toxic antifouling agents such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been released in aquatic ecosystems through the use of antifouling paint applied to ship hulls, pleasure crafts and fish nets and these compounds can bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the extent of the distribution of organotins from a contaminated marina to the St. Lawrence River system by measuring organotin concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and in sediments collected from 9 sites along the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City in July 1998, and 2) to examine the histopathological condition of zebra mussel tissues from these sites. TBT concentrations in zebra mussels were between 37 and 1078 ng Sn g(-1) wet weight, with the highest value found in the Bassin Louise marina. Elevated concentrations were also found in two other marinas. The concentrations decreased sharply to background levels just outside the marinas. All butyltins were detected in all sediments analysed, with highest values found in the Bassin Louise marina. Phenyltins were detected in three of the nine sites in low concentrations (zebra mussels. There was a significant correlation between TBT in sediments and mussels. Gonadal development of zebra mussels varied largely between sites, and was negatively associated to TBT levels in mussel tissue. This study shows that TBT contamination remains a problem in localised freshwater sectors of the St. Lawrence River.

  16. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  17. Hydrogeologic Investigation, Water Chemistry Analysis, and Model Delineation of contributing Areas for City of Tallahassee Public-Supply Wells, Tallahassee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer is the sole source of water supply for Tallahassee, Florida, and the surrounding area. The City of Tallahassee (the City) currently operates 28 water-supply wells; 26 wells are distributed throughout the City and 2 are located in Woodville, Florida. Most of these wells yield an ample supply of potable water; however, water from several wells has low levels of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The City removes the PCE from the water by passing it through granular-activated carbon units before distribution. To ensure that water-supply wells presently free of contamination remain clean, it is necessary to understand the ground-water flow system in sufficient detail to protect the contributing areas. Ground-water samples collected from four public-supply wells were analyzed for tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Using data for the CFC compounds, apparent ground-water ages ranged from 7 to 31 years. For SF6, the apparent ages tended to be about 5 to 10 years younger than those from CFCs. Apparent ages based on the tritium/tritiogenic helium-3 (3H/3Hetrit) method ranged from 26 to 33 years. The three dating methods indicate that the apparent age of ground water generally decreases from northern to southern Leon County. This southward trend of decreasing ages is consistent with increasing amounts of recharge that occur as ground water moves from north to south. The ground-water age data derived by geochemical and tracer analyses were used in combination with the flow model and particle tracking to determine an effective porosity for the Hawthorn clays and Upper Floridan aquifer. The effective porosities for the Upper Floridan aquifer that resulted in best model matches were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 7 percent, and the effective porosities for the Hawthorn clays that resulted in a match were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 22 percent. Probabilistic contributing areas

  18. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  19. Secular trends of blood isolates in patients from a rural area population hospitalized in a tertiary center in a small city in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holevas Pierros V

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the studies evaluating the secular trends of blood isolates come from tertiary hospitals in urban areas. We sought to study the trends of the antimicrobial resistance of blood isolates in patients from a rural population hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece. Methods We retrospectively collected and analysed data for the first positive blood culture obtained for each admission for each patient hospitalized in General Hospital of Tripolis, Tripolis, Peloponnesus, Greece during a 5 year period (16/05/2000 – 15/05/2005. Results Sixty-seven thousand and seventy patients were hospitalized during the study period from whom 3,206 blood cultures were obtained. A higher increase of the number of obtained blood cultures than the number of admissions was noted during the study period (p Escherichia coli (29%, and Staphylococcus aureus (18.2% were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Among the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was 17.2% (5/29. The proportion of Escherichia coli resistant to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and cefuroxime was 29.6% (32/108, 25.0% (27/108, and 8.3% (9/108 respectively. Imipenem-resistance was noted in 3.4% (1/29 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. There were only 6 (1.6% Acinetobacter baummanii blood isolates during the study period. Conclusion The antimicrobial resistance of isolates from patients receiving care at the studied tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece is considerably less compared to that noted in tertiary hospitals in larger cities of the country.

  20. 77 FR 67600 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... organic compounds (VOC) react in the presence of sunlight to form ground-level ozone, as a secondary... the unincorporated portions of central and southern Clark County, as well as the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas, and Boulder City. On December 22, 2006, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...

  1. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  2. Rare gas constraints on the history of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Kahl, S.B.; Kirschbaum, A.R.; Niemeyer, S.; Phinney, D.

    1975-01-01

    Rare gas isotopic analyses have been performed on both pile-irradiated and unirradiated samples from Boulder 1, Station 2. Two samples from rock 72255, the Civet Cat clast and a sample of adjacent breccia, have concordant 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y. and 4.01 +- 0.03 b.y., respectively. Several samples from rock 72275 have complex thermal release patterns with no datable features, but an intermediate temperature plateau from the dark rim material of the Marble Cake clast yields an age of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y., indistinguishable from the age of rock 72255. We regard these ages as upper limits on the time of the Serenitatis basin-forming event. The absence of fossil solar-wind trapped gases in the breccia samples implies that a prior existence for the boulder as near-surface regolith material can be regarded as extremely unlikely. Instead, the small trapped rare-gas components have isotopic and elemental compositions diagnostic of the terrestrial-type trapped component which has previously been identified in several Apollo 16 breccias and in rock 14321. Excess fission Xe is found in all Boulder 1 samples in approximately 1:1 proportions with Xe from spontaneous fission of 238 U. This excess fission Xe is attributed to spontaneous fission of 244 Pu in situ. Cosmic-ray exposure ages for samples from rocks 72215 and 72255 are concordant with mean 81 Kr-Kr exposure ages of 41.4 +- 1.4 m.y. and 44.1 +- 3.3 m.y., respectively. However, a distinctly different 81 Kr-Kr exposure age of 52.5 +- 1.4 m.y. is obtained for samples from rock 72275. A two-stage exposure model is developed to account for this discordance and for the remaining cosmogenic rare-gas data. The first stage was initiated at least 55 m.y. ago, probably as a result of the excavation of the boulder source-crop. A discrete change in shielding depths approx. 35 m.y. ago probably corresponds to the dislodgement of Boulder 1 from the South Massif and emplacement in its present position

  3. Technology campuses and cities : A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvelo Magdaniel, F.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the development of technology campuses and their role in stimulating innovation. The main result of this thesis is a model for understanding and managing the relationship between the built environment and innovation at the urban area level. This model developed mainly throughout

  4. Hospital's redesigned Web site patient-friendly, comprehensive. Site one-of-a-kind in Twin Cities market area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    North Memorial Medical Center, Robbinsdale, Minn., has opened a brightly redesigned Web site. It is patient-friendly and features a different approach to provide healthcare information called "care areas," which are organized by condition, such as heart care, cancer care and childbirth. This approach led to the the site being named North Memorial Online Care Center.

  5. Spatial Distribution and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil of Mentougou Mining Area of Beijing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution characteristics and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals around mine-concentrated area in Mentougou were comprehensive studied using ArcGIS carried by inverse distance weighted interpolation mathematical model and SPSS multivariate statistical analysis. The ecological risk assessment was carried out by the potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations increased gradually from the west to the east of study area. Harmful degrees of heavy metals decreased in the order of Hg > Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > As. Combination of coal mining and human activity caused the strongest risk, while the risks caused by heavy metals from sandstone minerals was relatively weak. The potential ecological risk indexes(RI of eight heavy metals were between 67.81 and 668.53. The order of the potential ecological risk was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn. In summary, the heavy metals in soil of the study area were harmful. Because the study area is located in the ecological conservation district of Beijing, the ecological harm should not be overlooked, and needs to be evaluated and repaired.

  6. 77 FR 65646 - Determination of Attainment for the Yuba City-Marysville Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment... Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment area and entered into the AQS database. Data from air monitors...

  7. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  8. New energy vision of the Tono City area; 2001 nendo Tonoshi shin energy vision. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    As a leading plan to reconsider the resource consumption in large quantities and to change the society to a circulation type, a new energy vision of the Tono City area was worked out in Tono City, Iwate Prefecture. In this vision, FY 2002 was set as the first fiscal year, and FY 2010 as the target year. From the comprehensive judgement based on the objective availability, technical evaluation, civic needs, etc., biomass energy, wind energy, solar energy, etc. were made the main energy in new energy introduction. As model projects, studied were the introduction of solar energy utilization facilities to Kamigo Elementary School, introduction of the photovoltaic power generation to Aozasa Nursery School and disaster prevention base facilities, project on the wind power generation using large wind turbines, biomass alcohol plant, wood pellet production, etc. The target amount of new energy introduction was 2,640 kW in photovoltaic power generation, 19,000 kW in wind power generation, etc. The CO2 reduction amount including that in heat utilization, clean energy car, etc. was 41,374 t-CO2/y. (NEDO)

  9. The affirmation of the scientist-practitioner. A look back at Boulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D B; Benjamin, L T

    2000-02-01

    In the aftermath of World War II, several influences were paramount in forcing academic psychology to recognize, albeit reluctantly, the coming professionalization of psychology. The federal government, wishing to avoid a repeat of blunders following World War I that led to significant dissatisfaction among veterans, took proactive steps to ensure that mental health needs of the new veterans would be met. The USPHS and the VA were mandated to expand significantly the pool of mental health practitioners, a direction that led not only to the funding of the Boulder conference but also to the development of APA's accreditation program, funded practical and internship arrangements with the VA, and the USPHS grants to academic departments for clinical training. The GI Bill, amended to include payment for graduate education, created tremendous interest in graduate programs in psychology. As a result, psychology programs were inundated with funded applicants, most of whom were interested in the application of psychology to clinical and other applied fields. Graduate psychology departments were mixed in their views of this "blessing." The reality of a separate curriculum for professional training in psychology was a bitter pill for some academic psychologists to swallow. Graduate departments feared that control of their programs would be taken over by external forces and that they would lose their right to determine their own curriculum. Further, they feared the domination of clinical training within their own departments and the effects of such educational emphasis on their traditional experimental programs. The Boulder conference brought together these disparate needs and concerns, although one can argue about how well some points of view were represented with respect to others. It was a time of high anticipation and fear. The conference could easily have ended in failure, with such diverse interests being unable to reach any consensus. There are many letters in the

  10. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  11. The Impact of Rob Flood and Community Adaptation in Coastal Area of Medan Belawan, Medan City, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riki Rahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of rob flood and adaptation of coastal communities in Medan Belawan District Medan City. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research method. The direct location of flooding review is at Jalan Serdang which belongs to Belawan I urban village. The result shows that the rob flood that hit Medan Belawan District has varying height. Several villages affected by the flood were Belawan I, Belawan II, Belawan Bahagia, Belawan Bahari, Belawan Sicanang and Bagan Deli. Rob flood occurs twice a day at around 02.00 am and 13.00 pm to 16.00 pm. Rob floods give impacts of damage to buildings especially shelter, increased salinity of water resources, damage to pond land, damage to work equipment or vehicles used by everyday people. Rob floods also disrupt the activities of fishers and traders because when the floods occur, fishers are forced to stop while fishing and income is reduced, as well as the supply of fish to the market. Community adaptation to rob floods in Medan Belawan District is adaptation to residential buildings and adaptation to the availability of clean water sources. Key words: coastal communities, rob flood, adaptation Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui  dampak banjir rob dan adaptasi masyarakat kawasan pesisir di Kecamatan Medan Belawan Kota Medan. Metode penelitian yang  digunakan adalah metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif . Lokasi langsung peninjauan banjir ialah di Jalan Serdang yang termasuk kedalam Kelurahan Belawan I. Hasil penelitian menunjukkna bahwa banjir rob yang melanda Kecamatan Medan Belawan mempunyai ketinggian yang bervariasi. Beberapa kelurahan yang terkena banjir rob antara lain Kelurahan Belawan I, Kelurahan Belawan II, Kelurahan Belawan Bahagia, Kelurahan Belawan Bahari, Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang dan Kelurahan Bagan Deli. Banjir rob terjadi dua kali dalam sehari yakni sekitar pukul 02.00 pagi dan 13.00 siang hingga pukul 16.00 sore hari. Banjir rob

  12. Example from Ilorin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Abstract. Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in ... any city growth and development. ... The study area ... road network resulting in the city enveloping many of the smaller settlements .... Emerging Communities: A case of a Local Government Area of ... Regional Planning.

  13. A decade of mangrove recovery at affected area by the 2004 tsunami along coast of Banda Aceh city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onrizal; Mansor, M.

    2018-03-01

    Banda Aceh (BA) is the capital of Aceh Province, Indonesia. It was the most affected areas by the 2004 tsunami. Before the natural catastrophe, most of the BA mangroves disturbed by human activities and remaining mangroves were fragmented and had a low density of trees. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to calculate the impact of the tsunami on mangrove and subsequently to evaluate the mangrove recovery based on spatial and temporal analysis and ground truthing method within the period 11 years in intertidal areas of BA. Three regions of BA coastal areas were selected, namely Kuala Cangkoy, Gampong Jawa and Lambada coasts. Before the tsunami, the mangrove forests in BA were only 13.6% of BA coastlands and fragmented. Approximately 48.9% of the mangroves have destroyed due to the tsunami. The BA mangroves at 5 and 11 years after tsunami were 66.5% and 81.3% relative to the data before tsunami, respectively. It means that the BA is very vulnerable due to the future tsunami occur. Therefore, the mangrove restoration in BA needs to be improved and maintain based on green belt concept for coastal protection as well as productivity of estuarine ecosystem.

  14. Analysis of PAEs contaminants in water sources for agriculture, industrial and residential areas from local city district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidan; Chen, Qixian; Wu, Fei; Liao, Jia; Zhao, Xi

    2018-02-01

    The technology of DEHP and DBP detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed and applied in analysis of local water sources from agriculture, industrial and residential areas. Under the optimized sample pretreatment and detection conditions, DEHP and DBP were well separated and detected in 4 mins. The detection limit of DBP was 0.002 mg/L and DEHP was 0.006 mg/L, and it meets the Chinese National Standard limitations for drinking water quality. The linear correlation coefficient of DBP and DEHP standard calibration curves was 0.9998 and 0.9995. The linear range of DBP was 0.020 mg/L ∼20.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.560% ∼5.07%, and the linear range of DEHP was 0.060 mg/L ∼15.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.546% ∼5.74%. Ten water samples from Jinwan district of Zhuhai in Guangdong province of China were analyzed. However, the PAEs amounts found in the water sources from industrial areas were higher than the agriculture and residential areas, industries grow incredibly fast in the district in recently years and more attention should be paid to the increasing risks of water sources pollution.

  15. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  16. Implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs): A Case Study in the Coastal Area in Semarang City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyono; Ginandjar, P.; Saraswati, L. D.; Pangestuti, D. R.; Martini; Jati, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    An area of 508.28 hectares in North Semarang is flooded by tidal inundation, including Bandarharjo village, which could affect water quality in the area. People in Bandarharjo use safe water from deep groundwater, without disinfection process. More than 90% of water samples in the Bandaharjo village had poor bacteriological quality. The aimed of the research was to describe the implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs) program in Bandarharjo village. This was a descriptive study with steps for implementations adopted the guidelines and tools of the World Health Organization. The steps consist of introducing WSPs program, team building, training the team, examination of water safety before risk assessment, risk assessment, minor repair I, examination of water safety risk, minor repair II (after monitoring). Data were analyzed using descriptive methods. WSPs program has been introduced and formed WSPs team, and the training of the team has been conducted. The team was able to conduct risks assessment, planned the activities, examined water quality, conduct minor repair and monitoring at the source, distribution, and households connection. The WSPs program could be implemented in the coastal area in Semarang, however regularly supervision and some adjustment are needed.

  17. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of sidewalks in the city of Camboriú/SC: in search of sustainable mobility and accessibility to tourist area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the walkability of the urban area in the city of Camboriú, showing the neighborhoods that have the best and the worst conditions of displacements on foot. The method of approach is the inductive and the procedure the case study. The research has been structured in four stages: preparation and approval of the project, data collection, tabulation and thematic mapping, analysis and discussion of the results. The techniques were adopted: bibliographic, documental and field research, with intensive direct observation. The result is a walkability of 1.93, which indicates a critical situation requiring improvement of the sidewalks as a way of improving the tourism infrastructure, ensuring the longer permanence and increasing the attractiveness. That´s an useful information in the process of territorial planning of tourism, in the quest for sustainable mobility and accessibility.

  19. Assessment of natural and artificial radiation dose in the city urban area of Goiania, Goias, Brazil: results of Campinas - Centro and Sul regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T.Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An assessment of external gamma dose was carried out in some urban areas in the city of Goiania - GO - Brazil, allowing to infer the contribution of this component to the average annual effective dose value for the population leaving in that region. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Thermo-Eberline FHT 1376, consisting of plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), which is able to collect gamma dose rate as well as the local spatial coordinates. These data, associated with those from national census, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic, were analyzed using the ArcGIS software, a well known Geographical Information System - GIS. As the main result, radiometric maps were produced, illustrating how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlating the collective dose values for these populations. Around 57,000 geo referenced effective dose values were measured in the so-called Campinas-Centro and Sul Regions, which are two of the seven regions Goiania is divided in for administrative purposes. The dose rates ranging from 10.4 to 192.7 nSv/h with an average of 22.4 nSv/h, which means 0.20 mSv/year as the annual effective dose. This values are lower than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.46 mSv/year for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and lower than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Pocos de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas and Caldas. Actually, the average value is comparable with those observed in the Ribeirao Preto - SP - Brazil City. (author)

  20. Assessment of natural and artificial radiation dose in the city urban area of Goiania, Goias, Brazil: results of Campinas - Centro and Sul regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T.Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of external gamma dose was carried out in some urban areas in the city of Goiania - GO - Brazil, allowing to infer the contribution of this component to the average annual effective dose value for the population leaving in that region. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Thermo-Eberline FHT 1376, consisting of plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), which is able to collect gamma dose rate as well as the local spatial coordinates. These data, associated with those from national census, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic, were analyzed using the ArcGIS software, a well known Geographical Information System - GIS. As the main result, radiometric maps were produced, illustrating how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlating the collective dose values for these populations. Around 57,000 geo referenced effective dose values were measured in the so-called Campinas-Centro and Sul Regions, which are two of the seven regions Goiania is divided in for administrative purposes. The dose rates ranging from 10.4 to 192.7 nSv/h with an average of 22.4 nSv/h, which means 0.20 mSv/year as the annual effective dose. This values are lower than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.46 mSv/year for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and lower than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Pocos de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas and Caldas. Actually, the average value is comparable with those observed in the Ribeirao Preto - SP - Brazil City. (author)

  1. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  2. Simulation of Groundwater Movement for Nuclear Research Center at AlTuwaitha Area in Baghdad City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Sleibi Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of groundwater movement has been carried out by using MODFLOW model in order to show the impact of change of water surface elevation of the Tigris river on layers of the aquifer system for Nuclear Research Center at Al-Tuwaitha area, in addition to evaluate the ability of the proposed pumping well to collect groundwater and change the direction of flow at steady-state. The results of the study indicated that there is a good match between the values of groundwater levels that calculated in the model and measured in the field, where mean error is 0.09 m.The study also showed that the increasing of water surface elevation of the Tigris river led to increase in the hydraulic head of observed wells, while the use proposed pumping well reduced the hydraulic head and intercepted the movement of groundwater flow. The flow direction is toward the Tigris river, and the velocity of flow is clear in the third layer identified medium sand which is 0.0015 m/day. The using of the proposed pumping well has changed the direction of groundwater, especially in the area around the well.

  3. Identifying Potential Areas of Human Zika Infection in the City of Los Angeles, California by Use of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    As of April 2017, California is the third most prevalent state on the United States for Zika Infection and Southern California has an ever growing population of Aedes mosquitos. Zika is a disease which poses a significant risk to humans and other mammals due to its effects on pregnancy. This emerging disease is highly contagious due to its spread of infection primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitos. Aedes mosquitos are able to breed in small rain collecting containers which allow the species to persevere in urban and semi urban environments. We hope to identify potential areas with risk of human infection within Los Angeles and its surrounding areas. This study integrates remote sensing, GIS, statistical, and environmental techniques to study favorable habitats for this particular species of mosquitos and their larvae. The study of the geographic and landscape factors which promote the larvae development allow for the disease spread to be analyzed and modeled. There are several goals in the development of this study. These include the coordination of statistical data with local epidemiology departments, identify workflows to improve efficiency, create models which can be utilized for disease prevention, and identify geographic risk factors for the spread of Zika.

  4. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Cuturi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity of social instances, there is a real need for approaches more and more consistent with objectives of both physical/environmental and socio-economic regeneration.English and French experiences of waterfront regeneration are interesting, in different ways, in relation to the process activation/implementation (partnership organisational structure, private/public investment ratio, duration, as to enterprises, employment and innovation (office, retail and leisure space, enterprise localization, cultural attractions and urban design, with regard to local communities, services and cultural heritage (increase of population and local employment, accessibility to housing and integrated services, mobility and transport, conservation and valorisation of buildings and sites of architectural or historic interest, involvement and participation to local planning processes, as to the use of resources and pollution reduction (energy management, building recovery and brownfield regeneration, etc..

  5. Sand flies naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) mexicana in the peri-urban area of Chetumal city, Quintana Roo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2010-06-01

    The surveillance of prevalent Leishmania sand fly vectors is an important issue for epidemiological studies in populated areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, we collected sand flies from a peri-urban area in the southeast of Mexico. Natural infection with Leishmania (L.) mexicana was studied by PCR using a Leishmania internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene for amplification. Infected Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca, Lu. shannoni and Lu. cruciata sand flies were collected mainly during the high transmission season (November to March), coinciding with the highest sand fly densities. Additionally, positive specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca were also captured during July and August. The infected sand flies were from primary forest (subperennial forest) and secondary forest (18-25 years old and 10-15 years old respectively). Sand flies collected with Disney and Shannon traps were the ones found to be infected with L. (L.) mexicana. We conclude that the high-risk period in which L. (L.) mexicana is transmitted in the peri-urban area of Chetumal City is from July to March and that transmission is associated with both the subperennial forest and the secondary forest. 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel hybrid evidential belief function-based fuzzy logic model in spatial prediction of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the Lang Son city area (Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate potential application of an integrated evidential belief function (EBF-based fuzzy logic model for spatial prediction of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the Lang Son city area (Vietnam. First, a landslide inventory map was constructed from various sources. Then the landslide inventory map was randomly partitioned as a ratio of 70/30 for training and validation of the models, respectively. Second, six landslide conditioning factors (slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, distance to faults, soil type, land use were prepared and fuzzy membership values for these factors classes were estimated using the EBF. Subsequently, fuzzy operators were used to generate landslide susceptibility maps. Finally, the susceptibility maps were validated and compared using the validation dataset. The results show that the lowest prediction capability is the fuzzy SUM (76.6%. The prediction capability is almost the same for the fuzzy PRODUCT and fuzzy GAMMA models (79.6%. Compared to the frequency-ratio based fuzzy logic models, the EBF-based fuzzy logic models showed better result in both the success rate and prediction rate. The results from this study may be useful for local planner in areas prone to landslides. The modelling approach can be applied for other areas.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  8. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  9. SEXUALITY IN THE OPINION OF ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN THE AREA OF COVERAGE IN DR FÁBIO CUIABÁ CITY, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Junior Henrique Duarte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative study aimed to know the understanding of adolescents about their sexuality and how the exercises for further intervention by the health team. We administered a structured questionnaire in a sample of 43 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years living in the area covered by the Family Health Unit Dr. Fabio I and II. The data were tabulated in the spreadsheet program Microsoft Office Excel 2007, allowing for a descriptive treatment, keeping a confidence interval of 95%. The results show that 32.5% of participants had first intercourse between 12 and 16, and 50% of them admit they have used a condom at last intercourse. In addition, 4.6% have had some kind of sexually transmitted disease. The study indicates the need for educational activities in sexual and reproductive health to adolescents facing the neighborhoods studied, with a view to promoting health.

  10. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  11. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  12. Predictors and outcome of tetanus in newborns in slum areas of Karachi City: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaila, Arjumand; Shafiq, Yasir; Azim, Shazia; Baloch, Benazir; Akhtar, Ali Syed Muhammad; Tikmani, Shiyam Sunder; Brown, Nick

    2015-08-07

    Tetanus in newborns, is an under-reported public health problem and a major cause of mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the predictors and outcome of tetanus in newborn infants in the slums of Bin-Qasim town, Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted a case-control study at primary health care centers of slums of Bin-Qasim town, area located adjacent to Bin Qasim seaport in Karachi, from January 2003 to December 2013. Cases were infants aged ≤30 days with tetanus, as defined by the World Health Organization. Controls were newborn infants aged ≤30 days without Tetanus, who were referred for a checkup or minor illnesses. The case to control ratio was 1:2. We analyzed 26 cases and 52 controls. The case fatality was 70.8%. We identified four independent predictors of Tetanus in newborns: maternal education (only religious education with no formal education OR 51.95; 95% CI 3.69-731), maternal non-vaccination (OR 24.55; 95% CI 1.01-131.77), lack of a skilled birth attendant (OR 44.00; 95% CI 2.30-840.99), and delivery at home (OR 11.54; 95% CI 1.01-131.77). We identified several potentially modifiable socio-demographic risk factors for Tetanus in newborns, including maternal education and immunization status, birth site, and lack of a skilled birth attendant. Prioritization of these risk factors could be useful for planning preventive and cost-effective measures.

  13. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  14. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  15. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  16. Particle count and black carbon measurements at schools in Las Vegas, NV and in the greater Salt Lake City, UT area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2017-11-01

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, NV (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of greater Salt Lake City, UT (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/sec, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again. Particle count concentrations at two schools were shown to typically be independent of BC or other pollutants. At a school in close proximity to a major freeway, particle count concentrations were high during the midday and when wind speeds were low, regardless of wind direction, showing a large area of effect from roadway emissions

  17. An Investigation of the Manifestations of Nose, Sinus, Larynx, Head, and Neck among the Elderly Population in Rural Areas of Rasht City, Iran (2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Banan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Given the growing elderly population in the country, significant proportion of chronic diseases in this group, and necessity of investigation on aspects of the elderly health in order to prevent disability and reduce the complications of diseases in them, this study was conducted to determine the manifestations of nose, sinus, larynx, head, and neck among the elderly over 60 years in the rural areas around Rasht City. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 35 villages of were randomly selected Rasht city from, and 413 elderly subjects randomly entered the study. After obtaining a written informed consent, the elderly were examined by general practitioners and an otolaryngologist.   Results: A total of 413 subjects [195 (47.20% females and 218 (52.80% males] with the mean age of 73.47±7.04 participated in this study. The most common sinonasal disorder was septal deviation (60.68%. Other sinonasal disorders were mucosa paleness (18.23%, stuffy nose feeling (12.83%, hyposmia (12.10%, anosmia (3.14% and nasal polyposis (1.43%. The most common oral disorder was dental problems (88.90%. Other common disorders of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx included dry mouth (46.73%, dysphagia (24.21%, snoring (40.19%, inflamed mucosa (14.50%, and the most common neck disorder was thyroid enlargement (2.56%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the prevalence of nose, sinus, larynx, head, and neck disorders is significant among the elderly population of Guilan.  

  18. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H.; Xun, M.; Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke. PMID:25296361

  19. Johnson City 10 x 20 NTMS area, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, W.M.

    1980-10-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Johnson City 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 959 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1099 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Data from ground water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements; and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are given. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. The Johnson City Quadrangle is underlain by Precambrian cyrstalline rocks in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle and by Paleozoic sediments in the remainder of the quadrangle. The highest uranium concentrations in sediments (up to 22 ppM) are in samples from the Precambrian crystalline rock areas. These samples also have high thorium concentrations suggesting that most of the uranium is in resistate minerals such as monazite. The U/Th ratios in sediment samples are generaly low with the higher values (up to 2.07) mostly within the lower Paleozoic sediments, particularly the Copper Ridge Dolomite. The uranium concentration in ground water is also highest in the lower Paleozoic sediments

  20. Exploring links between water quality and E. coli O157:H7 survival potential in well waters from a rural area of southern Changchun City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meiyue; Li, Jiahang; Liu, Xiaodan; Li, Huiru; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Jincai

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms. Our results also revealed that the average survival time (ttd) of E. coli O157:H7 in all well water samples was 30.09 days, with shortest and longest ttd being 17.95 and 58.10 days, respectively. The ttds were significantly correlated with pH and the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus. In addition, it was found that the shape parameter (p) and first decimal reduction parameter (δ) were negatively (P well water, suggesting that this pathogen could constitute a great public health risk.

  1. Recognition of the importance of geogenic sources in the content of metals in PM2.5 collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Garza-Galindo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Garcia-Arreola, Maria Elena; Ordoñez-Godínez, Sara L; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Santos-Medina, Graciela L; Miranda, Javier; Rosas-Pérez, Irma

    2018-01-17

    The study of airborne metals in urban areas is relevant due to their toxic effects on human health and organisms. In this study, we analyzed metals including rare earth elements (REE) in particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), collected at five sites around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during three periods in 2011: April (dry-warm season, DW), August (rainy season, R), and November (dry-cold season, DC). Principal component analysis allowed identifying factors related to geogenic sources and factors related to anthropogenic sources. The recognition of the high impact of geogenic sources in PM 2.5 is in agreement with the REE distribution patterns, which show similar behavior as those shown by igneous rocks, confirming the influence of the regional geogenic material. Metals associated to geogenic sources showed higher concentration (p  0.05) and no similar seasonal pattern among them. These unexpected results exposed outstanding information regarding the identification of different geogenic sources as the main contributors of metals in the atmospheric environment in the MCMA and highlighted the importance of meteorology in the spatial and seasonal metal patterns.

  2. Assessing coastal flooding hazard in urban areas: the case of estuarian villages in the city of Hyères-les-Palmiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Sylvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted on the city of Hyéres-les-Palmiers (French Riviera to guide the future land use planning, aimed to evaluate how sea level rise could modify coastal flooding hazards in urban areas located near small estuaries in a microtidal context. A joint probability approach allowed establishing typical storm parameters for specific return periods (30, 50 and 100 years, integrating offshore conditions (sea level and significant wave height and the river level. Storm scenarios have been established from these parameters and the chronology of the most impacting recent storm. Sea level rise has been integrated (20 cm for year 2030 and 60 cm for year 2100, and the coastal flooding has been simulated with a non-hydrostatic non-linear shallow-water model (SWASH. The calculations have been realized on high resolution DEM (1 to 5 m mesh size, integrating buildings and coastal protections. The approach has been validated by reproducing a recent flooding event. Obtained results show the importance of wave overtopping in current coastal flooding hazard in this area. Nevertheless, if Hyéres-les-Palmiers is currently little exposed to coastal flooding, these simulations highlight an increasing role of overflowing due to sea level rise, leading to significant flooding in 2100, even for quite frequent events.

  3. Measurements of traffic emissions over a medium-sized city using long-path measurements and comparison against bottom-up city estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, E.; Cossel, K.; Truong, G. W.; Giorgetta, F.; Swann, W.; Coddington, I.; Newbury, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding emissions from cities is increasingly important as a growing fraction of the world's population moves to cities. Here we use a novel technology, dual frequency comb spectroscopy, to measure city emissions using a long outdoor open path. We simultaneously measured CO2, CH4, and H2O over the city of Boulder, Colorado and over a clean-air reference path for two months in the fall of 2016. Because of the spatial coverage of our measurements, the layout of the city and power plant locations, and the predominant wind direction, our measurements primarily pick up vehicle emissions. We choose two days with consistent CO2 enhancements over the city relative to the reference path and use a simple 0-D box model to calculate city emissions for these days. We scale these up to annual emissions and compare our measurements with the City of Boulder bottom-up vehicle emissions inventory based on total vehicle miles traveled, fuel efficiency, and vehicle type distribution. We find good agreement (within about a factor of two) between our top-down measurements and the city's bottom-up inventory value.

  4. The role of porosity in discriminating between tsunami and hurricane emplacement of boulders — A case study from the Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela; Böröcz, Zoltán; Bahlburg, Heinrich

    2008-04-01

    Coastal boulder deposits are a consequence of high-energy wave impacts, such as storms, hurricanes or tsunami. Parameters useful for distinguishing between hurricane and tsunami origins include distance of a deposit from the coast, boulder weight and inferred wave height. In order to investigate the role of porosity on boulder transport and elucidate the distinction between tsunami and hurricane impacts, we performed Archimedean and optical 3D-profilometry measurements for the determination of accurate physical parameters for porous reef and coral limestone boulders from the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands, Netherlands Antilles, Leeward Islands). Subsets of different coral species and lithotypes constituting the boulders were sampled, the physical parameters of boulders were analyzed, and each boulder component was attributed to a certain range of porosity and density. Lowest porosities were observed in calcarenite (5-8%), whereas highest porosities were measured for serpulid reef rock (47-68%). Porous serpulid reef rock (0.8-1.2 g/cm 3) and the coral Diploria sp. (0.6-1.0 g/cm 3) possess the lowest bulk densities, while less porous calcarenite (2.0-2.7 g/cm 3) and the coral Montastrea cavernosa yield the highest bulk density values (1.6-2.7 g/cm 3). The obtained physical parameters were used to calculate boulder weights and both hurricane and tsunami wave heights necessary to initiate transport of these boulders. Boulders are up to 5.6 times lighter than given in previously published data, and hence required minimum hurricane or tsunami waves are lower than hitherto assumed. The calculated wave heights, the high frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes in the southern Caribbean and the occurrence of boulders exclusively on the windward sides of the islands, implicate that for boulders on the ABC Islands a hurricane origin is more likely than a tsunami origin.

  5. Indicator-based model to assess vulnerability to landslides in urban areas. Case study of Husi city (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    In the last three or four decades, vulnerability evolved from physical fragility meanings to a more complex concept, being a key element of risk assessment. In landslide risk assessment, there are a large series of studies regarding landslide hazard, but far fewer researches focusing on vulnerability measurement. Furthermore, there is still no unitary understanding on the methodological framework, neither any internationally agreed standard for landslide vulnerability measurements. The omnipresent common element is the existence of elements at risk, but while some approaches are limited to exposure, other focus on the degree of losses (human injuries, material damages and monetary losses, structural dysfunctions etc.). These losses are differently assessed using both absolute and relative values on qualitative or quantitative scales and they are differently integrated to provide a final vulnerability value. This study aims to assess vulnerability to landslides at local level using an indicator-based model applied to urban areas and tested for Husi town (Eastern Romania). The study region is characterized by permeable and impermeable alternating sedimentary rocks, monoclinal geological structure and hilly relief with impressive cuestas, continental temperate climate, and precipitation of about 500 mm/year, rising to 700 m and even more in some rainy years. The town is a middle size one (25000 inhabitants) and it had an ascending evolution in the last centuries, followed by an increasing human pressure on lands. Methodologically, the first step was to assess the landslide susceptibility and to identify in this way those regions within which any asset would be exposed to landslide hazards. Landslide susceptibility was assessed using the logistic regression approach, taking into account several quantitative and qualitative factors (elements of geology, morphometry, rainfall, land use etc.). The spatial background consisted in the Digital Elevation Model and all derived

  6. „Blue-green“ corridors as a tool for mitigation of natural hazards and restoration of urbanized areas: A case study of Belgrade city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized areas constantly need new surfaces for building of commercial, residental or infrastructure facilities. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and a big regional center, with 2,000,000 inhabitants, covers a territory of 3,500 km2. Decreasing of surfaces under forest vegetation, urbanization and inadequate agricultural measures have caused intensive erosion and more frequent torrential floods. Belgrade authorities have defined a new strategy for land use and urban planning in order to decrease the risk from destructive erosion processes and torrential floods and help the establishment of new recreational areas, preservation of biodiversity and mitigation of the „heat island“ effect. The strategy is based on the restoration of „blue-green“ corridors (residuals of open streams and fragments of forest vegetation. The restoration of „blue-green“ corridors is presented at the experimental watersheds of the Kaljavi and Jelezovac streams. The restoration works will be performed in the 2014-2020 period, on the basis of erosion and stream control demands, as well as environmental and social requests, including biological, soil-bioengineering activities and certain administrative measures. The forest surfaces will be increased by 1.38 km2 (18.11% of the total area. The restoration of “blue-green” corridors in the experimental watersheds will decrease the values of maximal discharges (p = 1% by about 50%, and the volumes of direct runoff by about 40%. Erosive material production and transport will be decreased by about 44% in the Kaljavi stream watershed, and 37% in the Jelezovac stream watershed. Ten kilometers of sealed walking and cycling paths, 1.7 km of unsealed forest paths, six open gyms and seven rest areas will strengthen the potential of this area for sports and recreation. The restoration will help the protection and controlled usage of the natural and cultural values in the area, and the connection of

  7. Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L

    2001-12-01

    High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder.

  8. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  9. Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Trung Hieu; Dinh, Tuan Anh Diep

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an evaluation of temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques, comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eleven water quality parameters were monitored at 38 different sites in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area of Vietnam from 2008 to 2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 38 sampling sites into three clusters, representing mixed urban-rural areas, agricultural areas and industrial zone. FA/PCA resulted in three latent factors for the entire research location, three for cluster 1, four for cluster 2, and four for cluster 3 explaining 60, 60.2, 80.9, and 70% of the total variance in the respective water quality. The varifactors from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are related to erosion from disturbed land or inflow of effluent from sewage plants and industry, discharges from wastewater treatment plants and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities and industrial effluents, and contamination by sewage waste with faecal coliform bacteria through sewer and septic systems. Discriminant analysis (DA) revealed that nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH₃ are the discriminating parameters in space, affording 67% correct assignation in spatial analysis; pH and NO₂ are the discriminating parameters according to season, assigning approximately 60% of cases correctly. The findings suggest a possible revised sampling strategy that can reduce the number of sampling sites and the indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in water quality assessment and management.

  10. Incidence of group A rotavirus in urban and rural areas of the city of Londrina-Brazil, from 1995 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cesar Meneghetti

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are common pathogens and the causal agents of acute diarrhea among children and young animals. The involvement of rotavirus in human diarrheal disease among population of urban and rural areas of the city of Londrina, Parana was evaluated. Nine hundred and five fecal specimens from persons with diarrhea were studied, being 686 and 219 from urban and rural areas, respectively. Thirty-eight samples (4,2% were positive for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA and latex agglutination test of which 36 were from urban and two from rural areas. Out of the positive specimens, 17 strains were further characterized by RT-PCR typing assay, resulting in 16 strains of G1 genotype while one sample was found to be a mixture of G1 and G3 genotypes.Os rotavírus são patógenos comuns e causam diarréia aguda em crianças e animais jovens. Neste trabalho avaliamos a participação do vírus na diarréia de populações humanas das áreas urbana e rural da cidade de Londrina, Paraná. Foram analisadas 905 amostras fecais de indivíduos com diarréia aguda, sendo 686 e 219 amostras das zonas urbana e rural, respectivamente. Trinta e oito amostras (4,2% foram consideradas positivas pelas técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida do RNA viral e aglutinação passiva de látex, das quais 36 da área urbana e dois da área rural. Das amostras positivas, 17 foram genotipadas por RT-PCR tendo sido caracterizadas 16 cepas G1 e uma considerada mistura dos genótipos G1 e G3.

  11. Studying The Contamination Status And The Sources Of Nitrogen Compounds In Groundwater In Ho Chi Minh City Area Using The Isotope Hydrology Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Huynh Long; Tran Bich Lien; Luong Thu Tra

    2013-01-01

    The obtained data on nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen concentration of 100 groundwater samples collected from 3 main aquifers show that although the nitrate concentration is still lower than the authorized limit of this compound in groundwater but the concentration and, specially the distribution of nitrate in shallow aquifer (Pleistocene) shows the increasing tendency in pollution level while ammonium and also total nitrogen content exceeded the authorized limit of these compounds in groundwater. For deeper aquifers (Upper and Lower Pliocene) groundwater is less polluted by nitrogen compounds. Analysis data on isotopic composition δ 15 N and δ 18 O of nitrate of the collected groundwater samples in compiling with other environmental isotopes data as δ 2 H, δ 18 O of water and natural radioactive isotopes in groundwater ( 3 H and 14 C) show that nitrate in Pleistocene groundwater is derived from both sources, geogenic source such as organic matter buried in aquifer soil layers and anthropogenic source like fertilizers, manure and septic wastes with the dominance of anthropogenic source. At the same time, obtained isotopic data proved the geogenic source of nitrate in water of the deeper aquifers. Study results on infiltration rate and infiltration depth of fertilizers and water using tracer techniques in the zone specializing in legume cultivation of the study area show the possible infiltration into shallow groundwater of water and also fertilizers. The obtained results prove the need of better management of the use of fertilizers for cultivation activities in the study area and to apply the advanced cultural manners for minimizing amount of fertilizers used. At the same time to strengthen wastes management and treatment in whole study area, especially in the zones which intake rain water as a recharge source to shallow groundwater such as Cu Chi, Hoc Mon and also inner city districts. (author)

  12. Infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 months old children in Slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Tafere, Tadese Ejigu; Abitew, Dereje Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated. This further compromises infant feeding practice. The aim of this study was to assess infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 month old children in the study area. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 mothers with 0-24 month old children from June 01-30 / 2016. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Infant and young child feeding practice was assessed using the fifteen World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was 113 (84%). Sixty (15%) mothers gave prelacteal feeds and, 96 (23%) mothers used a bottle to feed their index child. Appropriate complementary feeding practice was only 20 (7%). Thirty nine out of forty mothers introduced complementary food timely, 131 (47%) of mothers gave the minimum meal frequency, and 20 (7%) children took the minimum food diversity and acceptable diet. Independent predictors for complementary feeding practice were having secondary and above education of the mother, receiving postnatal care, possession of radio and giving birth at hospital. In this study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice was poor. Therefore, there is a need for strengthening the promotion on IYCF practice during postnatal care and using mass media to giving emphasis for optimal complementary feeding practices, especially for mothers with a lower educational status.

  13. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Agricultural Soil-Maize System of a Gold Mining Area in Pingdu City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution in agricultural soils easily occur in the gold mining area and thereby negatively impact ecosystem and human health. Therefore, this study selected the soil-maize system in the typical gold mining area of Pingdu City as the case study. The ecological risk of heavy metals in farmland soil was evaluated using geo -accumulation index method and Nemero index method. Human health risk was evaluated using target hazard quotients(THQmethod. The results showed that the potential ecological risk of the four heavy metals in agricultural soils had an order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cr, which potentially induced mediate risk and/or above. Thereinto, the potential ecological risk of Cd was extremely heavy. The integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals were all light and/or above. Thereinto, the integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals in the half of the sampling sites potentially were medium and/or above. The potential health risk of a heavy metal(Cd, Zn, Pb or Crwas low to residents in the studied area when they ate maize and their products. However, there was a certain level of the integrated potential health risk, considering the total hazard index of 2.99×10-3 for adults and 7.13×10-3 for children. Cd contributed the most to the integrated potential health risk, with a contribution of 60.30%. The integrated potential health risk of the four heavy metals was greater to children than adults.

  14. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gondim Calvasina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Questionnaires structuralized with questions on transgenic foods with consumers of a situated supermarket in noble area of the city of Fortaleza in the period of March of 2003 had been applied. Sixty consumers had participated of the study who at the moment were making purchases in the supermarket. It was presented the end of the interview, to each consumer, a list of products, removed of the guide of the transgenic food consumer and not transgenic, available on the Greenpeace. In each list, people would have to recognize or not products of its habitual consumption. It was verified that 50% of the interviewed people had higher level of school knowledge, with 63,3% answering that they knew what transgenic foods are; 53,3% always look at the label during the purchase, being that the majority (76,7% never saw, in the label, mention if the product is or not transgenic. It was evidenced, when interrogating on the possible risks to the health, that 33.3% find that they cause illnesses, however 51.7% would not be imported in consuming them. The opinion of the people regarding the release of these products is major (73,3% in agreeing that the Federal Government must wait more research. From the list of products presented to the interviewed, 60% had told that they consume enter 5 to 9 products. It was evidenced that still a lack knowledge exists on the presence of transgenic in industrialized products, as well as how much to the risks consuming it. It has necessity of

  15. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  16. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  17. Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mugica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out from 2003 to 2004 with the aim to develop the PM2.5 emission source profiles from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, as well as emission source profiles from waste incineration, wood burning, LP gas combustion, and meat broiling. Over 25 chemical species were quantified from the fine particles emitted by the different combustion sources investigated, including organic and elemental carbon, ions, and elements. The OC/TC ratio found in the different PM2.5 profiles was dissimilar as well as the sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil species, and trace element content. Consequently, these combustion emission profiles could be used in source reconciliation studies for fine particles.

  18. Simulation of low-carbon tourism in world natural and cultural heritage areas: An application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiuping; Yao Liming; Mo Liwen

    2011-01-01

    The national goal of 40-45% mitigation of the 2005 level intensity of carbon by 2020 was announced by the Chinese government at the Copenhagen Conference. Every industry in China is preparing to realize this national reduction target. Some attempts have been made to achieve low-carbon development in a few industries, but relatively little work has linked low-carbon development to tourism. This article concentrates on how to develop low-carbon tourism using a quantitative approach. Firstly, the tourism system including some mutual influence factors is investigated and some historical data are given in support for the research of their quantitative relationship. Secondly, a differential dynamic system model with fuzzy coefficients is proposed to predict tourism revenue, energy consumption, waste emissions and the carbon intensity. Finally, an application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China (LCSD), as a representative of a world natural and cultural heritage area, is presented to show the trend of modern tourism in a low-carbon economy and prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. - Highlights: → The system of low-carbon tourism is described. → A differential dynamic model with fuzzy coefficients is developed. → Carbon intensity in the tourism system will gradually decrease. → Some suggestions about developing low-carbon tourism are exhibited.

  19. Microbiological and serological control of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in kindergarten staff in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina J. Fernández-Brando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections are implicated in the development of the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Despite the magnitude of the social and economic problems caused by HUS, no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is currently available for human use. Prevention of STEC infections continues being the most important measure to reduce HUS incidence. This is especially true for Argentina where HUS incidence among children is extremely high and shows an endemic pattern. The aim of this work was to investigate serologically adult staff of kindergartens in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas in order to detect possible carriers, and to educate personnel about good practices to reduce HUS transmission. We also assessed the microbiological quality of water and meal samples from the same kindergartens. We tested 67 healthy adults, 13 water supplies and 6 meals belonging to 6 public kindergartens. We analysed hand swabs for isolation of STEC and serum samples for the presence of antibodies against Stx and lipopolysaccharide (LPS of O157 serogroup. We identified 46 Stx2-positive individuals, but only 7 for O157 LPS. No presence of STEC pathogens was detected in hands of staff, water or meal samples

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DELIMITATION OF THE PRESERVATION AREA STANDING IN ESPINHARAS RIVER IN THE URBAN STRETCH OF THE CITY OF PATOS-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to present and evaluate the proposal of the delimitation of the permanent preservation area (APP of the urban stretch of Espinharas River in the city of Patos-PB, carried out by the Superintendence and Management of the Environment - SUDEMA - Paraíba and to diagnose the main environmental impacts The demarcation was made from georeferenced points collected on the river, and the identification of the main environmental impacts. It identified a wide variation in the river rail between 10 and 50 meters, due to impacts and changes occurring in the anthropic process. The delimitation of PPA was 50 meters from the widest rail. The main impacts observed were: removal of riparian vegetation; pollution by the dumping of sewage and solid waste, siltation, invading of the banks with buildings and agricultural uses. It infers even though the lack of oversight occurs, failure of public authorities and of the local population in the search for solutions to the problems identified.

  1. Spatial distribution, environmental risk and source of heavy metals in street dust from an industrial city in semi-arid area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiufeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.

  2. Heavy metal and persistent organic compound contamination in soil from Wenling: an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Shi, Dezhi; Cheema, Sardar A; Khan, Muhammad I; Zhang, Congkai; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-01-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate the levels and sources of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg and As) and persistent organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils taken from Wenling, an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou, China. The results suggested that most heavy metals exceeded the respective Grade II value of soil quality standards from State Environmental Protection Administration of China and also exceeded the Dutch optimum values. Total PAHs in soil ranged from 371.8 to 1231.2 microg/kg, and relatively higher PAHs concentrations were found in soils taken from simple household workshops. PCBs were detectable in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 52.0 to 5789.5 microg/kg, which were 2.1-232.5 times higher than that from the reference site (24.9 microg/kg). Results of this study suggested soil in the Wenling e-waste recycling area were heavily contaminated by heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs. Furthermore, compared with large-scale plants, simple household workshops contributed more heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs pollution to the soil environment, indicating that soil contamination from e-waste recycling in simple household workshops should be given more attention.

  3. Simulation of low-carbon tourism in world natural and cultural heritage areas: An application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Jiuping, E-mail: xujiuping@scu.edu.cn [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yao Liming; Mo Liwen [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The national goal of 40-45% mitigation of the 2005 level intensity of carbon by 2020 was announced by the Chinese government at the Copenhagen Conference. Every industry in China is preparing to realize this national reduction target. Some attempts have been made to achieve low-carbon development in a few industries, but relatively little work has linked low-carbon development to tourism. This article concentrates on how to develop low-carbon tourism using a quantitative approach. Firstly, the tourism system including some mutual influence factors is investigated and some historical data are given in support for the research of their quantitative relationship. Secondly, a differential dynamic system model with fuzzy coefficients is proposed to predict tourism revenue, energy consumption, waste emissions and the carbon intensity. Finally, an application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China (LCSD), as a representative of a world natural and cultural heritage area, is presented to show the trend of modern tourism in a low-carbon economy and prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. - Highlights: > The system of low-carbon tourism is described. > A differential dynamic model with fuzzy coefficients is developed. > Carbon intensity in the tourism system will gradually decrease. > Some suggestions about developing low-carbon tourism are exhibited.

  4. The impact of the use of intraoperative radiotherapy on costs, travel time and distance for women with breast cancer in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Picó-Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Quintero-Rodríguez, Carlos Eduardo; Almog, David; Santiago-Concha, Gabriel; Flores-Balcazar, Christian Haydee; Corona, Jaime; Vazquez-Romo, Rafael; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Mohar, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The low availability and poor access to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in developing countries makes it hard for women with breast cancer to receive breast conservation. We studied the effect of providing intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on the travel time, distance, and costs of in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Sixty-nine patients treated between January 2013 and September 2014 were analyzed. Travel distance and transit time was calculated using Google Maps. The time and distance patients living in the MCMA treated with IORT would have spent if they had received EBRT was calculated. Cost analysis for each modality was performed. 71% (n = 49) lived in the MCMA. Sixteen (33%) received additional EBRT and 33 (66%) received IORT only. Mean driving distance and transit time of those 33 women was 132.6 km (SD 25.7) and 66 min (SD 32.9). Patients from the MCMA receiving IORT alone avoided 990 visits, 43 700 km and 65 400 min in transit. IORT led to a 12% reduction in costs per patient. By reducing costs and time needed for patients to receive radiotherapy, IORT could potentially enhance access to breast conservation in resource-limited developing countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How smart is smart? Theoretical and empirical considerations on implementing smart city objectives – a case study of Dutch railway station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, Patrick; Geertman, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The current widespread attention on the concept of smart city in both policy and practice has stimulated academic discussion regarding the scope and applicability of this concept. An important question is whether cities and regions are truly advanced in implementing the concept in their policies and

  6. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  7. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H. [Zunyi Medical University, School of Public Health, Zunyi, Guizhou (China); Xun, M. [Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Department of Medicine Laboratory, Zunyi (China); Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X. [Zunyi Medical University, School of Public Health, Zunyi, Guizhou (China)

    2014-09-23

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM{sub 2.5} was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM{sub 2.5} in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV{sub 1}, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV{sub 1}, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM{sub 2.5} exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke.

  8. Correlation between air pollution and weather data in urban areas: Assessment of the city of Rome (Italy) as spatially and temporally independent regarding pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Gabriele; de Lieto Vollaro, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution represents the biggest environmental risk for health. It is so widespread and it represents one of the main problems of the worldwide, especially because it is emitted by so many different types of sources. The pollutants can originate directly by exhausted or they can be formed because of the reaction with the atmosphere. The first one includes particulate matter and gaseous pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon oxides. The second one includes the ozone formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and particulate sulfate and nitrate aerosols created in the atmosphere from sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases. During the entire life course, people are exposed to the pollutants and suffer from different consequences depending on the age. The first nine month of life are generally recognized as more critical than latter time periods. The mortality associated to air pollutant exposure is main related to the concentrations of NOx , ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxides and particular matter. More than 92% of the world's population lives in places where air quality levels exceed the standards. In 2012, one out of every nine deaths was the result of air pollution-related conditions. In 2016 about 3 million deaths a year were linked to exposure to outdoor air pollution. In the last few years many epidemiological studies have shown associations between air pollutant concentrations and human health. Apart from people, even monuments and artworks can be damaged by pollution, especially in city centres. Furthermore, urbanization modified microclimate conditions of the cities, and, together with traffic and domestic heating, led to a discomfort of living conditions. For these reasons, there is the necessity to improve the research on the impact of pollutant and microclimate conditions inside urban areas. In this work different kinds of pollutants in Rome from 2006 to 2015 were analysed, and different techniques of post elaboration were used

  9. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  10. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  11. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines