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Sample records for botulinum strains isolated

  1. An Atypical Clostridium Strain Related to the Clostridium botulinum Group III Strain Isolated from a Human Blood Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R.

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  2. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Strains Isolated from Fish and Fishery Products

    OpenAIRE

    HyytiÀ, E.; Hielm, S.; Björkroth, J.; Korkeala, H.

    1999-01-01

    The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effect...

  3. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiä, E; Hielm, S; Björkroth, J; Korkeala, H

    1999-05-01

    The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks. PMID:10224001

  4. Analysis of a unique Clostridium botulinum strain from the Southern hemisphere producing a novel type E botulinum neurotoxin subtype

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    Raphael Brian H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum strains that produce botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E are most commonly isolated from botulism cases, marine environments, and animals in regions of high latitude in the Northern hemisphere. A strain of C. botulinum type E (CDC66177 was isolated from soil in Chubut, Argentina. Previous studies showed that the amino acid sequences of BoNT/E produced by various strains differ by rarA operon. Results Genetic and mass spectral analysis demonstrated that the BoNT/E produced by CDC66177 is a novel toxin subtype (E9. Toxin gene sequencing indicated that BoNT/E9 differed by nearly 11% at the amino acid level compared to BoNT/E1. Mass spectrometric analysis of BoNT/E9 revealed that its endopeptidase substrate cleavage site was identical to other BoNT/E subtypes. Further analysis of this strain demonstrated that its 16S rRNA sequence clustered with other Group II C. botulinum (producing BoNT types B, E, and F strains. Genomic DNA isolated from strain CDC66177 hybridized with fewer probes using a Group II C. botulinum subtyping microarray compared to other type E strains examined. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of strain CDC66177 revealed that while the toxin gene cluster inserted into the rarA operon similar to other type E strains, its overall genome content shared greater similarity with a Group II C. botulinum type B strain (17B. Conclusions These results expand our understanding of the global distribution of C. botulinum type E strains and suggest that the type E toxin gene cluster may be able to insert into C. botulinum strains with a more diverse genetic background than previously recognized.

  5. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes

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    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R.

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947–1961], 43 from France [1986–2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2′) A5(B3′), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  6. Systemic colonization of clover (Trifolium repens) by Clostridium botulinum strain 2301

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    Zeiller, Matthias; Rothballer, Michael; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Böhnel, Helge; Gessler, Frank; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cases of botulism in cattle and other farm animals and also in farmers increased dramatically. It was proposed, that these cases could be affiliated with the spreading of compost or other organic manures contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores on farm land. Thus, soils and fodder plants and finally farm animals could be contaminated. Therefore, the colonization behavior and interaction of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT D) producing C. botulinum strain 2301 and the non-toxin producing Clostridium sporogenes strain 1739 were investigated on clover (Trifolium repens) in a field experiment as well as in phytochamber experiments applying axenic and additionally soil based systems under controlled conditions. Plants were harvested and divided into root and shoot parts for further DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays; subsamples were fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, we observed significant differences in the growth behavior of clover plants when inoculated with clostridial spores, indicating a plant growth promoting effect. Inoculated plants showed an increased growth index (shoot size, wet and dry weight) and an enlarged root system induced by the systemic colonization of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301. To target C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, 16S rDNA directed primers were used and to specifically detect C. botulinum, BoNT D toxin genes targeted primers, using a multiplex PCR approach, were applied. Our results demonstrate an effective colonization of roots and shoots of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301 and C. sporogenes strain 1739. Detailed analysis of colonization behavior showed that C. botulinum can occur as individual cells, in cell clusters and in microcolonies within the rhizosphere, lateral roots and within the roots tissue of clover. PMID:26583010

  7. A penicillin- and metronidazole-resistant Clostridium botulinum strain responsible for an infant botulism case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuet, C; Yoon, E-J; Boyer, S; Pignier, S; Blanc, T; Doehring, I; Meziane-Cherif, D; Dumant-Forest, C; Sautereau, J; Legeay, C; Bouvet, P; Bouchier, C; Quijano-Roy, S; Pestel-Caron, M; Courvalin, P; Popoff, M R

    2016-07-01

    The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C. botulinum isolate. The purified recombinant penicillinase was assayed. Resistance to β-lactams was in agreement with the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. In addition, the β-lactamase gene cluster was found in three C. botulinum genomes in databanks and in two of 62 genomes of our collection, all the strains belonging to group I C. botulinum. This is the first report of a C. botulinum isolate resistant to penicillins. This stresses the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing for adequate therapy of botulism. PMID:27108966

  8. Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K K; Smith, T J; Helma, C H; Ticknor, L O; Foley, B T; Svennson, R T; Brown, J L; Johnson, E A; Smith, L A; Okinaka, R T; Jackson, P J; Marks, J D

    2006-07-06

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore forming rod-shaped bacteria which have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and even death in humans and various other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and BoNT genes to examine genetic diversity within this species. This collection contained representatives of each of the seven different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT A-G). Analysis of the16S rRNA sequences confirmed earlier reports of at least four distinct genomic backgrounds (Groups I-IV) each of which has independently acquired one or more BoNT serotypes through horizontal gene transfer. AFLP analysis provided higher resolution, and can be used to further subdivide the four groups into sub-groups. Sequencing of the BoNT genes from serotypes A, B and E in multiple strains confirmed significant sequence variation within each serotype. Four distinct lineages within each of the BoNT A and B serotypes, and five distinct lineages of serotype E strains were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the seven serotypes of BoNT were compared and show varying degrees of interrelatedness and recombination as has been previously noted for the NTNH gene which is linked to BoNT. These analyses contribute to the understanding of the evolution and phylogeny within this species and assist in the development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for treatment of botulism.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin FA from a Genetically Modified Clostridium botulinum Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Sabine; Tepp, William H; Bradshaw, Marite; Kalb, Suzanne R; Dykes, Janet K; Lin, Guangyun; Nawrocki, Erin M; Pier, Christina L; Barr, John R; Maslanka, Susan E; Johnson, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridial species, are the cause of the severe disease botulism in humans and animals. Early research on BoNTs has led to their classification into seven serotypes (serotypes A to G) based upon the selective neutralization of their toxicity in mice by homologous antibodies. Recently, a report of a potential eighth serotype of BoNT, designated "type H," has been controversial. This novel BoNT was produced together with BoNT/B2 in a dual-toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strain. The data used to designate this novel toxin as a new serotype were derived from culture supernatant containing both BoNT/B2 and novel toxin and from sequence information, although data from two independent laboratories indicated neutralization by antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, and classification as BoNT/FA was proposed. The sequence data indicate a chimeric structure consisting of a BoNT/A1 receptor binding domain, a BoNT/F5 light-chain domain, and a novel translocation domain most closely related to BoNT/F1. Here, we describe characterization of this toxin purified from the native strain in which expression of the second BoNT (BoNT/B) has been eliminated. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the toxin preparation contained only BoNT/FA and confirmed catalytic activity analogous to that of BoNT/F5. The in vivo mouse bioassay indicated a specific activity of this toxin of 3.8 × 10(7) mouse 50% lethal dose (mLD50) units/mg, whereas activity in cultured human neurons was very high (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.02 mLD50/well). Neutralization assays in cells and mice both indicated full neutralization by various antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, although at 16- to 20-fold-lower efficiency than for BoNT/A1. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by anaerobic bacteria, are the cause of the potentially deadly, neuroparalytic disease botulism. BoNTs have been classified into seven serotypes, serotypes A

  10. Synergistic Inactivation of Spores of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Strains by High Pressure and Heat Is Strain and Product Dependent▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, M. K.; Olivier, S. A.; van Diepenbeek, R. J.; Kormelink, F.; Chapman, B

    2008-01-01

    The combined high pressure and heat resistances of spores of five proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains and of the nonpathogenic surrogate strain Clostridium sporogenes PA3679 were compared with their heat-only resistances on the basis of equivalent accumulated thermal lethality, expressed as equivalent minutes at a reference temperature of 105°C (F105°C). Comparisons were made with three model (i.e., diluted) products, namely, 30% (wt/wt) Bolognese sauce, 50% (wt/wt) cream sauce, and ric...

  11. Characterization of toxin complex produced by a unique strain of Clostridium botulinum serotype D 4947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kimiko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sato, Hiroaki; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Mutoh, Shingo; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamano, Akihito; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Takeshi, Kouichi; Kamaguchi, Arihide; Fujinaga, Yukako; Oguma, Keiji; Ohyama, Tohru

    2004-08-01

    A unique strain of Clostridium botulinum, serotype D 4947 (D-4947), produces a considerable amount of a 650 kDa toxin complex (L-TC) and a small amount of a 280 kDa M-TC, a 540 kDa TC, and a 610 kDa TC. The complexes are composed of only un-nicked components, including neurotoxin (NT), nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and hemagglutinin subcomponents (HA-70, HA-33 and HA-17). Unlike other NTs from all serotype strains, separation of D-4947 NT from L-TC, except for M-TC, during chromatography required highly alkaline conditions around pH 8.8. The separated NT and NTNHA/HAs complex can be reconstituted to L-TC that is indistinguishable from the parent L-TC with respect to toxicity, hemagglutination activity and gel filtration profile. The isoelectric points of NT and NTNHA/HAs were close together depending on the number of HA-33/17 molecules. We have established a new method to separate the unique D-4947 NT from the complex, which will yield valuable information on structure of botulinum toxin. PMID:15517984

  12. The Gene CBO0515 from Clostridium botulinum Strain Hall A Encodes the Rare Enzyme N5-(Carboxyethyl) Ornithine Synthase, EC 1.5.1.24▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Hill, Karen K.; Smith, Theresa J.; Pikis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A revealed a gene (CBO0515), whose putative amino acid sequence was suggestive of the rare enzyme N5-(1-carboxyethyl) ornithine synthase. To test this hypothesis, CBO0515 has been cloned, and the encoded polypeptide was purified and characterized. This unusual gene appears to be confined to proteolytic strains assigned to group 1 of C. botulinum. PMID:19933367

  13. Molecular composition of the 16S toxin produced by a Clostridium botulinum type D strain, 1873.

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    Nakajima, H; Inoue, K; Ikeda, T; Fujinaga, Y; Sunagawa, H; Takeshi, K; Ohyama, T; Watanabe, T; Inoue, K; Oguma, K

    1998-01-01

    The 16S toxin was purified from a Clostridium botulinum type D strain 1873 (D-1873). Furthermore, the entire nucleotide sequences of the genes coding for the 16S toxin were determined. It became clear that the purified D-1873 16S toxin consists of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH), and hemagglutinin (HA), and that HA consists of four subcomponents, HA1, HA2, HA3a, and HA3b, the same as type D strain CB16 (D-CB16) 16S toxin. The nucleotide sequences of the nontoxic components of these two strains were also found to be identical except for several bases. However, the culture supernatant and the purified 16S toxin of D-1873 showed little HA activity, unlike D-CB16, though the fractions successively eluted after the D-1873 16S toxin peak from an SP-Toyopearl 650S column showed a low level of HA activity. The main difference between D-1873 and D-CB16 HA molecules was the mobility of the HA1 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Therefore it was presumed that the loss of HA activity of D-1873 16S toxin might be caused by the differences of processing HA after the translation. PMID:9802560

  14. Characterization of the spore surface and exosporium proteins of Clostridium sporogenes; implications for Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

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    Janganan, Thamarai K; Mullin, Nic; Tzokov, Svetomir B; Stringer, Sandra; Fagan, Robert P; Hobbs, Jamie K; Moir, Anne; Bullough, Per A

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium sporogenes is a non-pathogenic close relative and surrogate for Group I (proteolytic) neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strains. The exosporium, the sac-like outermost layer of spores of these species, is likely to contribute to adhesion, dissemination, and virulence. A paracrystalline array, hairy nap, and several appendages were detected in the exosporium of C. sporogenes strain NCIMB 701792 by EM and AFM. The protein composition of purified exosporium was explored by LC-MS/MS of tryptic peptides from major individual SDS-PAGE-separated protein bands, and from bulk exosporium. Two high molecular weight protein bands both contained the same protein with a collagen-like repeat domain, the probable constituent of the hairy nap, as well as cysteine-rich proteins CsxA and CsxB. A third cysteine-rich protein (CsxC) was also identified. These three proteins are also encoded in C. botulinum Prevot 594, and homologues (75-100% amino acid identity) are encoded in many other Group I strains. This work provides the first insight into the likely composition and organization of the exosporium of Group I C. botulinum spores. PMID:27375261

  15. Effects of Megaplasmid Loss on Growth of Neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum Strains and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Expression

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    Scalfaro, Concetta; Iacobino, Angelo; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano; Franciosa, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium butyricum strains that atypically produce the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) possess a megaplasmid of unknown functions in their genome. In this study, we cured two botulinum neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains of their megaplasmids, and compared the obtained megaplasmid-cured strains to their respective wild-type parental strains. Our results showed that the megaplasmids do not confer beta-lactam resistance on the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains, although they carry several putative beta-lactamase genes. Instead, we found that the megaplasmids are essential for growth of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains at the relatively low temperature of 15°C, and are also relevant for growth of strains under limiting pH and salinity conditions, as well as under favorable environmental conditions. Moreover, the presence of the megaplasmids was associated with increased transcript levels of the gene encoding BoNT/E in the C. butyricum type E strains, indicating that the megaplasmids likely contain transcriptional regulators. However, the levels of BoNT/E in the supernatants of the cured and uncured strains were similar after 24 and 48 h culture, suggesting that expression of BoNT/E in the C. butyricum type E strains is not ultimately controlled by the megaplasmids. Together, our results reveal that the C. butyricum type E megaplasmids exert pleiotropic effects on the growth of their microbial hosts under optimal and limiting environmental conditions, and also highlight the possibility of original regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of BoNT/E. PMID:26941734

  16. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

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    Hanna Skarin

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  17. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E associated with a large outbreak of botulism in wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

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    Hannett, George E; Stone, Ward B; Davis, Stephen W; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2011-02-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was detected in 110 samples from birds, 12 samples from fish, and 2 samples from mammals. Sediment samples from Lake Erie were also examined for the presence of C. botulinum. Fifteen of 17 sediment samples were positive for the presence of C. botulinum type E. Eighty-one C. botulinum isolates were obtained from plants, animals, and sediments; of these isolates, 44 C. botulinum isolates produced type E toxin, as determined by mouse bioassay, while the remaining 37 isolates were not toxic for mice. All toxin-producing isolates were typed by RAPD; that analysis showed 12 different RAPD types and multiple subtypes. Our study thus demonstrates that multiple genetically distinct strains of C. botulinum were involved in the present outbreak of wildlife botulism. We found that C. botulinum type E is present in the sediments of Lake Erie and that a large range of bird and fish species is affected. PMID:21115703

  18. Botulinum toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Savardekar Preeti

    1989-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G). All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about...

  19. Botulinum Toxin; Bioterror and Biomedicinal Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Patocka; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun

    2006-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is a group of seven homologous, highly poisonous proteins isolated fromfermentation of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which naturally occurs in soiland can grow on many meats and vegetables. Botulinum toxin causes neuromuscular disordercalled botulism, which is a potentially lethal disease. There are three types of botulism: Food,wound, and infant botulism. It can lead to death unless appropriate therapy is done. Due to theseverity and potency of botulinum toxi...

  20. Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, F. Mark; Piazza, Timothy M.; Zeytin, Füsûn N.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in complex matrices is required for pharmaceutical, environmental, and food sample testing. Rapid BoNT testing of foodstuffs is needed during outbreak forensics, patient diagnosis, and food safety testing while accurate potency testing is required for BoNT-based drug product manufacturing and patient safety. The widely used mouse bioassay for BoNT testing is highly sensitive but lacks the precision and throughput needed for ...

  1. Botulinum Toxin; Bioterror and Biomedicinal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patocka

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin is a group of seven homologous, highly poisonous proteins isolated fromfermentation of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which naturally occurs in soiland can grow on many meats and vegetables. Botulinum toxin causes neuromuscular disordercalled botulism, which is a potentially lethal disease. There are three types of botulism: Food,wound, and infant botulism. It can lead to death unless appropriate therapy is done. Due to theseverity and potency of botulinum toxin, its importance as a biological weapon is of majorconcern to public health officials. Nevertheless, botulinum toxin is also medicament.

  2. Shewanella strain isolated from black powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia T.S.; Contador, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C.; Galvao, Mariana M. [National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Black powder is a term frequently used to refer to residues formed by various types of iron sulfides mixed with contaminants eventually present in the natural gas flow. According to some researchers, the occurrence of black powder in gas pipelines, besides its chemical corrosion origin, can be directly related to the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) metabolism in this environment. A black powder sample was inoculated in a Post gate E medium modified with the addition of thioglycolate. The resulting positive culture was kept in the laboratory for four years until its use. A dilution technique was then performed aiming to isolate an SRB strain. The bacterial strain isolated and identified through DNA sequencing was not an SRB but rather a Shewanella sp. Compared to the sulfate-reducing bacteria group-traditionally considered the foremost responsible for microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) - Shewanella is a facultative anaerobe and has a versatile metabolism. Shewanella is able to reduce ferric iron and sulfite, oxidize hydrogen gas, and produce hydrogen sulfide; therefore, these bacteria can be responsible for MIC and pit formation. The isolated Shewanella was used in a corrosion experiment, and the corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, identifying iron sulfides, iron oxides, and sulfur. Our results indicate that the strain isolated, S. putrefaciens, plays a key role in corrosion problems in gas pipelines. (author)

  3. New Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through Extensive Genome Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Mermoud, Isabelle; Desoutter, Denise; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia). Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination. PMID:27242769

  4. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  5. Botox (Botulinum Toxin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Botox (Botulinum Toxin) A A A BEFORE: Crow's feet before Botox ... wrinkles. One such procedure involves the use of botulinum toxin injections. Botulinum toxin is produced by the fermentation ...

  6. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.;

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type...

  7. Preliminary study on the isolation of Clostridium butyricum strains from natural sources in the UK and screening the isolates for presence of the type E botulinal toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoddusi, Hamid B; Sherburn, Richard

    2010-08-15

    Clostridia such as Clostridium tyrobutyricum, C. pasteurianum and C. butyricum may cause spoilage problems in certain types of food, but they are not normally regarded as dangerous. However some strains of C. butyricum have acquired the type E botulinum neurotoxin gene and have caused both infant and classical botulism in Italy (1986), China (1994) and India (1996). This study was carried out to examine a range of samples from fresh vegetables to food and environmental samples in the UK and test their ability to produce type E botulinal neurotoxin (BoNT) by probing for the presence of the toxin gene. Samples were enriched in modified Bhat and Barker (MBB) broth which is a minimal medium with lactate and acetate as a source of carbon and energy. In addition selective antibiotics are present in the medium to favour the growth of C. butyricum. This was followed by plating out onto iron sulphite agar (ISA) for isolation of C. butyricum from food and environmental samples. A total of 978 samples were tested and 302 (31%) yielded presumptive C. butyricum isolates. The highest percentage of positives came from soil, potato skins, Swede skin, yoghurt and cream. No positive isolates were obtained from pate, garlic or spring greens. A sub-sample of isolates was examined for the presence of gene encoding the type E botulinum neurotoxin using PCR. Only one of the many existing PCR methods was successful and therefore used for screening C. butyricum isolates for the presence of the type E toxin gene. None of the 93 tested isolates were found to be toxigenic (type E botulinal neurotoxin). PMID:20633941

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sporogenes Strain UC9000 Isolated from Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Angela; Bassi, Daniela; Zotta, Teresa; Orrù, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sporogenesis a causative agent of food spoilage and is often used as the nontoxigenic surrogate forClostridium botulinum Here, we described the draft genome sequence and annotation ofC. sporogenesstrain UC9000 isolated from raw milk. PMID:27081128

  9. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  11. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  12. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  13. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Šuranská; Dana Vránová; Jiřina Omelková

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typ...

  14. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were ...

  15. GENOTIPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA INFANTIS STRAINS ISOLATED IN MARCHE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    M.B Valli; L. Paoloni; A.M. Dionosi; M. Staffolani; S. Fisichella

    2013-01-01

    In this study thirty-eight strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated in Marche Region from human cases, food, animal and environmental samples were analyzed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). All strains were typed by the DNA macro-restriction patterns obtained following PFGE of XbaI digests, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by the standardized disk diffusion method. The analysis of PFGE patterns by Bionumerics software demonstrated ...

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  17. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  18. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  19. Isolation and identification of a novel radio-resistant strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel radio-resistant strain named RL2 was studied polyphasically, which was isolated from the soils in the Gurban-Tunggut Desert, Xinjiang. The strain is Gam-positive, sphere-shaped and pink pigmented; The DNA (G+C) contents of RL2 is 71.62mo1%; The 16S rDNA genes of RL2 and D. radiodurans type strain DSM20539 shows a high level of similarity (97.2%). According to phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it can be suggested that the strain RL2 has been identified as Deinococcus. sp and it may be a novel species. (authors)

  20. Analysis of the neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum A1-A4 and B1 strains: BoNT/A3, /Ba4 and /B1 clusters are located within plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum and related clostridial species express extremely potent neurotoxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs that cause long-lasting, potentially fatal intoxications in humans and other mammals. The amino acid variation within the BoNT is used to categorize the species into seven immunologically distinct BoNT serotypes (A-G which are further divided into subtypes. The BoNTs are located within two generally conserved gene arrangements known as botulinum progenitor complexes which encode toxin-associated proteins involved in toxin stability and expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because serotype A and B strains are responsible for the vast majority of human botulism cases worldwide, the location, arrangement and sequences of genes from eight different toxin complexes representing four different BoNT/A subtypes (BoNT/A1-Ba4 and one BoNT/B1 strain were examined. The bivalent Ba4 strain contained both the BoNT/A4 and BoNT/bvB toxin clusters. The arrangements of the BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 subtypes differed from the BoNT/A1 strains and were similar to those of BoNT/A2. However, unlike the BoNT/A2 subtype, the toxin complex genes of BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 were found within large plasmids and not within the chromosome. In the Ba4 strain, both BoNT toxin clusters (A4 and bivalent B were located within the same 270 kb plasmid, separated by 97 kb. Complete genomic sequencing of the BoNT/B1 strain also revealed that its toxin complex genes were located within a 149 kb plasmid and the BoNT/A3 complex is within a 267 kb plasmid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite their size differences and the BoNT genes they contain, the three plasmids containing these toxin cluster genes share significant sequence identity. The presence of partial insertion sequence (IS elements, evidence of recombination/gene duplication events, and the discovery of the BoNT/A3, BoNT/Ba4 and BoNT/B1 toxin complex genes within plasmids illustrate the

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Acinetobacter Baumanii Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available      Aim :  In this study it was aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibilities of Acinetobacter baumanii strains isolated from various clinical samples sent to Tavsanli State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory retrospectively. Material and Method: All of the cultures were examined for the agent and antibiotic susceptibilities. For the identification of bacteria, various chemical tests and BBL Crystal E/NF (Beckton Dickinson, ABD system was used. Antibiotic susceptibilities were investigated according to CLSI criteria on Mueller Hinton agar by disc diffusion method. Results: There were 74 strains isolated and identified as Acinetobacter baumanii. Most of the strains were isolated from  tracheal aspirate specimens (46 % Most of the strains were isolated from nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance was high among strains. The most susceptible antibiotic was gentamicin (30%. Discussion: To prevent the development of resistance, antibiotics should be used carefully in appropriate doses and time, empirical  antibiotherapy should be determined for each centre according to resistance rates of the centre and should be regulated according to the antibiogram results. Increasing resistance rates in Acinetobacter strains leads to the usage of new alternative antibiotics.  

  2. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pis- tachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD.Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed.Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization.Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds.Keywords: Biodegradation; Goat feces; Klebsiella strains; Tannic acid

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains isolated from human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Derakhshandeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Group A and B1 are generally associated with commensals, whereas group B2 is associated with extra-intestinal pathotypes. Most enteropathogenic isolates, however, are assigned to group D. In the present study, a total of 102 E. coli strains, isolated from human samples, were used. Phylogenetic grouping was done based on the Clermont triplex PCR method using primers targeted at three genetic markers, chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2. Group A contained the majority of the collected isolates (69 isolates, 67.64%, followed by group B2 (18 isolates, 17.64% and D (15 isolates, 14.7% and no strains were found to belong to group B1. The distribution of phylogenetic groups in our study suggests that although the majority of strains were commensals, the prevalence of enteropathogenic and extra-intestinal pathotypes was noteworthy. Therefore, the role of E. coli in human infections including diarrhea, urinary tract infections and meningitis should be considered.

  4. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    strain of M. bovis (PG45(T)) were assayed for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites in the chromosomal DNA by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technique. The obtained genomic fingerprints consisted of 62-68 AFLP fragments in the size range of 50-500 bp....... Among the analyzed strains, 18 different AFLP profiles were detected. The similarity between individual fingerprints, calculated by Dice similarity coefficient, ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Twenty-five strains, including 23 which were isolated during two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis which occurred...... homogeneity of Danish strains of M. bovis that were probably epidemiologically related and which have remained stable for a considerable length of time. Furthermore; this study has demonstrated that AFLP can be used for genomic fingerprinting and discrimination of M. bovis strains....

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  6. Genetic Characterization of Four Strains Borrelia Burgdorferi Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾霞; 王树声; 张涛; 毕胜利; 周永东

    2004-01-01

    To study the genetic characterization of four strains of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated in China. PCR technique was used to amplify the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer DNA from the whole cellular DNA of isolated GXLD-4, 9, 18 and Chang 14, and then the amplified products were cloned into plasmid pGEM-T Easy and sequenced. It was found that the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer DNA of the four isolates was 242 bp, revealing the nucleotide sequence identity of more than 99%. The four isolates had higher sequence identify with Borrelia valaisiana than with other genetic groups. These four isolates most likely belong to Borrelia valaisiana genomic group.

  7. A STUDY OF ATYPICAL YERSINIA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM MOSELLE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soltan Dallal

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Biotypes, serotypes and lysotypes of 38 Yersinia isolated from 48 water samples were studied. These strains belonged to Y.enterocolitica, Y.frederiksenii, Y.kristensenii and Y. intermedia. Except 23.7% of non-serotypable strains, ten different serotypes were isolated of which 0:6 and 0:10 kl were the most frequent. The serotypes 0:3, 0:8, 0:9 responsible for almost all registered cases of yersiniosis in man were not detected. However, a few types 0:5, 0:6, 0:10 kl isolated rarely from specimens (urine of feces of patients were found. These serotypes can be used for correlation with Yersinia and yersiniosis in man.

  8. The isolation, characterization and evaluation of Frankia strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P.; Lalonde, M.; Fortin, J.A.; Chatarpaul, L.

    1984-01-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO/sub 4/) was used as the sterilizing agent to isolate the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Frankia from nodules of host plants. This treatment resulted in a pure culture collection of 250 Frankia isolates from several species of Alnus (crispa, rugosa, viridis, glutinosa, and serrulata) and from other actinorhizal species from Quebec. Frankia isolates from A. viridis and S. canadensis are reported in this document for the first time. Sugars from whole-cell hydrolysates of the organisms were analysed by gas liquid chromatography to identify strains previously screened on the basis of morphology and infectivity. This technique proved especially useful for those isolates whose morphology was atypical (ACN8, ArgN22, SCN9, and SCN10). It was demonstrated that sugar analysis (2-O-methy-D-mannose, in particular) can be important in resolving the taxonomy of Frankia. The nitrogen-fixing efficiency of some Frankia strains was evaluated by inoculating A. crispa. It was found that the efficiency of organisms was not influenced by the host from which they were first isolated. However, significant differences between some isolates of the same provenance occurred. It was also found that those strains of Frankia which do not sporulate were more effective in fixing nitrogen than those which do. It is proposed that the terms type P and type N be used to designate spore positive (Sp/sup +/) and spore negative (Sp/sup -/) Frankia strains, respectively. Further, it is recommended that sporulation type be used as a valid basis for species definition in the genus Frankia. 118 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l-1). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  10. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium. PMID:23166618

  11. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment over the course of many years without side effects from long-term use. Immunity Because botulinum neurotoxin is a biological product, it ... but not the result you expected or unacceptable side effects, ask your ... a patient for immunity by injecting a tiny amount of botulinum neurotoxin ...

  12. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    , catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates. Strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally sensitive to food processing (cold, heat, drying) and storage conditions. The 327 whole genome...

  13. Isolation and characterization of organic-sulfur degradation bacterial strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; DIAO Meng-xue; SHI Wu-yang; LI Li; DAI Qin-yun; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain that was capable of degrading organic sulfur (dibenzothiophene) was isolated by enrichment techniques from the petroleum-contaminated soil collected from Zhongyuan Oil Field. The strain is named ZYX and is gram-positive.This strain undergoes bacilus-coccus morphological change, and forms yellow-pigment glossy circular colonies with 1.5 mm in diameter on average after 2 d incubation on Luria-Bertani(LB) plates. The full-length of 16S rDNA sequence of strain ZYX was determined and analyzed. Strain ZYX is found most relative with the genus of Arthrobacter. The similarity values between ZYX and Arthrobacter sp. P2 is 99.53%. The main morphological, biochemical and physiological features of strain ZYX accord with those of Arthrobacter. It is found that the optimal initial pH for growth is about 7.0, and the optimal concentration of dibenzothiophene(DBT)for growth is 0.10 g/L. Additionally, the results show that the best carbon source and nitrogen source are glycerol and glutamine,respectively.

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Acinetobacter Baumanii Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

         Aim :  In this study it was aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibilities of Acinetobacter baumanii strains isolated from various clinical samples sent to Tavsanli State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory retrospectively. Material and Method: All of the cultures were examined for the agent and antibiotic susceptibilities. For the identification of bacteria, various chemical tests and BBL Crystal E/NF (Beckton Dickinson, ABD) system was used. Antibiotic susce...

  15. Isolation and identification of the thermophilic alkaline desulphuricant strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A desulfurization strain that belongs to the thermophilic alkaline desulphuricant is designated as strain GDJ-3 and isolated from Inner Mongolia, China. The colony of the strain shows tiny, yellow, or white-yellow, and it becomes henna with the protracting of cultivated time. The cells are bacilliform (0.3 -0.6 × 1.0-1.2 μm), motive, and Gram negative. The strain GDJ-3 is able to utilize respectively the thiosulphate, sulfate, sulfite, or sulfide as sulfur source, utilize the carbon dioxide as the carbon source, and utilize the ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. According to GenBank data, 16s RNA results of GDJ-3 are in good agreement with Alpha proteobacterrium sp. (97%) and Ochrobactrum sp. (98%). For GDJ-3, the optimum growth temperature is at 45℃, the optimum pH is at 8.5-8.8, and the optimum rocking speed of sorting table is at 150 r/min. Under the optimum culture condition, the cells of the strain can live for about 18 h. In the desulfurization solution, which is prepared according to the composition of DDS solution, the objectionable constituents of sodium thiosulphate and sodium sulfide were added factitiously, and the bacterial cell concentration was set at 107/mL. After the regeneration of the above desulfurization solution by the strain cells, the concentration of sodium thiosulphate was decreased by 14.75 g/L (percentage loss of content 13.21%), the concentration of sodium sulfide was decreased by 0.76 g/L (percentage loss of content 87.36%) in the desulfurization solution in 9.5 hours, and sulfur appeared. Maybe, this kind of strain can be used as the regeneration’s bacterial source of DDS solution.

  16. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26841300

  17. Isolation and characterization of a newly isolated pyrene-degrading Acinetobacter strain USTB-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Yao, Jun; Masakorala, Kanaji; Wang, Fei; Cai, Minmin; Yu, Chan

    2014-02-01

    The pryene-degradation bacterium strain USTB-X was newly isolated from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil in Beijing Coking Plant, China. The strain was identified as Acinetobacter with respect to its 16S rDNA and morphological and physiological characteristics. The strain was Gram-negative, non-mobile, non-acid-fast, and non-spore-forming, short rods in young culture and 0.8-1.6 μm in diameter and 1.2-2.5 μm long in the stationary phase of growth. Strain USTB-X could utilize pyrene, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ethanol, methanol, and Tween 80 as sole source of carbon and energy. The strain could produce biosurfactants which enhanced the removal of pyrene and could remove 63 % of pyrene with an initial concentration of 100 mg·L-1 in 16 days without other substrates. Based on the intermediates analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we also deduced the possible metabolic pathway of strain USTBX for pyrene biodegradation. Results indicated that the strain USTB-X had high potential to enhance the removal of PAHs in contaminated sites. PMID:24122268

  18. [Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

    2014-01-01

    The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Isolated Vibrio cholerae Strains

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    Hajia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cholera is a potentially life-threatening acute diarrheal disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. Antibiotics should be selected using local antibiotic susceptibility testing patterns. Objectives This study was performed to identify the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates collected from laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera during three years, from 2011 to 2013. Materials and Methods All isolates at the Health Reference Laboratory were tested by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC Test using Liofilchem against ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, cefixime, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The following organisms were used as quality control strains for MIC E-testing; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Results Results of susceptibility testing showed complete sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and amplicillin for both isolated Inaba and Ogawa serotypes except all isolated Inaba serotypes from year 2011, which were resistant to cefixime. These resistant Inaba serotypes were not isolated in the next year. Inaba serotypes showed an increased resistance rate of up to 100% to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazone, while Ogawa serotypes were 100% sensitive at the end of year 2013. The susceptibility pattern of erytromycine was similar in these two types. Sensitivity to erythromycin was decreased in both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Conclusions The analyzed results indicate that tetracycline should not be considered as a first line antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Ogawa serotypes. Also, national guidelines for confirmation of cholera should be improved by responsible authorities to cover new resistance during outbreaks.

  20. Isolation, Identification, and Pathogenicity of Neospora caninum China Yanbian strain.

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    Li-Jun Jia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the Neospora caninum infections in China.Genome DNA was extracted from the brains of aborted fetuses and specific PCR was performed with N. caninum Nc5-targeted specific primers. Fetal bovine brain tissues were homogenized and continuously cultured in Vero cells with double antibodies. The medium was replaced at 2-d intervals and the state of cells was observed.A 608 bp Nc5 gene band was detected by PCR amplification. After sequencing, the sequence of the sample shared 99.5% homology with GenBank (AF061249. Brain homogenates were continuously cultured in Vero cells for 34 d and N. caninum was found. The results of IFAT and Nc5 gene-based PCR detection were N. caninum-positive, and the parasite was tentatively named N. caninum China Yanbian strain. BABL/c mice were inoculated with the separated parasites and showed clinical symptoms of ataxia and limb paralysis after 12 d. Only 3 mice survived. The blood of dying mice and the hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, and brains of dead mice were collected aseptically. The Nc5 gene-based PCR showed that N. caninum may exist in brains, livers, and spleen. Based on immunohistochemical observations, we showed that N. caninum tachyzoites existed in the brains and livers.We have successfully isolated bovine-specific N. caninum strain from brain tissues of aborted cattle in the China Yanbian region. This isolated strain has a strong infectious ability towards BABL/c mice.

  1. Genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated from the Western Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L; Lee, Kiyoung; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The genus Oceanicaulis represents dimorphic rods that were originally isolated from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Sargasso Sea. The genome information of strain HTCC2633 indicates a chemoorganotrophic way of life of this strain. PMID:21036991

  2. Genome Sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. Strain HTCC2633, Isolated from the Western Sargasso Sea ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L.; Lee, Kiyoung; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2010-01-01

    The genus Oceanicaulis represents dimorphic rods that were originally isolated from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Sargasso Sea. The genome information of strain HTCC2633 indicates a chemoorganotrophic way of life of this strain.

  3. Isolation and genetic characterization of a tembusu virus strain isolated from mosquitoes in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

    2015-04-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. PMID:23711093

  4. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

  5. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water. PMID:26757724

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus N Strain Isolated from Guangxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qian-Lian; Bin LI; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.

  7. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. PMID:25573932

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus 71 Strain Isolated in Brunei in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Zaini, Zainun; McMinn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a human enterovirus 71 strain isolated in Brunei in 2006 was determined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence classified this strain into subgenogroup B5.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the...

  10. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Guedda, Intissar; Taminiau, Bernard; Ferjani, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel; Bertrand, Sophie; Daube, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Salmonella Livingstone is one of the most common serotypes responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in Tunisia. In this study, 42 isolates of Salmonella Livingstone were analyzed. Most of these were isolated from humans (31 strains from Tunisia and 9 strains from Belgium) and 2 isolates came from food products (beef and pork). Methodology: All strains were characterized by antibiogram, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and virulotyping. This last technique was carried out by sim...

  11. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  12. Identification and biocellulose production of Gluconacetobacter strains isolated from tropical fruits in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Daungjai Ochaikul

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and four strains of biocellulose (BC)-producing Gluconacetobacter strains were isolated from 48 rotten tropical fruits collected in Thailand. Twenty-nine representative isolates were selected from each of the 16 isolation sources and identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The selected 29 isolates were divided into seven subgroups within the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group of the genus Gluconacetobacter and id...

  13. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  14. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  15. Cryptic plasmids in Lactobacillus strains isolated from the murine gastrointestinal tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J H; Savage, D C

    1985-01-01

    Ten of twenty Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of animals of several species contained plasmids of 80 to 90 megadaltons or less than 2.6 megadaltons in size, as analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The large plasmids were found only in strains originally isolated from the keratinized epithelium of the murine stomach.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies for rapid, strain-specific identification of influenza virus isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, N. J.; Ota, M; Gallo, D; Fox, V L

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies conjugated with fluorescein permitted rapid, strain-specific identification of influenza A isolates and type-specific identification of influenza B isolates by direct immunofluorescence staining. Identification of H1 influenza A strains could be accomplished by direct immunofluorescence on cell culture fluids lacking sufficient hemagglutinin activity to permit identification by hemagglutination inhibition.

  17. Botulinum toxin: Bioweapon & magic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Singh, Padma; Gupta, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins, causative agents of botulism in humans, are produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-former Gram positive bacillus. Botulinum neurotoxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. A single gram of crystalline toxin, evenly dispersed and inhaled, can kill more than one million people. The basis of the phenomenal p...

  18. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found. PMID:27342087

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Classical Swine Fever Virus Strains Isolated from Wild Boars in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lim, Ji-Ae; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; SONG, Jae-Young; Hyun, Bang-Hun; KIM, Yong Kwan; An, Dong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever is a disease that is devastating the pig industry worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two classical swine virus strains (YC11WB and PC11WB), isolated from Korean wild boars in 2011. Both strains belong to subgenotype 2.1b. The complete genome sequences of PC11WB and YC11WB are more similar to that of strain ZJ0801 (isolated in China) than to that of the SW03 strain isolated from domestic pigs in South Korea.

  20. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from milk and milk samples. The highest streptomycin resistance was detected in isolates from rectal swabs of chicken. After identification, we determined that S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, which was isolated from rectal swabs of chicken showed the most multi-resistance from all identificated strains of Enterobacteriaceae. The most isolates bacterial strain was E. coli, which showed resistance against four antibiotics from rectal swabs of chicken. Also our results showed that the higher resistance level is in rectal swabs of chicken like in milk samples.

  1. Coagulase-negative staphylococci strains resistant to oxacillin isolated from neonatal blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cataneli Pereira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from clinical samples and are commonly found in neonatal blood cultures. Oxacillin is an alternative treatment of choice for CoNS infections; however, resistance to oxacillin can have a substantial impact on healthcare by adversely affecting morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to detect and characterise oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains in blood cultures of newborns hospitalised at the neonatal ward of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu. One hundred CoNS strains were isolated and the mecA gene was detected in 69 of the CoNS strains, including 73.2% of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 85.7% of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 28.6% of Staphylococcus hominis strains and 50% of Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains. Among these oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type I was identified in 24.6%, type II in 4.3%, type III in 56.5% and type IV in 14.5% of the strains. The data revealed an increase in the percentage of CoNS strains isolated from blood cultures from 1991-2009. Furthermore, a predominant SCCmec profile of the oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains isolated from neonatal intensive care units was identified with a prevalence of SCCmec types found in hospital-acquired strains.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Aurantimicrobium minutum Type Strain KNCT, a Planktonic Ultramicrobacterium Isolated from River Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Baba, Tomoya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Naganuma, Takeshi; Niki, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aurantimicrobium minutum type strain KNCT is a planktonic ultramicrobacterium isolated from river water in western Japan. Strain KNCT has an extremely small, streamlined genome of 1,622,386 bp comprising 1,575 protein-coding sequences. The genome annotation suggests that strain KNCT has an actinorhodopsin-based photometabolism. PMID:27365350

  3. Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain HUK15, Isolated from Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gasc , Cyrielle; Richard, Jean-Yves; Peyret, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain HUK15 has been isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-long-term-contaminated soil. The genome of strain HUK15 was sequenced to investigate its adaptation toward HCH and its potential capability to degrade the pesticide. Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequence (~4.3 Mbp) of this strain.

  4. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain TOR3209, a Rhizosphere Microecology Regulator Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Dong; Li, Xiaozhi; Chang, Yueli; He, Huan; Zhang, Cuimian; Jia, Nan; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Zhanwu

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain TOR3209, isolated from tomato rhizosphere, can regulate the rhizosphere microecology of a variety of crops. Strain TOR3209 could improve plant systemic resistance and promote plant growth. Here, the genome sequence of strain TOR3209 is reported, providing the molecular biological basis of the regulation mechanism of rhizosphere microecology.

  5. Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

  6. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis

  7. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš Hleba; Jana Petrová; Attila Kántor; Juraj Čuboň; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from mi...

  8. Application of high-density DNA resequencing microarray for detection and characterization of botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vanhomwegen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum and related clostridia express extremely potent toxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs that cause severe, potentially lethal intoxications in humans. These BoNT-producing bacteria are categorized in seven major toxinotypes (A through G and several subtypes. The high diversity in nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the gene cluster encoding the BoNT components poses a great challenge for the screening and characterization of BoNT-producing strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we designed and evaluated the performances of a resequencing microarray (RMA, the PathogenId v2.0, combined with an automated data approach for the simultaneous detection and characterization of BoNT-producing clostridia. The unique design of the PathogenID v2.0 array allows the simultaneous detection and characterization of 48 sequences targeting the BoNT gene cluster components. This approach allowed successful identification and typing of representative strains of the different toxinotypes and subtypes, as well as the neurotoxin-producing C. botulinum strain in a naturally contaminated food sample. Moreover, the method allowed fine characterization of the different neurotoxin gene cluster components of all studied strains, including genomic regions exhibiting up to 24.65% divergence with the sequences tiled on the arrays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severity of the disease demands rapid and accurate means for performing risk assessments of BoNT-producing clostridia and for tracing potentials sources of contamination in outbreak situations. The RMA approach constitutes an essential higher echelon component in a diagnostics and surveillance pipeline. In addition, it is an important asset to characterise potential outbreak related strains, but also environment isolates, in order to obtain a better picture of the molecular epidemiology of BoNT-producing clostridia.

  9. Genomic DNA restriction endonuclease from Pasteurella multocida isolated from Indonesia, katha strain and reference strains and analysed by PFGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative disease agents of wide range of domestic and wild animals in Indonesia. The most important serotypes are associated with Hemorrhagic septicaemic (HS diseases in cattle and buffaloes, cholera in ducks and chickens. The HS disease associated with P. multocia in large ruminants in Indonesia is controled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strains. There is no discriminatory data of the molecular biology technique has been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. The purpose of this studies were to observe the genetic diversity among P. multocida isolated from various geograpic locations and compared with Katha vaccine strain and other reference strains. A total samples of 38 isolates and strains of P. multocida were analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Each sample was grown in nutrient broth, cells were separeted by centrifugation. Whole cell pellet was mixed with agarose and then prepared agarose plugs. The genomic DNA of each sample was digested in situ (plug with either restriction endonuclease of ApaI and/or BamHI. The digested genomic DNA of each sample was analysed by PFGE, the genomic DNA restricted profile of each sample was compared with others. The use of ApaI restriction endonuclease digestion and analysed by PFGE, demonstrated that 34 out of 38 P. multocia samples could be differentiated into 16 ApaI types, whereas based on the BamHI digestion of these samples were differentiated into 20 BamHI types. Genomic DNA restriction pattern of Indonesian P. multocida isolates originated from cattle and buffaloes associated with haemorrhagic septicaemic diseases demonstrated different pattern to those of vaccine Katha strain, poultry strains as well as the reference strains currenly kept at Balitvet Culture Collection (BCC unit. Two P. multocida isolates derived from ducks with cholera

  10. Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Kutima, Phillip M; Mbugua, Samuel K; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development. PMID:18175177

  11. Complete genome sequence of a porcine parvovirus strain isolated in central china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Qing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Long-Biao; Fu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Bao-An

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) strain J-PPV, isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data for PPV isolates from other regions of China, will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PPV field isolates in China. PMID:24482519

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Parvovirus Strain Isolated in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin-Qing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Long-Biao; Fu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Bao-An

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) strain J-PPV, isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data for PPV isolates from other regions of China, will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PPV field isolates in China.

  13. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Ismael Acosta-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefi...

  14. Full-Genome Sequences of Seven Fatal Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated in Shenzhen, China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; He, Ya-Qing; Meng, Jun; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Ren-Li; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequences of seven fatal enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains, isolated in southern China, in 2014, were determined. The complete genome sequences of these strains displayed close relationships to native EV71 strains and showed 94.2% to 99.8% identity to each other. All of these strains were assigned to subgenotype C4a based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene. PMID:27125487

  15. Quantification of Siderophore and Hemolysin from Stachybotrys chartarum Strains, Including a Strain Isolated from the Lung of a Child with Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Elidemir, Okan; Haugland, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the Houston strain and 10 strains of S. chartarum isolated from case (n = 5) or control (n = 5) homes in Cleveland were analyzed for hemolytic activity, siderophore production, and relatedness as measured by random amplifi...

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...

  17. [Susceptibility to antibiotics and biochemical activity of strains of Acinetobacter sp. isolated from various sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarek, E

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed on 576 Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical material, objects from hospital, environment, soil, water and from animals. Applying API 20NE system identification was following: A. baumanii (61.1%), A. junii (19.4%), A. haemolyticus (4.3%), A. lwoffii (3.3%), A. johnsonii (0.52%) and not belonging to above genus strains (11.3%). Over 47% strains of Acinetobacter were isolated from clinical material as the only bacteria (mainly from samples received from intensive care units and surgical and urological wards). Out of 23 antibiotics and antimicrobials used for investigation of 535 strains of Acinetobacter, most active were imipenem (99%) of susceptible strains, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (95%) and netilmicin (88%). Multiple resistant strains were isolated more frequently from hospital environment than from other sources--these were mostly A. baumanii and A. junii. PMID:8189806

  18. MULTILOCI SEQUESTERANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comuunity-acquired pneumonias in aged patients is the significant epidemiology problem for the public health of almost all the countries. Even more important the problem of microbiological monitoring and epidemiology surveillance for the S. pneumoniae strains as one of the ubiquitous pathogens causing as the community-acquired pneumonias as well the other infections of respiratory tract, what defines their different epidemiological meaning.Multilocus sequence typing is the perspective method of molecular epidemiological surveillance allowing to define the epidemiologically dangerous clones of the ubiquitous microorganisms as Streptococcus pneumomiae. The aim of our research was to conduct the multilocus sequence typing of pneumococci strains isolated in patients with community acquired pneumonias, bronchitis in aged patients.Materials and methods. There were taken 14 strains of S. pneumoniae, isolated in patients with community-acquired pneumonias (seven of them were multiresistant, eight strains were isolated from patients with the chronical onstructive lung diseases and four strains from carriers. Multilocus sequence typing was conduected according to method to M.C. Enright and B.G. Spratt (1998.Results. The strains, isolated in all populations were the related isolates of the species S. pneumoniae, the most of them had the unique genotype defining the sequence type for every strain. There were 6 strains of Taiwan 19F-14 genotype from 14 strains isolated in aged patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Among strains isolated from carriers there were prevailing the strai of R6 genotype.Conclusion. Multilocus sequence typing allows to identify the new genotypes and to prognose the appearing of epidemiologically dangerous strains with new peculiarities.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF Haemophilus influenzae STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH INVASIVE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kostyanev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 H. influenzae strains were collected between 1994 and 2009 from all aged patient groups. The strains were isolated from patients with invasive and community-acquired respiratory tract infections. All strains were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by a coagglutination test and by molecular PCR capsular genotyping. Beta-lactamase production was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test with nitrocephin as substrate. Most of the isolated H. influenzae strains were from children under 5 years of age (57.7%. Overall, 61 strains belonged to serotype b (34.9% by the means of PCR capsular typing, 1 strain was type f, and 113 isolates (64.6% were non-typeable (non-encapsulated H. influenzae. Among the infants and children with meningitis or other invasive infections, aged 2 month to 5 years, all strains, except one, were serotype b. In respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and people with chronic pulmonary diseases - exacerbations of COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis the most common - 96.5% were non-typeable strains in both groups children and adults. Overall, the prevalence of beta-lactamase production was 19.4%. But, it was much higher for invasive strains from CSF isolates - 37.7%, 25% in blood samples, and 37.5% in otitis media causative strains. Beta-lactamase production was less frequent in respiratory tract isolates - in sputum 13.3% and in URT samples - 2.3%. The rate of beta-lactamase production in CSF isolates has not changed for the last 10 years.PCR capsular genotyping method has to be performed for all non-b-type strains. The implementation of Hib vaccine in our country will be accompanied by a reduction in invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b in children, but it is not useful in preventing infections caused by non-typeable H. influenzae strains.

  20. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI STRAINS FROM GASTRIC BIOPSIES OF ALGERIAN PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetarni Hassina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to isolate and characterize strains Helicobacetr pylori from gastric biopsies by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. After a rapid urease test, two Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from four patients on blood agar. After extraction of DNA from these strains from homogenates of gastric biopsies, quantification by real-time PCR was performed to determine Helicobacter pylori on the one hand and sensitivity to clarithromycin species. Melting curve analyzes showed that these two strains are sensitive to the antibiotic.

  1. High-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from water in Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Steadham, J E

    1980-01-01

    Isolation techniques with membrane-filtered potable water samples resulted in the isolation of potentially pathogenic high-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii from 8 of 19 representative outlets in a small central Texas town. Mycobacterium gordonae was isolated from all samples, and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from two samples. Data on chlorine levels are presented along with a possible explanation for the unusually high numbers of mycobacteria in these potable water samples. ...

  2. Identification and biocellulose production of Gluconacetobacter strains isolated from tropical fruits in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungjai Ochaikul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and four strains of biocellulose (BC-producing Gluconacetobacter strains were isolated from 48 rotten tropical fruits collected in Thailand. Twenty-nine representative isolates were selected from each of the 16 isolation sources and identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The selected 29 isolates were divided into seven subgroups within the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group of the genus Gluconacetobacter and identified as Gluconacetobacter oboediens (subgroup I, five isolates, Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus (subgroup II, one isolate, Gluconacetobacter hansenii (subgroup III, seven isolates, Gluconacetobacter swingsii (subgroup IV, two isolates and Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans (subgroup V, two isolates. The remaining isolates were grouped into subgroups VIa (three isolates and VIb (nine isolates. All the isolates were cultured in Hestrin-Schramm (HS medium statically at 30C for 7 days to determine cellulose production capability. Of the 29 isolates, isolate PAP1 (subgroup VIb, unidentified gave the highest yield (1.15 g/L of BC. However, the BC yield increased threefold (3.5 g/L when D-glucose in HS medium was replaced by D-mannitol.

  3. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutkiewicz, A; Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A; Rzewuska, M; Klimuszko, D; Binek, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 69 Campylobacter jejuni and 16 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken, dog and pig stool samples were characterized based on their resistance to five antimicrobial agents and on plasmid pTet profiles. Antimicrobials used in this study were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the isolates studied, 91.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent. The highest level of resistance for the whole test group was to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (44.2%) and tetracycline (20%). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Strains isolated from chickens were susceptible to erythromycin. Few erythromycin-resistant strains were isolated from dogs and pigs (5.8%). C. coli strains exhibited a higher antibiotic resistance than C. jejuni strains, excluding resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The pTet plasmid harboring the tet(O) gene was detected in 14 Campylobacter spp. strains. Our studies demonstrate that the majority (71.4%) of tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a plasmid-borne tet(O) gene, particularly strains for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are > or = 256 microg/ml. In conclusion, we have found high-level trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance in Polish strains isolated from different sources. This study has demonstrated that resistance of Campylobacter species differs depending on both the bacterial species and animal origins. All strains that displayed resistance to four antimicrobial agents were isolated from pigs. Localization of the tet(O) gene on either plasmid or chromosome was not found to be correlated with tetracycline resistance. PMID:20169919

  4. Growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum on inoculated fresh-cut packaged vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J W; Dodds, K L; Blanchfield, B; Farber, J M

    1998-03-01

    To determine the safety of fresh-cut vegetables packaged in modified atmosphere, challenge studies using both nonproteolytic and proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum were performed with a variety of fresh-cut packaged salads and vegetables stored at different temperatures. When vegetables were inoculated with spores of C. botulinum and incubated in low-O2 atmospheres, spore germination and growth and toxin production were observed. Botulinum toxin was produced by proteolytic types A and B on onion, butternut squash, rutabaga, salad, and stir-fry vegetables. Nonproteolytic C. botulinum produced toxin on butternut squash and salad. Nonproteolytic C. botulinum was capable of producing neurotoxin at temperatures as low as 5 degree C whereas proteolytic strains produced neurotoxin at 15 degrees C and higher. Although most samples were visibly spoiled before detection of botulinum toxin, samples of butternut squash and onion remained acceptable after detection of toxin. The strict maintenance of low temperatures (< 5 degrees C) is recommended in order to control the potential growth of C. botulinum on fresh-cut vegetables packaged in a modified atmosphere. PMID:9708304

  5. Genotypic diversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from French organic sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Chuat, Victoria; Durand, Karine; Orain, Servane; Valence, Florence; Dousset, Xavier; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the predominant key lactic acid bacterium in traditionally fermented sourdoughs. Despite its prevalence, sourdough and their related breads could be different regarding their physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The intraspecific diversity of L. sanfranciscensis might explain these observations. Fifty-nine strains isolated from French sourdoughs were typed by a polyphasic approach including Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), in order to study their genotypic diversity. MLST scheme can be reduced from six to four gene fragments (gdh, gyrA, nox and pta) without a major loss of discrimination between strains. The genes mapA and pgmA are not good candidates for inclusion in an MLST scheme to type L. sanfranciscensis strains, as they could not be amplified for a set of 18 strains among the 59 studied. This method revealed 20 sequence types (STs). Of these, 19 STs were grouped in one clonal complex, showing a strong relatedness between these strains. PFGE using SmaI discriminated 41 pulsotypes and so distinguished isolates better than the MLST scheme. Both genotypic methods indicate a low diversity between strains isolated from the same sourdough and a higher diversity between strains isolated from different sourdoughs, suggesting an influence of baker practices and/or environmental conditions on the selection of strains. The use of these two methods targeting genetic variations gives an optimal genotypic characterization of L.sanfranciscensis strains. PMID:27015297

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain 350105, Isolated in Hainan, China, in 1976

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Lihua; Yu, Yonghui; Feng, Le; He, Jun; WANG, Tao; Zhu, Hong; Duan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of the potentially fatal disease melioidosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a virulent water isolate obtained from the Hainan Province of China in 1976, B. pseudomallei strain 350105.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Lysinibacillus sp. Strain A1, Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chen, Jian Woon; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Xin-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the genome of Lysinibacillus sp. strain A1, which was isolated from tropical soil. Analysis of its genome sequence shows the presence of a gene encoding for a putative peptidase responsible for nitrogen compounds.

  8. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z.; Loureiro, Ana P.; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E. C.; Kremer, Frederico S.; Eslabao, Marcos R.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine. PMID:26472831

  10. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods Suitable for PCR-based Detection and Genotyping of Clostridium botulinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, Bruna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina;

    2013-01-01

    terms of cost, time, labor, and supplies. Eleven botulinum toxin–producing clostridia strains and 25 samples (10 food, 13 clinical, and 2 environmental samples) naturally contaminated with botulinum toxin–producing clostridia were used to compare 4 DNA extraction procedures: Chelex® 100 matrix, Phenol......Sufficient quality and quantity of extracted DNA is critical to detecting and performing genotyping of Clostridium botulinum by means of PCR-based methods. An ideal extraction method has to optimize DNA yield, minimize DNA degradation, allow multiple samples to be extracted, and be efficient in...

  11. O antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, P

    1980-01-01

    During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Brinsmade, Shaun ,; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. S taphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community-associated infections. S. aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1 was originally isolated from the ...

  13. Isolation of a New Mexican Strain of Bacillus subtilis with Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. L. Basurto-Cadena; M. Vázquez-Arista; García-Jiménez, J.; Salcedo-Hernández, R.; Bideshi, D. K.; Barboza-Corona, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 2...

  14. Isolation and characterization of mutant strains of Escherichia coli altered in H2 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. H.; Patel, P; Sankar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    1985-01-01

    A positive selection procedure is described for the isolation of hydrogenase-defective mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Mutant strains isolated by this procedure can be divided into two major classes. Class I mutants produced hydrogenase activity (determined by using a tritium-exchange assay) and formate hydrogenlyase activity but lacked the ability to reduce benzyl viologen or fumarate with H2 as the electron donor. Class II mutants failed to produce active hydrogenase and hydrogenase-dep...

  15. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M.; Pozo, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antif...

  16. Clonal Relationship among Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Different Animal Species and Humans▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Rodrigo A.; Sircili, Marcelo P.; Leomil, Luciana; Matté, Maria Helena; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Elias, Waldir P.; Irino, Kinue; Antonio F. Pestana de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Forty-nine typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains belonging to different serotypes and isolated from humans, pets (cats and dogs), farm animals (bovines, sheep, and rabbits), and wild animals (monkeys) were investigated for virulence markers and clonal similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The virulence markers analyzed revealed that atypical EPEC strains isolated from animals have the potential to cause dia...

  17. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Alwathnani, Hend A.; Rensing, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  18. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  19. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  20. RAPD Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Different Locations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine identification of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients in different locations in Egypt was confirmed by specific DNA fragment amplification. The susceptibilities of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against the four antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment (Isoniazid, INH; Rifampicin, Rif; Streptomycin, St and Ethambutol, E were examined. Our results indicated that, multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents about 19.5% of the tested strains, whereas sensitive strains represented 26.4%. The genetic polymorphism of the tested strains was examined using RAPD analysis. Six selected strains represent the different antibiotic susceptibility groups were examined using RAPD fingerprinting. No difference between the strains was recorded using the RFLP analysis of amplified specific fragment. The discrimination power of RAPD analysis was inadequate to clarify the genetic correlation between the tested strains. MDR-TB was approximately double time in 2008 compared with the value in 2007. Most of the new MDRTB was correlated with resident dense population regions.

  1. Genetic and Filogenetic Characterization of some Newcastle Strains Isolated from Poultry in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSEL BORAKAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract section. In this study, we present the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of three strains of NDV, isolated from the Tirana region in Albania during the 2011-2014 years. Three strains with number 28, 29 and 31, isolated from a different farm of poultry in Tirana Region (Rural flocks, which were diagnosed clinically with the ND. The Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index in SPF bird one day old was determined by doing the proteolytic sequencing at the cleavage, and specifying the aminoacid motif at proteolytic cleavage site. More over we performed BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of obtained RNA sequences. All strains replicated well in the SPF –chicken emryo eggs. The isolates displayed an aminoacid motif at the proteolytic cleavage site at the Fusion (F protein with multiple basic amino acids as a well a Phenylalanine on position 117. For one isolate (28 numerous nucleotide positions had signals for at last two nucleotides, making it imposible to conclude on a specific sequence. The pathogenicity of all three isolates (28, 29 and 33, was assessed by the analysis of the F protein cleavage site and by standart ICPI. The ICPI (pathogenicity index of our strains varies from of 1.85, 2 and 1.75, respectively which according [19,7] are typical for velogenic strains of NDV. We found that two NDV strain has a most close genetic relationship with the Serbia 2007 NDV, having 98% similarity at nucleotide level.Velogenic viscerotropic strains are considered endemic in our country.

  2. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  3. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  4. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelahhad Barbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS. A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10 and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10 from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. CONCLUSION: The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas Strain P818, Isolated from Glyphosate-Polluted Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Gaoyi; Liu, Yunjun; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain P818 was isolated from glyphosate-polluted soil in China. This bacterium presents a capacity for high glyphosate tolerance. We present the draft genome sequence of the strain Pseudomonas P818. The genes involved in the glyphosate tolerance were identified. This genomic information will facilitate the study of glyphosate tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Gaiarsa, Stefano;

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow's milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%....

  7. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from neonates and their mothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Toonen, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Trijbels-Smeulders, M.J.A.M.; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in neonates. One of the major questions is whether the GBS strains able to cause neonatal invasive disease have peculiar genetic features. A collection of S. agalactiae strains, isolate

  8. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a strain isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. PMID:22843595

  9. Plasmid profiling and antibiotics resisitance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from Mytilus galloprovincialis and seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cumhur Avşar; İsmet Berber

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate plasmid DNA profiles and the antibiotic resistance of a total of 41 strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from seawater and mussel collected from 15 different sampling stations in Sinop, Turkey. Methods: Most probable number technique was used for detection of E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by the disc diffusion method. Plasmid DNA of the strains was extracted by the alkaline lyses procedure.Results:According to morphological and physiological properties, it was determined that the isolates belonged to E. coli species. Antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was determined against seven standard drugs using disc diffusion method. All isolates were resistant to bacitracin (100%), novobiocin (100%), ampicillin (12.5%), tetracycline (7.5%), ceftazidime (5%) and imipenem (2.5%), respectively, whereas the strains were susceptible to polymyxin B (100%). The multiple antibiotic resistance values for the strains were found in range from 0.28 to 0.57. In addition, plasmid DNA analyses results confirmed that 22 strains harbored a single or more than two plasmids sized approximately between 24.500 to 1.618 bp. The high-size plasmid (14.700 bp) was observed as common in 21 of all strains.Conclusions:As a result, our study indicated that the presence of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains in seawater and mussel might be potential risk for public health issue.

  10. Draft Genomes of Two Strains of Flavobacterium Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We report sequencing the genomes of two new Flavobacterium strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. From genomic contents, versatile lifestyles were predicted but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of their genomic sequences, the new Flavobacterium strains present prospective models for studying microbial communities in lake sediments.

  11. Draft genome sequences of five new strains of methylophilaceae isolated from lake washington sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Tami L; Benuska, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of five new Methylophilaceae strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. We used the new sequences to sort these new strains into specific Methylophilaceae ecotypes, including one novel ecotype. The new genomes expand the known diversity of Methylophilaceae and provide new models for studying the ecology of methylotrophy. PMID:25657279

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Five New Strains of Methylophilaceae Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Benuska, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of five new Methylophilaceae strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. We used the new sequences to sort these new strains into specific Methylophilaceae ecotypes, including one novel ecotype. The new genomes expand the known diversity of Methylophilaceae and provide new models for studying the ecology of methylotrophy.

  13. Draft genomes of two strains of flavobacterium isolated from lake washington sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We report sequencing the genomes of two new Flavobacterium strains isolated from Lake Washington sediment. From genomic contents, versatile lifestyles were predicted but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of their genomic sequences, the new Flavobacterium strains present prospective models for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700420

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Soggiu; C. Piras; Gaiarsa, S.; E. Bendixen; Panitz, F; C. Bendixen; D. Sassera; M. Brasca; L. Bonizzi; P. Roncada

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow’s milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%.

  15. Haemolytic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs with diarrhea have characteristics of both uropathogenic and necrotoxigenic strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starxix, M.; Johnson, J.R.; Stell, A.L.; Goot, van der J.A.; Hendriks, H.G.; Vorstenbosch, van C.; Dijk, van L.; Gaastra, W.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four haemolytic Escherichia coli strains were isolated from dogs with diarrhea. The strains were serotyped and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genes encoding virulence factors associated with E. coli that cause diarrhea in animals. Adhesion antigen production was deduced from

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Strain Mor30.16, Isolated from the Bean Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Ríos, José Antonio; Ramírez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are commonly found in the soil and plant rhizosphere. In this study we report the draft genome of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain Mor30.16 that was isolated from rhizosphere of beans grown in Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. This strain promotes growth and ameliorates drought stress in bean plants.

  17. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhaime, Melissa B; Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  18. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  19. Isolation of Bacterial Strains Capable of Sulfamethoxazole Mineralization from an Acclimated Membrane Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bouju, H.; Ricken, B.; Beffa, T; Corvini, P. F.- X.; Kolvenbach, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we isolated five strains capable of degrading 14C-labeled sulfamethoxazole to 14CO2 from a membrane bioreactor acclimatized to sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac. Of these strains, two belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria, while three were members of the Proteobacteria.

  20. Isolation and initial characterization of thermoresistant RIF tumor cell strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat-resistant cell strains were obtained from RIF-1 mouse tumor cells by repeated heatings of cells derived from survivors of previous heating cycles (60 min; 450C). Twenty thermally resistant (TR) strains were derived from single cells that had survived 11 heating and regrowth cycles. These were then analyzed for appropriate characteristics in vitro and in vivo. In vitro we looked for: marked heat resistance; high plating efficiency; growth rate similar to that of RIF-1 cells; and no obvious morphological abnormalities. In syngeneic hosts, we looked for: ability of the cells to form tumors whose growth rates were similar to that of RIF-1 tumors; high cellular heat resistance; good plating efficiency of tumor-derived cells; and low immunogenicity. Five strains having these desired characteristics were analyzed for survival kinetics. The heat-resistant phenotype was found to be stable in vitro, although partial reversion in vivo was seen occasionally. The break in the Arrhenius plot was found to occur at 450C in TR strains versus 430C in RIF-1. All TR strains and the RIF-1 line developed similar levels of thermotolerance (as defined by slope ratios) when given isosurvival heat exposures. X-ray responses of TR and RIF-1 cells were indistinguishable both with respect to survival and to heat-induced radiosensitization. While the number of live cells required to give tumor takes in 50% of the recipients for TR strains was appreciably higher than that for RIF-1 cells, radiation-killed cells from none of the strains were able to immunize efficiently against subsequent challenges by live cells

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  2. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests. PMID:26485327

  3. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  4. Isolation and characterization of tyramine-producing Enterococcus faecium strains from red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Capozzi, V.; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Beneduce, Luciano; Fernández García, María; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Bernoit, Bach; Laurent, Barnavon; Grieco, F.; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from red wines undergoing malolactic fermentation and identified by comparison of their 16S rDNA gene sequences with those included in the GenEMBL Databases. The tyrosine decarboxylase gene was identified in all the strains analysed by PCR using gene-specific primers and the ability to produce tyramine in a synthetic media was analysed by RP-HPLC. Survival of an . E. faecium strain was also evaluated in microvinification assays using two different mu...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Boutheina Gargouri; Najla Mhiri; Fatma Karray; Fathi Aloui; Sami Sayadi

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, ...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  7. Protease activity in Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of axenic strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined by gelatin-SDS-PAGE the protease activity in cell lysates of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of two axenic strains isolated in Brazil from a symptomatic patient (BTU-11 and an asymptomatic carrier (BTU-10, and the reference strain Portland 1 (P1. The proteolysis band patterns showed differences among strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. The lysate of the strain BTU-10, showed only five hydrolysis bands, while a greater number of bands (10-11 bands was seen in strains BTU-11 and P1. The protease activity in all lysates was inhibited by cysteine (E-64 and iodoacetamide and serine proteases (TPCK and TLCK inhibitors, but not by PMSF and EDTA. In general, the results revealed protease activities in G. duodenalis trophozoites of Brazilian axenic strains and the predominance of cysteine proteinases. It should be stressed the inter-strain difference in hydrolysis band patterns observed between strains isolated from symptomatic patients and the strain obtained from an asymptomatic carrier.

  8. Zebrafish Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia S; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent known toxins. The mouse LD50 assay is the gold standard for testing BoNT potency, but is not sensitive enough to detect the extremely low levels of neurotoxin that may be present in the serum of sensitive animal species that are showing the effects of BoNT toxicity, such as channel catfish affected by visceral toxicosis of catfish. Since zebrafish are an important animal model for diverse biomedical and basic research, they are readily available and have defined genetic lines that facilitate reproducibility. This makes them attractive for use as an alternative bioassay organism. The utility of zebrafish as a bioassay model organism for BoNT was investigated. The 96 h median immobilizing doses of BoNT/A, BoNT/C, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F for adult male Tübingen strain zebrafish (0.32 g mean weight) at 25 °C were 16.31, 124.6, 4.7, and 0.61 picograms (pg)/fish, respectively. These findings support the use of the zebrafish-based bioassays for evaluating the presence of BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F. Evaluating the basis of the relatively high resistance of zebrafish to BoNT/C and the extreme sensitivity to BoNT/F may reveal unique functional patterns to the action of these neurotoxins. PMID:27153088

  9. Zebrafish Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakar Chatla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are the most potent known toxins. The mouse LD50 assay is the gold standard for testing BoNT potency, but is not sensitive enough to detect the extremely low levels of neurotoxin that may be present in the serum of sensitive animal species that are showing the effects of BoNT toxicity, such as channel catfish affected by visceral toxicosis of catfish. Since zebrafish are an important animal model for diverse biomedical and basic research, they are readily available and have defined genetic lines that facilitate reproducibility. This makes them attractive for use as an alternative bioassay organism. The utility of zebrafish as a bioassay model organism for BoNT was investigated. The 96 h median immobilizing doses of BoNT/A, BoNT/C, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F for adult male Tübingen strain zebrafish (0.32 g mean weight at 25 °C were 16.31, 124.6, 4.7, and 0.61 picograms (pg/fish, respectively. These findings support the use of the zebrafish-based bioassays for evaluating the presence of BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F. Evaluating the basis of the relatively high resistance of zebrafish to BoNT/C and the extreme sensitivity to BoNT/F may reveal unique functional patterns to the action of these neurotoxins.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  12. Genome Sequence of Riemerella anatipestifer Strain RCAD0122, a Multidrug-Resistant Isolate from Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Heng; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogenic bacterium in waterfowl and other avian species. We present here the genome sequence of R. anatipestifer RCAD0122, a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from infected ducks. The isolate contains at least nine types of antibiotic resistance-associated genes. PMID:27151800

  13. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Jungersen, Gregers; Ussery, David

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  14. Isolation of Alpha-amylase Producing Thermophilic Bacillus Strains and Partial Characterization of the Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Celal Türker; Bahri Devrim Özcan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we isolated three thermophilic Bacillus strains from the soil samples collected from the coast sediments of the Burnaz Stream located in Erzin. The isolates were entitled as Bacillus sp. CT1, CT2, and CT3, respectively. The maximum α-amylase production was revealed at 60°C for CT1 strain, and at 80°C for CT2 and CT3 strains, respectively. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at 90°C for CT1 α-amylase, whereas at 60°C for CT2 and CT3 α-amylases. On the other hand, opt...

  15. SELECTION OF INDIGENOUS YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CV. GEWURZTRAMINER FROM ILOK WINEGROWING REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora DUJMOVIĆ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 36 indigenous strains belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex isolated from the variety of Gewurztraminer from Ilok winegrowing region were tested with the purpose of making top-quality wines. Microfermentation was applied in order to examine the synthesis of ethyl alcohol and volatile acidity. Killer factor, synthesis of pectinase, ß-glucosidase and H2S was determined in isolated yeast strains. In the selection results, strains RO 1344, RO 1351, RO 1364 were the best evaluated and they should be examined in midifermentation.

  16. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

    OpenAIRE

    Franca Cian; Maria Luisa Deiana; Clara Fabris; Anna Belgrano; Bruno Biasioli; Marco Maria D’Andrea; Tommaso Giani; Gian Maria Rossolini

    2009-01-01

    The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, ...

  17. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Soleimani-Delfan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  18. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668) and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669). Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains. PMID:26413062

  19. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  20. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  1. Characterization of Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot, Psetta maxima (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, N; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Núñez, S; Magariños, B

    2006-09-01

    The biochemical, serological and molecular characteristics of a group of 21 Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot, Psetta maxima, in two different areas of Europe were analysed and compared with a total of 13 strains of this bacterial species with different geographical and host origins. All the turbot isolates were biochemically identical to the E. tarda strains included as reference. The use of different techniques including microagglutination, dot blot and Western blot of lipopolysaccharides allowed us to determine that all the turbot isolates constitute an homogeneous and distinctive serological group. Genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis demonstrated that although the E. tarda strains from turbot were compiled in a unique group using the primers P3 and P6, two clonal lineages could be detected when oligonucleotides P4 and P5 were employed. PMID:16948704

  2. Molecular characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella strains isolated in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Behnood, Vahid; Memariani, Hamed; Najafi, Ali; Moghbeli, Majid; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, the number of Shigella strains resistant to nalidixic acid has increased and has made the selection of effective antimicrobial therapy more difficult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella strains. Shigella strains isolated from 1100 diarrhoeal patients in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for their susceptibility to nalidixic acid prior to PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of their quinolone resistance genes. Among 73 Shigella strains isolated, 23 (31.5%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. The most common Shigella spp. was Shigella sonnei (54; 74.0%). Of the 23 quinolone-resistant isolates, 4 (17.4%) (including 2 Shigella flexneri, 1 S. sonnei and 1 Shigella boydii) contained the qnrS gene. However, none of the isolates harboured qnrA or qnrB genes. PCR-RFLP analysis of gyrA showed a mutation profile in two nalidixic acid-resistant strains, including one S. sonnei and one S. flexneri. Sequencing of mutant gyrA genes revealed a point mutation at position 83, resulting in the replacement of serine by leucine. In conclusion, molecular mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were identified in 6 of 23 Shigella isolates. Other possible mechanisms of resistance should also be investigated for better characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella isolates. PMID:27436462

  3. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  4. Isolation of radiation resistant fungal strains from highly radioactive field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the radiation resistance of fungal flora isolated from the hot-lab around the radiation sources, cobalt 137 and radium 226. The predominant mould species were: Aspergillus flavus, A. Niger, penicillium chrysogenum, cladosporium herbarum, fusarium oxysporum and alternaria citri. The D 10 values of F. Oxysporum; 2.00 KGy, A. Flavus; 1.40 KGy, P. chrysogenum; 1.15 KGy, and A. citri; 0.95 KGy, are about 1.67, 3.10, 1.92 and 1.36 folds as the D10 values of the same isolates recovered from soil

  5. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prager

    Full Text Available The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC. After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF. The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized.

  6. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  9. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of patients with cervical dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Brashear

    2008-01-01

    Allison BrashearDept of Neurology, Wake Forest University Baptist, Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Dystonia is an involuntary movement involving twisting and turning of agonist and antagonist muscles. Cervical dystonia is isolated to neck musculature. Botulinum toxin type A is a safe and effective treatment of this disabling and often painful syndrome. Three forms of botulinum toxin type A are available worldwide to treat patients with cervical dystonia. This is a review of th...

  10. Initial characterization of four cytomegalovirus strains isolated from chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytomegalovirus was isolated from chimpanzees. The chimpanzee CMV showed a strong antigenic relationship with human CMV. The genome of the chimpanzee CMV was found to have a molecular weight of 147 +- 11.3 x 106 and showed partial homology to human CMV DNA. (Author)

  11. Local Vibrio Isolates Exhibit Molecular Characteristics Distinct from Reference V. harveyi and V. campbellii Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Cortado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Six Vibrio isolates identified biochemically as Vibrio campbellii from Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC in Tigbauan, Iloilo, were characterized by 16 rDNA sequence, total protein profile, and DNA profile analyses. Genomic DNA from the isolates were subjected to PCR using four sets of primers targeting gene fragments of hemolysin and toxR based on sequences from reference Vibrio harveyi (IFO15634, V. campbellii (IFO1563, and local isolates identified as V. harveyi. Total protein profile could not distinguish the isolates from one another and from the reference V. harveyi (IFO15634 and V. campbellii (IFO15631. Analysis of 16s rDNA sequences revealed high degree of sequence similarity (96% - 99% of the six local isolates with other Vibrio species including V. campbellii and V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that this analysis will not be useful in resolving their identity. All six isolates exhibited characteristic reference V. harveyi PCR profile when a primer set designed to amplify a 308-bp fragment of hemolysin gene in that species was used. However, no amplicons were generated for these isolates using primers that amplify toxR gene fragments in V. harveyi. This suggests that the six isolates were not bonafide V. harveyi strains. The isolates also did not exhibit V. campbellii characteristics since the primer designed to target the toxR gene in V. campbellii could not amplify DNA from any of the six isolates, suggesting that they were not bonafide V. campbellii strains either. The toxR gene from the six isolates could be amplified using a primer based on toxR gene sequences from a SEAFDEC isolate previously identified as V. harveyi (PN-9801. These data suggest that the six isolates previously identified as V. campbellii as well as PN-9801 may be classified in one group separate from bonafide reference V. harveyi and reference V. campbellii strains, based on the identical results in the molecular analyses performed in this

  12. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Associated with a Large Outbreak of Botulism in Wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hannett, George E.; Stone, Ward B.; Davis, Stephen W.; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was...

  13. Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus thermophilus Strains TH1435 and TH1436, Isolated from Raw Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica; Bovo, Barbara; Campanaro, Stefano; Corich, Viviana; Giacomini, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two Streptococcus thermophilus strains, TH1435 and TH1436, isolated from raw goat milk devoted to the production of artisanal cheese in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in Italy. The genome sequences of these two quickly acidifying strains are the first available genome sequences of S. thermophilus strains isolated in Italy. PMID:24435859

  14. EMERGENCE OF MULTI DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS OF E. COLI ISOLATED FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NAMAKKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Poongothai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the multi drug resistant strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection in different age groups in Namakkal. Totally 153 isolates of E.coli were obtained from 700 urine samples. Present study indicates that there is a high prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli in female 24.34% followed by male 18.14%. After confirmation, isolates were performed to resistance patterns of different antibiotics were determined by standard disk diffusion method. The antibiogram patterns of the isolates showed a high percentage of multidrug resistance to cephodoxime, Novobiocin and vancomycin which was repeated to most of the isolates. Fifty resistance patterns were recognized among the MDR strains. This study revealed that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen of community acquired UTIs in Aligarh, India. It also demonstrated an increasing resistance to number of antibiotics. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the empirical treatment.

  15. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID

  16. Screening and Evaluation of Polyhydroxybutyrate-Producing Strains from Indigenous Isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Om-Murugan Janarthanan; Chi-Wei Lo; Chin-Kuei Huang; Ho-Shing Wu; Yi-Ming Sun; Wei-Chuan Chen; Yu-Hong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanen...

  17. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory probiotic strains isolated from pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maravilla, Edgar; Lenoir, Marion; Mayorga-Reyes, Lino; Allain, Thibault; Sokol, Harry; Langella, Philippe; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Their use is more and more widespread for both prevention and treatment of diseases, including traveler’s diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this work, we isolated and characterized novel candidate probiotic strains from pulque (xaxtle), a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. A total of 14 strains were obtained from xaxtle samples isolated from three different Mexican regions. Species identification was performed by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene targeted PCR. The isolates belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus composti phylogenetic groups, with L. brevis being the most dominant group. Bacteria were tested for lysozyme, low pH, and bile acid resistance. Moreover, the strains were tested for adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells and screened for their immunomodulatory properties using a cellular model. Selected bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory properties were then tested in vivo in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model, and weight loss, gut permeability, and cytokine profiles were measured as readouts of inflammation. One of the selected strains, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LBH1068, improved mice health as observed by a reduction of weight loss, significant decreases in gut permeability, and cytokine modulation. Altogether, our results highlighted the potential of lactobacilli isolated from pulque and in particular the strain L. sanfranciscensis LBH1068 as a novel probiotic to treat IBD. PMID:26476654

  18. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  19. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267 kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.

  20. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  1. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira De Bellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system.

  2. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas Luaine; Wierckx Nick JP; de Winde Johannes H; Ruijssenaars Harald J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of...

  3. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas, L.; Wierckx, N.J.P.; de Winde, J H; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background - To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel ...

  4. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas, Luaine; Wierckx, Nick JP; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

    2011-01-01

    Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel en...

  5. The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Cl. Botulinum Spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the investigations on the radioresistance of the spores of Cl. botulinum the authors made use of type A cultures (isolated from a sample of fresh carrot) and type B cultures (isolated from canned pork). Ten strains were used. The experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer solutions at different pH values and with foodstuffs (green peas, meat). The experimental results were obtained on the basis of a direct calculation of the colonies following incubation at 28°C in a casein-fungus-medium containing agar. The results were processed with the usual statistical analysis technique. The optimum period for storing the irradiated samples before adding them to the nutritional medium was two weeks. In addition to cultures characterized by a radioresistance curve with a 'shoulder', cases were observed where the radioresistance curve was exponential from the start. In a faiily large number of cases (65%) another type of curve was obtained (mainly in the case of relatively low spore concentration). The results obtained do not always correspond with current theories on the effect of radiation on the cell. The exponential pan of the radioresistance curves was clearly manifest in cases where the irradiated spores were in a neutral buffer solution. The value of D for suspensions irradiated and then stored in a buffer at pH 3.63 dropped by approximately 1/3 in comparison with the value for spore suspensions irradiated in a buffer at pH 7.0 - 6.9 and 4.6 - 4.5. The radioresistance of the cultures in meat and in green peas was lower than in the neutral buffer. In almost all experiments yet another part of the curve was to be discerned, namely the 'tail', for which no mathematical relation has as yet been established. In the course of the experiments the effect of single and fractional irradiation in a Cl. botulinum culture suspended in a neutral buffer solution was determined and a linear relation between the D value and the duration of the intervals between irradiations was

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  7. Permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae for growth of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Binet, Marie; Bouteleux, Celine; Herbelin, Pascaline; Soreau, Sylvie; Héchard, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in water and responsible for severe pneumonia. Free-living amoebae are protozoa also found in water, which feed on bacteria by phagocytosis. Under favorable conditions, some L. pneumophila are able to resist phagocytic digestion and even multiply within amoebae. However, it is not clear whether L. pneumophila could infect at a same rate a large range of amoebae or if there is some selectivity towards specific amoebal genera or strains. Also, most studies have been performed using collection strains and not with freshly isolated strains. In our study, we assess the permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae, belonging to three common genera (i.e. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba), for growth of L. pneumophila at three different temperatures. Our results indicated that all the tested strains of amoebae were permissive to L. pneumophila Lens and that there was no significant difference between the strains. Intracellular proliferation was more efficient at a temperature of 40°C. In conclusion, our work suggests that, under favorable conditions, virulent strains of L. pneumophila could equally infect a large number of isolates of common freshwater amoeba genera. PMID:26832643

  8. THE STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC- AND FAGOSENSITIVITY OF NOSOCOMIAL STRAINS BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM TRANSPLANTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic and fagosensitivity most etiologically important nosocomial strains of bacteria – Pseudomonas aeru- ginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Proteus spp., Staphylococcus spp. were studied. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria as gram-positive and gram-negative, isolated from 8 substrates, had been demonstrated. With regard to the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa >40% was observed in 40–50% of the strains to aminoglycosides – aztreonam, amikacin, netilmicin, and only 23–25% of the strains – to gentamicin and levofloxacin (an average of antibiotic susceptibility was 27%. All strains of ESBL Klebsiella drew up and were sensitive only to imipenem, meropenem and aminoglycosides. Specific phages lysed 43–48% of the strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Pro- teus spp., multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp. It is proposed to introduce the use of phages in clinical practice. 

  9. Isolation and characterization of a genotype 4 Hepatitis E virus strain from an infant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, a genotype 4 HEV strain was identified in the fecal specimen from a seven months old infant with no symptom of hepatitis in Shanghai Children's hospital. The full capsid protein gene (ORF2 sequence of this strain was determined by RT-PCR method. Sequence analysis based on the full ORF2 sequence indicated that this HEV strain shared the highest sequence identity (97.6% with another human HEV strain isolated from a Japanese patient who was infected by genotype 4 HEV during traveling in Shanghai. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this genotype 4 HEV was phylogenetically far from the genotype 4 HEV strain that was commonly prevalent in Shanghai swine group, suggesting that this strain may not come from swine group and not involved in zoonotic transmission in this area.

  10. Genome Sequences of the Lignin-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. Strain YS-1r Isolated from Decaying Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, Madhu; Couger, Matthew B.; Jackson, Colin A.; Weirick, Tyler; Fathepure, Babu Z.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r were isolated from a lignin-degrading enrichment culture. The isolates degraded lignin-derived monomers, dimers, alkali lignin, and, to a smaller extent (3% to 5%), lignin in switch grass and alfalfa. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a variety of lignin-degrading genes.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  12. Bioprospecting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Algerian raw camel and goat milk for technological properties useful as adjunct starters

    OpenAIRE

    ZAROUR, K.; BENMECHERNENE, Z.; HADADJI, M.; MOUSSA-BOUDJEMAA, B.; HENNI, D.; Kihal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are lactic acid bacteria widely used in milk fermentation. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, 18 strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated and identified from 10 samples of goat's milk and camel's milk. Strains were identified as follows 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum The results of technological tests of the strains showed that strains produced dextran, car...

  13. Degradation of Asphaltenic Fraction by Locally Isolated Halotolerant Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hager R.; Nour Sh. El-Gendy; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Roushdy, Mohamed I.; Hashem, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Three halotolerant bacterial species were isolated from locally oil-polluted water sample for their ability to utilize asphaltene (Asph) fraction as sole carbon and energy source. These bacteria degrade 83–96% of 2500 mg/L asphaltene within 21 d at 30°C and pH7. They were identified as Bacillus sp. Asph1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Asph2, and Micrococcus sp. Asph3. A statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level for cell growth and percentage biodegradation (%BD) was observed in al...

  14. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  15. Differentiation of field isolates and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jorge Luis; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2009-11-12

    Two different regions of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were amplified and sequenced for characterization of field isolates and tissue culture-origin (TCO) and chicken embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the two regions showed differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between field isolates and attenuated vaccines. The PCR-RFLP results were identical to those obtained by DNA sequencing and validated their use to differentiate ILTV strains. The approach using the sequencing of the two fragments of the ICP4 gene showed to be an efficient and practical procedure to differentiate between field isolates and vaccine strains of ILTV. PMID:19747995

  16. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  17. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN SEROTYPE B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWAMINATHAN,S.; ESWARAMOORTHY,S.

    2001-11-19

    The toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct types of neurotoxins labeled A - G (EC 3.4.24.69), while Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin (EC 3.4.24.68). Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins (BoNTs and TeNT) are produced as single inactive chains of molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Most of these neurotoxins are released after being cleaved into two chains, a heavy chain (HI) of 100 kDa and a light chain (L) of 50 kDa held together by an interchain disulfide bond, by tissue proteinases. BoNT/E is released as a single chain but cleaved by host proteinases [1]. Clostvidium botulinum neurotoxins are extremely poisonous proteins with their LD{sub 50} for humans in the range of 0.1 - 1 ng kg{sup -1} [2]. Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for neuroparalytic syndromes of botulism characterized by serious neurological disorders and flaccid paralysis. BoNTs block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causing flaccid paralysis while TeNT blocks the release of neurotransmitters like glycine and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord resulting in spastic paralysis. In spite of different clinical symptoms, their aetiological agents intoxicate neuronal cells in the same way and these toxins have similar structural organization [3].

  18. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN SEROTYPE B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct types of neurotoxins labeled A - G (EC 3.4.24.69), while Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin (EC 3.4.24.68). Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins (BoNTs and TeNT) are produced as single inactive chains of molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Most of these neurotoxins are released after being cleaved into two chains, a heavy chain (HI) of 100 kDa and a light chain (L) of 50 kDa held together by an interchain disulfide bond, by tissue proteinases. BoNT/E is released as a single chain but cleaved by host proteinases[1]. Clostvidium botulinum neurotoxins are extremely poisonous proteins with their LD(sub 50) for humans in the range of 0.1 - 1 ng kg(sup -1)[2]. Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for neuroparalytic syndromes of botulism characterized by serious neurological disorders and flaccid paralysis. BoNTs block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causing flaccid paralysis while TeNT blocks the release of neurotransmitters like glycine and(gamma)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord resulting in spastic paralysis. In spite of different clinical symptoms, their aetiological agents intoxicate neuronal cells in the same way and these toxins have similar structural organization[3

  19. Draft genome sequence of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 isolated from a Sebkha in Thamelaht, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Gomri, Mohamed A; Pierneef, Rian; Van Goethem, Marc W; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A; Makhalanyane, Thulani P

    2016-01-01

    The members of the genus Thermoactinomyces are known for their protein degradative capacities. Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium, isolated from moderately saline water in the Thamelaht region of Algeria. This isolate is a thermophilic aerobic bacterium with the capacity to produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes. This strain exhibits up to 99 % similarity with members of the genus Thermoactinomyces, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Here we report on the phenotypic features of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 together with the draft genome sequence and its annotation. The genome of this strain is 2,558,690 bp in length (one chromosome, but no plasmid) with an average G + C content of 47.95 %, and contains 2550 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes together with 64 ORFs annotated as proteases. PMID:27617058

  20. /sup 125/I-peptide mapping of protein III isolated from four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    Gonococcal outer-membrane protein I (PI) and PIII were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from reduced and unreduced whole-cell and outer-membrane lysates of four strains of nonpiliated (P-), transparent (O-) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These proteins were radioiodinated and digested with alpha-chymotrypsin. The resultant /sup 125/I-peptides were then resolved by high-voltage thin-layer electrophoresis, followed by ascending thin-layer chromatography, and visualized by autoradiography. Results corroborated previous observations regarding the structural relationships of PIs having different apparent subunit molecular weights. All PIIIs had very similar apparent primary structures, regardless of the strain from which they were isolated, the source (i.e., whole cells or outer membranes), or the reduction state of the sodium dodecyl sulfate lysates. By the techniques used, it appeared that PIII is structurally similar in all of the gonococcal strains studied, even though each strain had structurally unique PIs.

  1. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences for Two Metal-Reducing Pelosinus fermentans Strains Isolated from a Cr(VI) Contaminated Site and for Type Strain R7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.

  3. Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Concha-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of the nanoparticles (NPs on several processes is notorious. In contrast the ecotoxicological effects of NPs have been scarcely studied. The main current researches are related to the oxide metallic NPs. In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 classes: Bacilli (36 strains, Flavobacteria (2 strains, and Gammaproteobacteria (18 strains. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. The obtained CuONPs have a spherical shape and primary size less than 17 nm. Twenty-one strains were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CuONPs and 11 of these strains showed high sensibility. Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus laterosporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ananatis strains CSA34 and CSA35 were selected to determine the kind of damage produced. The CuONPs toxic effect was observed at expositions over 25 mg·L−1 and the damage to cell membrane above 160 mg·L−1. The electron microscopy showed the formation of cavities, holes, membrane degradation, blebs, cellular collapse, and lysis. These toxic effects may probably be due to the ions interaction, the oxide-reduction reactions, and the generation of reactive species.

  4. Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from different foods in turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from animal derived foods. With disc diffusion assay, all fourteen L. monocytogenes strains were susceptible to the antibiotics, including penicillin G, vancomycin, ...

  5. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from sugarcan

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain A026, a Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Isolate Carrying Tn2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Zhihai; Zhou, Wenqing; Yao, Kaihu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Yonghong; Feng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of bacterial infection in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. pneumoniae strain A026, which is a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid.

  7. Isolation and screening of phytotoxin producing actinomycetes and determination of phytotoxin effect spectrum of selected strains

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhan khayatmaher; Mohammad Ali Amoozegar; Shimasadat Seyedmahdi; Javad Hamedi; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Faranak Foroozanfar; Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Actinomycetes are well-known phytotoxin producing microorganisms. Nowadays the use of microbial herbicides versus traditional chemicals draws a great deal of attention as they do not cause any environmental problems.Materials and Methods: Actbacterial strains of 40 rhizospheric and phyllospheric samples were isolated. Primary screening was implemented on radish and cress seeds on GAP¬Agar. Then, bioassay of cell¬free broth of strains with more than 70% inhibitory effect on the s...

  8. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to broad spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by extended spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs. These enzymes are encoded by different genes located either on chromosome or plasmids. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates and screened for ESBL production. Methods: After isolation from burn patients in Tehran Hospital, identification of P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed using biochemical tests. We then performed disk agar diffusion (DAD according to CLSI guidelines to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. The frequency of ESBLs and prevalence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes were determined with combined disk and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods, respectively. Results: One hundred strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. The resistance of these strains to cephpodoxime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, piperacilin- tazobactam and ceftriaxon was 100%, 90%, 83%, 92%, 85%, 88%, 63%, 66%, 98%, 89%, 70% and 91%, respectively. Of these, 40 strains (40% were ESBL positive, 29 strains (29% were OXA-10 positive and 18 strains (18% were PER-1 positive. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need for proper antimicrobial therapy in burn hospitals, considering the resistance pattern and frequency of strains producing ESBLs and the presence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes. Since an increase in the prevalence of ESBL in P. aeruginosa strains might lead to the transfer of these ESBL genes to other gram-negative bacteria, we recommend the use of appropriate drugs, especially cephalosporins, in burn hospitals.

  9. Isolation of enterotoxigenic, hemolytic, and antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila strains from infected fish in Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rahim; Sanyal, S C; Aziz, K M; Huq, M I; Chowdhury, A A

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish in Bangladesh were tested for enterotoxin production, hemolysin production, and any correlation between these two activities. We also tested the resistance patterns of A. hydrophila to different drugs, especially in relation to ampicillin. The A. hydrophila strains produced an enterotoxin that was related to their beta-hemolytic activities. Production of beta-hemolysin may thus be an indicator of enterotox...

  10. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Cárdenas; Javier Calzada; Ángela Peirotén; Esther Jiménez; Rosa Escudero; Juan M. Rodríguez; Margarita Medina; Leónides Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also ...

  11. Activity of lysozyme on Lactobacillus hilgardii strains isolated from Port wine

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rita; Vilas-Boas, Eduardo; Campos, Francisco; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of lysozyme on lactobacilli isolated from Port wine. Bacterial growth experiments were conducted in MRS/TJ medium and inactivation studies were performed in phosphate buffer (KH2PO4), distilled water and wine supplemented with different concentrations of lysozyme. The response of bacteria to lysozyme was found to be highly strain dependent. Some strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii together with Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus fructivorans ...

  12. Fermentative capability and aroma compound production by yeast strains isolated from Agave tequilana Weber juice

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Montano, Dulce Maria; Délia, Marie-Line; Estarron-Espinosa, Mirna; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Five yeast strains isolated from agave juice were studied for their fermentative and aromatic capacity. The experiments were performed using agave juice supplemented with ammonium sulphate, as is commonly done in tequila distilleries. Three strains classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed high biomass and ethanol production, as well as higher ethanol tolerance than those classified as Kloeckera africana and Kloeckera apiculata, which showed scarce growth. The results suggest that Kloecke...

  13. Isolation and properties of genetically defined strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha CBS4732

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtchev, KL; Semenova, VD; Tolstorukov, [No Value; van der Klei, [No Value; Veenhuis, M; Lahtchev, Kantcho L.; Semenova, Vika D.; Tolstorukov, Ilia I.; van der Klei, Ida

    2002-01-01

    Genetically defined strains of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha were constructed froth a clone of H. polymorpha CBS4732 with very low mating and sporulation abilities. Mating, spore viability, and the percentage of four-spore-containing asci were increased to a level at which tetrad analysis was possible. Auxotrophic mutations in 30 genes were isolated and used to construct strains with multiple markers for mapping studies, transformation with plasmid DNA, and mutant screening. Various other ty...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia sp. Strain CCA53, Isolated from Leaf Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi Mohd; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53 was isolated from leaf soil collected in Higashi-Hiroshima City in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 4 contigs containing 6,647,893 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0% and comprising 9,329 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27389268

  15. Induction of brain tumors by a newly isolated JC virus (Tokyo-1 strain).

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashima, K.; Yasui, K; Kimura, J; Washizu, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Mori, W.

    1984-01-01

    A newly isolated virus from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) (Tokyo-1 strain) was found serologically identical to JC virus (Mad-1 strain) and showed high neurooncogenicity in hamsters. Twenty-one animals inoculated intracerebrally with the virus developed brain tumors during a period that averaged 5 months. The tumors were cerebellar medulloblastoma (n = 20); plexus tumor (n = 2) occurred in 1 animal as a single tumor and in another in combination with a medull...

  16. Tolerance Of Several Rhizobium Strain/Isolate To A1 and Their Interaction With Several Soybean Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities to study the interaction of several soybean mutant and rhizobium strain/isalates were carried out. The first experiment to be involved screening of nine strain/isolates for tolerance to A1 acid stress. Five strains/isolates were considered tolerance. Further experiment with three strains/isolates with difference A1 concentrations, showed that the isolate no. 06 had the highest growth rate followed by isolate 09 and TAL 102. Experiment on interaction of five soybean mutant/varieties with those strains/isolates were carried out in nutrient culture. Mutant no. 21 and 43 showed better growth in solution containing 50 uM A1. Good nodulation occured in mutant no. 23 inoculated with Rhizobium isolate no. 06. This good symbiotic association should be studied further at higher A1 concentration. (authors). 14 refs, 6 tabs

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli Strains from Rat Faecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Gastrointestinal disorders mainly diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children in the developing countries occurs due to infection by enteropathogens. Ccontrol of these pathogens could be achieved by nonpathogenic Escherichia coli producing bacteriocins. Approach: Primary aim of this study was to isolate E. coli strains which inhibit enteropathogens. For this purpose, E. coli strains were isolated and tested for probiotic properties such as antimicrobial activity against enteropathogens, antibiotic susceptibility and resistance to low pH, absence of virulence traits, susceptibility to proteolytic activity and detection of colicins type. Results: Approximately 280 E. coli strains were collected from rat feacal samples at different ages and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Out of these, 47 isolates showed antimicrobial effect against E. coli DH5α and BL21 strains and 16 were effective against different pathogens viz. Salmonella sp., Klebisella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter sp. These 16 isolates were susceptible to the common Antibiotics and most of them better survived at pH 3 and a few survived even at pH 2. Colony PCR of these isolates with colicinogenic primer demonstrated the presence of multiple colicin types. Out of 16 isolates, 12 had multiple pore forming colicins of E1 and 1a/1b type. In addition to the pore forming E1 and 1a/1b colicins, four E. coli strains 16, 2P and 14, 20 had Emix (nuclease type/BD type (translation blocker colicins, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that E. coli isolates 10, 14 and 14 P possess good probiotic properties and could be effective against enteropathogens.

  18. Prophages in Enterococcal Isolates from Renal Transplant Recipients: Renal Failure Etiologies Promote Selection of Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Daca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Marketed Foods and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LIU; ZHUO-YANG ZHANG; KE DONG; JIAN-PING YUAN; XIAO-KUI GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the antimicrobial resistance of commercial lactic acid bacteria present in microbial foods and drug additives by analyzing their isolated strains used for fermentation and probioties. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 screened isolates was tested with disc diffusion and E-test methods after species-level identification. Resistant strains were selected and examined for the presence of resistance genes by PCR. Results Distribution of resistance was found in different species. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and imipenem. In addition, isolates resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin were detected, although the incidence of resistance to these antibiotics was relatively low. In contrast, most strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and gentamycin. The genes msrC, vanX, and dfrA were detected in strains of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance is present in different species of probiotic strains, which poses a threat to food safety. Evaluation of the safety of lactic acid bacteria for human consumption should be guided by established criteria, guidelines and regulations.

  20. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  1. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic Bacillus strains capable to degrade ethylenethiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Sajben-Nagy, Enikő; Bóka, Bettina; Vörös, Mónika; Berki, Adrienn; Palágyi, Andrea; Krisch, Judit; Skrbić, Biljana; Durišić-Mladenović, N; Manczinger, László

    2013-03-01

    In this study, more than 150 bacteria showing antagonistic properties against bacterial and fungal pathogens of the tomato plant were isolated and characterized. The most efficient agents against these phytopathogenic microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus: the best biocontrol isolates were representatives of Bacillus subtilis, B. mojavensis and B. amyloliquefaciens species. They intensively produced fengycin or/and surfactin depsipeptide antibiotics and also proved to be excellent protease secretors. It was proved, that the selected strains were able to use ethylenethiourea (ETU) as sole nitrogen source. These antagonistic and ETU-degrading Bacillus strains can be applied as biocontrol and also as bioremediation agents. PMID:23143288

  2. Occurrence and diversity of mesophilic Shewanella strains isolated from the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Sawabe, Tomoo; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Hayashi, Karin; Frolova, Galina M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Pavel, Konstantin G; Mikhailov, Valery V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2003-06-01

    Although bacteria of the genus Shewanella belong to one of the readily cultivable groups of "Gammaproteobacteria", little is known about the occurrence and abundance of these microorganisms in the marine ecosystem. Studies revealed that of 654 isolates obtained from marine invertebrates (ophiuroid Amphiopholis kochii, sipuncula Phascolosoma japonicum, and holothurian Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria japonica), seawater and sediments of the North-West Pacific Ocean (i.e. the Sea of Japan and Iturup Is, Kurile Islands), 10.7% belonged to the genus Shewanella. The proportion of viable Shewanella species varied from 4% to 20% depending on the source of isolation. From the isolation study, representative strains of different phenotypes (from seventy presumptive Shewanella strains) were selected for detailed characterization using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic testing. 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of tentative identification and placed the majority of these strains within only a few species of the genus Shewanella with 98-99% of 16S rDNA sequences identity mainly with S. japonica and S. colwelliana, suggesting that the strains studied might belong to these species. Numerically dominant strains of S. japonica were metabolically active and produced proteinases (gelatinases, caseinases), lipases, amylases, agarases, and alginases. Shewanella strains studied demonstrated weak antimicrobial and antifungal activities that might be an indication of their passive role in the colonization on living and non-living surfaces. PMID:12866857

  3. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  4. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  5. Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pariz Maluta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR. The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%, followed by cephalotin (69.2%, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%, tetracycline (61.5%, streptomycin (53.8%, ciprofloxacin (53.8%, ampicillin (46.2%, gentamicin (30.8% and chloramphenicol (23.1%. No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31 and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D, whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E.

  6. Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Riccardi, Kátia; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; Carvalho, Marileda Bonafim; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%), followed by cephalotin (69.2%), sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%), tetracycline (61.5%), streptomycin (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (53.8%), ampicillin (46.2%), gentamicin (30.8%) and chloramphenicol (23.1%). No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A) had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31) and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D), whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E. PMID:24031842

  7. Isolation and Characterization of New Temperature Tolerant Microalgal Strains for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Bleeke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae exhibit great potential for biomass production. Although microalgae display an enormous biodiversity, surprisingly only 15 species are used for large scale production processes worldwide. The implementation of new production strains with good process-oriented properties, especially fast growth rate and heat resistance, could improve production efficiency and reduce costs. In this study 130 environmental samples collected in Germany, Spain, Italy and Portugal were investigated for fast growing thermotolerant photosynthetic species. Isolates were characterized and identified on a molecular level. In total 21 of the isolated freshwater strains were able to grow at 40 °C. Additionally, 13 of those 21 strains are able to grow at 45 °C. The highest growth rate at room temperature was 1.16 per day (isolate T306A, compared to 0.053 per day at 45 °C (isolate Sp13. In three thermotolerant strains pigment production was induced. Molecular identification by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed that the isolates were all chlorophytes belonging to four different families.

  8. Decolorization of Methyl Red by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 Isolated from Textile Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to isolate methyl red, an azo dye, decolorizing bacteria from textile effluent. Among three isolates with methyl red decolorizing ability, the potential bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 was selected for identification and characterization. The organism was found to belong to the genus Staphylococcus and species saprophyticus. The isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 could decolorize 600, 700, 800, and 1000 mg/L of methyl red within 24 h and 48 h, respectively, in presence of 1.0 g/L of glucose. This bacterium showed 94 and 97 % methyl red (600 mg L-1 decolorization within 24 and 48 h, respectively. In case of temperature, the ranging between 30-40 �C was fond to be suitable for the decolorization by S. saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 and a further increase in the temperature drastically affected decolorization activity of bacterial culture. Thus, due to high potential for methyl red decolorization the isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 can be used in the biological treatment plant of industrial effluent containing azo dyes.

  9. ISOLATION, SCREENING, CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF B-COMPLEX VITAMINS BY LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Abishek Manisagar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, isolation, screening, characterization, antibiotic susceptibility tests, curing & Determination of B-complex vitamin production by potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains from different sources of meat was analysed. 250 grams of intestine parts of goat meat and beef each were transferred to MRS broth to screen the potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Initially 57 strains were isolated and confirmed by gram`s staining and catalase tests. After that, 51 strains selected for fur...

  10. Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Promotion of Growth of Tomato by Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Sheng Jun; Kim, Byung Sup

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited th...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. HG01, a Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Strain Isolated from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Nahat, Rafael Augusto Teodoro Pereira de Souza; Guzmán Moreno, César Wilber; Carreño Farfán, Carmen Rosa; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain HG01, isolated from a salt mine in Peru, is a halophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacterium accumulating poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from different carbon sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate, which was found to be 3,665,487 bp long, with a G+C content of 68%. PMID:26798101

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. HG01, a Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Strain Isolated from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Nahat, Rafael Augusto Teodoro Pereira de Souza; Guzmán Moreno, César Wilber; Carreño Farfán, Carmen Rosa; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain HG01, isolated from a salt mine in Peru, is a halophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacterium accumulating poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from different carbon sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate, which was found to be 3,665,487 bp long, with a G+C content of 68%.

  13. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Milagro García Bernal; Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova; Pedro Enrique Saucedo; Marlen Casanova González; Ricardo Medina Marrero; José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates....

  14. Polymorphism of viral dsRNA in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains isolated from different geographic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Libkind Diego; Oviedo Vicente; Flores Oriana; Sanhueza Mario; Baeza Marcelo; Cifuentes Víctor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements was described in some isolates. This kind of viruses is widely distributed among yeasts and filamentous fungi and, although generally are cryptic in function, their studies have been a key factor in the knowledge of important fungi. In this work, the characterization and genetic re...

  15. Bioefficacy of methanolic root extract of Piper longum L. against isolated strains of Keratinophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Prassanna, Kodagikere Palakshappa; Naika, Raja; Ganapathy, Pasura Subbaiah Sujan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 9 species belonging to 3 genera of keratinophillic fungi were recovered from twelve soil samples collected from different sites in shivamogga using the hair-baiting technique. Most of the fungal species isolated are known to be agents of human and animal infection. The methanolic root extract of Piper longum was evaluated for antifungal activity against the isolated strains to determine the active. It was observed that the extract was effective in inhibiting species with zone of in...

  16. DNA Hybridization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Uteri and Fecal Samples of Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    SANCAK, Aziz Arda

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium that has been isolated from the bacterial culture of uterine and fecal samples of dogs with pyometra. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this organism could be relevant to the pathogenesis of pyometra in dogs. Fecal and uterine samples were collected from 17 bitches with pyometra. E. coli strains were isolated in all samples. Representative colonies of E. coli from each sample were analyzed for pathogenicity determinants by h...

  17. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

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    Twine Susan M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Results Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs present in reference strain ATCC 3502 were common to all 61 widely-representative strains of proteolytic C. botulinum and the closely related C. sporogenes tested. This indicates a relatively stable genome. There was, however, evidence for recombination and genetic exchange, in particular within the neurotoxin gene and cluster (including transfer of neurotoxin genes to C. sporogenes, and the flagellar glycosylation island (FGI. These two loci appear to have evolved independently from each other, and from the remainder of the genetic complement. A number of strains were atypical; for example, while 10 out of 14 strains that formed type A1 toxin gave almost identical profiles in whole genome, neurotoxin cluster and FGI analyses, the other four strains showed divergent properties. Furthermore, a new neurotoxin sub-type (A5 has been discovered in strains from heroin-associated wound botulism cases. For the first time, differences in glycosylation profiles of the flagella could be linked to differences in the gene content of the FGI. Conclusion Proteolytic C. botulinum has a stable genome backbone containing specific regions of genetic heterogeneity. These include the neurotoxin gene cluster and the FGI, each having evolved independently of each other and the remainder of the genetic complement. Analysis of these genetic components provides a high degree of discrimination of strains of proteolytic C. botulinum, and is suitable for clinical and forensic investigations of botulism

  18. Antimicrobial sensitivity and frequency of DRUG resistance among bacterial strains isolated from cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood stream infections (bacteremia) is potentially life threatening. Concomitant with a change in the incidence and epidemiology of infecting organisms, there has been an increase in resistance to many antibiotic compounds. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial pathogens has an impact on our ability to treat patients effectively. The changing spectrum of microbial pathogens and widespread emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotic drugs has emphasized the need to monitor the prevalence of resistance in these strains. In the present study frequency of isolation of clinically significant bacteria and their susceptibility and resistance pattern against a wide range of antimicrobial drugs from positive blood cultures collected during 2001-2003 was studied. A total of 102 consecutive isolates were found with 63% gram positive and 44% gram negative strains. The dominating pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (51%), Streptococci (31%), Pseudomonas (40%), Proteus (13%), Klebsiella (13%). The isolated strains were tested against a wide range of antibiotics belonging to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and quinolone derivative group by disk diffusion method. It has been observed that isolated strains among gram positive and negative strains showed different level of resistance against aminoglycosides and cephalosporin group of antibiotics with gram positives showing highest number and frequency of resistance against aminoglycosides (40-50%) and cephalosporins.(35-45%) whereas cephalosporins were found to be more effective against gram negatives with low frequency of resistant strains. Cabapenem and quinolone derivative drugs were found to be most effective among other groups in both gram positive and negative strains with 23-41% strains found sensitive to these two drugs. The frequency of sensitive strains against aminoglycoside and cephalosporin in gram negative and gram positive strains were found to be decreasing yearwise with a trend towards an

  19. Dark fermentation: isolation and characterization of hydrogen-producing strains from sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Rajhi, Haifa; Conthe, Mónica; Puyol, Daniel; Sanz, José Luis; Díaz, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    To improve bacterial hydrogen production, ten hydrogen-producing strains belonging to Clostridium spp. were isolated from various sludges under low vacuum. Hydrogenogenesis by dark fermentation in batch cultures of these strains was optimal at about 35 °C and an initial pH of 6.5, which for all strains gradually dropped to ca. pH 4 during the fermentation. Clostridium roseum H5 and C. diolis RT2 had the highest hydrogen yields per total substrate (120 ml H2/g initial COD). Substrate consumpti...

  20. The changes in antigenic components of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Thi Quyen; Dinh, Duy Khang

    2015-01-01

    Whole cells of Vibrio cholerare serotype Inaba and serotype Ogawa (strains I389 and O395) were injected into rabbits to obtain antiserum. The antiserums were used for immune reaction with antigenic components of 25 strains of V.cholerae isolated from five provinces of Vietnam and the two standard strains I389 and O395 by Western-blot technique. Analysis of immune hybrid results showed that there were 11 antigenic components with molecular weights approximately 79kDa, 62kDa, 52kDa, 45kDa, 42kD...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and one of the most important multidrug-resistant microorganisms in hospitals worldwide. A.baumannii most commonly causes ventilator-associated pneumonia and blood stream infections and mortality rates in these infections can reach 35%. In this study, it was aimed to assess the frequency of Acinetobacter baumannii species which were considered to be causative agents of nosocomial infection and their resistance to antimicrobial agents between January 2009 and November 2014 in our hospital. Material and Method: The diagnosis of nosocomial A.baumannii infection was made according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria. Identification of the microorganisms isolated from the specimens of the patients and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of them were performed by using VITEK 2 ID-AST automated system. Susceptibilities of amikacin, ampicillin-sulbactam, gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, colistin and co-trimoxazole were investigated in the species. SPSS 19,0 program was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 308 Acinetobacter species were isolated and these species were obtained more frequently from the clinical samples sent from the intensive care unit (92,9% and deep tracheal aspirate samples (64,6%. When all of the species were evaluated, the most efficient antibiotics were determined to be colistin, tigecycline and netilmycin. The susceptibility rates for colistin, tigecycline and netilmycin were determined to be 92,8%, 85,3% and 82%, respectively. These are followed by tobramycin with a susceptibility rate of 76,4%, gentamicin with a susceptibility rate of 47,8% and amikacin with a susceptibility rate of 46,3%. Discussion: In our study, colistin, tigecycline and netilmycin are the most

  2. Genetic complementation analysis of two independently isolated hycanthone-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Pica-Mattoccia

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine whether various hycanthone resistant strains of schistosomes which have been independently isolated are all affected in the same gene. A strain obtained from a Brazilian patient was compared with a strain of Puerto Rican origin selected in the laboratory. If the mutation conferring resistance involved two different genes, one would expect that the progeny of a cross between the two strains would show complementation, i.e. it would be sensitive to the drug. We have performed such a cross and obtained F1 hybrid worms wich were essentially all resistant, thus suggesting that the mutation conferring resistance in the two strains involves the same gene.

  3. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Sharma*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH activity. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID studies revealed that Pseudomonas resinovarans AST2.2 degraded 43.90 % of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/l within 96 hrs. Intermediates of chlorpyrifos degradation were identified using GC-MS. This strain have potential to degrade chlorpyrifos and thus can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  4. The differentiation and distribution of potato virus Y strains isolated from tobacco in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four strains of potato virus Y (PVY) orginally isolated from tobacco in South Africa belonging to three different strain groups (PVYN, PVYc and PVYo) were differentiated according to their effect on various tobacco cultivars. The results obtained in this study confirm previous reports which indicated that inoculation with PVY had a detrimental effect on the yield and quality of tobacco. The severity of the effects was generally related to the length of time that the virus was present in the host, with late infections having less effect than early infections. An important aspect that evolved from the present study is the differences in reactions of the various strains (necrotic to mild strains) of PVY on the tobacco cultivars tested. A direct correlation was evident between the virulence of the different PVY strains and the effect of O2-uptake of the host. cDNA probes prepared from PVY-RNA are specific to RNA extracted from purified PVY suspensions as well as crude sap from tobacco plants infected with the PVY strains used in this study. Radioactive probes and 32Phosporus labelling were used in the DNA and RNA studies of PVY. A procedure described by Bar-Joseph, et al (1983) were used successfully for the isolation of viral double-stranded RNA from various tissues. However, from the results obtained in this study it is clear that this method is of little or no value for the detection and diagnosis of PVY strains

  5. Isolation of an oxalate-resistant Ashbya gossypii strain and its improved riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Morimoto, Aki; Nariyama, Masashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    An oxalate-resistant strain of Ashbya gossypii was naturally isolated from spores grown on an oxalate-containing medium, and its medium was optimized to improve riboflavin production. Riboflavin production by the resistant strain was three-fold higher than that by the wild-type organism when grown in flask cultures. Medium optimization increased the riboflavin production by the resistant strain to 5 g l(-1), which was five-fold higher than that obtained by the wild-type strain. The productivity was reproduced in a 3-l bioreactor. During the early growth phase, the specific activity of isocitrate lyase in the oxalate-resistant strain was slightly higher than that in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the oxalate-resistant strain revealed that the expression of aldose reductase and cobalamin-independent methionine synthase decreased significantly. This is the first report that describes the natural isolation of a riboflavin producer using an antimetabolite-containing medium to enhance the riboflavin production level. This method should also be useful for improving the productivity of other bioproducts since it does not require any mutations or genetic modifications of the microorganism. PMID:19826846

  6. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health. PMID:26337044

  7. Virulence and resistance gene profiles of staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Andreas; Niederhauser, Isabel; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more

  8. Isolation and characterization of rhamnolipid-producing bacterial strains from a biodiesel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Price, Neil P J; Ray, Karen J; Kuo, Tsung-Min

    2009-06-01

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Pantoea stewartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains of the former five species were found to produce rhamnolipids in quantities the same as, or similar to, coisolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Measurements of surface tension revealed that that emulsifying properties of these strains were similar to levels displayed by rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa. Results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS analyses revealed that the predominant compounds made by all strains were C10-C10 mono- and dirhamnolipids. Notably, E. hormaechei and one strain of A. calcoaceticus produced rhamnolipids in amounts similar to the pseudomonads. As all strains examined were from the same taxonomic class of Proteobacteria, further examination of this group may reveal many additional species not previously known to produce rhamnolipids in addition to novel strains of species currently known to produce rhamnolipids. PMID:19473254

  9. Isolation, identification and characterization of an electrogenic microalgae strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Wu

    Full Text Available Extracellular electron transfer involving microbes is important as it closely reflects the ability of cells to communicate with the environment. However, there are few reports on electron transfer mechanisms of pure microalgae and a lack of any model alga to study the transfer processes. In the present study, nine green microalgae species were isolated from wastewater and characterized in terms of their ability to transfer electrons between cells and an electrode. One species showed direct electron transfer via membrane-associated proteins and indirect electron transfer via secreted oxygen. The microalga was identified as Desmodesmus sp. based on phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that Desmodesmus sp. was able to act as a cathodic microorganism. Stable current densities of -0.24, 35.54 and 170 mA m(-2 were achieved at potentials of +0.2, -0.2 and -0.4 V, respectively, under illumination. Dissolved oxygen concentration measurement showed gradients within the microalgae biofilm: 18.3 mg L(-1 in light decreasing to 4.29 mg L(-1 in the dark. This study diversified the exoelectrogen library and provided a potential model microalga to explore the associated mechanism of extracellular electron transfer.

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of an electrogenic microalgae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yicheng; Guan, Kai; Wang, Zejie; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer involving microbes is important as it closely reflects the ability of cells to communicate with the environment. However, there are few reports on electron transfer mechanisms of pure microalgae and a lack of any model alga to study the transfer processes. In the present study, nine green microalgae species were isolated from wastewater and characterized in terms of their ability to transfer electrons between cells and an electrode. One species showed direct electron transfer via membrane-associated proteins and indirect electron transfer via secreted oxygen. The microalga was identified as Desmodesmus sp. based on phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that Desmodesmus sp. was able to act as a cathodic microorganism. Stable current densities of -0.24, 35.54 and 170 mA m(-2) were achieved at potentials of +0.2, -0.2 and -0.4 V, respectively, under illumination. Dissolved oxygen concentration measurement showed gradients within the microalgae biofilm: 18.3 mg L(-1) in light decreasing to 4.29 mg L(-1) in the dark. This study diversified the exoelectrogen library and provided a potential model microalga to explore the associated mechanism of extracellular electron transfer. PMID:24019922

  11. Decolorization of sulfonated azo dye Metanil Yellow by newly isolated bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. strain AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. strain AK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneya, O; Souche, S Yogesh; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

    2011-06-15

    Two different bacterial strains capable of decolorizing a highly water soluble azo dye Metanil Yellow were isolated from dye contaminated soil sample collected from Atul Dyeing Industry, Bellary, India. The individual bacterial strains Bacillus sp. AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. AK2 decolorized Metanil Yellow (200 mg L(-1)) completely within 27 and 12h respectively. Various parameters like pH, temperature, NaCl and initial dye concentrations were optimized to develop an economically feasible decolorization process. The maximum concentration of Metanil Yellow (1000 mg L(-1)) was decolorized by strains AK2 and AK1 within 78 and 84 h respectively. These strains could decolorize Metanil Yellow over a broad pH range 5.5-9.0; the optimum pH was 7.2. The decolorization of Metanil Yellow was most efficient at 40°C and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, TLC, HPLC and GC/MS analysis. Further, both the strains showed the involvement of azoreductase in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity studies of catabolic products of Metanil Yellow on the seeds of chick pea and pigeon pea revealed much reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. These results indicating the effectiveness of strains AK1 and AK2 for the treatment of textile effluents containing azo dyes. PMID:21470774

  12. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Ewalt, Darla R; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  13. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  14. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India."nMaterials and Methods: Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM, SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis."nResults: Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 μmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3."nConclusion: This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  15. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    OpenAIRE

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaoui, M.; Asehraou, A.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade ole...

  16. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetable salads sold at supermarkets in Santiago, Chile: prevalence and strain characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Ana María; Jacquet, Christine

    2009-06-30

    Between 2000 and 2005, 717 samples of three types of salads were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes in Santiago, Chile in order to provide information to Chilean health authorities on the presence of the pathogen in vegetable salad samples and to ascertain the risk of these products for consumers. L. monocytogenes isolates were found in 88 out of 347 (25.4%) samples of frozen vegetable salads and in 22 out of 216 (10.2%) freshly supermarkets prepared, cooked or raw ready-to-eat vegetable salads; no Listeria was isolated from 154 samples of raw minimally processed salads industrially prepared. Enumeration of L. monocytogenes was done by plate count for 20 positive frozen samples, randomly chosen. Most of them (90%) had or = 1100/g, five ranged between 240 and 93, eight between 23 and three and nine had contaminated frozen samples. Isolation of strains was done using three selective agars. Sixty-two L. monocytogenes were isolated from lithium chloride phenylethanol moxalactam agar, 95 from Listeria selective agar Oxford formulation, and 103 from polymixin acriflavine lithium chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol agar. Fifty isolates (45.5%) belong to PCR group IIb (including strains serovar 1/2b), 41 (37.3%) to PCR group IVb (including strains serovar 4b), 17 (15.5%) to PCR group IIa (including strains serovar 1/2a), and 2 (1.8%) to PCR group IIc. With the use of DNA macrorestriction patterns analysis, 17 different clusters were detected among 71 isolates, with P10, the most frequent with 25 isolates (35.2%) of PCR group IIb. PMID:19410317

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Fan, Qing; Xie, Zhiqin; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Luo, Sisi; Khan, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle.

  19. A Desulfitobacterium strain isolated from human feces that does not dechlorinate chloroethenes or chlorophenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pas, BA; Harmsen, HJM; Raangs, GC; de Vos, WM; Schraa, G; Stams, AJM

    2001-01-01

    An anaerobic bacterium, strain DP7, was isolated from human feces in mineral medium with formate and 0.02% yeast extract as energy and carbon source. This rod-shaped motile bacterium used pyruvate, lactate, formate, hydrogen, butyrate, and ethanol as electron donor for sulfite reduction. Other elect

  20. A Desulfitobacterium strain isolated from human feces that does not dechlorinate chloroethenes or chlorophenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de B.A.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Raangs, G.C.; Vos, de W.M.; Schraa, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An anaerobic bacterium, strain DP7, was isolated from human feces in mineral medium with formate and 0.02"east extract as energy and carbon source. This rod-shaped motile bacterium used pyruvate, lactate, formate, hydrogen, butyrate, and ethanol as electron donor for sulfite reduction. Other electro

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Maria Lara; Adriano Bonfim Carregaro; Deise Flores Santurio; Mariangela Facco de Sá; Janio Moraes Santurio; Sydney Hartz Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each ...

  2. Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer

    2015-03-01

    Species differentiation within Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex group currently poses a major diagnostic challenge, with molecular methods increasingly supplementing classical identification based on the morphological and physiological properties of the fungi. Diagnostic and epidemiological research aimed at determining the source and means of transmission of dermatophytoses in both humans and animals requires not only species differentiation of isolates but also differentiation within species. The study was conducted on 24 isolates originating in humans and various animal species with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis. The analysis included phenotypical identification methods and molecular methods: internal transcribed spacer sequencing and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with multi-enzyme restriction. ITS sequence analysis identified the isolates to species - Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii, and ITS-RFLP detected six different genotypes. Genotypes I, II and III characterised strains belonging to A. benhamiae, genotype IV characterised the A. vanbreuseghemii strain, and genotypes V and VI occurred only within the species T. interdigitale. Strains isolated from guinea pigs were dominant within genotype I, while genotype II was found mainly in strains from foxes. Multi-enzyme restriction analysis of this region enables intraspecific differentiation, which may be useful in epidemiological research, particularly in determining the source of infections. PMID:25643744

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sp. Strain TCF032-E4, Isolated from Fermented Radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sp. strain TCF032-E4 (= CCTCC AB2015090 = DSM 100358), isolated from a Chinese fermented radish. The total length of the 57 contigs is about 2.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 43.5 mol% and 2,797 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). PMID:26227596

  4. The prevalence of virulence genes of E. coli strains isolated from children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of virulence genes in E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of children with urinary tract infection(UTI) and their correlation with clinical data, we isolated E. coli strains from urine samples of children with UTI during the period of August 2005 - August 2006 and studied them for the presence of the virulence genes by PCR. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated. The prevalence of genes, pyelonephritis associated pili (pap genes), S-family adhesions (sfa gene), hemolysin (hly gene), and cytotoxic nercotizing factor type 1 (cnf-1-1 gene) among the isolated strains was 27.1%, 14.6%, 13.5% and 22.9 %, respectively. Pyelonephritis was more prevalent in the cases with positive virulence genes. The results showed significant correlation between age of the patient and the presence of the genes (P< 0.05). Cnf-1 gene was significantly more common in samples of patients with abnormal finding on the ultrasound of kidneys (P0.049). Our study demonstrated higher prevalence of pyelonephritis in the presence of E. coli virulence genes. Detection of the genes in urine samples may help in the management of UTI. (author)

  5. The prevalence of virulence genes of E. coli strains isolated from children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of virulence genes in E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of children with urinary tract infection(UTI and their correlation with clinical data, we iso-lated E. coli strains from urine samples of children with UTI during the period of August 2005 - August 2006 and studied them for the presence of the virulence genes by PCR. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated. The prevalence of genes, pyelonephritis associated pili (pap genes, S-family adhesions (sfa gene, hemolysin (hly gene, and cytotoxic nercotizing factor type 1 (cnf-1-1 gene among the isolated strains was 27.1%, 14.6%, 13.5% and 22.9 %, respectively. Pyelonephritis was more prevalent in the cases with positive virulence genes. The results showed significant correlation bet-ween age of the patient and the presence of the genes (P< 0.05. Cnf-1 gene was significantly more common in samples of patients with abnormal finding on the ultrasound of kidneys (P= 0.049. Our study demonstrated higher prevalence of pyelonephritis in the presence of E. coli virulence genes. Detection of the genes in urine samples may help in the management of UTI.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonagglutinating Lactococcus garvieae Strain 122061 Isolated from Yellowtail in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiki, Issei; Oinaka, Daisaku; Iwasaki, Yuki; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Nagai, Satoshi; Katoh, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Nonagglutinating Lactococcus garvieae has been isolated from diseased farmed yellowtail in Japan since 2012. In this study, the complete genome and plasmid sequence of nonagglutinating L. garvieae strain 122061 was determined, to our knowledge, for the first time. PMID:27389264

  7. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain 04-3911, Isolated from Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Marcus V. C.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; Veras, Adooney A. O.; Sá, Pablo H. C.; Rocha, Flávia S.; Vilas Boas, Priscilla C. B.; Soares, Siomar C.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Guiso, Nicole; Badell, Edgar; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a pathogenic bacterium infecting wild and domesticated animals; some infection cases in humans have increased throughout the world. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 04-3911, isolated from humans. The draft genome has 2,492,680 bp, 2,143 coding sequences, 12 rRNA genes, and 50 tRNA genes. PMID:27034486

  9. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  10. Genome Sequence of Proteus mirabilis Strain PR03, Isolated from a Local Hospital in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, M. I. H.; Teh, L. K.; L. S. Lee; Zakaria, Z.A.; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the pathogenic agents that commonly causes urinary tract infections among elderly individuals and long-term catheterized patients. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Proteus mirabilis strain PR03 (3,932,623 bp, with a G+C content of 38.6%) isolated from a local hospital in Malaysia.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, a Strain Isolated from Strawberry Vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia; Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The present article reports the draft genome sequence of the strain Acetobacter malorum CECT 7742, an acetic acid bacterium isolated from strawberry vinegar. This species is characterized by the production of d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, which it further metabolizes to keto-d-gluconic acids. PMID:27340078

  12. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to identify and classify Iranian isolates of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the basis of presence of virulence genes and to determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 at the Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. One hundred and ninety-three diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheal patients in different regions of Iran were included in current study. Virulence factors genees for diarrheagenic E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 193 diarrheagenic E. coli detected by PCR, 86(44.5%) were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 74 (38.4%) enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 19 (9.8%) enteroaggregative E. coli and 14 (7.3%) enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to 12 clinically important antimicrobial agents was determined for 193 strains of diarrhheagenic E. coli. A high incidence of resistance to tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (62%), streptomycin (56%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (44.5%), trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (39.5%) and cephalothin (37%) was observed. The STEC and EPEC strains with high resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin but highly susceptible to quinolones are among the most important causative agent of diarrhea in Iran. This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance is wide spread among E. coli strains colonizing Iranian patients. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries require updating. (author)

  13. Genome Sequence of a Lactococcus lactis Strain Isolated from Salmonid Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Rafael; Gajardo, Felipe; Ruiz, Mauricio; Romero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a common inhabitant of the intestinal microbiota of salmonids, especially those in aquaculture systems. Here, we present a genome sequence of a Lactococcus lactis strain isolated from the intestinal contents of rainbow trout reared in Chile. PMID:27563049

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrio splendidus Strains, Isolated from Seagrass Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Vibrio splendidus UCD-SED7 and UCD-SED10 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding Zostera marina roots near the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega, Bay, California). These assemblies contain 5,334,236 bp and 5,904,824 bp, respectively. PMID:26893436

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Algoriphagus sp. Strain M8-2, Isolated from a Brackish Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraguchi, Yusuke; Kushimoto, Koya; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Algoriphagus sp. strain M8-2 was isolated from a brackish lake, Lake Sanaru, in Hamamatsu, Japan, as a filterable bacterium through a 0.22-µm-pore-size membrane filter. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the M8-2 genome (a 3,882,610-bp chromosome). PMID:27174266

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae Strain KZ01T, Isolated from a Western Lowland Gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    TSUCHIDA, Sayaka; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae strain KZ01T isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This genome sequence will be helpful for the comparative genomics between human and nonhuman primate-associated Lactobacillus.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae Strain KZ01T, Isolated from a Western Lowland Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sayaka; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae strain KZ01(T) isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This genome sequence will be helpful for the comparative genomics between human and nonhuman primate-associated Lactobacillus. PMID:26472838

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain F, Isolated from Ancient Permafrost

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Evgeniy V.; Brouchkov, Anatoli V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Griva, Gennady I.; Kashuba, Elena; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Melefors, O; Repin, Vladimir E.; Melnikov, Vladimir P.; Vlassov, Valentin V

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus strain F was isolated and cultured from a sample of permafrost, aged presumably about 3 million years, on the Mammoth Mountain (62°56′N, 133°59′E). These genome data provide the basis to investigate Bacillus cereus F, identified as a long-term survivor of the extremely cold and close environment.

  19. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Streptococcus agalactiae Strain, 138P, Isolated from Diseased Nile Tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Pridgeon, Julia W.; Zhang, Dunhua

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome sequence of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,701 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics analysis to identify genes for antigen discovery and vaccine development.

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Legionella pneumophila Strains Isolated from Environmental Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of legionellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five L. pneumophila strains, Bnt314, Ofk308, Twr292, Ymg289, and Ymt294, isolated from environmental water samples. Comparative analyses of these genomes may reveal the survival mechanisms and virulence of L. pneumophila in the natural environment. PMID:25977442

  2. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  3. Plasmid Profiling and Curing of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fermented Milk for Probiotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavanya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of plasmids in 7 probiotics strains which had been isolated from the fermented milk were determined. Resistance to 8 commonly used antibiotics $- lactans (penicillin, ampicilin, gram positive spectrum (vanomycin, broad spectrum (rifampin, trimethoprim and aminogycosides (kanamycin, streptomycin, and bacitracin was assessed by disk diffusion. Among these strains 20, 20, 60, 70, 90 and 100% were found to be exhibit a significant degree of resistance to kanamycin, trimetroprim, rifampicin, kanamycin, amphicilin and penicillin respectively. Further, plasmid profile and curing of plasmid were performed for the seven isolates. Analysis of the plasmid profiles of the 7 cured derivatives revealed loss of plasmids except 2 strains where curing was partially effective. All the strains lost penicillin resistance after curing indicating that plasmids encodes for resistance character. However, vanomycin resistance is not lost upon curing which indicates that such resistance is usually intrinsic (chromosomally encoded and not transmissible. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility after curing was done to check the safety aspect of the isolates for their application as probiotics and among the 7 strains, 5 were proved to be potent probiotics.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  6. Screening and evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate-producing strains from indigenous isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Chin-Kuei; Wu, Ho-Shing; Sun, Yi-Ming; Lo, Chi-Wei; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanensis 184, which obtains polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Cultivation of C. taiwanensis 184 under a pH of 7.0, at 30 °C, and at an agitation rate of 200 rpm, obtained a PHB content of 10% and PHB production of 0.14 g/L. The carbon and nitrogen types selected for analysis of PHB production by C. taiwanensis 184 were gluconic acid and NH(4)Cl, respectively. Optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio for PHB production was also determined. This study demonstrated a PHB content of 58.81% and a PHB production of 2.44 g/L when the carbon/nitrogen ratio of 8/1 was selected for C. taiwanensis 184. A two-stage fermentation strategy significantly enhanced PHB content and PHB production. Under a two-stage fermentation strategy with nutrient-limited conditions, C. taiwanensis 184 obtained a PHB content of 72% and a PHB concentration of 7 g/L. Finally, experimental results confirmed that optimizing the growth medium and fermentation conditions for cultivating the indigenous C. taiwanensis 184 strain substantially elevated PHB content from 10% to 72% and PHB production from 0.14 g/L to 7 g/L, respectively. PMID:21339985

  7. Screening and Evaluation of Polyhydroxybutyrate-Producing Strains from Indigenous Isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om-Murugan Janarthanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR and Gas Chromatography (GC analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanensis 184, which obtains polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. Cultivation of C. taiwanensis 184 under a pH of 7.0, at 30 °C, and at an agitation rate of 200 rpm, obtained a PHB content of 10% and PHB production of 0.14 g/L. The carbon and nitrogen types selected for analysis of PHB production by C. taiwanensis 184 were gluconic acid and NH4Cl, respectively. Optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio for PHB production was also determined. This study demonstrated a PHB content of 58.81% and a PHB production of 2.44 g/L when the carbon/nitrogen ratio of 8/1 was selected for C. taiwanensis 184. A two‑stage fermentation strategy significantly enhanced PHB content and PHB production. Under a two-stage fermentation strategy with nutrient‑limited conditions, C. taiwanensis 184 obtained a PHB content of 72% and a PHB concentration of 7 g/L. Finally, experimental results confirmed that optimizing the growth medium and fermentation conditions for cultivating the indigenous C. taiwanensis 184 strain substantially elevated PHB content from 10% to 72% and PHB production from 0.14 g/L to 7 g/L, respectively.

  8. Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

  9. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster strains from goats in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haoju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in goats in Chongqing, China, an epidemiological survey in this area was carried out. A total of 68 samples were subjected to bacteria isolation on Hartley’s medium. Four isolates (three from lung tissue and one from nasal discharges were recovered from the samples and identified as the Mycoplasma species by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. They were further confirmed by PCR using 16S rRNA specific primer pairs and by restriction enzyme analysis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates indicated that some strains had developed resistance to the antibiotics tested. This is the first report on the isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from goats in Chongqing. This study also revealed a prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in goats in this area.

  10. Molecular serotyping of rough Salmonella strains isolated from Danish pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Boel, Jeppe; Sisic, E.;

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and meat, including pork, is one of the main sources of salmonellosis. Surveillance of Salmonella in the meat production chain is therefore essential to increase food safety. To enable e.g. source attribution and to reveal the source of outbreaks methods...... incomplete LPS structures, referred to as rough strains, or do not express H antigens, therefore serotyping by agglutination cannot be performed on these isolates. This results in data gaps when subtyping data is needed. To overcome this obstacle, serotypes can be determined on DNA level, i.e. by determining...... the same time period from similar sources. A number of rough Salmonella strains (n = 211) isolated from pig carcasses during 2005-2012 were analyzed with molecular serotyping employing Luminex technology. Results show that molecular serotyping enabled serovar identification in 168 of the strains (80...

  11. Isolation and characteristics of a novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain, Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ang; QU Yuanyuan; ZHOU Jiti; GOU Min

    2009-01-01

    A novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain LA-4 was isolated from activated sludge. It was identified as Dyella ginsengisoli according to phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate could utilize biphenyl as sole source of carbon and energy, which degraded over 95 mg/L biphenyl within 36 h. The major metabolites formed from biphenyl, such as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and benzoic acid, were identified by LC-MS. The crude cell extract of strain LA-4 exhibited the activity of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DHBD) and the kinetic parameters were Km= 26.48 μmol/L and Vmax= 8.12 μmol/mg protein. A conserved region of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene bphA1 of strain LA-4 was amplified by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

  12. Colorful microdiversity of Synechococcus strains (picocyanobacteria) isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Schouten, Daphne; Doeleman, Marije; Wollenzien, Ute; Huisman, Jef; Stal, Lucas J

    2009-04-01

    Synechococcus is a cosmopolitan genus of picocyanobacteria living in the photic zone of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the isolation of 46 closely related picocyanobacterial strains from the Baltic Sea. The isolates showed considerable variation in their cell size and pigmentation phenotypes, yielding a colorful variety of red, pink and blue-green strains. These pigmentation phenotypes could not be differentiated on the basis of their 16S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Thirty-nine strains, designated BSea, possessed 16S rRNA-ITS sequences almost identical with Synechococcus strain WH5701. Despite their similar 16S rRNA-ITS sequences, the BSea strains separated into several different clusters when comparing the phycocyanin (cpcBA) operon. This separation was largely consistent with the phycobiliprotein composition of the different BSea strains. The majority of phycocyanin (PC)-rich Bsea strains clustered with WH5701. Remarkably, the phycoerythrin (PE)-rich strains of BSea formed an as yet unidentified cluster within the cpcBA phylogeny, distantly related to other PE-rich groups. Detailed analysis of the cpcBA operon using neighbour-net analysis indicated that the PE-rich BSea strains are probably endemic for the Baltic Sea. Comparison of the phylogenies obtained by the 16S rRNA-ITS, the cpcBA, and the concatenated 16S rRNA-ITS and cpcBA operon sequences revealed possible events of horizontal gene transfer among different Synechococcus lineages. Our results show that microdiversity is important in Synechococcus populations and that it can reflect extensive diversification of different pigmentation phenotypes into different ecological niches. PMID:19052629

  13. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy

    2014-05-22

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated from the East (Japan) Sea. The PS1 clade is a sister group to the OCS116 clade, together forming a putatively novel order closely related to Rhizobiales. While most genomic features and most of the genetic content are conserved between RS24 and IMCC14465, their average nucleotide identity (ANI) is < 81%, suggesting two distinct species of the PS1 clade. Next to encoding two different variants of proteorhodopsin genes, they also harbor several unique genomic islands that contain genes related to degradation of aromatic compounds in IMCC14465 and in polymer degradation in RS24, possibly reflecting the physicochemical differences in the environment they were isolated from. No clear differences in abundance of the genomic content of either strain could be found in fragment recruitment analyses using different metagenomic datasets, in which both genomes were detectable albeit as minor part of the communities. The comparative genomic analysis of both isolates of the PS1 clade and the fragment recruitment analysis provide first insights into the ecology of this group. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  14. Specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from elderly subjects inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jalonen, Lotta; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Salminen, Seppo J

    2007-06-10

    Cell-free, pH-controlled supernatants of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy elderly subjects were subjected to antimicrobial activity assay. Bioluminescent indicator strains Staphylococcus aureus RN4220, Escherichia coli K-12, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were used as targets of antimicrobial activity. The effect of nutrient depletion on the inhibition was eliminated with spent-culture controls. Three out of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains were capable of inhibiting the growth of S. aureus. The inhibition was equal to 23.2+/-19.1% to 50.4+/-26.7% of the inhibition caused by 50 IU/ml nisin. Reuterin-producing positive strain Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112 was capable of 86.0+/-24.6% inhibition, but Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, a known probiotic strain, showed no inhibition. None of the strains was capable of inhibiting the growth of E. coli or S. enterica. The observed inhibition by bifidobacteria was related to hydrogen peroxide formation and possible production of heat-stable proteinaceous compounds. The results suggest that production of antimicrobial substances other than organic acids is not common among Bifidobacterium strains typical of elderly subjects. However, specific strains were identified which showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. aureus. PMID:17462772

  15. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  16. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  17. Technological aptitude and applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bioactive strains isolated from Algerian raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  18. Screening and evaluation of biosurfactant-producing strains isolated from oilfield wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Chen, Yitong; Xu, Ruidan; Jia, Yunpeng

    2013-06-01

    The six biosurfactant-producing strains, isolated from oilfield wastewater in Daqing oilfield, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by measuring the diameter of the oil spreading, measuring the surface tension value and emulsifying capacity against xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. The experimental result showed three strains (S2, S3, S6) had the better surface activity. Among the three strains, the best results were achieved when using S2 strain. The diameter of the oil spreading of the biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was 14 cm, its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was 21.8 mg/l and the interfacial tension between crude oil and biosurfactant solution produced by S2 strain reduced to 25.7 mN/m. The biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. After S2 strain treatment, the reduction rate of oil viscosity was 51 % and oil freezing point reduced by 4 °C. PMID:24426104

  19. Comparative analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from bovine respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Szilárd; Makrai, László

    2015-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration. PMID:26689880

  20. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from gizzard of local poultry.

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    Tayeb Idoui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to characterize gizzard Lactobacillus fermentum-group strains on the basis of their phenotypic profiles regarding characteristics of lactobacilli. In addition, their in vitro potential probiotic properties were evaluated.The lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from gizzard contents of Algerian local poultry using criteria of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology and using methods and criteria of Sharpe. The strains were further characterized by tolerance to low pH and bile, coaggregation potential and adhesion to intestinal mucous. The antagonistic activity against some Enterobacteriaceae strains from poultry origin was also evaluated.Among the strains identified, both physiological and biochemical characteristics differed noticeably. The strains coded LP3 and LP10 survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and were considered to be acid and bile tolerant. The majority of the strains exhibited antagonistic activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp and Citrobacter spp. The best co-aggregation properties were obtained with two isolates. Lb. fermentum LP3 alone showed adherence specificity to the chicken intestinal epithelium.

  1. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillusplantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei LIU; Sheng-rong SHEN; Hui RUAN; Qian ZHOU; Liu-liu MA; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB).Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines.Of these isolates,Ip15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 μg/ml of linoleic acid (LA).Compared to other strains,L.plantarum strain Ip15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium,I.e.,up to 600 pg/ml.This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9,trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)],of which 75% was 9-CLA.Interestingly,though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by Ip15 remained stable between 100 to 600 μg/ml LA levels in the medium,it dropped sharply at 1000 μg/ml.Taken together,the Ip15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate,which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.

  2. Genetic and physiological diversity of Tetragenococcus halophilus strains isolated from sugar- and salt-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justé, Annelies; Lievens, Bart; Frans, Ingeborg; Marsh, Terence L; Klingeberg, Michael; Michiels, Chris W; Willems, Kris A

    2008-09-01

    Tetragenococcus halophilus is known to flourish in extreme salt environments. Recently, this halophilic bacterium also appeared as the dominant microflora during storage of sugar thick juice, an intermediate product of beet sugar production. Although T. halophilus can cause degradation of thick juice, dominance of this bacterium does not always result in degradation. In this study T. halophilus strains from high-salt and high-sugar environments, and in particular from degraded and non-degraded thick juice, were compared in detail. Both physiological and genetic characterization using Biolog, repetitive PCR fingerprinting (rep-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technology, revealed clear differences between T. halophilus strains isolated from salt- and sugar-rich environments. However, no strain pattern could be specifically and systematically associated with degraded or non-degraded thick juice. Remarkably, halophilic T. halophilus strains were not able to grow in sugar thick juice. Irrespective of the differences between the strains from high-salt or high-sugar environments, DNA-DNA hybridization grouped all strains within the species T. halophilus, except one isolate from sugar thick juice that showed different physiological and genetic characteristics, and that may represent a new species of Tetragenococcus. PMID:18757794

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Dichlorvos-Degrading Strain DDV-1 of Ochrobactrum sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Guo-Shun; ZHANG Zhong-Hui; XU Jian-Hong; LI Shun-Peng

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to isolate a dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate)-degrading strain of Ochrobactrum sp., and determine its effectiveness in remediation of a dichlorvos-contaminated soil. A dichlorvos-degrading bacterium (strain DDV-1) was successfully isolated and identified as an Ochrobactrum sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strain DDV-1 was able to utilize dichlorvos as a sole carbon source, and the optimal pH and temperature for its cell growth and degradation were 7.0 and 30 ℃, respectively. Also, the growth and degradation of strain DDV-1 showed the same response to dissolved oxygen. In addition, the soil degradation test indicated that in soil spiked with 100 mg L-1 or 500 mg L-1 dichlorvos and inoculated with 0.5% or 1.0% (v/v) strain DDV-1, complete degradation of dichlorvos could be achieved in 24 h. The present study showed that strain DDV-1 was a fast dichlorvos-degrading bacterium in soil. However, further research will be needed to clarify the degradation pathway and the properties of the key enzymes involved in its biodegradation.

  4. Polymorphism of viral dsRNA in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains isolated from different geographic areas

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    Libkind Diego

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA elements was described in some isolates. This kind of viruses is widely distributed among yeasts and filamentous fungi and, although generally are cryptic in function, their studies have been a key factor in the knowledge of important fungi. In this work, the characterization and genetic relationships among dsRNA elements were determined in strains representatives of almost all regions of the earth where X. dendrorhous have been isolated. Results Almost all strains of X. dendrorhous analyzed carry one, two or four dsRNA elements, of molecular sizes in the range from 0.8 to 5.0 kb. Different dsRNA-patterns were observed in strains with different geographic origin, being L1 (5.0 kb the common dsRNA element. By hybridization assays a high genomic polymorphism was observed among L1 dsRNAs of different X. dendrorhous strains. Contrary, hybridization was observed between L1 and L2 dsRNAs of strains from same or different regions, while the dsRNA elements of minor sizes (M, S1, and S2 present in several strains did not show hybridization with neither L1 or L2 dsRNAs. Along the growth curve of UCD 67-385 (harboring four dsRNAs an increase of L2 relative to L1 dsRNA was observed, whiles the S1/L1 ratio remains constant, as well as the M/L1 ratio of Patagonian strain. Strains cured of S2 dsRNA were obtained by treatment with anisomycin, and comparison of its dsRNA contents with uncured strain, revealed an increase of L1 dsRNA while the L2 and S1 dsRNA remain unaltered. Conclusion The dsRNA elements of X. dendrorhous are highly variable in size and sequence, and the dsRNA pattern is specific to the geographic region of isolation. Each L1 and L2 dsRNA are viral elements able to self replicate and to coexist into a cell, and L1 and S2 dsRNAs elements could

  5. Immunodominant Antigens of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Patients with Different Gastroduodenal Diseases

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    Sh. Farshad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: H. pylori is a human pathogen which infects the gastric mucosa and causes an inflammatory process leading to gastritis, ulceration and cancer. It is not clear what factors determine these divergent outcomes of infection. The aim of the present study was detecting the immunogenic proteins in H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastric diseases.Materials & Methods: Total proteins of 144 strains of H. pylori isolated from 3 groups of patients (gastric ulcer 37, gastritis 77 and gastric cancer 30 were separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and then were blotted with the sera of their respective hosts.Results: In SDS-PAGE the members of each group showed high correlation regarding to similarity in their patterns, resulting in considering them in the same cluster. The patterns of immunoblots differed from that of Commassie Brilliant Blue stained gels. Some of the protein bands in the SDS-PAGE were not recognized by blotting method. Only the bands of 106 and 45 kDa from H. pylori strains isolated from patients with GC were significantly recognized specifically with the sera of their respective patients and the band of 13 kDa was recognized specifically with the sera of nonulceric patients. With the exception of these bands, in the patterns of blotting of the sera from all patients no significant differences were observed.Conclusion: Using 1D blotting methods we could find 2 antigenic protein bands (106 and 45 kDa for H. pylori strains isolated from cancerious patients and one (13 kDa for the strains isolated from nonulceric patients which were specifically recognized with their respective host. Further studies have to be conducted to show if the antigens described here are of predictive value for certain clinical states.

  6. Immunodominant antigens of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect the immunogenic proteins in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from patients with different gastric diseases. We performed this study in the Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, during July 2003 to September 2004. Total proteins of H. pylori strains isolated from the gastric biopsies of 3 groups of patients were separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and then blotted with the sera of their respective hosts. In SDS-PAGE the members of each group showed high correlation according to similarity in their patterns, resulting in considering them in the same cluster. The patterns of immunoblots differed from that of Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained gels. The blotting method did not recognize some of the protein bands in the SDS-PAGE. Only the bands of 106 and 45 kDa from H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric cancer were significantly (p<0.05) recognized specifically with the sera of their respective patients, and the band of 13 kDa was recognized specifically (p<0.05) with the sera of nonulceric patients. With the exception of these bands, in the patterns of blotting of the sera from all patients no significant differences were observed. By using 1D blotting methods we could find 2 antigenic protein bands (106 and 45 kDa) for H. pylori strains isolated from cancerous patients, and one (13 kDa) for the strains isolated from nonulceric patients, which were specifically recognized with their respective host. (author)

  7. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

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    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  8. Enzymatic Screening and Molecular Characterization of Thermophilic Bacterial Strains Isolated from Hotspring of Tatopani, Bhurung, Nepal

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    Hriush Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In Nepal not much of study of Thermophilic area and Thermophiles have been done. Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but are important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrially important enzymes. Methods: In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Bhurung, Nepal. Wide range of bacteria that could grow at high temperatures and tolerate extreme temperature were characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolates were screened for production of extracellular enzymes like protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, caseinase, pectinase and xylanase activity. Phylogenetic tree construction and G+C content evaluation of the isolate was also studied. Results: 15 isolates with ability to tolerate high temperatures were identified as Bacillus sp. by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. BLAST search analysis of the sequence was performed and result showed maximum identity (99% similarity with Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Isolated strains exhibited considerable amount of extracellular exozymes activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed the relatedness among the species. The G+C content of each species was also evaluated and was found to be in range of 54.87 to 55.54%. Conclusion: The study of isolates confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of various thermostable exozymes which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. Much detailed study of the isolates can

  9. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine sample, University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setegn Eshetie; Fentahun Tarekegn; Gemechu Kumera; Feleke Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from patients with urinary tract infection. Methods: From February to June 2014, a cross sectional study was conducted among urinary tract infection patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Culture and disk diffusion method were used for E. coli isolation and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. P Results: A total of 112 E. coli isolates were identified and the rate of isolation was higher among female participants (28.7%; P = 0.03). Of the isolates, 104 (92.9%) were MDR E. coli; and the isolates showed high resistance rates towards ampicillin (99%), cotrimoxazole (69%), chloramphenicol (58.7%), gentamycin (56.7%) and ceftazidime (55.8%). However, comparative isolates showed low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (1%), cefepime (8.7%), and ceftriaxone (11.5%). Moreover, resistance rates of MDR E. coli isolates were significantly higher than non-MDR strains for ceftazidime (55.8% versus 12.5%; P = 0.015), and ampicillin (99% versus 87.5%; P = 0.018). Conclusions: High prevalence of MDR E. coli isolates was observed in this study. Regular monitoring of antibiotic resistance rates is necessarily required to improve and revise empirical antibiotic therapy protocols.

  10. Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for Muscle Spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Treatment for Muscle Spasms What is botulinum toxin? Botulinum toxin is a protein that helps stop muscle ... won't have any harmful effects from the toxin. Botulinum toxin has been used safely for a number ...

  11. Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain H002, Serotype III, Isolated in China from a Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the first whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain H002, serotype III, isolated in China from a woman 32 weeks pregnant. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae spp. isolated from diverse regions, particularly when compared with Chinese strains.

  12. Characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients in Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Willey, B; Low, D E; Staempfli, H R; McGeer, A; Boerlin, P; Mulvey, M; Weese, J S

    2008-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the bacterium most commonly surmised to cause antimicrobial- and hospital-associated diarrhea in developed countries worldwide, and such infections are thought to be increasing in frequency and severity. A laboratory-based study was carried out to characterize C. difficile strains isolated from persons in Ontario, Canada, during 2004 to 2006 according to toxin type (enterotoxin A, cytotoxin B, and binary toxin [CDT]), tcdC gene characterization, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and toxinotyping. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 1,080/1,152 (94%) samples from 21 diagnostic laboratories. Isolates with toxin profiles A(+) B(+) CDT(-), A(+) B(+) CDT(+), A(-) B(+) CDT(-), and A(-) B(+) CDT(+) accounted for 63%, 34%, 2.4%, and 0.6% of isolates, respectively. Alterations in tcdC were detected in six different ribotypes, including ribotype 027. A total of 39 different ribotypes were identified, with ribotype 027/North American pulsotype 1 (NAP1), an internationally recognized outbreak strain associated with severe disease, being the second most common ribotype (19% of isolates). Transient resistance to metronidazole was identified in 19 (1.8%) isolates. While a large number of ribotypes were found, a few predominated across the province. The high prevalence and wide distribution of ribotype 027/NAP1 are disconcerting in view of the severity of disease associated with it. PMID:18650360

  13. In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia reticulata

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    Aparna Balakrishna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tested indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ≥ 80 and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.

  14. Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens

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    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty-nine Marek's disease virus (MDV strains were isolated during a 3 year period (2007-2010 from vaccinated and infected chicken flocks in Poland. These strains had caused severe clinical symptoms and lesions. In spite of proper vaccination with mono- or bivalent vaccines against Marek's disease (MD, the chickens developed symptoms of MD with paralysis. Because of this we decided to investigate possible changes and mutations in the field strains that could potentially increase their virulence. We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV. Methods In order to detect the possible reasons of recent changes in virulence of MDV strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses for meq oncogene and for long-terminal repeat (LTR region of REV were conducted. The obtained PCR products were sequenced and compared with other MDV and REV strains isolated worldwide and accessible in the GeneBank database. Results Sequencing of the meq oncogene showed a 68 basepair insertion and frame shift within 12 of 24 field strains. Interestingly, the analyses also showed 0.78, 0.8, 0.82, 1.6 kb and other random LTR-REV insertions into the MDV genome in 28 of 29 of strains. These genetic inserts were present after passage in chicken embryo kidney cells suggesting LTR integration into a non-functional region of the MDV genome. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of a recombination between MDV and REV under field conditions in Polish chicken farms. The genetic changes within the MDV genome may influence the virus replication and its features in vivo. However, there is no evidence that meq alteration and REV insertions are related to the strains' virulence.

  15. Application and evaluation of the MLVA typing assay for the Brucella abortus strains isolated in Korea

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    Jung Suk-Chan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Brucella eradication program has been executed in Korea. To effectively prevent and control brucellosis, a molecular method for genetic identification and epidemiological trace-back must be established. As part of that, the MLVA typing assay was evaluated and applied to B. abortus isolates for analyzing the characteristics of the regional distribution and relationships of foreign isolates. Results A total of 177 isolates originating from 105 cattle farms for the period 1996 to 2008 were selected as representatives for the nine provinces of South Korea. A dendrogram of strain relatedness was constructed in accordance with the number of tandem repeat units for 17 loci so that it was possible to trace back in the restricted areas. Even in a farm contaminated by one source, however, the Brucella isolates showed an increase or decrease in one TRs copy number at some loci with high DI values. Moreover, those 17 loci was confirmed in stability via in-vitro and in-vivo passage, and found to be sufficiently stable markers that can readily identify the inoculated strain even if minor changes were detected. In the parsimony analysis with foreign Brucella isolates, domestic isolates were clustered distinctively, and located near the Central and Southern American isolates. Conclusion The MLVA assay has enough discrimination power in the Brucella species level and can be utilized as a tool for the epidemiological trace-back of the B. abortus isolates. But it is important to consider that Brucella isolates may be capable of undergoing minor changes at some loci in the course of infection or in accordance with the changes of the host.

  16. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

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    Franca Cian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, leaving tigecycline as the only therapeutic choice.The purpose of this study is the characterization of the mechanisms involved in resistance to carbapenems in these strains and the evaluation of a reliable and simple test for phenotypic confirmation of ESBL and/or carbapenemase production. 25 isolates of MDR K. pneumoniae were collected between October 2008 and May 2009, mainly from urinary samples of elderly patients hospitalized in medicine wards. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system.The double-disc (DD test was used to check the production of ESBLs, while imipenem and imipenem-EDTA synergy test was used to detect the production of metallo-ßlactamase (MBL. Carbapenemase activity was tested by an hydrolysis assay and the production of MBLs was also investigated by PCR. The DD synergy test highlighted the possible production of ESBLs in 18 out of 22 strains, considered as negative by Vitek. All ESBLs producers tested positive for the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Only one isolate was resistant to carbapenems and resulted positive for production of MBL by the phenotypic test.The crude extract showed carbapenemase activity inhibited by EDTA; PCR test gave positive result for a blaVIM-type allele. PCR analysis performed on representative isolates, followed by sequencing, showed that coding sequence of ompk35 was not functional. Results of this study confirmed the emergence of ESBL-positive strains of K. pneumoniae that

  17. Technological properties of indigenous wine yeast strains isolated from wine production regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmacı, Simel; Özçelik, Filiz; Tokatlı, Mehmet; Çakır, İbrahim

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the important technological and fermentative properties of wine yeast strains previously isolated from different wine producing regions of Turkey. The determination of the following important properties was made: growth at high temperatures; fermentative capability in the presence of high sugar concentration; fermentation rate; hydrogen sulfide production; killer activity; resistance to high ethanol and sulfur dioxide; foam production; and enzymatic profiles. Ten local wine yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces, and one commercial active dry yeast as a reference strain were evaluated. Fermentation characteristics were evaluated in terms of kinetic parameters, including ethanol yield (YP/S), biomass yield (YX/S), theoretical ethanol yield (%), specific ethanol production rate (qp; g/gh), specific glucose uptake rate (qs; g/gh), and the substrate conversion (%). All tested strains were able to grow at 37 °C and to start fermentation at 30° Brix, and were resistant to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide. 60 % of the strains were weak H2S producers, while the others produced high levels. Foam production was high, and no strains had killer activity. Six of the tested strains had the ability to grow and ferment at concentrations of 14 % ethanol. Except for one strain, all fermented most of the media sugars at a high rate, producing 11.0-12.4 % (v/v) ethanol. Although all but one strain had suitable characteristics for wine production, they possessed poor activities of glycosidase, esterase and proteinase enzymes of oenological interest. Nine of the ten local yeast strains were selected for their good oenological properties and their suitability as a wine starter culture. PMID:24549515

  18. Molecular and serological characterization of the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Bruno Alonso; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Sousa, Gisele Oliveira de; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi

    2016-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. The dog was kept in a public shelter in São Paulo city, Brazil, and presented asymptomatic urinary shedding detected by PCR. Prospective evaluation was performed to fully characterize its chronic carrier state. The dog did not present anti-Leptospira titles or clinical/laboratorial abnormalities during the evaluations; nevertheless long-term urinary shedding was confirmed by PCR and leptospires were recovered from two occasions. The isolated strain was molecularly characterized by partial 16S rRNA and secY gene sequencing and MLST analysis. Serogroup identification was performed using polyclonal antibodies. The strain was identified as Leptospira santarosai, serogroup Sejroe. This is the first evidence in the literature of the isolation of L. santarosai in dogs. Our findings show that dogs can persistently harbor leptospires other than L. interrogans. PMID:27282095

  19. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area. PMID:27446054

  20. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  1. Resistance to gentamicin and vancomycin in enterococcal strains isolated from retail broiler chickens in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Mito, Yasuaki; Otsuki, Koichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2004-10-01

    A total of 137 Enterococcus strains isolated from chicken meat were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Strains with the vanCl gene were isolated from seven of nine samples of chicken meat processed in Japan and from all chickens from China and Brazil between July 2001 and April 2002. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were distinguishable from each other, suggesting that VanCl-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is preferentially colonized in broiler chickens in these countries. The incidence of high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci that harbored the aac(6')-le-aph(2")-la or aph(2')-Id gene varied among the countries from which the chickens originated (Japan, 2 of 65; China, 11 of 43; Brazil, 6 of 29). Moreover, the PFGE patterns of the HLGR strains were distinguishable from each other, except for two strains obtained from chickens from Brazil. The results suggest that HLGR Enterococcus is highly prevalent in broiler chickens. PMID:15508646

  2. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  3. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area. PMID:27446054

  4. A Novel Radiation-Resistant Strain of Filobasidium sp. Isolated from the West Sea of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel radiation-resistant Filobasidium sp. yeast strain was isolated from seawater. Along with this strain, a total of 656 yeast isolates were purified from seawater samples collected from three locations in the West Sea of Korea and assessed for their radiation tolerance. Among these isolates, five were found to survive a 5 kGy radiation dose. The most radiation resistant strain was classified as Filobasidium sp. based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis and hence was named Filobasidium RRY1 (Radiation-Resistant Yeast 1). RRY1 differed from F. elegans, which is closely related to RRY1, in terms of the optimal growth temperature and radiation resistance, and was resistant to high doses of γ-ionizing radiation (D10: 6-7 kGy). When exposed to a high dose of 3 kGy irradiation, the RRY1 cells remained intact and undistorted, with negligible cell death. When these irradiated cells were allowed to recover, the cells fully repaired their genomic DNA within 3 h of growth recovery. This is the first report in which a radiation-resistant response has been investigated at the physiological, morphological, and molecular levels in a strain of Filobasidium sp. (author)

  5. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Pandoraea pnomenusa 3kgm, a Quorum-Sensing Strain Isolated from a Former Landfill Site

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Goh, Share-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Pandoraea pnomenusa strain 3kgm has been identified as a quorum-sensing strain isolated from soil. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. pnomenusa strain 3kgm by using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (PacBio RS SMRT) sequencer high-resolution technology.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain S31A1, Isolated from Equine Infectious Endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047. PMID:24009118

  8. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  9. ISOLATION, SCREENING, CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF B-COMPLEX VITAMINS BY LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abishek Manisagar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, isolation, screening, characterization, antibiotic susceptibility tests, curing & Determination of B-complex vitamin production by potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains from different sources of meat was analysed. 250 grams of intestine parts of goat meat and beef each were transferred to MRS broth to screen the potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Initially 57 strains were isolated and confirmed by gram`s staining and catalase tests. After that, 51 strains selected for further biochemical tests to confirm all were Lactobacillus. Later, 41 strains were selected for antibiotic susceptibility tests by using three different classes of antibiotics viz., tetracycline, ampicilin, and streptomycin. Those strains which showed resistant to all three antibiotics used, further selected for curing of plasmid DNA and again antibiotic susceptibility tests was performed by the same antibiotics used before. Finally, only 5 strains were selected as potent probiotic Lactobacillus and unfortunately all strains from Beef intestine derived. Then, determination of B-Complex vitamin production of those selected 5 potent probiotic Lactobacillus by thin layer chromatographic method; Spectroflurophotometric method and RP-HPLC method were performed. From those methods confirmed as, all the five Lactobacillus strains were producing only riboflavin among the B-Complex vitamins, in trace amounts when compared to standard riboflavin and control (media without Lactobacillus. Those five isolated potent probiotic strains of Lactobacillus were named as B-01; B-06; B-12; B-21 & B-23. (The term B refers Lactobacillus strains isolated from Beef intestine and numeric value refers particular strain.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain S31A1, Isolated from Equine Infectious Endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047.

  11. Strain diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Afar pastoral region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Mulugeta; Ameni, Gobena; Bjune, Gunnar; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Abebe, Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs) containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n = 13 isolates) were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%). Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu) accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers. PMID:24734230

  12. CHARACTERIZATION, BIO-FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND SHELF-LIFE STUDIES OF LOCALLY ISOLATED BIO-FERTILIZER STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and potash mobilizing bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of agricultural land, the isolated bacterial strains were further characterized by a series of biochemical reactions and identified as genus Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. A technology for their mass multiplication and their bio-formulation has been developed. Fly-ash was used as carrier materials for bio-formulation development of bio-fertilizer strains. Sh...

  13. Tyrosol degradation via the homogentisic acid pathway in a newly isolated Halomonas strain from olive processing effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Labat, Marc; Amouric, Agnès; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; LORQUIN, Jean

    2008-01-01

    To isolate a new Halomonas sp. strain capable of degrading tyrosol, a toxic compound present in olive mill wastewater, through the homogentisic acid (HGA) pathway. A moderately halophilic Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Halomonas genus and designated strain TYRC17 was isolated from olive processing effluents. This strain was able to completely degrade tyrosol (2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol), a toxic compound found in such effluent. Tyrosol degradation begins by an oxidation to 4-hydrox...

  14. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jessyca dos Reis Celestino; Ana Caroline Duarte; Cláudia Maria de Melo Silva; Hellen Holanda Sena; Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço Ferreira; Neila Hiraishi Mallmann; Natacha Pinheiro Costa Lima; Chanderlei de Castro Tavares; Rodrigo Otávio Silva de Souza; Érica Simplício Souza; João Vicente Braga Souza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF)....

  15. FMD virus isolates: the candidate strains for polyvalent vaccine development in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelet, G; Soressa, M; Sisay, T; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Jembere, S; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses with the aim of selecting appropriate vaccinal strain to control of FMD in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two-dimensional virus neutralization assay to determine the antigenic relationship 'r' value between the candidate vaccine strains and field isolates. A total of 21 serotype O, 7 serotype A, and 8 serotype SAT 2 FMD viruses, which were isolated from cattle and swine. A couple of isolates from each serotype were identified as vaccine candidates in the trial (O-ETH/38/2005, O-ETH/58/2008, A-ETH/7/2008, A-ETH/6/2000, SAT2-ETH/76/2009 and SAT2-ETH/64/2009). The finding revealed all the vaccine candidate depicted high antigenic similarity, above the mean "r" value, to their own serotypes in the studied serotype population except for one serotype A field isolate, A-ETH/13/1981, with "r" value=0.14 and 0.25) which is significantly lower than the minimum requirement. In general, the result indicated that these candidate vaccinal strains can be used for polyvalent vaccine production in the country. PMID:23416124

  16. A strain isolated from gas oil-contaminated soil displays chemotaxis towards gas oil and hexadecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Héctor M; Studdert, Claudia A

    2003-10-01

    In this report we describe the isolation of a strain from soil contaminated with gas oil by taking bacteria from a chemotactic ring on gas oil-containing soft agar plates. Partial 16 S rDNA sequencing of the isolated strain showed 99.1% identity with Flavimonas oryzihabitans. It was not only able to degrade different aliphatic hydrocarbons but it was also chemotactic towards gas oil and hexadecane, as demonstrated by the use of three different chemotaxis methods, such as agarose plug and capillary assays and swarm plate analysis. In addition, the strain was chemotactic to a variety of carbon sources that serve as growth substrates, including glucose, arabinose, mannitol, glycerol, gluconate, acetate, succinate, citrate, malate, lactate and casaminoacids. This is the first report on chemotaxis of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium towards a pure alkane, such as hexadecane. The fact that environmental isolates show chemotaxis towards contaminant/s present in the site of isolation suggests that chemotaxis might enhance biodegradation by favouring contact between the degrading microorganism and its substrate. PMID:14510854

  17. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SEVİM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bacillus strains which were isolated from soil samples were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin and, novabiocin and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese and, cadmium and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, and B12 which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. These results showed that there was a correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance

  18. Biochemical behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from mice submitted to specific chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesila Pinto M. Marretto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of chemotherapy on the biochemical beha vior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains, three groups of mice were infected with one of three strains of T. cruzi of different biological and isoenzymic patterns (Peruvian, 21 SF and Colombian strains. Each group was subdivided into subgroups: 1 - treated with nifurtimox; 2 - treated with benznidazole and 3 - untreated infected controls. At the end of treatment, that lasted for 90 days, xenodiagnosis, sub inoculation of blood into new born mice and haemoculture were performed as tests of cure. From the positive tests, 22 samples of T. cruzi were isolated from all subgroups. Electrophoretic analysis of the isoenzymes PGM, GP1, ALAT and AS AT failed to show any difference between parasite strains isolated from treated and untreated mice, which indicates that no detectable clonal selection or parasite genetic markers alterations concerning the isoenzymes analysed have been determined by treatment with drugs of recognized antiparasitic effect, suggesting stability of the phenotypic characteristics of the three biological types of T. cruzi strains.

  19. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  1. Different growth rates in amoeba of genotypically related environmental and clinical Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from a thermal spa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molmeret, M; Jarraud, S; Mori, J P; Pernin, P; Forey, F; Reyrolle, M; Vandenesch, F; Etienne, J; Farge, P

    2001-04-01

    Two cases of legionellosis occurring 3 years apart were acquired in the same French thermal spa and were apparently due to the same strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, as shown by genomic macrorestriction analysis. Minor differences between the two isolates were found by random amplification PCR profiling which showed an additional band with one of the isolates. Analysis of 107 L. pneumophila strains isolated from the spa waters by genome macrorestriction failed to identify the infective strain, but a closely related L. pneumophila serogroup 3 strain differing from the clinical isolates by only one band was found. To determine if the clinical L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates was better adapted for intracellular multiplication than related serogroup 3 environmental isolates, the growth kinetics of six isolates were determined in co-culture with Acanthamoeba lenticulata. One clinical isolate failed to grow within amoeba, while the other clinical isolate yielded the highest increase in bacterial cell count per amoeba (1,200%) and the environmental isolates gave intermediate values. Genetic analysis of L. pneumophila isolates by DNA macrorestriction does not therefore appear to reflect their growth kinetics within amoeba, and is not sufficiently discriminatory to identify potentially virulent strains. PMID:11349974

  2. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF LACTOBACILLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS FROM MIDDLE SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš Hleba; Miroslava Kačániová; Adriana Pavelková; Juraj Čuboň

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of lactobacilli strains isolated from milk and milk products from middle Slovakia. The 42 samples of milk and milk products were collected from sheep farming from middle Slovakia. MRS agar was used for this cultivation. It was done at 37 °C during 36-48 hours in CO2 box with 10 % CO2. Identification of lactobacilli strains was done by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with Biotyper ...

  3. Strain field reconstruction in shallow trench isolation structures by CBED and LACBED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessot, A. [National Research Center S3, CNR-INFM and Department of Physics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy)]. E-mail: spessot@unimo.it; Frabboni, S. [National Research Center S3, CNR-INFM and Department of Physics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Balboni, R. [CNR-IMM Section of Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Armigliato, A. [CNR-IMM Section of Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Using a combination of the CBED and the LACBED techniques in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have investigated the strain field in the silicon active region of a shallow trench isolation structure, underlying a TiSi{sub 2} layer. Starting from the analysis of the deformation in a sample, thinned for TEM analysis, we have reconstructed the displacement field, simulating the split HOLZ lines visible in the experimental CBED patterns. From the comparison between the experimental LACBED patterns, taken in a suitable sample orientation to evidence the stressors distribution in the polycrystalline silicide layer, and the corresponding dynamically simulated ones, we have reproduced the strain field in the unthinned, bulk sample.

  4. [Plasmids of streptomycetes strains isolated from soils of Ukraine with different anthropogenic loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianchuk, V V; Polishchuk, L V; Matseliukh, B P

    2010-01-01

    Screening of plasmid DNA was carried out among 94 streptomycetes cultures which were isolated from the samples of Ukrainian soils with different anthropogenic contamination. Seventeen streptomycetes strains containing plasmid DNA were found. It is established that some cultures contain more than one plasmid (Streptomyces sp.M15, S.sp.T8, S.sp.T19). Depending on a molecular sizes the found plasmids were divided in 2 groups: 3 kb-15 kb, and 30 kb-70 kb. Research of a few morphological and physiological properties of plasmid strains of streptomycetes was carried out. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:21117293

  5. PHENOTYPIC INVESTIGATION OF VIRULENCE PROFILES IN SOME CANDIDA SPP. STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT CLINICAL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maria Holban

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida species great versatility may explain their wide range of infections occurred in a great variety of hosts. Even though many modern molecular techniques arise, phenotypic assays still provide valuable information and can guide the diagnosis and the treatment of infections. The phenotypic investigation of virulence determinants in some recent nosocomial isolates of Candida spp. revealed that the fungal clinical strains may develop specific virulence profiles depending on the taxonomic affiliation of the tested strains and the source of infection. Our data support the usefulness of phenotypic assays in predicting the clinical outcome of the fungal infections and in the adjustment of the antifungal treatment.

  6. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  7. INHIBITION OF Aeromonas hydrophila BY PROBIOTIC STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF Pterophyllum scalare

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Monroy-Dosta; T. Castro-Barrera; F. J. Fernández-Perrino; L. Mayorga-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    The effect of three dierent probiotic strains of Bacillus (B1, B2 and B3) isolated from the digestive tract of Pterophyllum scalare against Aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated. All the sh that where fed with the dierent probiotic strains obtained higher resistance to the pathogen inoculation since they did not developed any signs of illness nor lesions and they stayed healthy until the end of the experiment, with an observed survival of 100 %. On the other hand, the sh where the probiotic bact...

  8. Experimental infections with rifampicin-resistant Clostridium perfringens strains in broiler chickens using isolator facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Bjerrum, Lotte; Nauerby, Birgitte;

    2003-01-01

    Experimental infection studies were carried out on the ability of three Clostridium perfringens type A rifampicin-resistant strains to colonize the intestinal tract of broiler chickens kept in isolators from 1-day-old. Various doses of C. perfringens were given orally at 22 days, 9 days or at 1 day...... from those receiving high doses, but for no longer than 13 days. In chicks infected at 1-day-old there was transient colonization up to 15 days, and the most persistent colonization was in a group given a fresh broth culture of unwashed cells, including extracellular products. Test strains were rapidly...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506, an Immunomodulatory Strain Isolated from Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Hebert, Elvira María; Albarracin, Leonardo; Salva, Susana; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506, a probiotic strain with immunomodulatory properties isolated from goat milk. The reads generated by a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) strategy on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer were assembled into contigs with a total size of 3,228,096 bp. The draft genome sequence of L. plantarum CRL1506 will be useful for further studies of specific genetic features of this strain and for understanding the mechanisms of its immunobiotic properties. PMID:26966208

  10. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain B21, a Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Isolated from Vietnamese Fermented Sausage Nem Chua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golneshin, Aida; Adetutu, Eric; Ball, Andrew S; May, Bee K; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Smith, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strain B21 was isolated from Vietnamese sausage (nem chua) and demonstrated broad antimicrobial activity due to the production of bacteriocins. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this strain (3,284,260 bp). PMID:25838470

  12. Biodegradation efficiency and optimum growth conditions of bacterial strains isolated from a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil: Evaluation of the selected strain efficiency for contaminated soil bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotas, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed in order to determine the optimum growth conditions and diesel oil biodegradation ability of the selected strain isolated from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. These results were used to evaluate the potential of the selected strain for in situ application in PRB remediation technology.

  13. Genotypic characterization, invasion index and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behrooz Sadeghi Kalani; Abazar Pournajaf; Mansour Sedighi; Abbas Bahador; Gholamreza Irajian; Firuzeh Valian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial resistance, invasion index and genetic profile in Listeriamonocytogenes isolated from clinical samples. Methods: At all, 170 clinical samples were collected from patients with spontaneous abortions hospitalized in Shariati hospital in Tehran during June 2010 to August 2013. Invasion index was determined using HeLa cells. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) was used for evaluation of genetic relatedness. Results: Out of 14 L. monocytogenes isolates, 4 (28.57%), 2 (14.28%), 0 (0%), 5 (35.71%) and 3 (21.42%) were isolated from placental tissue, urine, blood, vaginal and rectal swabs, respectively. High resistance to penicillin and multidrug resistant were found amongst isolates. The invasion index was in the range of 0.001-0.007. Seven different types were obtained by MLVA assay and type 2 and 3 with 4 strains were the most frequent type. Strains isolated from the vagina and the placenta of the same type were also more resistant to penicillin. Conclusions: Since MLVA is a high-throughput screening method that is fairly inexpensive, easy to accomplish, rapid, and trustworthy, it is well suited to interlaboratory comparisons during epidemiological investigations. Also further studies of larger samples from a variety of sources such as food and animal specimens recommended comparing by MLVA method.

  14. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei; Shen, Sheng-rong; Ruan, Hui; ZHOU, Qian; Ma, Liu-liu; He, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines. Of these isolates, lp15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 µg/ml of linoleic acid (LA). Compa...

  15. Isolation, Growth, and Metabolism of an Obligately Anaerobic, Selenate-Respiring Bacterium, Strain SES-3

    OpenAIRE

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Blum, Jodi Switzer; Culbertson, Charles W.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Miller, Laurence G.; Dowdle, Phillip; Strohmaier, Frances E.

    1994-01-01

    A gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, motile vibrio was isolated from a selenate-respiring enrichment culture. The isolate, designated strain SES-3, grew by coupling the oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2 with the concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite or of nitrate to ammonium. No growth was observed on sulfate or selenite, but cell suspensions readily reduced selenite to elemental selenium (Se0). Hence, SES-3 can carry out a complete reduction of selenate to Se0. Washed cell sus...

  16. [Use of botulinum toxin in strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabbels, B

    2016-07-01

    Botulinum toxin can be a useful tool for treating acute sixth nerve palsy and excessive eye deviations due to unstable Graves' disease, when surgery is not yet possible. The diagnostic injection for estimation of possible postoperative double vision also makes sense. In convergence spasms, periocular botulinum toxin injections can be a therapeutic option. Botulinum toxin is not a first line option in infantile esotropia without binocularity or in adult horizontal strabismus. Side effects include ptosis and vertical deviations. PMID:27369733

  17. Application of Botulinum Toxin in Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Woo Seog

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum toxin has been used for the treatment of many clinical disorders by producing temporary skeletal muscle relaxation. In pain management, botulinum toxin has demonstrated an analgesic effect by reducing muscular hyperactivity, but recent studies suggest this neurotoxin could have direct analgesic mechanisms different from its neuromuscular actions. At the moment, botulinum toxin is widely investigated and used in many painful diseases such as myofascial syndrome, headaches, arthritis,...

  18. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:27237113

  19. A polyphasic taxonomic approach in isolated strains of Cyanobacteria from thermal springs of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravakos, Panos; Kotoulas, Georgios; Skaraki, Katerina; Pantazidou, Adriani; Economou-Amilli, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Strains of Cyanobacteria isolated from mats of 9 thermal springs of Greece have been studied for their taxonomic evaluation. A polyphasic taxonomic approach was employed which included: morphological observations by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, secondary structural comparisons of 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences, and finally environmental data. The 17 cyanobacterial isolates formed a diverse group that contained filamentous, coccoid and heterocytous strains. These included representatives of the polyphyletic genera of Synechococcus and Phormidium, and the orders Oscillatoriales, Spirulinales, Chroococcales and Nostocales. After analysis, at least 6 new taxa at the genus level provide new evidence in the taxonomy of Cyanobacteria and highlight the abundant diversity of thermal spring environments with many potential endemic species or ecotypes. PMID:26899923

  20. Sequence analysis of the rDNA intergenic spacer of Metarhizium strains isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Y. Yanaka-Schäfer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the extent of genetic variability of rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS in Metarhizium sp., 34 strains (27 isolated in Brazil were sequenced and analyzed together with an additional 20 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae sequences retrieved from GenBank. Overall, the global nucleotide diversity for the region under study was of 0.090, while for the Brazilian isolates it was only 0.016. Phylogenetic analyses showed four well-supported groups (A, B, C, and D, one of which (D has not been previously identified. All but one of the Brazilian strains cluster in this novel D phylogroup, suggesting that the genetic variation found in Brazil is a subset of the worldwide M. anisopiliae var. anisopliae variation.

  1. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus curvatus strain isolated from homemade Azerbaijani cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadova, Aynur; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Hadji-Sfaxi, Imen; Choiset, Yvan; Rabesona, Hanitra; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Kuliyev, Akif; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize inhibitory activity spectra, some probiotic properties and safety of Lactobacillus curvatus A61 for its future application in production of fermented foods. The studied strain was isolated from traditional homemade cheese manufactured in Azerbaijan. The cell-free supernatant of culture of Lb. curvatus A61 inhibited the growth of tested LAB, as well as of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus strains. The strain presented antifungal activity and inhibited the growth of Cladosporium and Fusarium ssp. during co-cultivation on agar media. PCR amplification with specific primers revealed the presence of curvacin A encoding gene in Lb. curvatus A61. Bacteriocin produced by the studied strain was heat stable and active in a broad pH range, and in the presence of Triton X-20, Triton X-80, Triton X-100, β-mercaptoethanol, Na-EDTA, SDS and NaCl. The mode of action of bacteriocin against selected indicator strains was found to be bacteriostatic. Lb. curvatus A61 was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts and showed high auto-aggregation ability, as well as co-aggregation ability with pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains. It was sensitive to chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, but resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. PMID:23357316

  2. Novel strains isolated from a coastal aquifer suggest a predatory role for flavobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Erin C; Casciotti, Karen L; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2010-08-01

    Three newly isolated strains of flavobacteria from coastal aquifer sediments have been found to be predatory, lysing a range of live and pasteurized microbial prey. The three strains have been classified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny as belonging to the recently described Olleya (strains VCSA23 and VCSM12) and Tenacibaculum (strain VCSA14A) genera. Two of the closest cultured relatives to the strain VCSA14A, Tenacibaculum discolor and Tenacibaculum gallaicum, were also found to be bacteriolytic. These five predatory strains exhibit gliding motility and have been observed to lyse prey cells after surrounding them with social swarms, similar to known predatory bacteria such as myxobacteria and members of the genus Lysobacter. Flavobacteria are often numerically significant in a wide variety of freshwater and marine environments, particularly in association with particles, and are thought to be involved in the degradation of biopolymeric substances. If predatory capability is widespread among flavobacteria, they may be a previously unrecognized source of 'top-down' bacterial mortality with an influence on the composition and activity of surrounding microbial communities. PMID:20500528

  3. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression. PMID:27255139

  4. Isolation, identification, and crude oil degradation characteristics of a high-temperature, hydrocarbon-degrading strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqun; Ju, Meiting; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Wentao; Li, Xiaojing

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Y-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in the Dagang Oilfield was investigated for its potential effect in biodegradation of crude oil. According to the analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, strain Y-1 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The growth parameters such as pH, temperature, and salinity were optimised and 60.2% degradation of crude oil removal was observed in 5days. The strain Y-1 showed strong tolerance to high salinity, alkalinity, and temperature. Emplastic produced by strain Y-1 at high temperatures could be applied as biosurfactant. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the strain Y-1 efficiently degraded different alkanes from crude oil, and the emplastic produced by strain Y-1 promoted the degradation rates of long-chain alkanes when the temperature increased to 55°C. Therefore, strain Y-1 would play an important role in the area of crude oil contaminant bioremediation even in some extreme conditions. PMID:26994837

  5. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  6. Investigation of biofilm formation in vitro ability of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis in humans and animals and an important food-born pathogen. Control of its presence in food processing plants, particularly on sites where food contamination is expected, is of paramount importance with respect to food safety and protection of human health. Numerous studies demonstrated that this organism can be isolated during several months, even several years, from diverse sites in food processing plants, which is due to its ability to adsorb onto inert surfaces and form a biofilm, alone or in coexistence with other bacterial species. In this study we investigated the ability of 16 animal isolates of L. monocytogenes to form a biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. The investigation was performed at three different temperatures 4oC, 25 oC and 37oC that are commonly suitable for growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The research was carried out using three different nutritive media: trypthon-soy broth with yeast extract (TSB-YE, brainheart infusion (BHI and 1/20 diluted trypthon-soy broth with yeast extract (1/20 TSB-YE. In order to investigate the biofilm formation in vitro an inoculum was prepared from 24-hours-old cultures of isolated strains of L.monocytogenes. The density of the inoculum was 2-10x107 cfu/mL (OD600=0.093 ± 0.009 in TSB-YE. The microtiter plates were incubated at cited temperatures during 48h. Colonization rate of L.monocytogenes strains on polystyrene surface and biofilm formation were monitored using crystal violet stain added to the microtiter plates, as well as using light microscopy. The tested strains demonstrated a diverse ability of biofilm formation, depending on the incubation temperature and nutritive medium. In this paper we presented the results obtained for four strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brain samples of sheep, designated as 785/05, 593/05, 748/05, 1915/04 and one strain isolated from aborted calve's fetus, designated as 021

  7. Isolation and characterization of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhachari, P V; Kishor, P B Kavi; Ramadevi, R; Kumar, Ranadheer; Rao, B Rama; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Marine bacterial strains were isolated from coastal regions of Goa and screened for the strains that produce the highest amount of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS). Our screening resulted in the identification of the strain Vibrio furnissii VB0S3 (hereafter called VB0S3), as it produced the highest EPS in batch cultures during the late logarithmic growth phase. The isolate was identified as VB0S3 based on morphological and biochemical properties. Growth and EPS production were studied in mineral salts medium supplemented with NaCl (1.5%) and glucose (0.2%). The exopolymer was recovered from the culture supernatant by using three volumes of cold ethanol precipitation and dialysis procedure. Chemical analyses of EPS revealed that it is primarily composed of neutral sugars, uronic acids, and proteins. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups, which correspond to a typical heteropolymeric polysaccharide, and the EPS also possessed good emulsification activity. The gas chromatographic analysis of an alditol-acetate derivatized sample of EPS revealed that it was mainly composed of galactose and glucose. Minor components found were mannose, rhamnose, fucose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. EPS was readily isolated from culture supernatants, which suggests that the EPS was a slime-like exopolysaccharide. This is the first report of exopolysaccharide characterization that describes the isolation and characterization of an EPS expressed by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3. The results of the study contribute significantly and go a long way towards an understanding of the correlation between growth and EPS production, chemical composition, and industrial applications of the exopolysaccharide in environmental biotechnology and bioremediation. PMID:18051352

  8. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies ...

  9. Isolation and genetic analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains resistant to cadmium.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, J. M.; Matagne, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cadmium induces reduction of growth, reduction of chlorophyll content, and lethality. The toxicity was higher in a cell wall-deficient strain than in the wild type. By growing the cells on agar medium containing cadmium at concentrations inducing high lethality, stable resistant clones were isolated. The resistance was due to a nuclear mutation (cadAR) which probably preexisted in the wild-type cell population, as suggested by the fluctuation test. A double mutan...

  10. Virulence Potential of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Sotto, Albert; Lina, Gérard; Richard, Jean-Louis; Combescure, Christophe; Bourg, Gisèle; Vidal, Laure; Jourdan, Nathalie; Etienne, Jérôme; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to assess the virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from diabetic foot ulcers and to discriminate noninfected from infected ulcers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Diabetic patients hospitalized in a diabetic foot department with a foot ulcer were prospectively enrolled if they had been free of antibiotic treatment over the previous 6 months. At admission, ulcers were classified as infected or noninfected on the basis of clinical exa...

  11. Isolation and characterization of Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53 exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Akita, Hironaga; Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    Microbial degradation of lignin releases fermentable sugars, effective utilization of which could support biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. In the present study, a lignin-degrading bacterium was isolated from leaf soil and identified as Burkholderia sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This strain was named CCA53, and its lignin-degrading capability was assessed by observing its growth on medium containing alkali lignin or lignin-associated aromatic monomers as the sole carbo...

  12. Isolation and Screening of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollution in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Disi, Zulfa Ali

    2013-01-01

    Pollution, due to activities related to the oil industry, represents a serious threat to the natural environment. The application of biotechnological methods provides much safer and sustainable alternatives for bioremediation of polluted areas, using microorganisms. Several techniques for the isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria have been investigated and published worldwide. A wide range of bilogical activities was shown. However, local hydrocarbon degrading strains and the factors af...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of an Atypical Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from a Respiratory Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Chul; Parker, Jayme; Richards, Vincent P; Ross, Katherine; Jilly, Bernard; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing was used to investigate an unknown clinical respiratory infection. This new strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, ASVL_JC_0001, was isolated from a clinical specimen from a patient with bronchitis and pulmonary inflammation. The draft genome sequence, obtained with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing system, consists of 83 large contigs, a total of 2,092,532 bp long, and has a GC content of 40.3%.

  14. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were is...

  15. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Palva, Airi

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonousLactobacillus brevisstrain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  16. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea; Quevedo Ganoza Fernando; Fernández Pinto Virginia; Patriarca Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql) in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina...

  17. Emergence of fluoroquinolones-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi: Watch on multidrug-resistant isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, SC

    2010-01-01

    Subhash C Arya, Nirmala Agarwal, Shekhar Agarwal, Dolly WadhwaSant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi, IndiaEmergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi has been responsible for clinical challenges for clinicians. Recently, frequent isolation and dissemination of fluoroquinolones-resistant strains of S. enterica in Surabaya, Indonesia was in the news. Subsequently, Yangai and colleagues1 recommended regular communications between laboratory professionals and clinicians. Collaboration between labo...

  18. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    OpenAIRE

    PAYEL SARKAR; SHILPI GHOSH

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulat...

  19. In vitro activity of tigecycline against strains isolated from diabetic foot ulcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sotto, Albert; Bouziges, Nicole; Jourdan, Nathalie; Richard, Jean-Louis; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    International audience PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline and other comparator agents against bacterial strains isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All diabetic patients hospitalized for a first episode of DFI (stage 2 to 4, according to the International Working Group of Diabetic Foot classification) were selected in N?s University hospital between January 2005 and June 2006. MICs were determined...

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae Strains Isolated from Seagrass Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae UCD-SED9 and UCD-SED14 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding the roots of the seagrass, Zostera marina, collected near the UC, Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega Bay, California). The assemblies contain 4,847,456 bp and 4,817,752 bp, respectively. PMID:26988038

  1. Cellulolytic ability of Penicillium strains isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, R.; Lima, J. S.; Fonseca, J. C.; Ferreira, M. J. S.; Moreira, K. A.; Santos, C; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are capable of degrading plant wastes by producing large amounts of enzymes such as cellulases. These form a complex capable of acting on cellulosic materials and producing sugars with industrial interest (e.g., ethanol production). Cellulases are also used for (a) pulp and paper industry (b) in the textile industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellulolytic capability of 17 strains of Penicillium isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Laboratory Strains versus Recent Clinical Isolates: Implications for Routine Microbicide Testing ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, M. C.; Stamm, W. E.; Lampe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    A topical microbicide that women can use to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential, and many microbicide candidates are being tested for activity against human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Screening assays for assessing the activity of microbicides against C. trachomatis are typically done with laboratory-adapted strains, but it is possible that recent clinical isolates may have different susceptibilities to microbicides, as has be...

  3. Mucin degradation by Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; Fernández-García, María; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Margolles, Abelardo

    2008-03-01

    The presence of the genes engBF (endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase) and afcA (1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase) was detected in several intestinal Bifidobacterium isolates. Two strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum contained both genes, and they were able to degrade high-molecular weight porcine mucin in vitro. The expression of both genes was highly induced in the presence of mucin. PMID:18223105

  4. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Twenty Bacteriophages Infecting Either Brevibacterium or Arthrobacter Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Trautwetter, Annie; Blanco, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, or Arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. Restriction analysis of phage DNA indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. All these phages were assigned to group B of the classification of Bradley (Bacteriol. Rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.

  5. Isolation and characterization of oral Actinomyces strain from patients with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eshraghi S; Salari MH; Kadkhoda Z.; Yaghmaei Sh.

    2001-01-01

    "nAbstract: Actinomyces species are normal residents of the mouth cavity, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. The genus consists of gram-positive bacteria, strictly anaerobic or microaerophilic. The bacteria are opportunists with a low virulence potential that cause actinomycosis only when the normal mucosal barriers are disrupted. The main purpose of this study was the isolation of Actinomyces strains and determining of their role in periodontal diseases. The present study ...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danielle Mendes; da Silva, Mônica Pacheco; Vidigal, Pedro M Pereira; Barcelos, Rafael Mazioli; Klein, Raphael Contelli; Aguilar, Ananda Pereira; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; Oliveira, Guilherme; Ribon, Andréa Oliveira Barros

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from mastitic milk collected from animals with subclinical manifestations. Three of them were typed as sequence type 126 (ST126), a genotype with no genome sequence available. ST126 is found in several herds of southern Brazil and is described as a bovine pathogen strongly associated with milk around the world. PMID:26893417

  7. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Sevdalina; Kozhuharova, Lubka

    2010-07-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus strains were isolated from soil and analyzed for the purpose of determining whether they could be used as natural biological agents. Primary in vitro screening for antagonism of the isolates was performed against five phytopathogenic mould fungi. Strains TS 01 and ZR 02 exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis on the basis of their morphological, cultural and physiology-biochemical properties as well as their hierarchical cluster analysis conducted by means of computer program SPSS. The antimicrobial activity of the strains from cultural medium and sterile filtrate were determined in vitro against a great number of predominantly phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. TS 01 and ZR 02 strains exhibited very broad and at the same time degree varying antibiotic spectra of activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Many of them were tested against sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of B. subtilis for the very first time. B. subtilis TS 01 and ZR 02 showed highest antifungal activity (sterile zone in diameter over 37 mm) against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia linhartiana 869, Phytophthora cryptogea 759/1 and Rhizoctonia sp. The most sensitive bacterial species were found to be Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Ro and Xanthomonas campestris with sterile zones 48.0 and 50.0 mm in diameter, respectively. The latter draws a conclusion that the isolated and identified Bacillus subtilis strains are promising natural biocontrol agents and should be further studied and tested for control of numerous plant diseases. PMID:24026925

  8. Detection of β-Lactamases and Outer Membrane Porins among Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was accomplished on 83 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. ESBLs, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC producing strains were detected by phenotypic confirmatory test, combination disk diffusion test (CDDT, Amp-C detection kit, and modified Hodge test, respectively. OXA-48, NDM-1, and CTX-M-15 genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. The outer membrane porins such as OmpK35 and OmpK36 were analysed by SDS-PAGE, PCR, and sequencing methods. From 83 K. pneumoniae isolates, 48 (57.5%, 3 (3.5%, 23 (28%, and 5 (6% were ESBL, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC positive, respectively. The CTX-M-15 gene was detected in 30 (62.5% and OXA-48 gene was found in 2 (4.1% of the 48 ESBL-producing isolates. Two isolates harboured both OXA-48 and CTX-M-15; NDM-1 gene was not detected in this study. Outer membrane porin, OmpK35, was detected in 30 (62.5% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates while OmpK36 was found in 35 (72.91% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. In this study, fosfomycin and tigecycline were more effective than other antibiotics. The high prevalence of β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae detected in this study is of great concern, which requires infection control measures including antibacterial management and identification of β-lactamases-producing isolates.

  9. Detection of β -Lactamases and Outer Membrane Porins among Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali; Fallah, Fatemeh; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Hamedani, Parastu; Alimehr, Shadi; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study was accomplished on 83 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. ESBLs, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC producing strains were detected by phenotypic confirmatory test, combination disk diffusion test (CDDT), Amp-C detection kit, and modified Hodge test, respectively. OXA-48, NDM-1, and CTX-M-15 genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. The outer membrane porins such as OmpK35 and OmpK36 were analysed by SDS-PAGE, PCR, and sequencing methods. From 83 K. pneumoniae isolates, 48 (57.5%), 3 (3.5%), 23 (28%), and 5 (6%) were ESBL, MBL, Amp-C, and KPC positive, respectively. The CTX-M-15 gene was detected in 30 (62.5%) and OXA-48 gene was found in 2 (4.1%) of the 48 ESBL-producing isolates. Two isolates harboured both OXA-48 and CTX-M-15; NDM-1 gene was not detected in this study. Outer membrane porin, OmpK35, was detected in 30 (62.5%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates while OmpK36 was found in 35 (72.91%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. In this study, fosfomycin and tigecycline were more effective than other antibiotics. The high prevalence of β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae detected in this study is of great concern, which requires infection control measures including antibacterial management and identification of β-lactamases-producing isolates. PMID:25548718

  10. Genome sequencing and annotation of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring, Chumathang, Leh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 3.3-Mb draft genome of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring water sample, Chumathang, Leh, India. Draft genome of strain GS 1-1 consists of 3, 324, 316 bp with a G + C content of 48.8% and 3429 predicted protein coding genes and 75 RNAs. Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strain NG80-2, Geobacillus kaustophilus strain HTA426 and Geobacillus sp. Strain G11MC16 are the closest neighbors of the strain GS 1-1.

  11. Antimycobacterial activity of a Brevibacillus Laterosporus strain isolated from a moroccan soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of tuberculosis has become more difficult with the worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, the prevalence of human disease caused by atypical mycobacteria has also increased in the past two decades and has further complicated the problem of the treatment of mycobacterial infections. It is therefore urgent to develop new highly active molecules against these bacteria. The present study reports the isolation from a Moroccan soil of a Bacillus strain that exhibits an important antimycobacterial activity. The strain was identified as Brevibacillus laterosporus using DNA sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The antimycobacterial activity was assigned to a substance with a protein nature. This nature was revealed using a liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents, precipitation with ammonium sulfate and treatment with a protease. This study suggested the identification and the characterization of this active metabolite enabling therapeutic investigations further.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  13. Toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens field strains isolated from healthy and diseased chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is well known as the aetiological agent of necrotic enteritis in chicken. Type A and type C are considered the C. perfringens toxin types responsible for this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes coding for α, β, ε, ι, β2 and enterotoxin in C. perfringens field strains collected from healthy and diseased chickens. Thirty-seven C. perfringens field strains were toxin typed: all strains resulted to be toxin type A and 3 of these tested positive for the presence of the toxin β2 coding gene. Four isolates showed the cpa gene with the insertion of a group II intron. Our findings confirm the most recent results reported from different countries and the data suggest that the role of C. perfringens type C should be revaluated in the etiopathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.

  14. Environmental carbonate chemistry selects for phenotype of recently isolated strains of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Hermoso, Michaël; Lee, Renee B. Y.; Rae, Benjamin D.; Heureux, Ana M. C.; Balestreri, Cecilia; Chakravarti, Leela; Schroeder, Declan C.; Brownlee, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Coccolithophorid algae, particularly Emiliania huxleyi, are prolific biomineralisers that, under many conditions, dominate communities of marine eukaryotic plankton. Their ability to photosynthesise and form calcified scales (coccoliths) has placed them in a unique position in the global carbon cycle. Contrasting reports have been made with regards to the response of E. huxleyi to ocean acidification. Therefore, there is a pressing need to further determine the fate of this key organism in a rising CO2 world. In this paper, we investigate the phenotype of newly isolated, genetically diverse, strains of E. huxleyi from UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme (UKOA) cruises around the British Isles, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean. We find a continuum of diversity amongst the physiological and photosynthetic parameters of different strains of E. huxleyi morphotype A under uniform, ambient conditions imposed in the laboratory. This physiology is best explained by adaptation to carbonate chemistry in the former habitat rather than being prescribed by genetic fingerprints such as the coccolithophore morphology motif (CMM). To a first order, the photosynthetic capacity of each strain is a function of both aqueous CO2 availability, and calcification rate, suggestive of a link between carbon concentrating ability and calcification. The calcification rate of each strain is related linearly to the natural environmental [CO32-] at the site of isolation, but a few exceptional strains display low calcification rates at the highest [CO32-] when calcification is limited by low CO2 availability and/or a lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism. We present O2-electrode measurements alongside coccolith oxygen isotopic composition and the uronic acid content (UAC) of the coccolith associated polysaccharide (CAP), that act as indirect tools to show the differing carbon concentrating ability of the strains. The environmental selection revealed amongst our recently isolated strain

  15. Isolation of TNT tolerant pseudomonas species (Strain KA from TNT contaminated soil biotransformation of TNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash M. Tope

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available "A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT utilising bacterium, Pseudomonas species (strain KA was isolated from soils of a munitions processing unit and studied for itsability to grow and metabolise TNT. The result indicated that the isolate could grow aerobically in a minimal salt medium containing 0.25 mM/l TNT at 30 °C. It could completely transform 0.25 mM/l TNT in 5 days giving 2-isomeric monoaminodinitrotoluenes, namely 4-aminodinitrotoluene and 2-aminodinitrotoluene. Products of TNT transformation were analysed and confirmed by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Both, growth of the isolate and biotransformation rates were better supported on sugar and ammonium salt when added to the medium separately. Pseudomonas species (strain KA showed maximum TNT transformation efficiency in the presence of mannose. For degradation of TNT, this strain can be employed to initiate the process in association with the other microbial members that can collectively degrade TNT .

  16. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAYEL SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvents in the cytoplasm, indicating the adaptation of the bacterial strain to the solvent after 48h of incubation. The strain was also capable of growing in presence of wide range of other hydrophobic solvents with log P-values below 3.5. The isolate could uptake 50 ng/ml of uranium in its initial 12h of growth, exhibiting both solvent tolerance and metal resistance property. This combination of solvent tolerance and metal resistance will make the isolated Bacillus thermophilus PS11 a potential tool for metal bioremediation in solvent rich wastewaters.

  17. Isolation and characterization of oral Actinomyces strain from patients with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshraghi S.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: Actinomyces species are normal residents of the mouth cavity, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. The genus consists of gram-positive bacteria, strictly anaerobic or microaerophilic. The bacteria are opportunists with a low virulence potential that cause actinomycosis only when the normal mucosal barriers are disrupted. The main purpose of this study was the isolation of Actinomyces strains and determining of their role in periodontal diseases. The present study was carried out on 100 patients with periodontal diseases referred to the Periodontic Department of Faculty of Dentistry. The sampling was done in 6 months with isolation of oral Actinomyces from microbial plaque and periodontal pocket. The samples were selected based on the following criteria: periodontal plaque with deep pocket (>3 mm, no antibiotic therapy for a period of at least two weeks, and lack of systemic diseases. One strain of Actinomyces viscosus and two strains of Actinomyces naeslundii were isolated from the patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Of the 100 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, aged between 18-57 years old, 46% were males and 54% were females. The peak incidence of the diseases (35% was in the third age group (31-40 and the lowest incidence (10% was in the first age group (<20. Forty patients (40% complained of gingival disease and its bleeding with lower incidence of (42.5% in female.

  18. Development of improved defined media for Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, and E.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmer, M E; Johnson, E A

    1988-01-01

    The minimal nutritional growth requirements were determined for strains Okra B and Iwanai E, which are representatives of groups I and II, respectively, of Clostridium botulinum. These type B and E strains differed considerably in their nutrient requirements. The organic growth factors required in high concentrations by the Okra B strain (group I) were arginine and phenylalanine. Low concentrations (less than or equal to 0.1 g/liter) of eight amino acids (methionine, leucine, valine, isoleuci...

  19. [A chromatographic analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from an outbreak in HIV patients in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, L M; Quiñones, Y; Ruiz, A; Teja, I; Valdivia, J A

    1998-01-01

    A group of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from an outbreak in HIV-infected patients was studied by chromatographic techniques. A group of strains of M. Tuberculosis from symptomatic respiratory patients (SR+ 14) and patterns strains from the laboratory collection were used as a reference aimed at making a qualitative comparison of the chromatographic patterns described by the strains isolated from patients. The chromatographic profiles of the strains isolated from patients (SR+) and fro HIV+ were obtained and compared by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Each of the present fatty acids was identified by using the gas chromatography technique (GC) coupled to mass spectrum analysis. All the studied strains were classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to the results attained, the usefulness of the chromatographic techniques as alternative techniques for the mycobacterial diagnosis is demonstrated. PMID:10349430

  20. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis. PMID:26889703

  1. Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons. PMID:24689431

  2. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata. PMID:26991297

  3. [Resistance to fluoroquinolone among Klebsiella spp strains producing extended-spectrum betalactamases isolated from urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlamçani, Z; Ellaia, K; Benomar, A; Kabbaj, H; Alaoui, Ae; Seffar, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of resistance to fluoroquinolones in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) Klebsiella spp isolated from urines of consulting and hospitalized patients in Rabat Specialities Hospital. A retrospective survey was made over 3 years (2006-2008). Two hundred ant fifty three patients presented with confirmed urinary tractus infection (UTI). Klebsiella spp was the etiologic agent in 28% (72/253) of reported UTI. Among them, 86% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 14% of Klebsiella oxytoca. The frequency of Klebsiella spp resistance to fluoroquinolones was 33% and to third generation cephalosporins was 35%. Thirteen Klebsiella spp strains were producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase witch corresponds to 18% of all the klebsiella. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase strains with resistance to fluoroquinolones were 85% (11/13) or 15 % of all klebsiella (11/72). None of those strains was resistant to imipenem. In conclusions resistance of enterobacteries such as Klebsiella spp to fluoroquinolones is becoming worrying among consulting and hospitalized patients. Eleven strains multiresistant (ESBL + resistance to fluoroquinolones), isolated probably because of plasmids carrying genes of ESBL and fluoroquinolones resistances. This increasingly frequent resistance mechanism should lead to a more careful use of first line fluoroquinolones for UTI. PMID:19789127

  4. Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunosuppressed individuals in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Fatemeh; Niyyati, Maryam; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Jonaydi, Zaynab

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. is an opportunistic protozoan parasite which is the causative agent of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). GAE usually occurs in immunocompromised patients which in most cases is fatal. The present study was conducted to determine the genotypes of Acanthamoeba isolated from patients with compromised immunological status. For this purpose, 90 samples from the oral cavity of these individuals were collected in different hospitals of Tehran, Iran using sterile cotton swabs. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates in order to check for the presence of amoebae. Identification of isolates was carried out using both morphological and molecular tools. The pathogenic potential of the obtained strains was assessed by performing osmo- and thermotolerance assays as previously described. Genotyping of the isolates was carried out by PCR/sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba. From the 90 collected samples, 11 (13.4%) were positive for Acanthamoeba genus. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of genotypes T3, T4 and T11, although most of the isolates belonged to genotype T4. Only 3 of the isolates genotyped as T4 were positive for the pathogenic potential assays. To this end if the immunological status is considered as one of the key factors for the development of GAE due to Acanthamoeba in the previous reported cases, individuals suffering from the conditions mentioned in this study should be considered as a high risk group of population in Iran and worldwide. PMID:27447206

  5. Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain with a promising toxicity against Lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Sellami, Sameh; Ktari, Sonia; Belguith-Ben Hassan, Najeh; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides derived from Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining worldwide importance as environmentally desirable alternatives to chemicals for the control of pests in public health and agriculture. Isolation and characterization of new strains with higher and broader spectrum of activity is an ever growing field. In the present work, a novel Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolate named BLB459 was characterized and electrophoresis assay showed that among a collection of 200 B. thuringiensis strains, the plasmid profile of BLB459 was distinctive. SmaI-PFGE typing confirmed the uniqueness of the DNA pattern of this strain, compared with BUPM95 and HD1 reference strains. PCR and sequencing assays revealed that BLB459 harbored three cry genes (cry30, cry40 and cry54) corresponding to the obtained molecular sizes in the protein pattern. Interestingly, PCR-RFLP assay demonstrated the originality of the BLB459 cry30-type gene compared to the other published cry30 genes. Insecticidal bioassays showed that BLB459 spore-crystal suspension was highly toxic to both Ephestia kuehniella and Spodoptera littoralis with LC50 values of about 64 (53-75) and 80 (69-91) μg of toxin cm(-2), respectively, comparing with that of the commercial strain HD1 used as reference. Important histopathological effects of BLB459 δ-endotoxins on the two tested larvae midguts were detected, traduced by the vacuolization of the apical cells, the damage of microvilli, and the disruption of epithelial cells. These results proved that BLB459 strain could be of a great interest for lepidopteran biocontrol. PMID:27242138

  6. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Taurasi DOCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after 1 week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M.) pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star.) bacillaris; Pichia (P.) kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L.) thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H.) uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud.) aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii, and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%), while, L. thermotolerans, Star. Bacillaris, and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant differences were

  7. Antibacterial potential and genetic profile of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human normal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaei, Samira; Sadeghi, Javad; Asadian, Mahla; Esghaei, Maryam; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Malihe

    2016-07-01

    Enterococci have a widespread attendance in the circumference and belongs to the enteric commensal microbiota. Most of them produce the antimicrobial compounds and have an inhibition effect on pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the enterococcal strains isolated from human normal flora and assess their antibacterial activity. Enterococcal isolates were obtained from the feces of eighteen healthy humans. All enterococcal species were identified by biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were investigated further to examine their ability to inhibit growth of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli by well diffusion assay. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and genetic relatedness of all isolates was evaluated by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 432 isolates were obtained from fecal samples. All of the isolates identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical and molecular (PCR) methods. Using repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR method 54 patterns have been obtained and were selected for further evaluation. The results indicated that 66%, 38% and 24% of our isolates had antimicrobial effect against S. typhi, S flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant inhibition effect against enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 20%, 22%, and 1.8% respectively. In addition, the analysis of PFGE showed forty patterns with eight (40.7%) common types (CT) and thirty two (59.2%) single types (ST). Among eight common types, only one common type (CT5) had similar antimicrobial effect. These results suggested that enterococcal isolates obtained from

  8. Genotyping of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F A A; Leal, C A G; Leite, R C; Figueiredo, H C P

    2014-05-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging fish pathogen that is responsible for outbreaks of disease on fish farms around the world. Recently, this bacterium was associated with an outbreak at a Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), farm in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, best genotyping method and aspects of molecular epidemiology of S. dysgalactiae infections in Nile tilapia farms in Brazil. Twenty-one isolates from four farms located in different Brazilian states were characterized genetically using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), ERIC-PCR, REP-PCR and sodA gene sequencing. The discriminatory power of the different typing methods was compared using Simpson's index of diversity. Identical sodA gene sequences were obtained from all isolates, and ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR were unable to discriminate among the isolates. PFGE typing detected three different genetic patterns between the 21 strains evaluated; thus, it was the best genotyping method for use with this pathogen. The strains from Ceará State were genetically divergent from those from Alagoas State. The S. dysgalactiae isolates analysed in this study constituted a genetically diverse population with a clear association between geographical origin and genotype. PMID:23786245

  9. Enterotoxigenic Genes in strains of Staphylococcus spp., isolated from cheese made in Pamplona-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Herrera A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the incidence of coagulase-positive strains of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in doble crema (double cream cheese samples produced in Pamplona. Materials and methods. Bacterial isolation was performed following the routine method for coagulase positive Staphylococcus provided by the Colombian Technical Standard 4779, by using Baird Parker medium with confirmation of typical colonies by performing the coagulase test. Detection of genes for principal enterotoxins was done by PCR. Results. The prevalence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus in cheese samples was 31%, with 27% of the samples failing to meet the requirements of the NTC 750. In 24.6% of the studied isolates, genes for enterotoxin production were detected. The presence, in the isolated strains, of genes for SEB, SEA and SED was 18.5%, 4.6% and 3.0%, respectively. Conclusions. The significant presence of enterotoxigenic genes found in the isolates obtained from samples of double cream cheese made in Pamplona, suggests an important hazard to the health of consumers.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dry milk samples in Mexico: occurrence and antibiotic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Suárez, O R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Fernández, F J; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2013-09-01

    Dry milk is a particular concern in Mexico, as approximately 150,000 metric tons of dry milk are imported every year at a cost of around $250 million. Dry milk is used to make many products, most of which are dairy products widely distributed among the population covered by welfare programs. The purpose of the study described in this article was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. in imported dry milk samples in Mexico, and to determine the sensitivity of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates to different antimicrobial agents. Listeria isolates (7.8% of 550 bacterial isolates) were identified as L. monocytogenes (53.49%), L. innocua (30.23%), L. seeligeri (13.95%), and L. ivanovii (2.33%). L. monocytogenes strains isolated showed multiresistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, dicloxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9%-14%). The results provide additional evidence of the emergence of multiresistant Listeria strains both in nature and in widely consumed dairy products, representing a potential threat to human health. PMID:24073487

  11. Determination Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Entropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children with Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrheal diseases are considered a major health problem, especially in children. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains are the common cause of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries. Because of undesirable effects of diarrhea and its interference with children's growth, in some cases antibiotic treatment is recommended. In recent years, resistance toward common and effective antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases became one of the most important challenges in medical society, for this purpose, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of strains in every geographical zone must be determined. So in this study, of antibiotic patterns of these bacteria were examined.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 192 strains of Enteropathogen Escherichia coli isolated from children who were suffering from diarrhea in 1389-1390 in the microbiology laboratory of Hamadan University of medical sciences. To identify these strains, standard biochemical and serology tests were used. The antibiotic sensitivity test of these isolates was carried out with disc diffusion agar method according to the CLSI standards for 14 different antibiotics disc. Resistance toward 3 or more than 3 classes of antibiotics were defined as multidrug resistance.Results: The result of this study shows EPEC strains had the highest resistance to cefpodoxime (97%, trimethoprim (60.7%, tetracycline (58.4% and ampicillin (45.8%. Multidrug resistance was 68.7 percent. These strains also showed the highest sensitivity against imipenem, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin antibiotics.Conclusion: EPEC strains that were studied with resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and convenient sensitivity against fluoroquinolones are one of the major factors in children’s diarrhea. A result of this research suggests that antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains are high and prescribing and antibiotic is not

  12. SENSITIVY TO ANTIBIOTICS IN STRAINS OF S. AUREUS ISOLATED FROM COW´S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dudriková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Strains of S. aureus were isolated from individual milk samples of 500 lacting cows from different areas in Slovakia (PH 1 - Košice region, 300 samples; PH 2 - Žilina region, 200 samples. The statistical significance between both dairy farms included in the experiment in the presence of genus Staphylococcus isolated on Baird-Parker agar from milk samples was p (*** . Totally, 122 milk samples were positive for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (83 Košice regions, 52 Žilina regions. All 122 isolates of S. aureus were sensitive for the methicilin as detected by interpretative criteria developed by NCCLS (2002. For 122 S. aureus isolates, we compared antibiotic susceptibility results determined by the standardized agar diffusion assay with the PCR assay for the detection of antibiotic resistance mecA gene. For all isolates, we found a correlation between the results of the PCR and those of classical resistance testing. The obtained results were confirmed by PCR analysis, according to which, any of our tested isolate of S. aureus from all 122 individual milk samples from both experimental dairy farms were not positive for the presence of mecA gene coding  the methicilin resistance. doi:10.5219/21  

  13. Characterization of an Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Strain Isolated from a Wild Bird in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qian; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianwen; Liu, Jiabo; Luo, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated an avian influenza virus H9N2 strain from a wild bird in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013 named A/turtledove/Guangxi/49B6/2013(H9N2) (GX49B6). We aimed to understand the genetic characters of the GX49B6 strain by analyzing the complete genome sequence. The results showed that our isolated strain has features of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and viruses that infect humans. The discovery of the complete genome sequence of the GX49B6 strain may be helpful to fu...

  14. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of coffee-infecting Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R

    2015-05-01

    Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25737482

  16. Dark fermentation: isolation and characterization of hydrogen-producing strains from sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhi, Haifa; Conthe, Mónica; Puyol, Daniel; Díaz, Emiliano; Sanz, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    To improve bacterial hydrogen production, ten hydrogen-producing strains belonging to Clostridium spp. were isolated from various sludges under low vacuum. Hydrogenogenesis by dark fermentation in batch cultures of these strains was optimal at about 35 degrees C and an initial pH of 6.5, which for all strains gradually dropped to ca. pH 4 during the fermentation. Clostridium roseum H5 and C. diolis RT2 had the highest hydrogen yields per total substrate (120 ml H2/g initial COD). Substrate consumption alone by C. beijerinckii UAM and C. diolis RT2 reached 573 and 475 ml H2/g consumed COD, respectively. Butyric acid fermentation was predominant, with butyrate and acetate as the major by-products and propionate, ethanol, and lactate as secondary metabolites. The acetate:butyrate ratios and fermentation pathways varied depending on the strains and environmental conditions. Hydrogenogenesis was studied in greater detail in C. saccharobutylicum H1. In butyric acid fermentation by this representative strain, acetoacetate was detected as an intermediate metabolite. Hydrogenogenesis was also analyzed in an enrichment culture, which behaved similarly to the axenic cultures. PMID:24151782

  17. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  18. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  19. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a fungus Aspergillus sp. strain F-3 capable of degrading alkali lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y S; Zhou, J T; Lu, H; Yuan, Y L; Zhao, L H

    2011-09-01

    A fungus strain F-3 was selected from fungal strains isolated from forest soil in Dalian of China. It was identified as one Aspergillus sp. stain F-3 with its morphologic, cultural characteristics and high homology to the genus of rDNA sequence. The budges or thickened node-like structures are peculiar structures of hyphae of the strain. The fungus degraded 65% of alkali lignin (2,000 mg l(-1)) after day 8 of incubation at 30°C at pH 7. The removal of colority was up to 100% at 8 days. The biodegradation of lignin by Aspergillus sp. F-3 favored initial pH 7.0. Excess acid or alkali conditions were not propitious to lignin decomposing. Addition of ammonium L: -tartrate or glucose delayed or repressed biodegradation activities. During lignin degradation, manganese peroxidase (28.2 U l(-1)) and laccase (3.5 U l(-1))activities were detected after day 7 of incubation. GC-MS analysis of biodegraded products showed strain F-3 could convert alkali lignin into small molecules or other utilizable products. Strain F-3 may co-culture with white rot fungus and decompose alkali lignin effectively. PMID:21350882

  1. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin;

    2004-01-01

    pseudo-genes. Due to the rearrangements mediated by insertion elements, the structure of the 91001 chromosome shows dramatic differences compared with CO92 and KIM. Based on the analysis of plasmids and chromosome architectures, pseudogene distribution, nitrate reduction negative mechanism and gene......Genomics provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe in minute detail into the genomes of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacteria- Yersinia pestis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain 91001, a human-avirulent strain isolated from the rodent Brandt's vole......-Microtus brandti. The genome of strain 91001 consists of one chromosome and four plasmids (pPCP1, pCD1, pMT1 and pCRY). The 9609-bp pPCP1 plasmid of strain 91001 is almost identical to the counterparts from reference strains (CO92 and KIM). There are 98 genes in the 70,159-bp range of plasmid pCD1. The 106,642-bp...

  2. In vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of 62 Salmonella strains isolated from horses in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; van Klingeren, B; Vulto, A G; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1995-06-01

    The in vitro activity of 17 antimicrobial drugs against strains of Salmonella typhimurium (n = 52), Salmonella thompson (n = 2), Salmonella heidelberg (n = 3), Salmonella hadar (n = 2), Salmonella enteritidis (n = 1), Salmonella infantis (n = 1) and Salmonella derby (n = 1) was tested using the agar dilution method. The strains were isolated from horses admitted to the Large Animal Clinics of Utrecht University. The majority of strains were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, kanamycin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, colistine, furazolidone and ceftiofur. However, all strains of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 200 (n = 14), were multiresistant i.e. were resistant to ampicillin amoxycillin, amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, aditoprim and baquiloprim. Two of these strains were also resistant to gentamicin. Based on the susceptibility data found in the present study in combination with pharmacokinetic data available in the literature a rationale for antimicrobial therapy in equine salmonellosis is given. As first choice, gentamicin at a dosage of 3 mg/kg combined with ampicillin at a dosage of 20 mg/kg given with a 8-12 hour dosing interval by intravenous route is advised. As an alternative, the intravenous administration of trimethoprim/sulfonamide combinations given twice daily at a combined dose of 30 mg/kg is suggested. PMID:7653025

  3. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate. PMID:27497132

  4. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Soon Wee; Liew, Kok Jun; Chan, Chia Sing; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ee, Robson; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50–60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1–10% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (<90% sequence identity) to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species), Salinibacter (three species), Salisaeta (one species), Rubricoccus (one species), Rubrivirga (one species), and Longimonas (one species). Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na+/H+ antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH), osmotically inducible protein C, and the K+ channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium. PMID:27471502

  5. Botulinum Toxin in Pediatric Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Moawad, Eman M. I.; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are natural molecules produced by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria called Clostradium boltulinum. The toxin has a peculiar mechanism of action by preventing the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic membrane. Consequently, it has been used in the treatment of various neurological conditions related to muscle hyperactivity and/or spasticity. Also, it has an impact on the autonomic nervous system by acting on smooth muscle, leading to its use in the management of p...

  6. Biodegradation of 4-chloronitrobenzene by biochemical cooperation between Sphingomonas sp. strain CNB3 and Burkholderia sp. strain CAN6 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Wang, Xin; Jiao, Yiying; Chen, Xu; Zhou, Lingyan; Guo, Kun; Ge, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Two bacterial strains were isolated from activated sludge by using 4-chloronitrobenzene (4-CB) as the sole source of carbon for enrichment. One of the isolates was identified as Sphingomonas sp. strain CNB3 and the other as Burkholderia sp. strain CAN6, mainly through morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sphingomonas sp. strain CNB3 could transform 4-CB to 4-chloroaniline, which accumulated in the medium. Burkholderia sp. strain CAN6 could transform 4-chloroaniline but not 4-CB. The co-culture of Sphingomonas sp. strain CNB3 and Burkholderia sp. strain CAN6 could degrade 4-CB completely by the biochemical cooperation of two strains to overcome the degradative limitations of each species alone. In addition, the biochemical pathway of 4-chloroaniline transformation by Burkholderia sp. strain CAN6 was proposed based on the determined related enzyme activities. The results suggested that 4-chloroaniline was completely transformed via the ortho-cleavage and modified ortho-cleavage pathways. PMID:23473429

  7. [Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Edeer Karaca, Neslihan; Azarsız, Elif; Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kütükçüler, Necil

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that disseminated Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection is developed after BCG vaccination in infants with congenital cellular immune deficiencies such as mutations in genes along the interleukin (IL)-12/interferon (IFN)-γ pathway and mutations in nuclear factor-kB essential modulator (NEMO). In this report, a rifampicin-resistant M.bovis BCG strain isolated from an infant with NEMO defect was presented. An 8-month-old male infant with NEMO defect admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic of our hospital with fever, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Microscopic examination of the smears prepared from lymph node and liver biopsy specimens revealed abundant amount (3+) of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Rifampicin-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was detected by real-time PCR (GeneXpert MTB/RIF; Cepheid, USA) in the samples. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 20th day of culture performed in MGIT960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG by GenoType MTBC kit (Hain Lifescience, Germany) and defined as M.bovis BCG [SIT 482 (BOV_1)] by spoligotyping. In the primary anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility test performed by MGIT960 system, the isolate was found susceptible to rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (EMB). Then anti-tuberculosis treatment was started to the patient. However, the patient at the age of 2 years, re-admitted to the hospital with the complaint of hepatosplenomegaly. Smear of spontaneously draining abscess material obtained from subcutaneous nodules revealed intensive AFB positivity (3+) once again. In the present instance RIF-resistant MTC was detected with GeneXpert system in the specimen. The growth of mycobacteria was determined on the 13th day of culture and isolate was identified as M.bovis BCG. The present isolate was found susceptible to INH, STM and EMB but resistant to RIF. A mutation in the rpoB gene (codon 531, S

  8. Isolation and Identification of a new Bacillus cereus strain and Characterization of its Neopullulanase

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    Soheila Davaeifar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification and use of more efficient enzymes in the food and pharmaceutical industries is the focus of many researchers. The aim of this study was to search for a new bacterial strain capable of producing high levels of pullulanase applicable to biotechnology, the starch bioprocessing and food industries. A new pullulan hydrolyzing Bacillus strain was isolated and designated SDK2. Morphological and biochemical tests identified the strain as a putative Bacillus cereus strain, which was further characterized and confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing, and was submitted to GeneBank, under the accession number FR6864500. Quantative analysis of the strain’s pullulanase activity was carried out by the Dintrosalicyclic (DNS acid-based assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC of the culture supernatant, identified the extracellular pullulanase as neopullulanase. Effects of temperature and pH on pullulanase activity were also studied. The optimum conditions for enzyme activity, as represented by 60o C and a pH of 7, resulted in an activity of 13.43 U/ml, which is much higher than some of the previously reported activities. However, growth of B. cereus SDK2 was also observed at a pH range of 5 to 10, and temperatures of 30 oC to 50 oC. The effect of metal ions and reagents, such as Mg+2, Ca+2, Zn+2, Cu+2, Fe+2, Ni+2 on enzyme activity showed that Ca+2 ions increased pullulan activity, whereas the other ions and reagents inhibited pullulanase activity. The ability of B. cereus SDK2 to produce high levels of neopullulanase stable at 60 oC that can generate panose from pullulan, make this newly isolated strain a valuable source of debranching enzyme for biotechnology, the starch bioprocess and medical industries.

  9. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

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    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  10. Patterns of organellar and nuclear inheritance among progeny of two geographically isolated strains of Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C R; Stamer, K A; Miller, J K; McNally, J G; Kirk, M M; Kirk, D L

    1990-08-01

    Strains of Volvox carteri forma nagariensis derived from Japanese and Indian isolates ("J" and "I" strains, respectively) exhibited length differences (RFLPs) for approximately 90% of the restriction fragments detected by hybridization with a variety of unique-sequence, small-gene-family and repetitive-element probes, including heterologous probes of chloroplast and mitochondrial origin. Extensive post-zygotic mortality was observed among the zygotes produced by crossing J and I strains, suggesting some form of genetic incompatability between them. Most of the viable progeny exhibited recombinant patterns of nuclear inheritance and maternal inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast markers. However, many progeny exhibited exclusively uniparental (usually maternal, but in one case paternal) inheritance of both nuclear and organellar markers. Some of these non-recombinant individuals may be derived from "parthenospores" (dormant asexual cells resembling zygospores). Others may be a result of "pseudogamy," in which one of the parental pronuclei is excluded from the zygote, followed by selective exclusion of both the mitochondrial and the chloroplast genomes derived from that same parent. When segregation patterns for 44 nuclear markers were analyzed in 90 recombinant progeny, statistically significant, locus-specific deviations from expected Mendelian transmission ratios were observed for a sizeable fraction of all markers in both reciprocal crosses: some markers were preferentially transmitted by the J strain, while others were preferentially transmitted by the I strain. It is speculated that these transmission distortions may be related to the regions of inter-isolate genetic incompatibility, and may complicate the use of J x I crosses to establish a RFLP-based linkage map for the species. PMID:1977526

  11. Isolation of Nanjing Local Strains of HHV-7 and Their Biological and Immunological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KunYao; JieDou; JianXu; HuaSun; GuangyongPeng; QiangRen; XiaohuiJi

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the biological and immunological characteristics of the Nanjing local strains of HHV7, four strains of herpesvirus were isolated from saliva specimens of one healthy individual and three children suffering from a kidney disease in Nanjing. The viruses were identified by transmission electron microscopy(EM), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with a specific monoclonal antibody; nested polymerase chain reaction, restriction mapping and DNA sequencing. The virus-infected cells showed the typical cytophathic effect (CPE) under microscopy and could be detected by IFA with the human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) specificantibody. Under EM, herpesvirus-like and virions capsids could be found in their cytoplasm or nucleoplasm.HHV-7 DNA fragments amplified from infected cells by nested PCR were confirmed by restriction mappingand DNA sequencing. Similarly to DC strain, an known HHV-7 strain used in the present study as the positivecontrol, the virus could be inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation for 10 min, heated at 45~C for 30 min, pH 9 at 4~C for 2 h and ether or chloroform for 10 h. The virus induced the production of TNF-α, IL-10 andIL-12p70 while inhibited IFN-T secretion, increased the percentage of CD2+ cells while decreased that of CD4+or CD45RA+ cells. The results indicate that the viruses isolated in Nanjing are HHV-7, which has similarbiological characteristic to the known HHV-7 strain, DC. Infection with HHV-7 in vitro could affect immunefunction of lymphocytes by disturbing cytokine production and CD antigen expression. Cellular & MolecularImmunology. 2004;1(5):367-372.

  12. Isolation of Nanjing Local Strains of HHV-7 and Their Biological and Immunological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yao; Jie Dou; Jian Xu; Hua Sun; Guangyong Peng; Qiang Ren; Xiaohui Ji

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the biological and immunological characteristics of the Nanjing local strains of HHV7, four strains of herpesvirus were isolated from saliva specimens of one healthy individual and three children suffering from a kidney disease in Nanjing. The viruses were identified by transmission electron microscopy(EM), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with a specific monoclonal antibody; nested polymerase chain reaction, restriction mapping and DNA sequencing. The virus-infected cells showed the typical cytophathic effect (CPE) under microscopy and could be detected by IFA with the human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) specific antibody. Under EM, herpesvirus-like and virions capsids could be found in their cytoplasm or nucleoplasm.HHV-7 DNA fragments amplified from infected cells by nested PCR were confirmed by restriction mapping and DNA sequencing. Similarly to DC strain, an known HHV-7 strain used in the present study as the positive control, the virus could be inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation for 10 min, heated at 45℃ for 30 min, pH<5 or>9 at 4℃ for 2 h and ether or chloroform for 10 h. The virus induced the production of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12p70 while inhibited IFN-γ secretion, increased the percentage of CD2+ cells while decreased that of CD4+ or CD45RA+ cells. The results indicate that the viruses isolated in Nanjing are HHV-7, which has similar biological characteristic to the known HHV-7 strain, DC. Infection with HHV-7 in vitro could affect immune function of lymphocytes by disturbing cytokine production and CD antigen expression. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004; 1(5):367-372.

  13. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, K.; Diop, A.; Raoult, D.; P.-E. Fournier; Fenollar, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849), a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium bifermentans Strain WYM, a Promising Biohydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y. M.; Juan, J. C.; Gan, H. M.; Austin, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium bifermentans strain WYM is an effective biohydrogen producer isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the metabolic pathways involved in efficient biohydrogen production.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina; Singh, Anil Kumar; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus sp. Strain MSt1 with Broad Antimicrobial Activity, Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Peat Swamp Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Aw, Yoong Kit; Ong, Kuan Shion; Catherine M Yule; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain MSt1, which has broad-range antimicrobial activity, isolated from tropical peat swamp soil. Genes involved in antimicrobial biosynthesis are found to be present in this genome.

  17. Genetic Analysis of the VP1 Region of Human Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated in Fuyang, China, During 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hui MA; Jian-sheng LIU; Jing-jing WANG; Hai-jing SHI; Hui-juan YANG; Jun-ying CHEN; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity of EV71, we determined and analyzed the complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) from nine EV71 strains isolated in Fuyang, China. We found that nine EV71 strains isolated were over 98% homologous at the nucleotide level and 93%-100% homologous to members of the C4 subgenogroup. At the amino acid level, these Fuyang strains were 99% -100% homologous to one another, 97%-100% homologous to members of the C4 subgenogroup, and the histidine(H) at amino acid position 22 was conserved among the Fuyang strains. The results indicate that Fuyang isolates belong to genotype C4, and an H at position 22 appears to be a marker for the Fuyang strains.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of leptospiral strains isolated from two geographic locations of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Murugesan; Princy Margreat, Alphonse Asirvatham; Arunkumar, Manivel; Prabhakaran, Shanmugarajan Gnanasekaran; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Here the rodent carrier status for the transmission of human leptospirosis in Tiruchirappalli, district, Tamil Nadu, India was assessed. The predominantly circulating leptospiral STs were recognized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 113 rodents were trapped from different provinces of the Tiruchirappalli district. The most prevalent rodent was Bandicota bengalensis (37.2%), and of the total, 52.2% (n=59) rodents were found to be positive for leptospiral 16S rRNA. These results were validated with a leptospiral culture positivity of 45.8% (n=27). Three isolates from Chennai (2 rodents and 1 human) and 1 human isolate from Tiruchirappalli were included to understand the spatial variations and to track the source of human leptospirosis. The serogroup, serovar, and species level identification of all 31 isolates identified 28 to be Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and three as Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. MLST analysis defined all isolates to the existing ST profiles (ST145 and ST27) with the exception of 6 L. borgpetersenii (ST DR) isolates that showed variations in the sucA and pfkB loci. The DR ST was locally confined to Chatram province of Tiruchirappalli suggesting an epidemiological link. The predominant STs, ST145 and ST-DR form a group, indicating the presence of original strain that subsequently diverged evolutionarily into two STs. The variations between L. borgpetersenii in sucA and pfkB loci may be an indication that evolutionary changes transpired in Tiruchirappalli. PMID:26577860

  19. Isolation of thermotolerant Vermamoeba vermiformis strains from water sources in Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    In this study, twenty water samples were collected in the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Water samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 2 of the 20 processed samples (10%) incubated at room temperature and 37°C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing in order to confirm the identity of the isolated amoebic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of FLA in environmental sources in Lanzarote Island and the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in water sources in this island. Furthermore, the two strains isolated in this study were collected in recreational areas with close contact with humans and thus awareness should be raised. PMID:27447234

  20. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pectin, but it required glucose as carbon and energy source and polygalacturonic acid or citrus pectin as inducers of enzyme synthesis. The crude enzymatic extract of Wickerhamomyces anomalus showed macerating activity of raw cassava. This property is very important in the production of dehydrated mashed cassava, a product of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  2. Screening of Molecular Virulence Markers in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Infections

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    Veronica Lazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas (Ps. aeruginosa are two of the most frequently opportunistic pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised hosts. The frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains has determined the development of new strategies in order to elucidate the different mechanisms used by these bacteria at different stages of the infectious process, providing the scientists with new procedures for preventing, or at least improving, the control of S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular markers of virulence in S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens. We used multiplex and uniplex PCR assays to detect the genes encoding different cell-wall associated and extracellular virulence factors, in order to evaluate potential associations between the presence of putative virulence genes and the outcome of infections caused by these bacteria. Our results demonstrate that all the studied S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains synthesize the majority of the investigated virulence determinants, probably responsible for different types of infections.

  3. Isolation of Alpha-amylase Producing Thermophilic Bacillus Strains and Partial Characterization of the Enzymes

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    Celal Türker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we isolated three thermophilic Bacillus strains from the soil samples collected from the coast sediments of the Burnaz Stream located in Erzin. The isolates were entitled as Bacillus sp. CT1, CT2, and CT3, respectively. The maximum α-amylase production was revealed at 60°C for CT1 strain, and at 80°C for CT2 and CT3 strains, respectively. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at 90°C for CT1 α-amylase, whereas at 60°C for CT2 and CT3 α-amylases. On the other hand, optimum pH value for CT2 α-amylase was 7.0, whereas 8.0 for CT1 and CT3 α-amylases. The specific activities of CT1, CT2, and CT3 amylases were 317.6, 113.3 and 362.7 U/mg at 55°C, respectively. The estimated molecular weight of CT1 and CT3 α-amylase was 65 kDa, and for CT2 α-amylase was 38 kDa by zymogram analysis.

  4. Biochemical and genetical analysis reveal a new clade of biovar 3 Dickeya spp. strains isolated from potato in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Slawiak, M.; Beckhoven, van, J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G; Wolf,

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five potato strains of the soft rot-causing plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya spp., and two strains from hyacinth, were characterised using biochemical assays, REP-PCR genomic finger printing, 16S rDNA and dnaX sequence analysis. These methods were compared with nineteen strains representing six Dickeya species which included the type strains. A group of twenty-two potato strains isolated between 2005-2007 in the Netherlands, Poland, Finland and Israel were characterised as belonging t...

  5. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity. PMID:16233712

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei strains isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Zhu, P; Li, Q; Chen, H; Li, Y; Ren, C; Hu, Y; Tan, Z; Gu, J; Mao, X

    2016-07-01

    The phylogenetic and epidemiological relationships of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from different geographical and population sources in China were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST data were analysed using the e-BURST algorithm, and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram was constructed based on the pair-wise differences in the allelic profiles of the strains. Forty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, of which eight were novel (ST1341, ST1345, ST1346, ST1347, ST1348, ST1349, ST1350, ST1351). No geographical-specific or host population-specific phylogenetic lineages were identified. ST46, ST50, ST55, ST58, ST70 and ST1095 predominated, but ~44% of isolates were assigned to 45 STs illustrating high genetic diversity in the strain collection. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of the dominant STs in China showed significant linkeage with B. pseudomallei isolates from Thailand. Analysis of the gmhD allele suggests high genetic variation in B. pseudomallei in China. PMID:26744829

  7. Antagonist capacity of Newly Isolated Strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens against Three Important Phytopathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo D.L. Cruz-Quiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Phytopatogenic bacteria cause several damages to plants with important economical consequences. They provoke losses of product quality affecting all commercial chain of crops, for this reason, their control is a priority. Approach: We evaluated antagonist capacity of newly isolated Pseudonomas fluorescens strains against three important phytopatogenic bacteria (Clavibacter michiganensis, Xanthomonas axonopodis and Erwinia carotovora. Soils from commercial cropping of Capsicum annum L of several Mexican regions were used to isolate P. fluorescens strains. Results: Isolates producing flourescein were purified on King B agar and biochemically identified. Crude extracts with and without cells were produced in King B broths and their antagonist capacities were evaluated by the plate diffusion procedure on nutritive agar. Conclusion: Obtained results demonstrated that cell free extracts exhibited a limited antagonist capacity in comparison of those extracts with cells, which showed an excellent capacity to inhibit the growth of C. michiganensis, X. axonopodis and E. carotovora, demonstrating the intracellular nature of the bioactive metabolites associated to bacterial growth inhibition.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans. PMID:22499877

  9. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. PMID:26202324

  10. Insights on the virulence mechanisms of European Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Castro Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a common inhabitant of diverse ecological niches as well as a common guest of a high variety of animals including fish, reptiles, amphibians, chickens and other warm-blooded animals as humans. With regard to the aquatic environments, E. tarda has been described as the causative agent of infections in more than 20 fish species including some important fish species in aquaculture industry. Several potential pathogenic properties have been suggested to contribute to the infection process of E. tarda, which include adhesins, Type III and Type VI secretion system, and ability to survive and replicate in phagocytes, among others. Identification of these virulence-related genes is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of the species. Since E. tarda causes great losses in the Chinese aquaculture, great efforts have been recently devoted to study the pathogenicity mechanism of E. tarda in Asian countries. However, all these studies were conducted employing Asian isolates. Being E. tarda a pathogen of great economical concern in European turbot aquaculture and since the high intraspecific variability of E. tarda is well known, it becomes evident that additional pathogenicity studies conducted with non-Asiatic strains are needed. Enzymes such as chondroitinase are believed to play an important role in the pathogenicity of bacteria that cause infections (Tam et al., 1982. Chondroitinase activity was proposed to be one virulence contributor in Edwardsiella spp. and mediates the cartilage degradation in the chronic “hole-in-the-head” lesion. In Gram-negative bacteria, the most intensively studied quorum sensing systems rely on the use of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs, which production is common among marine and fish pathogenic Proteobacteria, controlling the expression of key virulence factors. In the case of E. tarda, strain NUF251 from diseased flounder had the ability to produce two kinds of AHL molecules. It is likely

  11. Isolation of a strain of Acidithiobacillus caldus and its role in bioleaching of chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G.; Bo, F.; Bo, Z.H.; Xi, L.; Jian, G.; Fei, L.F.; Hua, C.X. [Central South University of Technology, Changsha (China)

    2007-09-15

    A moderately thermophilic and acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium named S-2, was isolated from coal heap drainage. The bacterium was motile, Gramnegative, rod-shaped, measured 0.4 to 0.6 by 1 to 2 gm, and grew optimally at 42-45{sup o}C and an initial pH of 2.5. The strain S-2 grew autotrophically by using elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate and potassium tetrathionate as energy sources. The strain did not use organic matter and inorganic minerals including ferrous sulfate, pyrite and chalcopyrite as energy sources. The morphological, biochemical, physiological characterization and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain S2 is most closely related to Acidithiobacillus caldus (> 99% similarity in gene sequence). The combination of the strain S-2 with Leptospirillum ferriphilum or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in chalcopyrite bioleaching improved the copper-leaching efficiency. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the chalcopyrite surface in a mixed culture of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus caldus was heavily etched. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that Acidithiobacillus caldus has the potential role to enhance the recovery of copper from chalcopyrite by oxidizing the sulfur formed during the bioleaching progress.

  12. IDIOSYNCRASY OF LOCAL FUNGAL ISOLATE HYPOCREA RUFA STRAIN P2: PLANT GROWTH PROMOTION AND MYCOPARASITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma viride an anamorph of Hypocrea rufa, is a known bio-control agent against various fungal phytopathogens. In the present study, H. rufa strain P2 was tested for plant growth promoting (PGP traits and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotium rolfsii. In-vitro assessment of H. rufa strain P2 showed maximum IAA production of 68 µg ml-1, solubilised tri-calcium phosphate up to 72 µg ml-1 and showed production of chitinase enzyme 120 U ml-1. In order to determine in-vivo plant growth promotion, talc based formulation of H. rufa strain P2 was prepared and tested on Arachis hypogaea L. using seed and soil application. After 15 days, treated plants showed six-fold increases in the fresh and dry root mass whereas, fresh and dry shoot mass was increased up to two folds. The result indicates the local isolate H. rufa strain P2 can be categorized as phyto-friendly fungi which can be used as both, bio-control agent as well as phyto-augmenting bio-fertilizer.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of worldwide enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XiaoNan; YING Jian; CHEN YingHua

    2007-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of the hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that often causes severe neurological complications. Recently, its outbreaks mainly take place in the torrid zone of the Asia-Pacific region. To study the evolution and genetic variability, we collected 532 EV71 strains with almost complete or complete VP1 sequences (891 nt) isolated worldwide from 1970 to 2004. The pairwise homologies and genetic distances were analyzed. Most strains belong to previously identified genotype B and C. However, a unique strain R13223-IND-01 appears not to fall into current three genotypes (A, B and C), and probably represents a new genotype D. Some orphan strains were observed in the genotypes B and C, and their significance in the EV71 evolution was discussed.Moreover, there is a significant co-variance of 6 discrete positions on VP1 (amino acid 43, 58, 164, 184,240 and 249). This high co-variability is tightly related with the subgenotypes.

  14. Isolation and characterization of atrazine mineralizing Bacillus subtilis strain HB-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    Full Text Available Atrazine is a widely used herbicide with great environmental concern due to its high potential to contaminate soil and waters. An atrazine-degrading bacterial strain HB-6 was isolated from industrial wastewater and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified HB-6 as a Bacillus subtilis. PCR assays indicated that HB-6 contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN, atzB and atzC. The strain HB-6 was capable of utilizing atrazine and cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source for growth and even cleaved the s-triazine ring and mineralized atrazine. The strain demonstrated a very high efficiency of atrazine biodegradation with a broad optimum pH and temperature ranges and could be enhanced by cooperating with other bacteria, suggesting its huge potential for remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. To our knowledge, there are few Bacillus subtilis strains reported that can mineralize atrazine, therefore, the present work might provide some new insights on atrazine remediation.

  15. Technological properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from grape must fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, Carmen; Peña, Nuria; Russo, Pasquale; Grieco, Francesco; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary fermentation in wine that usually takes place during or at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum is able to conduct MLF (particularly under high pH conditions and in co-inoculation with yeasts), and some strains are commercially used as MLF starter cultures. Recent evidences suggest a further use of selected L. plantarum strains for the pre-alcoholic acidification of grape must. In this study, we have carried out an integrated (molecular, technological, and biotechnological) characterization of L. plantarum strains isolated from Apulian wines in order to combine the two protechnological features (MLF performances and must acidification aptitudes). Several parameters such as sugar, pH and ethanol tolerance, resistance to lyophilisation and behaviour in grape must were evaluated. Moreover, the expression of stress gene markers was investigated and was linked to the ability of L. plantarum strains to grow and perform MLF. Co-inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L. plantarum in grape must improves the bacterial adaptation to harsh conditions of wine and reduced total fermentation time. For the first time, we applied a polyphasic approach for the characterization of L. plantarum in reason of the MLF performances. The proposed procedure can be generalized as a standard method for the selection of bacterial resources for the design of MLF starter cultures tailored for high pH must. PMID:27052718

  16. Anti-inflammatory properties of intestinal Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Ekaterina V; Smeianov, Vladimir V; Efimov, Boris A; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Pavlova, Svetlana I; Shkoporov, Andrei N

    2012-01-01

    Certain Bifidobacterium strains have been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the precise mechanisms of these effects, including the chemical nature of the active compounds, remain to be elucidated. Here partial characterization of the anti-inflammatory properties of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from feces of healthy infants is reported. It was found that conditioned media (CM) of all strains studied are capable of attenuating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced inflammatory responses in the HT-29 cell line. In contrast, neither killed bifidobacterial cells, nor cell-free extracts showed such activities. Further investigations resulted in attribution of this activity to heat-stable, non-lipophilic compound(s) resistant to protease and nuclease treatments and of molecular weight less than 3 kDa. The anti-inflammatory effects were dose- and time-dependent and associated with inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent promoter activation. The combined treatments of cells with CMs and either LPS or TNF-α, but not with CMs alone, resulted in upregulation of transforming growth factor-β1, IκBζ, and p21(CIP) mRNAs. Our data suggest certain species-specificities of the anti-inflammatory properties of bifidobacteria. This observation should prompt additional validation studies using larger set of strains and employing the tools of comparative genomics. PMID:22040047

  17. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Rozas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs and single sponge cells (cytospins and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques.

  18. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Thomas, Milton; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Scaria, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  19. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, an atypical, noninfective (Nod-) ineffective (Fix-) isolate from Coriaria nepalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, which was isolated from Coriaria nepalensis. This genome sequence is the first from the fourth lineage of Frankia, strains of which are unable to reinfect actinorhizal plants. At 10 Mb, it represents the largest Frankia genome sequenced to date. PMID:23516212

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Geomicrobium sp. Strains JCM 19037, JCM 19038, JCM 19039, and JCM 19055, Isolated from Aquatic Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Tomomi; Zhang, Xiaochi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Arakawa, Osamu; Murase, Shinji; Nakata, Hideaki; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Oshida, Yumi; Inoue, Tetsushi; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic strains JCM 19037, JCM 19038, JCM 19039, and JCM 19055, closely related to Geomicrobium sediminis, were isolated from aquatic samples, and their draft genome sequences were determined. The genome information of these four strains will be useful for studies of their physiology and ecology.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Tatumella sp. Strain UCD-D_suzukii (Phylum Proteobacteria) Isolated from Drosophila suzukii Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Dunitz, Madison I.; James, Pamela M.; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Coil, David A.; Chandler, James Angus

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the draft genome of Tatumella sp. strain UCD-D_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. The genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. This strain was isolated from Drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of D. suzukii.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Tatumella sp. Strain UCD-D_suzukii (Phylum Proteobacteria) Isolated from Drosophila suzukii Larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunitz, MI; James, PM; Jospin, G; Eisen, JA; Coil, DA; Chandler, JA

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the draft genome of Tatumella sp. strain UCD-D_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. The genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. This strain was isolated from Drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of D. suzukii.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Tatumella sp. Strain UCD-D_suzukii (Phylum Proteobacteria) Isolated from Drosophila suzukii Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunitz, Madison I; James, Pamela M; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A; Chandler, James Angus

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the draft genome of Tatumella sp. strain UCD-D_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. The genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. This strain was isolated from Drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of D. suzukii. PMID:24762940

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wigar10, Isolated from a Surface-Sterilized Garlic Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L.; Adams, Sandye M; Bramhacharya, Shanti; Giles, Steven S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wigar10 was isolated from a surface-sterilized garlic bulb (Allium sativum var. Purple Stripe). Its genome encodes several novel secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and provides a genetic basis for further investigation of this strain's chemical biology and potential for interaction with its garlic host.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Extremely Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas salina Strain CIFRI1, Isolated from the East Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Das, Priyanka; Maharana, Jitendra; Paria, Prasenjit; Mandal, Shambhu Nath; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Anil Prakash; Jayarajan, Rijith; Dixit, Vishal; Verma, Ankit; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas salina strain CIFRI1 is an extremely salt-stress-tolerant bacterium isolated from the salt crystals of the east coast of India. Here we report the annotated 3.45-Mb draft genome sequence of strain CIFRI1 having 86 contigs with 3,139 protein coding loci, including 62 RNA genes.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow’s Milk for Grana Padano Production

    OpenAIRE

    Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bendixen, Emøke; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Sassera, Davide; Brasca, Milena; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow’s milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Lignin-Degrading Burkholderia sp. Strain LIG30, Isolated from Wet Tropical Forest Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Simmons, Blake A.; DeAngelis, Kristen M; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia species are common soil Betaproteobacteria capable of degrading recalcitrant aromatic compounds and xenobiotics. Burkholderia sp. strain LIG30 was isolated from wet tropical forest soil and is capable of utilizing lignin as a sole carbon source. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain LIG30.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Solvent-Producing Clostridium beijerinckii Strain 59B, Isolated from Staffordshire Garden Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Gareth T.; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of the solvent-producing, spore-forming, saccharolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii strain 59B, isolated from Staffordshire garden soil, was obtained via a combination of sequencing with the 454 and Illumina platforms. This information will allow for metabolic engineering of a potentially industrially useful strain.

  9. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Enrique E; Albano, Rodolpho M; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz-C; Custódio, Márcio R

    2011-10-01

    Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques. PMID:24031790

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Labrenzia sp. Strain CP4, Isolated from a Self-Regenerating Biocathode Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Eddie, Brian J.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Hervey, W. Judson; Lin, Baochuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Labrenzia sp. strain CP4, isolated from an electricity-consuming marine biocathode biofilm. Labrenzia sp. strain CP4 consists of a circular 5.2 Mbp chromosome and an 88 Kbp plasmid. PMID:27174270

  12. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Chikungunya Virus Strain Isolated from a Patient Diagnosed with Dengue Virus Infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Man Kwan; Gan, Han Ming; Rohani, Ahmad; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus coinfection strain isolated from a dengue virus serotype 2-infected patient in Malaysia. This coinfection strain was determined to be of the Asian genotype and contains a novel insertion in the nsP3 gene. PMID:27563048

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain ARG-1 Isolated from the White-Rot Fungus Armillaria gallica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Caitlin; Kowalski, Caitlin; Zebrowski, Jessica; Tulchinskaya, Yevgeniya; Tai, Albert K.; James-Pederson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain ARG-1 was isolated from a cell culture of hyphal tips of the white-rot fungus Armillaria gallica. We describe here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of its genome, confirming the presence of genes involved in methylotrophy. This is the first genome announcement of a strain of Methylobacterium associated with A. gallica. PMID:27257212

  14. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Thomas, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  15. Genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. strain HA, isolated from the gut of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Dua, Ankita; Saxena, Anjali; Sangwan, Naseer; Mukherjee, Udita; Pandey, Neeti; Rajagopal, Raman; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-09-01

    In this study, Acinetobacter sp. strain HA was isolated from the midgut of a fifth-instar larva of Helicoverpa armigera. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3,125,085 bp) of this strain that consists of 102 contigs, 2,911 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 41%. PMID:22933775

  16. Characterisation of Brucella abortus strain 19 cultures isolated from vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Bracewell, C D; Corbel, M J

    1981-01-31

    Thirty-four cultures recovered from material of bovine origin in England, Scotland and Wales were identified unequivocally as Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19). All had the properties of carbon dioxide-independent B abortus biotype 1 strains, were inhibited by penicillin G and thionin blue at standard concentrations and behaved in oxidative metabolism and guinea pig virulence tests as typical S19. Their sensitivity to i-erythritol varied somewhat between cultures as did reference subcultures of S19. Of the total number of isolates, 11 were recovered from abortion material or cyetic products, 10 were from calves which died from a hypersensitivity reaction within 24 hours of S19 vaccination and the remainder were from milk or internal organs. From the evidence available, there is little to suggest that calfhood vaccination with S19 has resulted in persistent systemic infection in other than a very small proportion of the animals inoculated. PMID:6789543

  17. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśnik Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  18. Transfer of clindamicyn resistance between Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele B. Mano de Carvalho

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Clindamycin resistance was trasferred by a conjugation-like process from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron 52, a multiple antibiotic-resistant strain isolated from clinical specimens, to other Bacteroides species. A possible association between a plasmid detected in the donor strain and clindamycin resistance is discussed.Resistência à clindamicina foi transferida através de processo semelhante à conjugação, de uma cepa multirresistente e isolada de espécime clínico, B. thetaiotaomicron 52, para outra espécie de Bacteroides. Uma possível associação entre um plasmídio detectado na cepa doadora e a resistência à clindamicina é discutida.

  19. Group A streptococcal strains isolated in Lao People's Democratic Republic from 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, S; Dance, D A B; Davong, V; Baker, C; Frost, H; Phetsouvanh, R; Vongsouvath, M; Newton, P N; Steer, A C; Smeesters, P R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data regarding group A streptococcal (GAS) infections in South East Asia are scarce with no information from Laos. We characterized emm types, emm clusters and the antibiotic resistance profile of 124 GAS isolates recovered in Laos during 2004-2013. Most strains were recovered from skin and invasive infections (76% and 19%, respectively). Thirty-four emm types were identified as belonging to 12 emm clusters and no novel emm types were identified. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of emm types or emm clusters according to age or site of recovery (skin or invasive infections). There was moderate strain diversity in this country but considerable differences in emm-type distribution between Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Vaccine coverage was high for the J8 vaccine candidate. The theoretical coverage for the 30-valent vaccine candidate needs further investigation. Antibiotic resistance was moderate to erythromycin and chloramphenicol (8% and 7%, respectively) and low to ofloxacin (<1%). PMID:26645633

  20. Antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori strains and antioxidant properties of blackberry leaves (Rubus ulmifolius) and isolated compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rubus spp. (Rosaceae) provide extracts used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and radical scavenging agents. Resistance to antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection as well as their poor availability in developing countries prompted us to test the antimicrobial activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaves and isolated polyphenols against two H. pylori strains with different virulence (CagA+ strain 10K and CagA? strain G21). The ...

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIFENTHRIN CATABOLIZING BACTERIAL STRAIN BACILLUS CIBI FROM SOIL FOR PYRETHROIDS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids are commonly used in most parts of the world and are reported to have potential health risks. Bifenthrin, a third generation pyrethroid used as insecticide has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health. Bioremediation is a practical approach to reduce pesticide in the environment and reports of microbial degradation of bifenthrin are meagre. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing bacterial isolates for the efficient removal of bifenthrin residues in the environment. A bacterial strain PGS-4 isolated from sewage of pesticide industry was tested for growth at higher concentration of bifenthrin (800 mg L-1 and the optimum pH and temperature were determined. The strain utilized bifenthrin as sole carbon source for growth over a wide range of pH (4.0-9.0 and temperatures (16-37°C. On the basis of growth kinetics studies, the optimal conditions were determined to be pH 7.0-8.0 and 30°C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PGS-4 forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus and showed 99% similarity to that of Bacillus cibi. This study depicts the ability of B. cibi to utilize bifenthrin at higher concentration under in vitro thereby can be used in eliminating bifenthrin from contaminated soils as a practical approach to reduce pyrethroid toxicity in the environment.

  2. Isolation and antifungal and antioomycete activities of staurosporine from Streptomyces roseoflavus strain LS-A24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Jung Yeop; Hwang, In Sun; Yun, Bong Sik; Kim, Beom Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2006-04-19

    The actinomycete strain LS-A24 active against some plant fungal and oomycete pathogens was isolated from a soil sample of the Sunghwan Lake in Korea. The cell wall composition and spore shape of strain LS-A24 were LL-diaminopimelic acid and spiral type, respectively. On the basis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, strain LS-A24 was identical to Streptomyces roseoflavus. An antifungal and antioomycete antibiotic was isolated from LS-A24 using various chromatographic procedures. The molecular formular of the antibiotic was determined to be C(28)H(26)N(4)O(3), and on the basis of the NMR data, the antibiotic was confirmed to be staurosporine, 2,3,10,11,12,13-hexahydro-10R-methoxy-9S-methyl-11R-methylamino-9S,13R-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3',2',1'-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-1-one. Staurosporine completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum orbiculare, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Cladosporium cucumerinum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-50 microg/mL for MICs. Staurosporine also was active against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Staurosporine and the commercial fungicide metalaxyl inhibited the development of Phytophthora blight on pepper plants. However, the control efficacy of staurosporine against the Phytophthora disease was somewhat less than that of metalaxyl. This is the first study to isolate staurosporine from S. roseoflavus and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo antioomycete activity against P. capsici. PMID:16608228

  3. A novel screening protocol for the isolation of hydrogen producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains

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    Happe Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sealed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures evolve significant amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions of sulfur depletion. However, the eukaryotic green alga goes through drastic metabolic changes during this nutritional stress resulting in cell growth inhibition and eventually cell death. This study aimed at isolating C. reinhardtii transformants which produce hydrogen under normal growth conditions to allow a continuous hydrogen metabolism without the stressful impact of nutrient deprivation. Results To achieve a steady photobiological hydrogen production, a screening protocol was designed to identify C. reinhardtii DNA insertional mutagenesis transformants with an attenuated photosynthesis to respiration capacity ratio (P/R ratio. The screening protocol entails a new and fast method for mutant strain selection altered in their oxygen production/consumption balance. Out of 9000 transformants, four strains with P/R ratios varying from virtually zero to three were isolated. Strain apr1 was found to have a slightly higher respiration rate and a significantly lower photosynthesis rate than the wild type. Sealed cultures of apr1 became anaerobic in normal growth medium (TAP under moderate light conditions and induced [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity, yet without significant hydrogen gas evolution. However, Calvin-Benson cycle inactivation of anaerobically adapted apr1 cells in the light led to a 2-3-fold higher in vivo hydrogen production than previously reported for the sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii wild type. Conclusion Attenuated P/R capacity ratio in microalgal mutants constitutes a platform for achieving steady state photobiological hydrogen production. Using this platform, algal hydrogen metabolism can be analyzed without applying nutritional stress. Furthermore, these strains promise to be useful for biotechnological hydrogen generation, since high in vivo hydrogen production rates are achievable under normal growth

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus garvieae Strain PAQ102015-99, an Outbreak Strain Isolated from a Commercial Trout Farm in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Varney, Jed S; Welch, Timothy J; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    We announce the draft genome assembly of Lactococcus garvieae strain PAQ102015-99, a recently isolated strain from an outbreak of lactococcosis at a commercial trout farm in the northwestern United States. The draft genome comprises 14 contigs totaling 2,068,357 bp with an N50 of 496,618 bp and average G+C content of 38%. PMID:27492003

  5. Probiotic technological and functional characteristics of Lactobacillus strains isolated from chicken gut

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Dornas; G.A.X. Silva; C.H.V. Martins; J.L.S. Moreira; C.E.M. Jensen; M.R. Souza; J.R. Nicoli; A.C. Nunes; Neumann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. isolated from different portions of chickens' gastrointestinal tract were evaluated concerning their ability to survive in a water-in-oil (W/0) emulsion containing sesame and sunflower oil. After sixty days of emulsion storage under refrigeration, three of five strains tested survived in number equal to or higher than 10(6)cfu/g. Lactobacillus reuteri 2M14C, which presented the highest survival in W/O emulsion (10(7)cfu/g), was tested for its capacity to resist throughout t...

  6. Characterization of yeast strains isolated from bloaters of fermented green table olives during storage

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    Serhrouchni, M.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented green olives stored in bulks (200 litres plastic containers were sampled from two factories in Morocco to collect the attacked fruits (bloaters. The microbial species present in the bloaters were isolated by taking a loop from the attacked regions of the fruits and streaked onto appropriate media for the determination of yeasts, Gram negative bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Results showed that only yeast colonies appeared and no growth of other microorganisms was detected. One handered and four isolates of yeasts were collected for the characterization and research of the killer activity on selected target strains. Results showed that the isolates fit into four species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia anomala, Candida etchellsii, Candida versatilis, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Some of the studied isolates from each species showed killer activity on the target strains. Strains of P. anomala and C. etchelsii were the most active followed by the strains belonging to S. cerevisiae.Con el fin de obtener frutos afectados de «alambrado» se tomaron muestras de aceitunas verdes conservadas a granel (recipientes de plástico de 200 litros de dos fábricas de Marruecos. El aislamiento de las especies de microorganismos de las cavidades se realizó tomando con el asa una porción de fruto de la zona afectada y realizando la siembra en medios idóneos para levaduras, bacterias Gram-negativas y bacterias lácticas. Los resultados mostraron que en las mismas únicamente se encontraban colonias de levaduras. Se obtuvieron ciento cuatro cepas, a las que se caracterizó y se les investigó la actividad «killer» frente a cepas predeterminadas. Los resultados indicaron que las cepas aisladas pertenecían a las cuatro especies siguientes: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia anomala, Candida etchellsii, Candida versatilis y Rhodotorula glutinis. Algunas de las cepas aisladas de cada especie mostraron actividad «killer» frente a las especies

  7. Emergence of fluoroquinolones-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi: Watch on multidrug-resistant isolates

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    Subhash C Arya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subhash C Arya, Nirmala Agarwal, Shekhar Agarwal, Dolly WadhwaSant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi, IndiaEmergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi has been responsible for clinical challenges for clinicians. Recently, frequent isolation and dissemination of fluoroquinolones-resistant strains of S. enterica in Surabaya, Indonesia was in the news. Subsequently, Yangai and colleagues1 recommended regular communications between laboratory professionals and clinicians. Collaboration between laboratory personnel and clinicians would be essential to offer a rational empiric antibiotic recipe while awaiting antibiotic susceptibility test results (AST for any patient.

  8. Isolation and purification of complex II from proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245

    OpenAIRE

    Khadija Shabbiri; Waqar Ahmad; Quratulain Syed; Ahmad Adnan

    2010-01-01

    A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytoch...

  9. A novel small antifungal peptide from Bacillus strain B-TL2 isolated from tobacco stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Yang, Xingyong

    2008-03-01

    A novel small antifungal peptide produced by a Bacillus strain B-TL2 isolated from tobacco stems was purified. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and reverse-phase HPLC on SOURCE 5RPC column. After the final isolation step, one peptide with antifungal activity, designated as BTL, was obtained. The molecular mass of the purified BTL was determined as 2500 Da and 2237.7 Da by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, respectively. The N-amino acid sequence of BTL was determined to be NH(2)-KQQLATEAESAGPIL, which shows relatively low identity to other antimicrobial peptides from bacteria. The peptide exhibited strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Bipolaris maydis, Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Cercospora personata. The purified BTL displayed thermostability, almost retaining 100% activity at 100 degrees C for 15 min. PMID:18241956

  10. Isolation and identification of a type strain bacteria with the highest ability to produce organophosphorus acid anhidrase

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    Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 5 Oct, 2008; Accepted 14 Feb, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: In Iran, Organ phosphorus pesticides such as chloropyrifos and diazinon are widely used in agriculture. These compounds inhibit activity of cholinesterase in nearly irreversible manner resulting in malfunction of nerve impulse transmission. This result in humans can produce illness or even death.Therefore, the present study aims to isolate various bacterial strains in specified contaminated regions. We selected one of the isolates that contain the highest OP-hydrolyzing capability for using such strain, in decontaminating environmentally harmful OP residues.Materials and methods: In this study, vast waters from chemical factories and contaminated agricultural soil samples were used for isolation of several bacterial strains that contain OPAA enzyme are capable of utilizing chloropyrifos and diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus by selective enrichment on mineral salt medium (MSM, which contains chloropyrifos or diazinon. One strain was selected for analysis of degradation ability with growth studies and HPLC technique and characterization by Bergey, s manual.Results: From vast water and soil, ten bacterial strains were isolated using chloropyrifos and diazinon as source of carbon and phosphorus. One of them named IHU strain4; grows most rapidly and luxuriously and displays the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial isolate was identified as a member of the genus pseudomonas.Conclusion: From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain is able to utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution.Results from the present study suggest that the isolated

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain NG_869 with Penicillin, Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin Resistance Determinants Isolated from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Yong, Delicia Ann; Cheong, Yuet Meng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-06-01

    Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the increasing reports of multidrug-resistant gonococcal isolates are a global public health care concern. Herein, we report the genome sequence of N. gonorrhoeae strain NG_869 isolated from Malaysia which may provide insights into the drug resistance determinants in gonococcal bacteria. PMID:27570316

  12. The pls Gene Found in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Is Common in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri

    OpenAIRE

    Juuti, Katri; Ibrahem, Salha; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Kuusela, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    pls, a gene found in type I staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) regions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, was present in 12 of the 15 human clinical Staphylococcus sciuri isolates studied. Pls was expressed in the S. sciuri isolates, although at a lower level than in S. aureus. Other parts of SCCmec could also be found in the S. sciuri genome.

  13. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates of...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain AY01, Isolated from the Raw Material of Fermented Goat Milk Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Gong, Fu-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Luo, Yi-Yong; Liu, Chen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic that is isolated mostly from fermented foods. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of L. plantarum strain AY01, isolated from the raw material of fermented goat milk cheese. This bacterium, with optimum growth at 30°C, has a G+C content of 43.68%. PMID:24115537

  15. ISOLATION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE STRAIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM 104 FROM MULTIPLE PATIENTS OVER A 17-YEAR PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...

  16. Efficacy of fowl pox vaccines against Egyptian isolated strain during 2012

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    Susan S El-Mahdy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the protection induced by different commercial fowl pox (FP vaccines against local FP virus isolated from Giza governorate in Egypt during 2012. Materials and Methods: Efficacy of FP vaccines against local field isolates was determined in seven groups of (20 birds/group 6 weeks old specific-pathogen free chicks. Each group was vaccinated via wing web with one of different FP living vaccines and (20 chicks in group (8 did not receive any FP vaccine and served as controls. At the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 10th-da post-vaccination (DPV, all birds were examined for the presence of takes at the site of vaccination. Three weeks post vaccination, serum samples were collected, and the levels of induced antibodies were detected by passive hemagglutination (PH test. All birds in Groups (1-8A were challenged individually via the wing web with EID50 103.0 of the Egyptian isolated strain during 2012. Results: Takes detected at the site of vaccination at the 3rd day were ranging from 45 to 70%. This percent increased to 80-95% at the 5th DPV with a maximum elevation of takes at the 7th DPV (90-100%. Geometric mean titer of PH assay antibody titer, 3 weeks post vaccination, was ranging between 5.60 and 9.60 according to the type of vaccine used and with protection 90-100%. Conclusion: Efficacy of some commercial FP vaccines used in the poultry field against the Egyptian isolated strain during 2012 ranged between 90% and 100% according to the type of used vaccine.

  17. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize Pasteurella isolated from backyard chickens using whole cell protein lysate profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to show their genetic relationship because Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important cause of fatal infections in backyard chickens. Methods:Twenty one P. multocida isolates were recovered previously from clinical cases of fowl cholera belonging to individual owners and phenotypically analyzed using biochemical tests and serotyping were used for the genetic characterization. Results:Phylogenetic study based on both methods revealed that the recovered population of P. multocida isolated from backyard chickens differs markedly, constituting a well-separated cluster and appearance of 3 distinguishing lineages with greater discrimination shown by RAPD-PCR that resulted in two suclusters in cluster A and three subclusters in cluster B and were related greatly with capsular serogroups for the examined strains. The whole cell protein revealed the presence of dominant protein bands at approximately 41 and 61 kDa in all of the examined isolates that may be a virulent proteins share in the increasing of its pathogenicity. Clear distinctive bands ranged from 123 to 1 554 bp. Conclusions: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P

  18. Frequency of Mupirocin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Nasal Carriers in Hospital Patients in Kermanshah

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen world wide. Mupirocin plays a crucial role in strategies designed to control outbreaks of S. aureus. .Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers among the hospitalized patients at Kermanshah Hospital, Iran..Patients and Methods: A total of 174 S. aureus isolates (sensitive and resistant to methicillin were collected from the nasal anterior nares of hospitalized patients. All isolates were tested for mupirocin susceptibility by a disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by an E-test and they were also analyzed by a PCR for the presence of ileS-1 and ileS-2 genes..Results: Utilizing the disc diffusion agar method, E-test and PCR, all of the S. aureus strains tested were susceptible to mupirocin. In this study, the range of mupirocin MICs was determined to be between 0.064 and 4 μg/ml. There was a significant association between MIC observed and multi-drug resistant (MDR carriage (P value 0.04, and resistance to oxacillin (P value 0.004..Conclusions: This is a report of an initial survey of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus, in Kermanshah where the use of mupirocin is still limited. Perhaps the sensitivity of all isolates to mupirocin in this study is due to the less common usage of this antibiotic, especially in the form of nasal and site sample collections.

  19. DETECTION OF STX2 COLIPHAGES IN STRAIN OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM BOVINE FLEECE AND MILK FILTERS

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    G. Delle Donne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambda(4-phage vectors of gene codifying for synthesis of Shiga-toxins are suspected to be involved in the virulence evolution of Vero-Toxin producing Escherichia coli(VTEC. Herds of domestic or wild ruminants are reservoirs of these bacteria, but excretion with faeces is more frequent in groups of heifers and feeder calves. Studies have shown that slurries produced by infected herds are often positive for VTEC and that Stx2 carrying lambda coliphages can be isolated. These viruses can induce lysogenic cycles only in some strain of Escherichia coli and the Stx gene is then integrated in the bacterial chromosome. When these bacteria also posses other virulence traits, like those responsible for the intimate attachment to the enteric mucosal cells (eae or saa the recombinant strains might became pathogen for humans. Our research was aimed at detecting the coliphages form ten Stx2 positive strains isolated in our previous studies. We have included strains, possessing or not the ‘eae’ genes. In addition we have used other isolates originating from slaughterhouses, with the aim of evaluating their susceptibility to the isolated 4-phages. Following induction of a lytic cycle with mitomycin C, the strains were screened by hybridization of plaque blots with Stx2 probes. The purified extracts of eight of the ten strains produced plaque/halos of lysis in cultures of susceptible strains, thus showing these strains were infected by inducible phages, but only one proved to be Stx2 carrier. Attempt to obtain new lysogens using the purified Stx2 phage with other strains ‘eae’ positive and STx negative isolated from slaughterhouses were unsuccessful. Stx2 lysogens were obtained only using the reference strains DM1187.

  20. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Candida albicans strains isolated from infectious disease patients in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lvyin; Du, Xin; Li, Tianming; Song, Yan; Zai, Shubei; Hu, Xiangnan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, as an opportunistic pathogen, can cause superficial and life-threatening candidiasis in immunocompromised individuals. The formation of surface-associated biofilms and the appearance of drug resistance pose a significant challenge for clinical intervention. In this study, a total of 104 hospital-acquired C. alibcans clinical isolates were collected from sterile sites and mucosal lesions of 92 infectious disease patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and analysed. The resistance rates to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were 12.5 %, 15.4 % and 11.5 % respectively. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis identified 63 diploid sequence types (DSTs) with a decentralized phylogeny, of which 37 DSTs (58.7 %) had not been reported in the online MLST database. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in ACC1 and ADP1 sequences obtained from six sequential isolates from a patient receiving antifungal treatment, which exemplified the effect of microevolution on C. albicans genetic alterations. Biofilm formation capability, an important virulence trait of C. albicans, was variable among strains isolated from different anatomical sites (P = 0.0302) and affected by genotypes (P = 0.0185). The mRNA levels of the azole antifungal target ERG11 gene and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) were detected in 9-18.1 % of azole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) isolates. Twelve mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions in ERG11 were found in azole-resistant and S-DD isolates. Among them, A114S, Y132H and Y257H substitution in the ERG11 gene may be primarily related to azole resistance. Taken together, we observed a high level of diversity within C. albicans isolates. Multiple inter-related underlying mechanisms, including genetic and environmental factors, may account for high surface adhesion or azole resistance in clinical C. albicans infections. PMID:25351710