Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports population-based data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among children and adults in Botucatu, Brazil. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving a random start point and then systematic sampling of an urban Brazilian population in the city of Botucatu. There were approximately 3 300 individuals aged 1 to 91 years who were eligible to participate in the study. Of this sample, 2485 (75.3% underwent ophthalmic examination. The ophthalmic examination included uncorrected (presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity using standardized protocols. The primary cause of decreased visual acuity was identified for all patients with visual impairment. Results Presenting low vision and presenting blindness were found in 5.2% (95% CI: 4.3–6.1 and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.6–2.8 of the population, respectively. Unilateral presenting low vision and unilateral presenting blindness were found in 8.3% (95% CI: 7.2–9.5 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9–4.4 of the population respectively. Best corrected low vision was found in 1.3% of the population (95% CI: 0.9–1.7 and best corrected blindness was discovered in 0.4% of people (95% CI: 0.2–0.7. The main cause of presenting low vision was refractive error (72.3% and cataract was the most prevalent cause of blindness (50%. Conclusion The main causes of low vision and blindness in this Brazilian city were uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, and retinal diseases. Programs to further reduce the burden of visual impairment need to be targeted toward the correction of refractive error and surgery for cataracts.
Narikawa, Silvia; Natsuaki, Kryscia Leiko; Fruet, Juliana; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Schellini, Silvana Artioli
To evaluate the profile of anophthalmic cavity carriers and patients' evolution with the employed treatments. Retrospective study carried out at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, to evaluate the profile and the evolution of patients with anophthalmic cavity treated in our service. Data were evaluated according to the frequency of occurrence and analysis of association. Anophthalmic cavity was more frequently observed in young males, workers in activities carried on with their hands. Trauma and phthisis bulbi were the most frequent causes, with differences according to age and gender. The complications were high (57.1% of cases), the majority occurred belatedly. Trauma is still an important cause of loss of the eye. The complications during the follow-up of the patient are frequent, occurring in general, very late, which reinforces the need for periodic and prolonged monitoring of patients with anophthalmic cavity.
Arthur Oscar Schelp
Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a progressive and debilitating disease affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. Despite its importance, only a few studies have examined public awareness of dementia. We present a study of the public awareness of dementia in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A sample of 73 individuals answered a questionnaire approved by the Medical Ethics Research Committee inquiring about the characteristics of healthy old-aged and demented individuals. Results: Those interviewed believed that dementia is characterized by prevalent memory impairment (41% and behavioral changes (32.9% with onset in the 60's or older (42.5% and upon suspecting dementia, only a few would seek specialized medical help. Discussion: Better understanding of public awareness of dementia provides the clue to more effective health and social policies in order to achieve a higher rate of early diagnosis and thereby possibly decreasing patient, family and caregiver distress.
Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena
, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina
and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...
Salete Marcia Bréga
Full Text Available Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides, hepatic enzyme dosage (GOT, GPT, AR and acetylcholinesterase activity were performed in 16 workers and 8 controls. In the exposed workers, the most relevant clinical symptoms were poor digestion with fullness sensation after meals, irritated eyes, headache and fasciculations. The exposed group showed significantly lower manganese dosage and acetylcholinesterase activity, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase. Cytogenetic studies showed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group compared to the control group. Although the workers used protection against the pesticide's fog, the results revealed that the workers were contaminated with the pesticides. Therefore, the cytogenetic, toxicological studies with clinical examination are necessary for monitoring workers who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.
Prevalence of brain atrophy in dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP Botucatu: retrospective study; Prevalencia de atrofia cerebral em caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP Botucatu: estudo retrospectivo
Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria
Brain atrophy is diagnosed by imaging methods that allow the verification of the widening of cerebral sulci and ventricular dilatation. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 150 dogs were evaluated, brain atrophy was identified in 16 animals. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected, followed by poodles, maltese, dachshunds, yorkshires, pinschers and cockers. Brain atrophy was observed in animals of all age groups, being more prevalent in middle aged dogs followed by elderly animals, in which this alteration can be commonly found. The identification of reduced brain volume, however, may not be the cause of neurological signs expressed by animals since in some dogs of this study it was considered a finding. (author)
Retrospective study of ear findings of dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu; Estudo retrospectivo dos achados otologicos de caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu
Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria
Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality in the diagnosis of ear alterations, especially those affecting the middle ear. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 151 dogs were evaluated, the most common finding was the mineralization of the external auditory cartilage, followed by secretions in external and middle ear and tissue in these two regions. The average age of affected animals ranged from 6-9 years. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected animals, followed by cockers, boxers, poodles, labrador retrievers, german shepherds and pit bulls. (author)
Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods: The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population......-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposure from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews...
Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese
of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence......Purpose: To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods: The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.
Medina, Norma Helen; Gattas, Vera Lúcia; Anjos, Gilberto L; Montuori, Conchita; Gentil, Rosana Maura
Trachoma dispensaries were created in the State of São Paulo in 1938, when the incidence of trachoma was 10.9% in Botucatu. During the 1970s trachoma ceased to pose a public health problem. The disease reappeared in the 1980s, leading the São Paulo State Health Department to establish a control program as new cases were being detected in various parts of the State, including Botucatu. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma in preschoolers and schoolchildren and to implement a program to control the disease in Botucatu. A cluster sample of children were submitted to external ocular examination to detect signs of trachoma according to WHO criteria. Trachoma prevalence was 11.9% among the 1,393 children examined. All cases were treated with 1.0% tetracycline ointment and followed up periodically. Loss to follow-up increased from 1.6% for the first return visit to 62.4% for the last visit. The results showed the need to investigate the causes of non-compliance with the control program and the impact and effectiveness of treatment.
De Paz CJ
Full Text Available Clarissa J De Paz, Agustin L Gonzalez, Chi Ngo Eye & Vision, Richardson, TX, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution in reducing the symptoms of eye dryness using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire. Methods: A single-center study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Fourteen subjects (12 female and 2 male with symptoms of dry eye and a positive history of recent use of artificial tears were included in the study. OSDI questionnaire scores on the severity of symptoms, visual functionality, and quality of life related to the condition were recorded pre- and post-therapy. Subsequently, score data were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: The mean age of the 14 subjects was 44.86 (standard deviation [SD] ±3.08 years, with a range of 23–62 years. Mean duration of the evaluation was 28.79 days with a range of 25–34 days. Baseline OSDI mean score was 49.40 (SD ±1.28, and post-therapy mean score was 42.26 (SD ±0.99. Data analysis revealed that the scores were statistically significantly improved post-lifitegrast therapy in comparison to baseline (p=0.00041. Conclusion: Lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution may be a beneficial therapeutic option in the management of symptoms associated with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye disease, ocular surface disease, dry eye treatment, lifitegrast
Estudo comparativo da pressão arterial e da prevalência de hipertensão arterial em duas coortes sucessivas (1975-1976 de estudantes de 16 a 25 anos, Botucatu, SP, Brasil Blood pressure levels and hipertension prevalence in 16 to 25 year-old students in Botucatu, S. Paulo, Brazil. A comparative study of two successive cohorts, 1975-1976
Dináh Borges de Almeida
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de pressão arterial e a prevalência de hipertensão arterial em uma população jovem, foram realizados pesquisas em dois anos sucessivos em 1.288 e 736 estudantes de Botucatu, SP (Brasil tendo sido comparados os resultados obtidos. As médias das pressões sistólicas da população estudada e dos dois grupos etários desta população (16 a 20 anos e 21 a 25 anos foram idênticas em ambos os anos, tendo as médias das pressões diastólicas diferido de no máximo 2 mmHg; as médias, tanto sistólicas quanto diastólicas, dos dois sexos e da parcela branca da população estudada quanto à idade e sexo também diferiram de no máximo 2 mmHg. As médias da população estudada e sua parcela branca, em ambos os anos, foram superiores no sexo masculino e no grupo etário de 21 a 25 anos. Na população negra e amarela houve disparidade de resultados entre 1975 e 1976, indicando influência da exiguidade do tamanho dos contigentes negro e amarelo desta população. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial (pressão sistólica igual ou maior que 140 mmHg e diastólica igual ou maior que 90 mmHg foi de 5,04% em 1975 e 6,22% em 1976, tendo sido em ambos os anos maior no sexo masculino do que no feminino e no grupo de 21 a 25 do que no de 16 a 20 anos.To determine the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure levels in a young population group, two groups, one of 1288 students and another of 736, all from Botucatu, were investigated during two consecutive years, and the results were then compared. The mean values for systolic readings of the whole population, as for the two age groups (16 to 20 and 21 to 25 years old, were identical for both years studied; the diastolic mean values differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean systolic and diastolic reading for both sexes and among the whites also differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean values for the whole population and among the white population were higher for males
Luiz Alberto Blanco Jorge
Full Text Available The overall goal of the present work was to continue studying habitat fragmentation in the Botucatu Cuesta, SP, Brazil, in a 18422-ha study. Landsat-5 TM images were used and a technique was developed to subtract data other than vegetation data from the scene. Thus natural vegetation thematic maps for different dates (1986 and 1993 were generated. The analysis of 1986 and 1993 spatial data revealed that habitat fragmentation in the study area was unstable. The process presented scale distinction, i.e., 1 in the largest patches subset the phenomenon was non-fractal and patch size decreased following a linear tendency; 2 in the intermediary size subset of patches, the phenomenon was non-fractal and patches size decreased in an increasing geometric progression; 3 in the smallest patches subset, the phenomenon was fractal, divided patches tending to follow a geometric progression.
Kerr,Florence F.S.; Corrêa,Fernando M. A.
Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, ...
M. M. Kawome
Full Text Available Destructive eye surgery is associated with more complications than just loss of visual functions of the eye and aesthetics. Currently there is very little published literature on post-destructive eye surgery associated depression. Zimbabwe has been experiencing a surge in the rate of destructive eye surgery done at the National Tertiary Eye Unit. This situation could be churning out lots of unrecognized depressed clients into the community who require assistance in one form or another.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of post-destructive eye surgery associated depression among patients attending Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit and assess if the current management protocol of patients undergoing destructive eye surgery at the Eye Unit addresses the problem adequately.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 28 randomly selected patients who had destructive eye surgeries at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital was conducted over five months from 1st March 2012 to end of July 2012. A structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on the following items: gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure done, expectations before and after surgery, adequacy of counseling given and involvement of family was used to collect data. Nine questions to assess depression were adapted from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9.Setting: The study was conducted at SekuruKaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare.Results: Twenty-eight patients who underwent destructive eye surgery during the study period were selected using systematic random sampling. The gender ratio was 1:1 and the mean age was 38.7 years with a range from 24 to 65 years. Fifty percent of the patients in the study had orbital exenteration while the rest had enucleation (14% and evisceration (36%. Twenty-eight percent of the study population had depression.Conclusion: Destructive eye surgery is frequently associated with depression and our current management protocol of patients
Joannitti, Luis Henrique Lozano [UNESP; Silva, Nilza Regina da [UNESP; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Camargo, Maria Cecília G. de O.; Victória, Cassiano; Babboni, Selene Daniela; Costa, Heni Falcão da [UNESP; Ferreira, Bruna Lapenna Sanches [UNESP; Modolo, José Rafael
Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an emergent zoonosis caused by the bacterium genus Rickettsia, transmitted by bite of infected ticks, flea and mite. It can be fatal if not correctly diagnosed, being the dogs considered as sentinels. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of positive cases in dogs BSF distributed in urban area of Botucatu/SP, by Immunofluorescence Assay, randomly chosen during 41st annual vaccination campaign against rabies in dogs and cats, in Botucatu...
Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan
In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion.
Full Text Available In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion.
Florence F.S. Kerr
Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil was performed using Harada & Mori's technique. Ancylostoma duodenale was found in 8.5% of the asiatic inmigrants and Necator americanus in 3.5% of the European and 18.0% of the Brazilians examined.
Florence F.S. Kerr
Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.
Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert
This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our eyes are bo dy's most well developed sensory organs. Indeed, a far larger part of our brain is devoted to the functions of eyesight than to those of hearing, taste, touch or smell together. We usually take our eyesight for granted, although when vision problems develop, most of us will do everything in our capacity to restore our eyesight to normal . Eyes work together to perceive depth thus allowing us to coordinate with motor actions. Practicing relaxation exercises in the form of pranayama and eye exercise has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. AIM: To study the effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study consisted of 60 healthy subjects divided equally into two groups. One group practiced kapalabhati pranayama and eye exercises for eight weeks whereas other group did not participate in any kind of exercise. The effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination were assessed by finger dexterity test by using O′Connor finger dexterity task. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in eye to hand coordination in subjects practicing pranayama and eye exercises. Fi nger dexterity test values in study group before and after intervention were 31±4.94 and 33±4.98 respectively. Whereas in control group the values were 29.9±5.7 and 30.1±5.31 respectively. CONCLUSION: Both Kapalabhati pranayama and eye to hand coordination can improve fine motor skills
Qi Sheng You
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess prevalence, size and location of peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs and their associations in a population-based sample. . METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination included enhanced depth imaging of the choroid by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography. PICCs were defined as triangular thickening of the choroid with the base at the optic disc border and a distance between Bruch's membrane and sclera of ≥ 200 μm. Parapapillary large choroidal vessels were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 94 subjects with high myopia (refractive error 26.5mm in right eyes, OCT images were available for 89 (94.7% participants. A PICC was detected in 15 out of these 89 highly myopic subjects (prevalence:16.9 ± 4.0% and in none of hyperopic, emmetropic or medium myopic subgroups each consisting of 100 randomly selected subjects. Mean PICC width was 4.2 ± 2.3 hours (30° of disc circumference and mean length was 1363 ± 384 μm. PICCs were located most frequently (40% at the inferior disc border. On fundus photos, a typical yellow-orange lesion was found in 8 (53% eyes with PICCs. In binary regression analysis, presence of PICCs was significantly associated with optic disc tilting (P=0.04 and presence of posterior staphylomata (P=0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of PICCs in the adult Chinese population was 16.9 ± 4.0% in the highly myopic group, with no PICCs detected in non-highly myopic eyes. PICCs were located most frequently at the inferior optic disc border. Only half of the PICCs detected on OCT images showed a yellow-orange lesion on fundus photos. Presence of PICC was significantly associated only with an increased optic disc tilting and presence of posterior staphylomata, while it was not associated with axial length, refractive error or other ocular or systemic parameters.
Jhônatas Gomes dos Reis
Full Text Available O município de Botucatu pode ser uma ótima opção para o desenvolvimento da apicultura por apresentar grande diversidade de culturas agrícolas, condições climáticas favoráveis e por localizar-se próximo a importantes rodovias estaduais, o que facilitaria o escoamento da produção. Assim, teve-se como objetivo estudar a viabilidade econômica da instalação de uma empresa produtora de mel no município de Botucatu - SP. A partir da análise de diversos fatores que compõem a sustentação de uma atividade apícola, assumiu-se uma empresa com 480 colmeias e com uma casa do mel, para processamento de toda produção. No empreendimento foram analisados os investimentos, custos de manutenção, rentabilidade e a estimativa de crescimento do negócio ao longo de cinco anos. Por meio de um fluxo de caixa foram obtidos os indicadores valor presente líquido - VPL, com uma taxa mínima de atratividade - TMA de 6%, taxa interna de retorno - TIR e o payback, assim como o cálculo do ponto de nivelamento. O projeto foi considerado economicamente viável, com a constatação de VPL igual a R$ 116.163,57 e TIR de 33%. O lucro líquido anual da empresa alcançou o valor de R$ 61.374,00, o que acumulado durante cinco anos, pode atingir R$ 164.503,95. Com base no payback o investidor teria retorno do investimento inicial a partir de dois anos e quatro meses. A produção mínima de mel para que o projeto desse lucro foi de 14.558 kg/mel/ano. = The city of Botucatu can be a great option to development of beekeeping, for presenting great diversity of agricultural crops and favorable climatic conditions. It is located near several state highways, which facilitate the flow of production.In this context, the present study aims to analyze the economic feasibility of installing a honey production company in Botucatu - SP. From an analysis of the various factors that make up the support of a bee activity, it was assumed a honey bee company with 480 hives and
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the management outcomes amongst various treatment modalities for submacular hemorrhage (SMH in Indian subjects. Settings and Design: Retrospective, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with SMH between 1999 and 2006 were included. Treatment modalities included: vitrectomy with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA assisted SMH evacuation (group 1, n = 14; pneumatic displacement with intravitreal r-tPA and gas (group 2, n = 25; and pneumatic displacement with intraocular gas (group 3, n = 7. Favorable anatomical outcome was defined as complete displacement of SMH from fovea and favorable functional outcome was defined as a gain of >2 Snellen lines from the baseline. Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare the three groups, while Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used to evaluate the influence of duration and size of SMH on outcomes. Results: There was no difference amongst groups in terms of favorable anatomical (P = 0.121 or functional outcomes (P = 0.611. Eyes with median duration of SMH less than 7.5 days had a significantly higher probability of achieving favorable anatomical outcome compared to eyes with SMH >14.5 days (P = 0.042. However, duration of SMH did not influence functional outcome (P = 0.595. Similarly, size of SMH did not affect anatomical (P = 0.578 or functional (P = 0.381 outcome. Median follow-up was 31.5, 6.5, and 2.5 months in the three groups, respectively. Conclusions: Co- existing posterior segment conditions and duration of SMH may influence the choice of treatment modality and treatment outcomes. Pneumatic displacement with r-tPA and r-tPA assisted vitrectomy appear to be favorable options for the management of SMH.
Retrospective study of computed tomography of nasal cavity in small animal at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu, and correlation of changes with cytological and/or histopathological exams; Estudo retrospectivo de tomografia computadorizada da cavidade nasal em pequenos animais na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu, e correlacao das alteracoes com os exames citologico e/ou histopatologico
Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Inamassu, Leticia Rocha; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zardo, Karen Maciel
It was conducted a retrospective study of computed tomography (CT) scans of nasal cavity in small animal at this institution during the period of April 2007 through June 2012. In total, 47 CT scans were performed during the period and, of these, only 25 underwent additional exams (cytological and/or histopathological). 20 exams suggested a diagnosis, 4 were inconclusive and one had no change. A correlation was made between tomographic findings and cytological/histopathological diagnosis providing an accurate assessment of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. (author)
Yu-Jing Tian; Qin Zhang
AIM: To observe the efficacy of high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/L SH)for moderate to severe dry eye. METHODS: Forty moderate to severe dry eye patients were included in the study according to the diagnosis criteria and randomized into two groups. The patients of the trial group received topical administration of high concentration sodium hyaluronate(3g/L), and those of the control group received sodium hyaluronate(1g/L)plus recombinant human epidermal growth factor. The dry eye s...
Sugnanam, Kirthi Kumar Naidu; Ma, Shirley; Kreis, Andreas; Correia, Marcelino; Verma, Nitin; Dirani, Mohamed
This study aimed to present the methodology of the East Timor Eye Program and report the prevalence of eye disease seen at the National Eye Centre during a 3-month sample period between June and August 2012. Two hundred ninety-three new patients aged 17 years or older were assessed at the National Eye Centre in Dili, Timor-Leste. All participants received a comprehensive dilated eye examination that included distance visual acuity measurements, indirect fundoscopy, and a complete slit lamp assessment including gonioscopy and intraocular pressure measurement. Each patient completed an interview-administered general questionnaire, and information on general health, ocular history, and medication was obtained. Anthropometric measurements were also taken and recorded. A total of 293 patients, 183 males (62.5%) and 110 females (37.5%), aged between 17 and 88 years (mean, 47.66 years) were recruited and examined. The 3 most common clinical eye presentations were conjunctival disorders (60.41%), followed by lens disorders (48.12%) and scleral, corneal, iris, and ciliary body disorders (46.42%). The 3 most common conditions causing blindness (visual acuity less than 3/60 as defined by the World Health Organization) were lens disorders (45.9%), choroidal and retinal disorders (18.9%), and other disorders of the eye and adnexa (13.5%). The East Timor Eye Program is an effective program that has enabled the management and treatment of various eye conditions in residents of Timor-Leste. The program set high standards for stringent and accurate data collection and ophthalmic diagnoses in a low-resource setting. Lens disorders and choroidal and retinal disorders were the most common conditions causing blindness.
Marcelo Moreira Paustein
Full Text Available The overall goal of the present work was to continue studying habitat fragmentation in the Botucatu Cuesta, SP, Brazil, in a 18422-ha study. Landsat-5 TM images were used and a technique was developed to subtract data other than vegetation data from the scene. Thus natural vegetation thematic maps for different dates (1986 and 1993 were generated. The analysis of 1986 and 1993 spatial data revealed that habitat fragmentation in the study area was unstable. The process presented scale distinction, i.e., 1 in the largest patches subset the phenomenon was non-fractal and patch size decreased following a linear tendency; 2 in the intermediary size subset of patches, the phenomenon was non-fractal and patches size decreased in an increasing geometric progression; 3 in the smallest patches subset, the phenomenon was fractal, divided patches tending to follow a geometric progression.
present study, whose aim was to analyze the neonatal mortality during the year of 1998 at the municipality Botucatu-SP. The coefficient of neonatal mortality was of 8,3/1000 born alive and the coefficient of precocious neonatal mortality was of 7,3/1000 born alive, confirming the importance of decease in the first week of life. Results showed that approximately 3/4 of the deceases can be reduced through precocious diagnosis and treatment as well as adequate care to birth or partially reduced through appropriate pregnancy control measures, evidencing that in order to decrease the rates of neonatal death, investments must be made to improve the quality of the care to pregnant women, parturients and the new born.
Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina
We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…
Incidence of the autoimmune dermatosis in dogs and cats and retrospective study of 40 cases of discoid lupus erythematosus attended at the Dermatology Service of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of UNESP – Botucatu / Incidência das dermatopatias auto-imunes em cães e gatos e estudo retrospectivo de 40 casos de lupus eritematoso discóide atendidos no serviço de dermatologia da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da UNESP – Botucatu
Jéssica Correa Rodrigues
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to do a survey of the autoimmune skin diseases and update the records regarding the occurrence of discoid lupus erythematosus in canine and feline populations attended at the Dermatology Service of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of UNESP - Botucatu, including species, gender, breed, age, location and characteristic of the lesions. Results have shown that the order of occurrence, regarding the number of cases of autoimmune skin diseases in the animals attended by the Dermatology Service in the period from 1988 to 2007 was: discoid lupus erythematosus, pemphigus folliaceus, uveo-dermatologic syndrome, pemphigus vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, necrolytic migratory erythema, multiforme erythema and plasmacytic pododermatitis. All the animals with discoid lupus erythematosus were dogs and most of them were mongrel females. More frequently breeds affected by discoid lupus erythematosus were german shepherd and akita and the mean age was 56 months. Most lesions were located in nasal planum, narines and periocular area and were characterized by crusting, depigmentation and erythema.Os objetivos do presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento da casuística de doenças dermatológicas auto-imunes e atualizar os dados referentes à ocorrência de lupus eritematoso discóide na população canina e felina atendida pelo Serviço de Dermatologia Veterinária da FMVZ-UNESP, campus de Botucatu, incluindo a espécie, sexo, raça, idade, localização e caracterização das lesões. Com a análise dos resultados, concluiu-se que a ordem de ocorrência de acordo com o número de casos de doenças dermatológicas auto-imunes nos animais atendidos pelo setor de dermatologia no período de 1988 a 2007 é: lupus eritematoso discóide, pênfigo foliáceo, síndrome úveo-dermatológica, pênfigo vulgar, lupus eritematoso sistêmico, eritema necrolítico migratório, eritema multiforme e
Hourly model to estimate solar global radiation for all months of the year for Botucatu, Sao Paulo State; Modelos horarios para estimativa da radiacao solar global para todos os meses do ano para Botucatu-SP
Laperuta Filho, Jayme; Lunardi, Dalva M. Cury [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas
The objective of this work was establish and daily models for estimate of solar global radiation for the months of the year, in Botucatu-SP 22 deg C 52`S,48 deg C 26`W Grw). The obtention of these models showed be viable high degree of reliability considering that they are specific for hours and months that originated them. The coefficients a and b presented monthly and hourly variations, taking into account that b showed higher relative variability than a. In all months studied, the linear adjustment was not appropriate before 7 a.m and after 5 p.m. (author) 7 refs., 5 tabs.
Norma Helen Medina
Full Text Available Em 1938, foram criados os Dispensários de Tracoma em São Paulo, entre eles, o de Botucatu, onde a incidência de tracoma era de 10,9%. Na década de 70, o tracoma passou a não ser mais um problema de saúde pública. A doença reapareceu no início dos anos 80, levando a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES-SP, a implantar um programa de controle, detectando-se casos novos em diversos locais, inclusive em Botucatu. Realizou-se esta investigação com o objetivo de conhecer a prevalência do tracoma em escolares e pré-escolares da rede de ensino, e implantar um programa de controle da doença em Botucatu, São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas a exame ocular externo para detectar sinais de tracoma, seguindo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram examinadas 1.393 crianças, encontrando-se uma prevalência de tracoma de 11,9%. Todos os casos foram tratados com pomada de tetraciclina a 1,0% e controlados. Durante os controles, observou-se um aumento da freqüência de faltosos de 1,6% no primeiro retorno a 62,4% para último retorno. Os resultados revelaram a necessidade de se conhecer melhor as causas da não-aderência ao programa e o seu impacto na efetividade do tratamento do tracoma.Trachoma dispensaries were created in the State of São Paulo in 1938, when the incidence of trachoma was 10.9% in Botucatu. During the 1970s trachoma ceased to pose a public health problem. The disease reappeared in the 1980s, leading the São Paulo State Health Department to establish a control program as new cases were being detected in various parts of the State, including Botucatu. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma in preschoolers and schoolchildren and to implement a program to control the disease in Botucatu. A cluster sample of children were submitted to external ocular examination to detect signs of trachoma according to WHO criteria. Trachoma prevalence was 11.9% among the 1,393 children examined
Silvana Artioli Schellini
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características dos portadores de pterígio na região de Botucatu (SP. MÉTODOS: Portadores de pterígio foram avaliados quanto à idade, sexo, profissão, queixas e características da lesão (primário ou recidivado, tamanho, carnoso ou involutivo. Os dados foram submetidos à avaliação estatística. RESULTADOS: Cerca de metade dos portadores eram do sexo feminino, a maioria com idade superior a 40 anos, que procuraram o tratamento com queixa do efeito anti-estético da lesão. A maioria das lesões era primária (77,08%, grau 2 (69,6% e do tipo carnoso (86,7%. Pterígio grau 4 esteve presente em 1,4% dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se maior freqüência de portadores de pterígio entre mulheres, acima dos 40 anos e portadoras de pterígio primário, grau 2 e carnoso. A cegueira por pterígio ainda está presente em nosso meio.PURPOSE: To determine the characteristics of patients with conjunctival pterygia in the Botucatu region (São Paulo State. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the gender, occupation, complaints and lesion characteristics (primary or recurrent lesion, size, involutive or pulpous of patients with pterygium. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Approximately half of the patients were female and over 40 years old. The main complaint was the esthetic effect of the lesion. The majority of the lesions were primary (77.08%, grade 2 (69.6% and pulpous (86.7%. Pterygium grade 4 was present in the 1.4% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Most patients were female, over 40 years old. Primary, grade 2 and pulpous lesion was the most frequently observed. Blindness caused by pterygium is still present in Brazil.
... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...
Li, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Xia, Mengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Xu; He, Yongguang; Wang, Jijun
Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms. Sixty patients with depressive disorder and sixty healthy controls (who were matched by gender, age and years of education) were recruited, and completed eye movement tests including three tasks: fixation task, saccade task and free-view task. The EyeLink desktop eye tracking system was employed to collect eye movement information, and analyze the eye movement indices of the three tasks between the two groups. (1) In the fixation task, compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed more fixations, shorter fixation durations, more saccades and longer saccadic lengths; (2) In the saccade task, patients with depressive disorder showed longer anti-saccade latencies and smaller anti-saccade peak velocities; (3) In the free-view task, patients with depressive disorder showed fewer saccades and longer mean fixation durations; (4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the pro-saccade amplitude and anxiety symptoms, and a positive correlation between the anti-saccade latency and anxiety symptoms. The depression symptoms were negatively correlated with fixation times, saccades, and saccadic paths respectively in the free-view task; while the mean fixation duration and depression symptoms showed a positive correlation. Compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed significantly abnormal eye movement indices. In addition
Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/L SHfor moderate to severe dry eye. METHODS: Forty moderate to severe dry eye patients were included in the study according to the diagnosis criteria and randomized into two groups. The patients of the trial group received topical administration of high concentration sodium hyaluronate(3g/L, and those of the control group received sodium hyaluronate(1g/Lplus recombinant human epidermal growth factor. The dry eye symptom scores, ocular surface disease index(OSDIscores, tear film break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test and corneal fluorescein staining score were evaluated.All the indexes were compared between the two groups 2wk before and after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences of the indicators between the two groups before treatment. After 2wk treatment, the differences were statistically significant compared to former except for the Schirmer Ⅰ test. Compared with the control group, the symptom scores and the OSDI scores were lowered. No significant differences were found in the other indicators between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Topical usage of highconcentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/Lis beneficial for remitting the ocular symptoms in moderate to severe dry eyes, and also improve the quality of life of patients.
Full Text Available Unlike the animate objects, where participants were consistent in their looking patterns, for inanimates it was difficult to identify both consistent areas of fixations and a consistent order of fixations. Furthermore, in comparison to animate objects, in animates received significantly shorter total looking time, shorter longest looks and a smaller number of overall fixations. However, as with animates, looking patterns did not systematically differ between the naming and non-naming conditions. These results suggested that animacy, but not labelling, impacts on looking behavior in this paradigm. In the light of feature-based accounts of semantic memory organization, one could interpret these findings as suggesting that processing of the animate objects is based on the saliency/diagnosticity of their visual features (which is then reflected through participants eye-movements towards those features, whereas processing of the inanimate objects is based more on functional features (which cannot be easily captured by looking behavior in such a paradigm.
Full Text Available Involvement of the eyes is one of the most serious complication that may occur in leprosy, and if neglected or left untreated may eventually give rise to blindness. 200 patients of leprosy were studied with the aim to know the extent of ocular involvement of the eye. Along with this conjunctival smear and biopsy were taken for histological and bacteriological examination. These findings were compared with the findings of smear and biopsy of skin taken for histological and bacteriological examination.
J. Faraji Oskooie
Full Text Available The author conducted 1-year study investigating the causation and management of eye trauma at Farabi Eye' center. All patients sustaining eye injuries who were evaluated by ophthalmology service over one year interval were included."n. A formal questionnaire was completed with details of the injuiy being obtained. An ophthalmologic examination was performed on each patient, and examination findings and diagnostic tests obtained, diagnosis and treatment were recorded and analyzed."nNine hundreds and sixty-one injuries (65% occured in males and 503 (35% in females. The average age was 30 years. This study included 1464 eye injuries."nFour handreds and eighty-five (nearly 30% of patients were in pediatric age group. Seventy percent of all patients were admitted within 24 hours of their injury. Fourty percent of all injuries occurred in the street, 30% at home, 15% at the work place , the rest either in school or sport field."nAmong those older than 65 years of age, 70% of injuries were the result of fall. Seventy percent of all eye injuries were caused by blunt trauma. Diagnosis and management were recorded."nConclusions : Tehran and other metropolitans population is more likely to sustain eye trauma as the result of an assault and is less likely to be involved in a work- or sports-related one."nGiven poor compliance without patient management and follow-up, aggressive primary management may be indicated to optimize visual outcome
Day, Alexander C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Broadway, David C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J
Objective To describe the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of small eyes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study. Design Community cross-sectional study. Setting East England population (Norwich, Norfolk and surrounding area). Participants 8033 participants aged 48–92 years old from the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study, Norfolk, UK with axial length measurements. Participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including visual acuity (LogMAR), ocular biometry, non-contact tonometry, autorefraction and fundal photography. A small eye phenotype was defined as a participant with one or both eyes with axial length of 0.48 LogMAR) and one participant was blind (>1.3 LogMAR). The prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was higher in participants with a small eye. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed presence of a small eye to be significantly associated with shorter height, lower body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure and lower intraocular pressure. Conclusions The prevalence of people with small eyes is higher than previously thought. While small eyes were more common in women, this appears to be related to shorter height and lower body mass index. Participants with small eyes were more likely to be blind or to have unilateral visual impairment. PMID:23883889
Prevalência e localização espacial dos casos de tracoma detectados em escolares de Botucatu, São Paulo - Brasil Prevalence and spatial distribution of trachoma among schoolchildren in Botucatu, São Paulo - Brazil
Silvana Artioli Schellini
/ SP-Brazil and its spatial distribution. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in children aged from 7 to 14 years, who attended elementary schools in Botucatu/SP in November/2005. The sample size was estimated in 2,092 children, considering the 11.2% historic prevalence of trachoma, accepting an estimation error of 10% and confidence level of 95%. The sample was random, weighted and increased by 20%, because of the possible occurrence of losses. The total number of children examined was 2,692. The diagnosis was clinical, based on WHO guidelines. For the evaluation of spatial data, the CartaLinx program (v1.2 was used, and the school demand sectors digitized according to the planning divisions of the Department of Education. The data were statistically analyzed, and the analysis of the spatial structure of events calculated using the Geode program. RESULTS: The prevalence of trachoma in schoolchildren of Botucatu was 2.9% and there were cases of follicular trachoma. The exploratory spatial analysis failed to reject the null hypothesis of randomness (R= -0.45, p>0.05, with no significant demand sectors. The analysis for the Thiessen polygons also showed that the overall pattern was random (I= -0.07, p=0.49. However, local indicators pointed to a group of low-low type for a polygon to the north of the urban area. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of trachoma in schoolchildren in Botucatu was 2.9%. The analysis of the spatial distribution did not reveal areas of greater clustering of cases. Although the overall pattern of the disease does not reproduce the socio-economic conditions of the population, the lower prevalence of trachoma was found in areas of lower social vulnerability.
Jeanne M. Serb
Several invertebrate systems have been developed to study various aspects of the eye and eye disease including Drosophila, Planaria, Platynereis, and most recently, the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia...
Ong, Shin Yeu; Cheung, Carol Y; Li, Xiang; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ikram, M Kamran; Ding, Jie; Cheng, Ching Yu; Haaland, Benjamin Adam; Saw, Seang Mei; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher P L; Wong, Tien Yin
To describe the associations of visual impairment and major age-related eye diseases with cognitive function in an older Asian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1179 participants aged 60 to 80 years from the Singapore Malay Eye study was conducted. Visual acuity was measured using the logMAR vision chart. Cataract and age-related macular degeneration were graded using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System and the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System, respectively. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as a locally validated Abbreviated Mental Test using education-based cutoff scores. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, income, and type of housing, persons with visual impairment before refractive correction (odds ratio [OR]=2.59; 95% CI, 1.89-3.56) or after refractive correction (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) and those with visual impairment due to cataract (OR=2.75; 95% CI, 1.35-5.63) were more likely to have cognitive dysfunction. Only moderate to severe diabetic retinopathy was independently associated with cognitive dysfunction (OR=5.57; 95% CI, 1.56-19.91) after controlling for concurrent age-related eye diseases. No significant independent associations were observed between cataract, age-related macular degeneration, or glaucoma and cognitive dysfunction. Older persons with visual impairment, particularly those with visual impairment due to cataract, were more likely to have cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, among the major age-related eye diseases, only diabetic retinopathy was associated with cognitive dysfunction.
Law, Brenda Hiu Yan; Cheung, Po-Yin; Wagner, Michael; van Os, Sylvia; Zheng, Bin; Schmölzer, Georg
Visual attention (VA) is important for situation awareness and decision-making. Eye tracking can be used to analyse the VA of healthcare providers. No study has examined eye tracking during neonatal resuscitation. To test the use of eye tracking to examine VA during neonatal resuscitation. Six video recordings were obtained using eye tracking glasses worn by resuscitators during the first 5 min of neonatal resuscitation. Videos were analysed to obtain (i) areas of interest (AOIs), (ii) time spent on each AOI and (iii) frequency of saccades between AOIs. Five videos were of acceptable quality and analysed. Only 35% of VA was directed at the infant, with 33% at patient monitors and gauges. There were frequent saccades (0.45/s) and most involved patient monitors. During neonatal resuscitation, VA is often directed away from the infant towards patient monitors. Eye tracking can be used to analyse human performance during neonatal resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
S.-Y. Ong (Shin-Yeu); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); B.A. Haaland (Benjamin Adam); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui)
textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate a possible relationship between refractive error and cognitive function. METHODS. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 1032 persons aged 60 to 79 who participated in the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Refraction (sphere, cylinder, and axis) was
Steven, Philipp; Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas
Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears(®)) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI(©)). From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (± 23.0) to 34 (± 22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED.
Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas
Abstract Purpose: Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears®) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Methods: Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©). Results: From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (±23.0) to 34 (±22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. Conclusions: This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED. PMID:26296040
Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.
The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated
Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko
This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…
Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte
To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA 50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.
Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Topouzis, Fotis; Wilson, M Roy; Harris, Alon; Pappas, Theofanis; Yu, Fei; Koskosas, Archimidis; Founti, Panayiota; Coleman, Anne L
To report on the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and its association with ophthalmic characteristics and systemic diseases in a well-defined population. The Thessaloniki Eye study is a cross-sectional population-based study of chronic eye diseases in Thessaloniki, Greece. Participants with PEX were identified by clinical examination and were compared with those without PEX with regards to ophthalmic characteristics and systemic diseases, after adjusting for age and sex. PEX was found in 11.9% of the 2261 clinic-visit participants. Participants with PEX, compared with those without, had higher intraocular pressure, larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and higher percentage with vertical cup-to-disc ratio asymmetry and optic disc damage. The proportion with glaucoma among pseudoexfoliative participants (15.2%) was higher than that for glaucoma among nonpseudoexfoliative participants (4.7%). After excluding glaucoma participants, the only difference was the 0.6 mm Hg higher intraocular pressure in participants with PEX. Compared with nonpseudoexfoliative eyes, the presence of PEX on iris only or on both iris and lens was associated with higher intraocular pressure, whereas the presence of PEX on lens only was not. PEX was not associated with any systemic disease. The prevalence of PEX in Greece is relatively high compared with other white populations. PEX was associated with higher intraocular pressure and higher percentage with optic disc damage, secondary to the higher proportion with glaucoma among pseudoexfoliative participants than among nonpseudoexfoliative participants. In nonglaucoma participants, eyes with PEX had only slightly higher intraocular pressure, but this was not observed in eyes with PEX on lens only.
Oliveira, Paulo Andre de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], e-mail: email@example.com; Simon, Elias Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper objective was to settle the electric energy consumption in the countryside and the agriculture and cattle raisin production value in the counties of the Rural Development Office (EDR) of Botucatu, in the period of 1990 to 2000, trying to establish an analysis pattern to do future studies in other regions. This pattern could be used as an analysis instrument to make decisions to implement programs that look for an increase of use of electric energy as an input to join value to the rural product. In conclusion the data adjoined as EDR region do not present enough information to the relation between the production rough value and the electric energy consumption, being necessary, therefore, its disaggregation in counties. (author)
Tatiana E. H. Ueno
Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a etiologia da erliquiose monocítica canina em 70 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual Paulista, na cidade de Botucatu, durante 2001 e 2002. Os cães foram avaliados segundo achados clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais e pela amplificação parcial e sequenciamento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia. DNA de Ehrlichia canis foi amplificado e sequenciado em 28 (40,0% cães. Observou-se maior frequência deanimais positivos com idade até 12 meses (P 0,05 e 42,2% (P > 0,05 dos cães PCR positivos, respectivamente. Vinte e cinco cães com anemia ( 0,05 frente à infecção por E. canis. Todos os 28 cães positivos na PCR apresentaram trombocitopenia (This study investigated the etiology of canine ehrlichiosis and possible clinical and epidemiological data associated with the infection in 70 dogs suspect of ehrlichiosis attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the São Paulo State University in Botucatu city during 2001 and 2002. Dogs were evaluated by clinical-epidemiological and hematological data and molecular analysis by partial amplification and DNA sequencing of the ehrlichial dsb gene. E. canis DNA was amplified and sequenced in 28 (40.0% dogs. Dogs younger than 12 months old showed significantly higher infection rates (65.0%; P 0.05, and 42.4% (P > 0.05 of the PCR-positive dogs, respectively. Twenty-five anemic ( 0.05. All 28 PCR-positive dogs showed thrombocytopenia (<175 × 10³ platelets.µL-1 and revealed statistical significance (P < 0.05. E. canis was the only Ehrlichia species found in dogs in the studied region, with higher infection rates in younger dogs, and statisticallyassociated with thrombocytopenia.
Sacide Güzin Mazman
Full Text Available This paper includes two studies. In study 1, the computerized version of Spatial Orientation Test (Kozhevnikov & Hegarty, 2001 was standardized for determining the norm values for Turkish undergraduate students as well as demonstrating the reliability and validity of the test. In Study 1, 101 undergraduate students from two different departments were recruited and the data were collected with computerized spatial orientation test together with a demographic information form. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test and one way ANOVA were used in data analysis. Statistical analyses revealed out that gender and years of computer experience have significant effect on spatial orientation ability scores. Test-retest reliability coefficient was found for total accuracy score as r= .778 and r=.634 for total reaction time. As a result of discriminant validity study, the correlation between the spatial orientation and mental rotation test scores was found to be very low and not significant. In study 2, individual differences between low and high spatial orientation ability groups during performing “Spatial Orientation Test” were examined through eye movements. Five high and five low spatial orientation ability level students were asked to participate in the second study. While performing Spatial Orientation Test, their eye movements were recorded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in eye movements between different spatial orientation ability levels in terms of fixation duration. Furthermore it was found that high and low level spatial orientation level groups solved problems with different solution patterns.
Full Text Available In a one-year prospective study carried out to define the role of rotavirus and Escherichia coli in local childhood diarrhea, we determined the prevalence of both agents in 54 diarrheic children attending a health center in Botucatu. Diarrheogenic E. coli (DEC strains were characterized by O:H serotyping, a search for virulence genetic markers, and assays of adherence to HEp-2 cells. Except for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, no other DEC category was detected in the children's stools. Both EAEC and rotavirus were isolated from 22 of the 54 (41.0% diarrheic children as single agents or in combination with other enteropathogens. However, when considering the presence of a single agent, EAEC was dominant and isolated from 20.4% of the patients, whereas rotavirus was detected in 14.8%. These results indicate that rotavirus and EAEC play a significant role as agents of childhood diarrhea in the local population.
Cordes, A K; Frentz, M; Schrage, N F
Chemical burns of the eye are becoming rare due to improvements in occupational protection. Effective decontamination is the foundation for good clinical results of this ophthalmological emergency. The toxicological aspect focuses on classifying the specific toxicity of a chemical substance by evaluating the degree of eye irritation and eye burns. Chemical substances are classified into defined risk levels by specific tests. The traditional ophthalmological approach is based on the clinical presentation of eye burns as a result of contact with a specific toxic substance. In an integral approach it is shown that substance-specific characteristics, such as concentration and specific reactivity as well as individual features, such as mode and duration of exposition have an influence on the clinical appearance of the tissue damage. The decontamination is dependent on the mode of action and the effectiveness of the decontamination solution. Amphoteric substances have the best effectiveness for decontamination of the eye due to their specific characteristics.
NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable
Wright, A. D.; Dodson, P. M.
The approach of all ophthalmologists, diabetologists and general practitioners seeing patients with diabetic retinopathy should be that good control of blood glucose, blood pressure and plasma lipids are all essential components of modern medical management. The more recent data on the use of fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye studies is reviewed. In FIELD, fenofibrate (200 m...
Full Text Available Sustained ocular drug delivery is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Biodegradable subconjunctival implants with controlled drug release may circumvent these two problems. In our study, two microfilms (poly [d,l-lactide-co-glycolide] PLGA and poly[d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone] PLC were developed and evaluated for their degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the biocompatibility of both microfilms. Eighteen eyes (9 rabbits were surgically implanted with one type of microfilm in each eye. Serial anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT scans together with serial slit-lamp microscopy allowed us to measure thickness and cross-sectional area of the microfilms. In vitro studies revealed bulk degradation kinetics for both microfilms, while in vivo studies demonstrated surface erosion kinetics. Serial slit-lamp microscopy revealed no significant inflammation or vascularization in both types of implants (mean increase in vascularity grade PLGA50/50 12±0.5% vs. PLC70/30 15±0.6%; P = 0.91 over a period of 6 months. Histology, immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence also revealed no significant inflammatory reaction from either of the microfilms, which confirmed that both microfilms are biocompatible. The duration of the drug delivery can be tailored by selecting the materials, which have different degradation kinetics, to suit the desired clinical therapeutic application.
Schmidt, K; Gamer, M; Forkmann, K; Bingel, U
Due to its unique evolutionary relevance, it is understood that pain automatically attracts attention. So far, such attentional bias has mainly been shown for pain-related stimuli whereas little is known about shifts in attentional focus following actual painful stimulation. This study investigated attentional shifts by assessing eye movements into the direction of painful stimulation. Healthy participants were presented either a blank screen or a picture showing a natural scene while painful electrical stimuli were applied to the left or right hand. In general, painful stimulation reduced exploratory behavior as reflected by less and slower saccades as well as fewer and longer fixations. Painful stimulation on the right hand induced a rightward bias, i.e. increased initial saccades, total number and duration of fixations to the right hemifield of the screen. Pain applied to the left hand as well as no pain induced a leftward bias that was largest for the direction of first saccades. These findings are in line with previous observations of attentional biases towards pain-related information and highlight eye-tracking as a valuable tool to assess involuntary attentional consequences of pain. Future studies are needed to investigate how the observed changes in eye movements relate to pain-induced changes in perception and cognition. The study investigated pain-induced attentional shifts in terms of reflexive eye movements. This attention-capturing quality of pain should be examined in chronic pain conditions since it might contribute to the cognitive impairments often observed in chronic pain patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ludwig, Cassie A; Callaway, Natalia F; Fredrick, Douglas R; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Moshfeghi, Darius M
This study aims to assess the birth prevalence of iris colour among newborns in a prospective, healthy, full-term newborn cohort. The Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study is a prospective cohort study conducted at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University School of Medicine. A paediatric vitreoretinal specialist (DMM) reviewed images sent to the Byers Eye Institute telemedicine reading centre and recorded eye colour for every infant screened. Variables were graphed to assess for normality, and frequencies per subject were reported for eye colour, sex, ethnicity and race. Among 192 subjects screened in the first year of the NEST study with external images of appropriate quality for visualization of the irides, the birth prevalence of iris colour was 63.0% brown, 20.8% blue, 5.7% green/hazel, 9.9% indeterminate and 0.5% partial heterochromia. The study population was derived from a quaternary care children's hospital. We report the birth prevalence of iris colour among full-term newborns in a diverse prospective cohort. The study demonstrates a broad range of iris colour prevalence at birth with a predominance of brown iris coloration. Future studies with the NEST cohort will assess the change in iris colour over time and whether the frequencies of eye colour change as the child ages. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
dos Santos, Karina R; Faciulli, Paula; Paparotto, Telma; Takahira, Regina K; Lopes, Raimundo S; da Silva, Reinaldo J
The present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus) was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.
Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella
The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception. PMID:22624007
Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella
The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception.
Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo
Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.
NOWATZKI CARLOS H.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the facies distribution of Mesozoic eolian sandstones between the Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations and also their contact relationships, in São Leopoldo area, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. The main distinctive characteristics regarding these sandstones and formations are the mineralogical composition, paleocurrents and the occurrence of wet interdune deposits. These interdune deposits are characterized by frequent thin mudstone layers with mudcracks, ichnofossils and salt impressions. There are also some features that resemble plant fossils. The distinctive characteristics of these sequences to Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations allow us to suggest the informal name of Pedreira Sandstone, considering its type section, the Pedreira Cliff, at Sapucaia do Sul, RS.
Ya Xing Wang
Full Text Available To examine subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT in eyes with glaucoma, using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography.The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range: 50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT with enhanced depth imaging for measurement of SFCT, and assessment of fundus photographs for presence of glaucoma. In addition, the group of patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (ACG from the Beijing Eye Study (n = 37 was merged with a group of patients with chronic ACG from the Tongren hospital (n = 52.Assessments of SFCT and glaucoma were available for 3232 (93.2% subjects. After adjusting for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, SFCT was not significantly associated with presence of glaucoma (P = 0.08; regression coefficient B:-15.7. As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, axial length and intraocular pressure, presence of glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.20. If only open-angle glaucoma was considered, multivariate analysis revealed no significant association between SFCT and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.44. As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis, open-angle glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.91. In a similar manner if only ACG was taken into account, SFCT was not significantly associated with the presence of ACG (P = 0.27 in multivariate analysis. As a corollary in binary regression analysis, presence of ACG was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.27.In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, neither OAG nor ACG was associated with an abnormal SFCT.
Boyer, Eric O; Jean Lorenceau; Arthur Portron; Frederic Bevilacqua
International audience; As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate...
Fox, Sharon E.; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.
Eye-tracking is the measurement of eye motions and point of gaze of a viewer. Advances in this technology have been essential to our understanding of many forms of visual learning, including the development of visual expertise. In recent years, these studies have been extended to the medical professions, where eye-tracking technology has helped us…
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…
Prashant V. Solanke
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES, also known as Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS, is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. Tobacco smoke exposure or infection may also lead to the condition. Diagnosis is mostly based on the symptoms, though a number of other tests may be used. Prevalence of dry eyes are commoner in females than males. There is a positive relationship between glaucoma and ocular dryness as well as diabetic retinopathy and ocular dryness. Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. Ocular symptoms such as pain, irritation and poor vision can result from dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence, symptomatology and distribution of dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2016 to March 2017. Study place was Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology at Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam. Sample size was calculated by 4PQ/d², which was 132. Systemic random sampling was used for the study. RESULTS Prevalence of dry eyes - 17.8%. Dry eyes in males - 16.8% and in females - 24.6%. Dry eyes in age 40 yrs. - 21.8%. Prevalence of dry eyes in contact lens wearers - 36.5%. Prevalence of dry eyes in glaucoma cases - 38.2%. Prevalence of dry eyes in farmers - 27.3%, in smokers - 36.7%. Dry eyes in emmetropes - 12.8% in myopes - 17.2% in hypermetropes - 28.6%. CONCLUSION Dry eyes prevalence obtained was 17.8%. Dry eyes were seen more in females. As age increases, prevalence of dry eyes increases. Ocular surface dryness was observed more in contact
Nicholas D. Smith
Full Text Available Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient’s worse eye (most VF damage when compared to their better eye (least VF damage. Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P<0.001 in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8 dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.
Aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose pulmonar nos municípios de Botucatu, Conchas, São Manuel e Avaré, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de 1963 a 1972 Epidemiological aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in Botucatu, Conchas, São Manuel and Avaré (State of S. Paulo, from 1963 to 1972
ífica em adultos jovens ainda era elevada, predominando no sexo masculino, principalmente em Conchas. Sublinhou-se a necessidade de descentralizar as atividades antituberculose para atingir um controle eficiente.The diagnosis of the pulmonary tuberculosis situation in Botucatu, Conchas, São Manuel and Avaré (State of S. Paulo was based on the study of prevalence and risk of infection, in first grade school - children, during 1972, and on morbidity and specific mortality data gathered during a ten year period, 1963 to 1972. Tuberculin survey with PPD 23 RT-2TU was carried out in 2.913 school children; 718 records from the Botucatu Public Health Center and the death certificates of residents who died in these counties or in specialized hospitals were analysed. The prevalence rates of infection for the 4 counties were respectively 2.4, 6.8, 1.9 and 4.5%. The risks of infection for 7.5 year old school-children were 0.27, 0 32, 0.20 and 0.34%. The infection level characterized these counties as constituting a medium prevalence area of pulmonary tuberculosis. The prevalence rates of infection were directly related to the incidence of smear positive cases, in all these counties. Sixty two percent (62.0 of 530 patients submitted, to direct microscopy were smear positive cases. The predominance of moderately advanced and far advanced pulmonary lesions was observed in male young adults. A high default rate (39.5, a low proportion of cure (11.9% and death (3.4% were observed. Thirty two percent were under treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between default cases and county procedence of default cases and extent of pulmonary lesions. These findings were attributed to the present technical and administrative health organization. The average incidence of confirmed cases during this period was 35.4 in Conchas, 33.1 in Avaré., 23.7 in Botucatu and 18.5 in São Manuel (per 100,000. The rates of confirmed and suspected cases together were: 57.6. 48.8, 43.8 and
Wright, A D; Dodson, P M
The approach of all ophthalmologists, diabetologists and general practitioners seeing patients with diabetic retinopathy should be that good control of blood glucose, blood pressure and plasma lipids are all essential components of modern medical management. The more recent data on the use of fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye studies is reviewed. In FIELD, fenofibrate (200 mg/day) reduced the requirements for laser therapy and prevented disease progression in patients with pre-existing diabetic retinopathy. In ACCORD Eye, fenofibrate (160 mg daily) with simvastatin resulted in a 40% reduction in the odds of retinopathy progressing over 4 years, compared with simvastatin alone. This occurred with an increase in HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in the serum triglyceride level in the fenofibrate group, as compared with the placebo group, and was independent of glycaemic control. We believe fenofibrate is effective in preventing progression of established diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and should be considered for patients with pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic maculopathy, particularly in those with macular oedema requiring laser.
Lenoir, M.; Crevits, L.; Goethals, M.; Wildenbeest, J.; Musch, E.
The aim of this study was to compare prosaccadic and antisaccadic eye movements of experts in ball sports and controls. In the prosaccadic and antisaccadic task, subjects made saccades respectively towards and away from a suddenly appearing stimulus. By means of infrared-oculography, we compared
Full Text Available AIM:To study the distribution of the dominant eye in people with myopia and astigmatism and the relationship between dominant eye and the two. METHODS:Three hundred and eighty patients who went our hospital for optometry consecutively were enrolled, using hole-in-card method to detect the dominant eye. The records of age, gender, vision acuity and other related information were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 software. RESULTS: 1Most of the dominant eyes were right eyes which accounted for 66.84%, and the ametropia degree on right eyes was relatively higher; 2Dominant eyes had no significant association with gender, age and uncorrected vision acuity(P>0.05; 3There was no significant correlation between the dominant eyes and ametropia degree(P>0.05. But in the group which the difference of cylinder degree between two eyes were ≥1D, only 20% of the dominant eyes had higher ametropia degree, which was different from the other two groups. CONCLUSION:High cylinder of anisometropia may affect the choice of the dominant eye. High sphere of anisometropia may be the result of the choice of dominant eye.
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a evolução do uso da terra no município de Botucatu - SP, no período de três anos, considerando-se seis tipos de cobertura vegetal (cana-de-açúcar, reflorestamento, floresta nativa, pastagem, cítrus e outros, tendo como base as imagens de satélite Landsat 5, bandas 3; 4 e 5, órbita 220, ponto 76, quadrante A, passagem de 8 de junho de 1999. O Sistema de Informações Geográficas - IDRISI for Windows 3.2, foi utilizado para as análises. Os resultados mostraram que esse programa foi eficiente para auxiliar na identificação e mapeamento das áreas com uso da terra, facilitando o processamento dos dados. As imagens de satélite TM/LANDSAT 5 forneceram um excelente banco de dados para a classificação supervisionada. O município não vem sendo preservado ambientalmente, pois apresenta-se coberto com menos de 20% de florestas nativas, mínimo exigido por lei. As áreas de pastagem, principal componente da paisagem do município, confirmam a vocação da região para a pecuária.This study aimed to evaluate the evolution of land use at Botucatu Municipality, during three years, considering six vegetative covers (sugar cane, reforestation, native forest, pasture, citrus orchard and others. As data source, a Landsat TM image, bands 3; 4 and 5, orbit 220, point 76, quadrant A, from June 8, 1999 was used. The Geographic Information System (GIS used to analyze the images was IDRISI for Windows 3.2, and the software was very efficient for identificating and mapping the vegetative cover. The Landsat 5 image was an excellent database for digital classification. The Municipality is not being preserved environmentally, because less than 20% of its area is covered with native forests, the minimum demanded by law. The pasture for cattle-raising is the predominant land use in the studied area.
Rodrigo eQuian Quiroga
Full Text Available We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g. being attracted to saliency regions but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology give a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.
Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos
We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject's personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.
Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos
We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. PMID:21941476
Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale
This study proposes a novel approach to measure the contractile force of eye blink that is generally obtained from the orbicularis oculi activity through Ocular ElectroMyo-Graphy (O-EMG). Here, O-EMG is compared with the eye information acquired through a wearable head-mounted eye-tracking system in order to investigate the possibility of using the eye-tracking in place of the O-EMG. Eight subjects were simultaneously monitored through an O-EMG and the eye-tracker while they were performing a structured protocol implying a variation in the blink contractile strength. Results showed that eye-tracking features were able to statistically discriminate three kinds of contractile forces similarly to EMG features. The consequent correlation analysis revealed that all the EMG-related features were significantly correlated with the eye-tracking ones with a p-value eye-tracking features, i.e. Integrated Gaze Path (IGP) and Eye-closed Duration (ECD), IGP reported a higher Spearman's correlation values with eye-blink reflex magnitude (EBM) than ECD. These encouraging results suggest that the ocular information extracted from the eye-tracking could be profitably used in non-invasive ecological environments where wearability and comfortability play a crucial role in detecting spontaneous response.
Mauro R. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Procurou-se conhecer a prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil através de exames coprológicos realizados pelos métodos de FAUST, HOFFMAN e processo de tamização. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi relacionada com atributos da população, tais como sexo, idade, cor e com fatores ligados ao meio ambiente. O processo de amostragem empregado foi o casual simples em duplo estágio, sendo o quarteirão a unidade primária do primeiro estágio e o domicílio a unidade do segundo estágio. Os resultados mostraram que 53,76% das 895 pessoas amostradas apresentavam-se infestadas por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. As prevalências foram as seguintes: Ancylostomidae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,69%; S. stercoralis, 6,03%; E. vermicularis, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; S. mansoni, 0,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% e E. histolytica, 0,22%.A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis on the population of Botucatu's 2nd Subdistrict, S. Paulo, Brazil, is presented. Passed stool was examined by using FAUST, HOFFMAN and tamization techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is related to population characteristics such as sex, age, race and some environmental features. Simple random sampling technique in double stage was applied. Among 895 examined persons, 53,76% were infected by intestinal parasites. The prevalence of the various parasites were: Ancylostomydae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,39%; E. vermiculares, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% and E. histolytica, 0,22%.
Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CE/UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao de Estagio; Cremasco, Camila Pires [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia
The wind behavior of a region can be described by frequency distribution that provide information and characteristics needed for a possible deployment of wind energy harvesting in the region. These characteristics, such as the annual average speed, the variance and shunting line standard of the registered speeds and the density of aeolian power average hourly, can be gotten by the frequency of occurrence of determined speed, that in turn must be studied through analytical expressions. The more adjusted analytical function for aeolian distributions is the function of density of Weibull, that can be determined by numerical methods and linear regressions. Once you have determined this function, all wind characteristics mentioned above may be determined accurately. The objective of this work is to characterize the aeolian behavior in the region of Botucatu-SP and to determine the energy potential for implementation of aeolian turbines. For the development of the present research, was used an Monitorial Young Wind anemometer of Campbell company installed a 10 meters of height. The experiment was developed in the Nucleus of Alternative Energies and Renewed - NEAR of the Laboratory of Agricultural Energize of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the UNESP, Agronomy Sciences Faculty, Lageado Experimental Farm, located in the city of Botucatu - SP. The geographic localization is defined by the coordinates 22 deg 51' South latitude (S) and 48 deg 26' Longitude West (W) and average altitude of 786 meters above sea level. The analysis was carried through using registers of speed of the wind during the period of September of 2004 the September of 2005. After determined the distribution of frequencies of the hourly average speed of the wind, it was determined function of associated Weibull, thus making possible the determination of the annual average speed of the wind (2,77 m/s), of the shunting line standard of the registered speeds (0,55 m/s), of the
Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods: Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results: The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. Keywords: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, dry eye syndromes
Anna K. Nowinska
Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.
Full Text Available Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the aeolian Botucatu Formation, in the southern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Oriented samples were taken from a section located between the cities of Jaguari and Santiago. After thermal and alternating field demagnetization, both normal and reversed characteristic remanent magnetizations were found. These results yielded 13 reversed and 5 normal polarity sites, composing a magnetostratigraphic column displaying a sequence of reversed-normal-reversed polarity events. The paleomagnetic pole calculated for 18 sites is located at 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp=8.1º; dm=1.2º, after restoring the strata to the paleohorizontal. This paleomagnetic pole indicates a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age to the Botucatu Formation in the investigated area, and places the sampling sites at paleolatitudes as low as 21ºS.Dados paleomagnéticos e de magnetismo de rochas dos sedimentos eólicos da Formação Botucatu, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, obtidos de uma seção localizada entre as cidades de Jaguari e Santiago, permitiram definir a idade dessa formação. Direções de magnetização características com polaridades normal e reversa foram obtidas após desmagnetizações térmicas e por campos magnéticos alternados. Do total de sítios amostrados 13 apresentaram polaridade reversa e 5, polaridade normal, compondo uma coluna magnetoestratigráfica onde se identificam três horizontes de polaridade, na ordem, reverso-normal-reverso. O pólo paleomagnético baseado em 18 sítios está localizado a 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp = 8.1º; dm = 1.2º, depois de restaurada a paleohorizontal dos sítios de amostragem. Este pólo paleomagnético indica idade do Jurássico Superior-Cretáceo Inferior para a Formação Botucatu na área estudada, e indica que as paleolatitudes ocupadas eram da ordem de 21ºS.
Pelz, Jeff B.; Canosa, Roxanne L.; Kucharczyk, Diane; Babcock, Jason S.; Silver, Amy; Konno, Daisei
Visual perception, operating below conscious awareness, effortlessly provides the experience of a rich representation of the environment, continuous in space and time. Conscious visual perception is made possible by the 'foveal compromise,' the combination of the high-acuity fovea and a sophisticated suite of eye movements. Our illusory visual experience cannot be understood by introspection, but monitoring eye movements lets us probe the processes of visual perception. Four tasks representing a wide range of complexity were used to explore visual perception; image quality judgments, map reading, model building, and hand-washing. Very short fixation durations were observed in all tasks, some as short as 33 msec. While some tasks showed little variation in eye movement metrics, differences in eye movement patterns and high-level strategies were observed in the model building and hand washing tasks. Performance in the hand washing task revealed a new type of eye movement. 'Planful' eye movements were made to objects well in advance of a subject's interaction with the object. Often occurring in the middle of another task, they provide 'overlapping' temporal information about the environment providing a mechanism to produce our conscious visual experience.
Yuan, Zhaoxu; Sun, Huimin; Yuan, Jiaqin
To evaluate biocompatibility of Carbon (C) and Titanum (T) surface modified Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) Intraocular Lens (IOLs) in pseudophakic rabbit model. Extracapsule Cataract Extraction (ECCE) and IOLs implantation were performed in Japanese albino rabbit eyes. The white cell concentration from the aqueous humor in the eyes was counted within 3 months post operation. The inflammatory cells in the eyes were noted and graded by slit lamp using a semiquantitive scale up to 1-year post operation. The rabbit eyes were inspected under light microscopy, where pathology of the eyes was caracterized. The white cell concentration in the aqueous humor was significantly attenuated in C and T IOL-implanted eyes compared with PMMA IOL-implanted eyes 1 week post operation. The exudate levels in the anterior ocular chamber and the posterior synechias were significant lower in T IOL-implanted eyes than in PMMA IOL-implanted eyes 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery. The exudate levels in the anterior chambers and the posterior synechias were not significantly different in C IOL-implanted versus PMMA IOL-implanted eyes. This in vivo study provides evidence of effectiveness of Carbon and Titanium IOLs in improving the biocompatibility of PMMA IOLs.
Agarwal, Rajeev; Takeuchi, Tomoka; Laroche, Suzie; Gotman, Jean
One of the key features of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep is the presence of bursts of REMs. Sleep studies routinely use REMs to classify sleep stages. Moreover, REM count or density has been used in studies involving learning and various psychiatric disorders. Most of these studies have been based on the visual identification of REMs, which is generally a very time-consuming task. This and the varying definitions of REMs across scorers have warranted the development of automatic REM detection methodologies. In this paper, we present a new detection scheme that combines many of the intrinsic properties of REMs and requires minimal parameter adjustments. In the proposed method, a single parameter can be used to control the REM detection sensitivity and specificity tradeoff. Manually scored training data are used to develop the method. We assess the performance of the method against manual scoring of individual REM events and present validation results using a separate data set. The ability of the method to discriminate fast horizontal ocular movement in REM sleep from other types of events is highlighted. A key advantage of the presented method is the minimal a priori information requirement. The results of training data (recordings from five subjects) show an overall sensitivity of 78.8% and specificity of 81.6%. The performance on the testing data (recording from five subjects different from the training data) showed overall sensitivity of 67.2% and specificity of 77.5%.
Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta
To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.
Madeira, N G; Sogayar, M I
A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of D. folliculorum and D. brevis for the first time in Brazil. In this study, association between the presence of mites and host factors (age, sex and race) were analysed. Samples were obtained from 100 individuals submitted to a facial cleaning in an aesthetic clinic in Botucatu city. All the samples were mounted in Berlese's medium and examined by dark-field phase microscopy. From 100 studied individuals, 72 were positive, among the positive cases, 51% showed D. folliculorum, 2% showed D. brevis and 19% both species. The parasite distribution in relation to sex was not taken in account because the sex ratio favoured females (90%). According to age, prevalence was high in all age groups. The factors influencing this distribution could be due. 1. the examination of extensive skin areas, 2. the group examined composed of individuals in treatment in an anaesthetic clinic could be more infested than a normal population, 3. the fact that in tropics, the prevalence is often high in all ages.
Full Text Available To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity.Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test.Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8% children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years participated. Mean (± standard deviation stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01 from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001 for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001, after which it improved (P = 0.001 again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001, higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent (P<0.001, higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001, higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001, higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR (P = 0.001, higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001, and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006.Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at the age of 16 years or older. Lower
Boyer, Eric O; Portron, Arthur; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Lorenceau, Jean
As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.
Eric O. Boyer
Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker. The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%, 1117 (77.30% and 257 (17.78% patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91; (0.11, 0.95 and (0.93, 0.14. Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software′s hold promise in future screening programs.
Roy, Rupak; Lobo, Aneesha; Pal, Bikramjeet P; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker). The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%), 1117 (77.30%) and 257 (17.78%) patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91); (0.11, 0.95) and (0.93, 0.14). Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software's hold promise in future screening programs. PMID:25579354
Martins, I A; Jim, J
Vocal communication traits of Hyla nana and Hyla sanborni, of the nana species group, were studied from August 1997 until June 1999 in two large permanent ponds located in an open field in Botucatu, São Paulo State. One hundred thirty-one individuals, 71 of H. nana and 58 of H. sanborni, were recorded in the beginning of their vocalization activity and during chorus vocalization. The rhythms of sound emission on the two occasions were different. An advertisement call consists in a consecutive series of simple notes in rapid succession. Both species have two types of notes in their advertisement calls, here named types A and B. Type A notes are introductory and have a longer and higher pulse number and are emitted more frequently in the beginning of vocalization activity. Introductory notes are the first to be emitted in chorus activity. Type B notes are secondary, of shorter duration and lower pulse number, and are emitted during chorus vocalization. The notes of both types differ significantly in their temporal structure. Both species present acoustic segregation in both spectral and temporal structure.
Martins I. A.
Full Text Available Vocal communication traits of Hyla nana and Hyla sanborni, of the nana species group, were studied from August 1997 until June 1999 in two large permanent ponds located in an open field in Botucatu, São Paulo State. One hundred thirty-one individuals, 71 of H. nana and 58 of H. sanborni, were recorded in the beginning of their vocalization activity and during chorus vocalization. The rhythms of sound emission on the two occasions were different. An advertisement call consists in a consecutive series of simple notes in rapid succession. Both species have two types of notes in their advertisement calls, here named types A and B. Type A notes are introductory and have a longer and higher pulse number and are emitted more frequently in the beginning of vocalization activity. Introductory notes are the first to be emitted in chorus activity. Type B notes are secondary, of shorter duration and lower pulse number, and are emitted during chorus vocalization. The notes of both types differ significantly in their temporal structure. Both species present acoustic segregation in both spectral and temporal structure.
Full Text Available The chiropterans constitute 25% of the world's mammal fauna. Due to the destruction of their natural ecosystem, the vampire bats have moved from nature to artificial roosts closer to man and domestic animals. This phenomenon has happened particularly in rural areas. Rabies is a viral anthropozoonosis, 100% lethal, and vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus represent an important role in its epidemiology. D. rotundus were captured at night with mesh nets in partnership with the Botucatu Defense Office and sent to the Zoonosis Diagnostic Service, at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, UNESP. Serum samples from 204 bats were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fluorescent antibody viral neutralization test (FAVN for rabies antibody detection. The results showed 7.4% of sera with titers higher or equal to 0.5 U for rabies antibodies, which demonstrated viral flow circulation among the studied region. Data suggest a need for constant monitoring accomplished by epidemiological and sanitary measures.
McClure, Laura A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Zheng, D Diane; Joslin, Charlotte E; Perera, Marisa J; Gellman, Marc D; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J
Routine eye care is important to maintaining eye health and preventing visual impairment. However, poor knowledge of ocular risk factors and disease as well as minimal exposure to eye health information may compromise adherence to eye care recommendations. Studies have shown that Hispanic/Latino people have poor eye care utilization, but little is known about their knowledge of eye health and exposure to eye health information. To examine factors associated with more eye health knowledge and greater exposure to eye health information among Hispanic/Latino people. This was a cross-sectional ocular study of 1235 participants living in the Miami, Florida, site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a multisite epidemiologic study of disease prevalence and development among Hispanic/Latino people. Data were collected from October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2013, and data analyses were conducted between May 28, 2014, and March 18, 2015. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed for 3 ocular health care outcomes. Regression models were built sequentially, with variables conceptually grouped according to Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. Ability to identify 8 factors on a general eye health knowledge scale and number of eye health information sources seen or heard about in the past 12 months. Of the 1235 participants, 748 (73.4%) self-identified as being of Cuban descent and 407 (19.2%) self-identified as being from Central or South America, 478 (46.7%) were women and 757 (53.3%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 53.6 (8.1) years. Participants with at least a high school degree or general educational development certificate had greater eye health knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15 and IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17, respectively) as did those with a higher mental health score on the Short Form 12-Item, version 2, Health Survey (IRR, 1
Ren, Q; Simon, G; Parel, J M
Laser photothermal keratoplasty has been studied as a potential refractive procedure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histological response to various laser treatments including geometrical patterns, radiant exposure levels, and pulse numbers. A noncontact laser photothermal keratoplasty system was used in this study. Epithelial and endothelial response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty annulus treatment pattern were studied on an owl monkey model with a 5-millimeter annulus ring pattern, 8 J/cm2, 25 consecutive pulses at 1 Hz. Epithelial and endothelial response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty spot pattern were then studied and compared on cat and rabbit models for safety monitoring. One pulse and five consecutive pulses of eight different radiant exposures (5.00 J/cm2 to 18.01 J/cm2) were applied on each cornea. A cadaver eye model was used to study the collagen shrinkage induced by the laser spot treatment following the same protocol as the cat and rabbit model. Finally, the biological healing response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty treatment with the optimal laser parameters obtained in our experiment was studied on the cat model. Five cats were treated by the laser photothermal keratoplasty procedure with eight spots on a 3-millimeter ring, 15.6 J/cm2, and 1 pulse. Epithelial and endothelial damage were observed after annulus treatment on an owl monkey's cornea at 8 J/cm2, 25 pulses, and after spot treatment on cat and rabbit corneas at 18.01 J/cm2, five pulses. No endothelial damage was observed on cat corneas for the single pulse treatment at 18.01 J/cm2. For the tissue shrinkage study, no laser photothermal keratoplasty lesion could be detected for a radiant exposure setting below 10.26 J/cm2. Histological cross-sections showed that the five-pulse treatment reached the endothelial layer at a radiant exposure of 13.4 J/cm2, while no single pulse treatment reached the endothelium for the radiant exposure range (5 J/cm2 to
Norton, J N; Kohnen, T; Hackett, R B; Patel, A; Koch, D D
To evaluate the appropriate duration for conducting ocular biocompatibility studies with an intraocular lens (IOL) in the pseudophakic rabbit model. Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, USA. A single-piece biconvex poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL was implanted in the capsular bag of 18 eyes of New Zealand white rabbits; 8 eyes received sham surgeries. Rabbits were monitored clinically and then sacrificed 6 or 12 months after surgery for histopathological examination of ocular tissues. Biomicroscopic examination revealed mild ocular changes in all surgical eyes during the first 3 months postoperatively. After that, there was a high incidence of posterior synechias, flare, and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in eyes with PMMA IOLs. Posterior synechias and flare scores remained mild to moderate throughout the study, whereas PCO severity increased over time. Similar findings were observed in sham eyes. In addition, several eyes with PMMA IOLs developed IOL dislocation, hyphema, iris bombe, and a fibrous membrane covering the IOL. No discernible differences in biomicroscopic scores were observed in eyes at 6 or 12 months. Intraocular pressures and morphology of the corneal endothelium were normal in both groups. Results from histopathological analysis of the ocular tissues were consistent with observations from the biomicroscopic examinations. The results suggest that IOL implantation studies in the pseudophakic rabbit eye should be conducted for 3 or fewer months. Regulatory guidelines requiring longer ocular implantation studies should be revised to reflect the inherently rapid and extensive ocular response in the rabbit model.
Adequate patient information about eye care providers would reduce the time and money wasted from inappropriate consultations and possibly minimizes the ocular morbidity from such delays. The study is aimed at assessing the awareness of the various categories of eye care workers among students of tertiary Institutions ...
Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya
Full Text Available This case report aims at investigating whether two consecutive surgical settings would be beneficial in achieving postoperative success for the patient with blast eye injury. A 45-year-old male patient admitted on 17 th October 2011 with history of blast eye injury. Right eye examination revealed central corneal laceration with incarceration of lens matter, multiple foreign bodies also seen embedded in the eyelid margins and in the left cornea. Computed ocular tomography showed a retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB in the right eye. Simultaneous corneal laceration repair and extraction of the ruptured lens performed as primary procedure under general anesthesia. Intraoperative posterior capsule loss was noticed with vitreous presentation. Anterior vitrectomy with removal of the IOFB was done. Foreign bodies were also removed from the left cornea. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK with scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation executed 4 months later as secondary procedure. Visual acuity maintained at 6/24 in 2 years follow-up. In conclusion, two consecutive surgical settings has the advantage of calculating the intra ocular lens power.
Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka
We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results of…
Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus
detaljerad inblick i hur studenterna tänkte medan de löste problemet. Vi använder modern eye-tracking teknik för att mäta hur LTH-studenters visuella uppmärksamhet fördelar sig mellan texter, matematiska formler och figurer när de löser problem inom vektoranalys. Genom att filma studenters ögonrörelser med...... en höghastighetskamera ger eye-tracking data information om var man tittar med väldigt hög spatial och temporal upplösning. Detta gör att man kan följa lösningsprocessen millisekund för millisekund från problempresentation till svar. Med eye-tracking kan man alltså skilja på process och produkt....... Vektoranalys är ett mycket visuellt ämne där matematiska formler ofta har en konkret grafisk tolkning. Detta gör vektoranalysen till ett speciellt lämpligt ämne att studera med eye-tracking teknologin, då försökspersonens byte av fokus mellan formler och figurer kan utvärderas. Vi kommer att presentera...
Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer
Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…
Patrícia Ioschpe Gus
Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.
Luiz Alberto Blanco Jorge
Full Text Available O objetivo global do presente trabalho foi dar prosseguimento aos estudos sobre fragmentação do habitat na Cuesta de Botucatu (SP, em uma área de 18.422 ha. A pesquisa teve os seguintes objetivos específicos : 1 mapear os fragmentos de vegetação natural que ocorrem em uma área de estudo na Cuesta de Botucatu (SP, valendo-se de imagens multiespectrais TM do satélite Landsat-5 tomadas em dois períodos (1986 e 1993; 2 avaliar a estabilidade da fragmentação do habitat, com o auxílio de um sistema de informações geográficas (SIG, comparando os mapas temáticos de ocorrência de vegetação natural de 1986 e 1993; 3 descrever os padrões da fragmentação da vegetação natural na depressão periférica da Cuesta de Botucatu (SP. A análise dos dados espaciais de 1986 e 1993 revelou que o fenômeno de fragmentação da vegetação natural é instável. O processo apresenta distinção de escala: 1 o subconjunto de fragmentos maiores não é fractal, levando à observação de que as manchas de vegetação dessa classe não se dividem, simplesmente diminuem de tamanho obedecendo a uma tendência linear; 2 o subconjunto de fragmentos de tamanhos intermediários foi detectado como não sendo fractal, levando à observação de que, no processo de fragmentação, as manchas de vegetação dessa classe não se dividem, simplesmente diminuem de tamanho, obedecendo a uma progressão geométrica crescente; 3 o subconjunto de dados relativos aos fragmentos de menor tamanho é fractal, permitindo afirmar que o processo de fragmentação relacionado a esse grupo ocorre com uma divisão dos fragmentos que obedece a uma progressão geométrica uniforme.
Full Text Available In this study, ultrasonographic condition of lens and posterior wall of buffalo's eye in Tabriz area were investigated due to their important role in vision and also measurements were made in anterior-posterior axial B-mode display methods. The ultrasonographic images were similar to the images obtained from other particularly the cow. Total thickness of the lens was 1.133 ± 0.052 cm with the thickness being 1.135 ± 0.052 cm in the right eye and 1.132 ± 0.053 cm in the left eye. Thickness of the posterior wall of the right and left eyes were 1.677 ± 0.042 mm and 1.672 ± 0.041 mm respectively with the total thickness of the posterior wall measuring 1.674 ± 0.040 mm. There was no significant difference between the left and right eyes regarding these parameters.
Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee
The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.
... vision. Before the AREDS2 study finished, manufacturers began marketing supplements based on the study design. In AREDS2, ... Health, leads the federal government's research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and ...
Attaching an ad banner on a clip in a video-sharing website such as YouTube has become common although eye-tracking studies have concluded that this fails to secure visitors’ attention. To date, there have been no studies verifying whether ad banners on a video clip can ensure eye fixation from viewers. Through eye-tracking, this study investigates whether YouTube visitors fixate on ad banners, what the correlations between fixation duration on banners and overall fixation counts are, and the...
Full Text Available To describe the epidemiologic features of work-related eye injuries in Kaohsiung, a hospital-based study was performed. Four hundred and eighty-six patients who were treated at emergency service or were admitted to the ophthalmology ward over a 4-year period were reviewed. Among these, 38.9% of eye injuries in the study were work-related. Male workers had a 3.99 higher odds ratio (OR than females to suffer from eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-8.04. Most of the work-related eye injuries occurred in subjects who were 30-49 years old (OR, 3.02, and 95% CI, 1.56-5.82, when compared with those aged ≤29 years. The most common type of eye injury in the occupational exposure group was foreign body injury (31.2%, followed by blunt injuries (20.6%, chemical burn (19.6%, UV light radiation (12.7%, and corneal abrasions (11.6%. On the other hand, in the non-occupational exposure group, the most common types of eye injury were blunt injuries (43.4%, corneal abrasions (28.3%, and foreign body injury (20.2%. Our study found that foreign body injury and blunt injuries were the two highest priority injuries for which prevention strategies should be developed in Kaohsiung city. Furthermore, after advanced examination of types of media that caused eye injuries, we found that being hit by wooden objects around the eye, by flying objects in the eye, and by welding flashes are important risk factors for workers to avoid. In conclusion, most of the occupational eye injuries occurred among male workers aged 30-49 years. Due to the lack of an occupational eye injury surveillance system to monitor the incidence of eye injuries and to undertake risk assessment, preventable occupational eye injuries have not been properly controlled. We hope to provide information for further development of preventive strategies.
Chong, Simon J; Smith, Charlotte; Bialostocki, Adam; McEwan, Christopher N
Despite documented cases of infectious disease transmission to medical staff via conjunctival contamination and widespread recommendation of protective eyewear use during surgical procedures, a large number of surgeons rely on their prescription spectacles as sole eye protection. Modern fashion spectacles, being of increasingly slim design, may no longer be adequate in this role. A survey was conducted among the surgeons at Waikato Hospital from December 7, 2004 to February 1, 2005, to assess current operating theater eyewear practices and attitudes. Those who wore prescription spectacles were asked to assume a standardized "operating position" from which anatomic measurements were obtained. These data were mathematically analyzed to determine the degree of palebral fissure protection conferred by their spectacles. Of 71 surgical practitioners surveyed, 45.1% required prescription lenses for operating, the mean spectacle age being 2.45 years; 84.5% had experienced prior periorbital blood splashes; 2.8% had previously contracted an illness attributed to such an event; 78.8% participants routinely used eye protection, but of the 27 requiring spectacles, 68.0% used these as their sole eye protection. Chief complaints about safety glasses and facial shields were of fogging, poor comfort, inability to wear spectacles underneath, and unavailability. Our model predicted that 100%, 92.6%, 77.8%, and 0% of our population were protected by their spectacles laterally, medially, inferiorly, and superiorly, respectively. Prescription spectacles of contemporary styling do not provide adequate protection against conjunctival blood splash injuries. Our model predicts the design adequacy of currently available purpose-designed protective eyewear, which should be used routinely.
Full Text Available William B Trattler,1 Parag A Majmudar,2 Eric D Donnenfeld,3 Marguerite B McDonald,4 Karl G Stonecipher,5 Damien F Goldberg6 On behalf of the PHACO Study Group 1Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USA; 2Chicago Cornea Consultants, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Garden City, NY, USA; 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 5University North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Wolstan & Goldberg Eye Associates, Torrance, CA, USA Purpose: To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT, ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye.Results: Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9% had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer’s score with anesthesia ≤5 mm.Conclusion: The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated. Keywords: cataract surgery screening, dry eye, International Task Force scale, observational study
Barsingerhorn, A.D; Boonstra, F.N; Goossens, H.H.L.M
.... However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods...
Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo
The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC...
Vicente A. Gonçalves
Full Text Available
A secagem de grãos com ar natural é um processo dependente das condições climáticas locais, constantemente oscilantes no tempo. Através do emprego de modelos matemáticos de simulação foi avaliada a possibilidade de realização da secagem do milho a granel com ar natural para as condições climáticas de Botucatu, com base nos registros horários de temperatura de bulbo seco e umidade relativa dos anos de 1971 a 1975 e de 1977 a 1981. O processo contínuo de secagem do milho com ar natural, nas condições analisadas, não permite a redução do teor de umidade final ao nível recomendado ao armazenamento seguro. A simulação da secagem intermitente, realizada nos períodos das 9 às 17 h, 9 às 18 h e 8 às 18 h, indica a possibilidade de redução do teor de umidade do milho, base úmida, a nível entre 12,1 e 17,3%, para o teor de unidade inicial de 22%, entre 12,4 e 15,5%, para o teor de umidade inicial de 20% e entre 13,1 e 14,7% para o de 18%, quando realizada a secagem no período máximo admissível.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Secagem; Ar natural; Milho; Teor de umidade de equilíbrio.
Grain drying using ambient was simulated under weather conditions in Botucatu. Hourly weather records, fry bulb temperature and relative humidity, from 1971 through 1975 and from 1977 through 1981, were used to calculate adiabatic drying potential of the ambient air. Historical weather records from 1971 were selected to simulate ambient air corn drying. Ambient air corn drying systems operating continuously are not feasible to reduce the moisture content of the grain to the moisture levels recommended for safe storage. Selective fan operation, from 9 a. m. to 5 a. m. , from 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. and from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. , indicates the possibility to reduce corn moisture contents, wet
Prinsen, Jellina; Bernaerts, Sylvie; Wang, Yin; de Beukelaar, Toon T; Cuypers, Koen; Swinnen, Stephan P; Alaerts, Kaat
Direct eye contact is a powerful social cue to regulate interpersonal interactions. Previous behavioral studies showed a link between eye contact and motor mimicry, indicating that the automatic mimicry of observed hand movements is significantly enhanced when direct eye contact exists between the observer and the observed model. In the present study, we aim to investigate the neurophysiological basis of the previously reported behavioral enhancements. Here, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to assess changes in cortico-motor excitability at the level of the primary motor cortex (M1) to explore whether and how the motor system is facilitated from observing others' hand movements and, in particular, how this process is modulated by eye contact. To do so, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were collected from two hand muscles while participants received single-pulse TMS and naturally observed video clips of an actor showing hand opening movements or static hands. During the observation, either direct or averted eye gaze was established between the subject and the observed actor. Our findings show a clear effect of eye gaze on observation-induced motor facilitation. This indicates that the mapping or 'mirroring' of others' movements is significantly enhanced when movement observation is accompanied by direct eye gaze compared to averted eye gaze. Our results support the notion that eye contact is a powerful social signal with the ability to direct human non-verbal social behavior. Furthermore, our findings are important for understanding the role of the mirror motor system in the mapping of socially relevant actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major cause of various ocular complications including Keratoconjunctivitis sicca resulting in tear film deficiency, significantly hindering the performance of daily life and may lead to blindness in severe cases. The objective of our study was to understand the association between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and development of dry eye syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS A pair of eyes of 40 patients with Type 1 DM and 60 patients with Type 2 DM was tested for dry eye syndrome using standard scores from Schirmer test 1, 2, tear film break-up time and Rose Bengal staining. Results were statistically analysed to understand significant association. RESULTS Patients with both types of DM belonged to middle or older age groups. Dry eye syndrome was present in nearly half of the patients, as assessed by different techniques. Dry eye syndrome was significantly increased with progressing age and duration of DM of both types in patients. There was, however, no significant difference in prevalence of dry eyes between patients with Type 1 and Type 2 DM. CONCLUSION Dry eye syndrome is an important comorbidity of DM and progresses with age and duration of the disease, and needs early detection and therapeutic management.
Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R R; Nazish, Siddiqui
The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.
Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and anti- allergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.
Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.
Zhu, Y-F; Zheng, L-B; Yao, Y-F
This study aims to explore the ocular surface of late stage eye burns by impression cytology (IC) and analyze the cytological changes and their relationship to ocular surface abnormalities. 68 eyes with late stage eye burns (thermal burn: 28 eyes; alkali burn: 26 eyes; acid burn: 14 eyes), procured from 68 patients (aged ranges from 17 to 70 years old). Ocular surface abnormalities were assessed under slit lamp and graded. These were broadly classified as eyelid, corneal, conjunctival, and tear film abnormalities. Impression cytological examination was taken by cellulose acetate filter paper for all eyes. Samples were analyzed and scored under light microscope, including the status of epithelial cells, goblet cells, mucus and inflammatory cells. All the results and data were compared and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16.0). According to the IC results, loosed cell-to-cell density and nuclear abnormality, keratinization, reduced goblet cell amount, disorder of mucus, and existing of inflammatory cells were observed in almost all the cases. The IC results were significantly correlated to the ocular surface injury severity (r=0.458, pocular surface injury severity mostly contains three aspects: the corneal neovascularization scales, the present or absent of recurrent epithelial erosion and the tear film break-up time. Eyes with the foreword three symptoms were inclined to have higher IC scores. The epithelial cell-to-cell density, goblet cell and mucus amount were all correlated to tear film break-up time. However, inflammatory cell density showed no significant correlation to the conjunctival hyperemia grade. But inflammatory cell density correlated to the corneal opacity grade and epithelial stability status. IC examinations could reflect the cytological disorders and relative injury severity of the ocular surface in late stage eye burns. It provides further information which will be useful in surgery and therapy.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2% in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology. No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation. However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium.
Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have a high correlation with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II (about 52.9%. Prevalence of Dry Eye was significantly higher at patients with longer duration of diabetes. Dry Eye seems to be an important contributing factor related to corneal abnormalities. Age and sex not seem to play any important role in this condition. Good glycemic control is important for prevention and control of Dry Eye Syndrome.
Murchison, Ann P; Friedman, David S; Gower, Emily W; Haller, Julia A; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia; Saaddine, Jinan; Insight Study Group
Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20-74 years within the United States. The Innovative Network for Sight Research group (INSIGHT) designed the Diabetic Eye Screening Study (DESS) to examine the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of non-mydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening for adults with diabetes in community-based settings. Study enrollment began in December 2011 at four sites: an internal medicine clinic at a county hospital in Birmingham, Alabama; a Federally-qualified community healthcare center in Miami-Dade County, Florida; a university-affiliated outpatient pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and a medical home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. People 18 years or older with previously diagnosed diabetes were offered free DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography that was preceded by a brief questionnaire addressing demographic information and previous eye care use. Visual acuity was also measured for each eye. Images were evaluated at a telemedicine reading center by trained evaluators using the National Health System DR grading classification. Participants and their physicians were sent screening report results and telephoned for a follow-up survey 3 months post-screening to determine whether participants had sought follow-up comprehensive eye care and their experiences with the screening process. Target enrollment at each site was a minimum of 500 persons. Three of the four sites met this enrollment goal. The INSIGHT/DESS is intended to establish the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography in persons with diabetes who seek services in community-based clinic and pharmacy settings.
Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)
Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on
Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.
We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406
Arthur, R M; Hoogenboom, J; Green, R D; Taylor, M C; de Bruin, K G
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert. An eye tracking method was used to follow the gaze of 24 bloodstain pattern analysts during an assigned task of classifying a laboratory-generated test bloodstain pattern. With the aid of an automated image-processing methodology, the properties of selected features of the pattern were quantified leading to the delineation of areas of interest (AOIs). Eye tracking data were collected for each AOI and combined with verbal statements made by analysts after the classification task to determine the critical range of values for relevant diagnostic features. Eye-tracking data indicated that there were four main regions of the pattern that analysts were most interested in. Within each region, individual elements or groups of elements that exhibited features associated with directionality, size, colour and shape appeared to capture the most interest of analysts during the classification task. The study showed that the eye movements of trained bloodstain pattern experts and their verbal descriptions of a pattern were well correlated.
Shortt, C P
We measured radiation doses to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography to assess the effectiveness of bismuth and lead shields at dose reduction. Phantom head angiographic studies were performed with bismuth (study 1) and lead shields (study 2). In study 1 (12 phantoms), thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed over the eyes and thyroid in three groups: (i) no shields (four phantoms); (ii) anterior bismuth shields (four phantoms) and (iii) anterior and posterior bismuth shields (four phantoms). In a second study (eight phantoms), lead shields were placed over the thyroid only and TLD dose measurements obtained in two groups: (i) no shielding (four phantoms) and (ii) thyroid lead shielding (four phantoms). A standard 4-vessel cerebral angiogram was performed on each phantom. Study 1 (bismuth shields) showed higher doses to the eyes compared with thyroid (mean 13.03 vs 5.98 mSv, P < 0.001) and a higher eye dose on the X-ray tube side. Overall, the use of bismuth shielding did not significantly reduce dose to either eyes or thyroid in the measured TLD positions. In study 2, a significant thyroid dose reduction was found with the use of lead shields (47%, mean 2.46 vs 4.62 mSv, P < 0.001). Considerable doses to the eyes and thyroid highlight the need for increased awareness of patient protection. Eye shielding is impractical and interferes with diagnostic capability. Thyroid lead shielding yields significant protection to the thyroid, is not in the field of view and should be used routinely.
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy ... Eye allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Son las Alergias ...
Balegamire, Safari; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Alvarado, Beatriz; Guerra, Ricardo O; Ylli, Alban; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria
To examine factors associated with visual impairment (VI) and eye care in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). IMIAS data were analyzed ( N = 1,995 with ages 65-74). Outcomes were VI defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye and eye care utilization assessed by annual visits to eye care professionals. The Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) questionnaire requested information on domestic violence. Among men, VI varied from 24% in Manizales (Colombia) to 0.5% in Kingston (Canada); among women, VI ranged from 20% in Manizales to 1% in Kingston; lifetime exposure to domestic violence was associated with VI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.17, 3.00]). Eye care utilization varied from 72% in Kingston's men to 25% in Tirana's men; it was associated with domestic violence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3; 95% CI = [1.1, 1.6]). VI is more frequent where eye care utilization is low. Domestic violence may be a risk factor for VI.
Trattler, William B; Majmudar, Parag A; Donnenfeld, Eric D; McDonald, Marguerite B; Stonecipher, Karl G; Goldberg, Damien F
Purpose To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF) scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery. Patients and methods This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye. Results Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9%) had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer’s score with anesthesia ≤5 mm. Conclusion The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated. PMID:28848324
Trattler, William B; Majmudar, Parag A; Donnenfeld, Eric D; McDonald, Marguerite B; Stonecipher, Karl G; Goldberg, Damien F
To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF) scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery. This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye. Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9%) had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer's score with anesthesia ≤5 mm. The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated.
Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...
Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and
Kauss Hornecker, M; Charles Weber, S; Brandely Piat, M-L; Darrodes, M; Jomaa, K; Chast, F
The University Hospitals Paris Centre Pharmacy compounds three concentrations of cyclosporine eye drops: 20mg/mL (=2%); 5mg/mL (=0.5%) and 0.5mg/mL (=0.05%). Cyclosporine A 2% drops were developed in 1995 to prevent the rejection of high-risk cornea transplants after failure of topical steroids. The other concentrations of eye drops were developed for the treatment of various immune or inflammatory diseases of the cornea, conjunctiva and uvea. These eye drops are dispensed with a physician's prescription to hospitalized or ambulatory patients. A retrospective study over 4 years (2009-2013) was conducted to analyze the details of prescription and possible adverse events. Dispensations made from January 1st, 2009 through December 31st, 2013 were studied, including patient age, dose of cyclosporine and practice location of prescribing physician. We also recorded the indications for cyclosporine eye drops in a sample of ambulatory patients. The analysis of local tolerability and the effect on visual comfort was based on questionnaires sent to the patients on cyclosporine 2% over a period of 2 months. Cyclosporine eye drops prescription grew continuously from 2009 through 2013 for all concentrations. In 2013, 5,859 patients were treated, among which 3,616 patients with topical cyclosporine 2%, 1,681 patients with 0.5%, and 562 patients with 0.05%. In total, this represents 62,621 eye drops. Treated patients ranged from 1 week to 100 years old. Topical 2% cyclosporine is indicated in 61% of cases to prevent high-risk corneal graft rejection. Other indications are corneal ulcer (6%), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (5%), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (5%) and herpetic keratitis (4%). Topical 0.5% cyclosporine is prescribed primarily for dry eye syndrome (20%) and to prevent rejection of high-risk corneal transplantation (11%), to treat ocular rosacea (10%), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (10%), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (8%) and Sjögren's syndrome (7%). Topical 0
Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Ota, Mitsuharu; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammand A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu
To describe a Hokkaido dog, one of the traditional Japanese breeds that was affected by Collie eye anomaly (CEA), and to report the genotype of this dog and the Hokkaido dog allelic frequency of the CEA-associated mutation. A nine-month-old intact female Hokkaido dog without any obvious visual disturbance was diagnosed ophthalmoscopically with CEA. Severe choroidal hypoplasia was observed in the bilateral temporal area adjacent to the optic nerve head, appearing as whitish areas. Therefore, the dog was suspected of possessing the CEA-associated mutation that was previously reported as an intronic 7.8-kilo base deletion in the canine NHEJ1 gene. SYBR Green-based real-time PCR with a melting curve analysis, conventional PCR with agarose gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing were carried out to determine the genotype of the dog. Furthermore, a preliminary genotyping survey was carried out in 17 Hokkaido dogs from three kennels using the real-time PCR method, and the pedigree relationships were analyzed using their pedigree papers. The Hokkaido dog affected by CEA was proven to possess the CEA-associated mutation. Of these 17 Hokkaido dogs, 12 dogs were heterozygous carriers and five dogs were affected by this mutation. The preliminary genotyping survey and pedigree analysis demonstrated that the allelic frequency of the CEA-associated mutation is very high in Hokkaido dogs. These data suggest that the Hokkaido breed is highly susceptible to CEA because of the known CEA-associated mutation much like the Collie-related breeds. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Primeiro relato de Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae do município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil First report of Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil
Karina R. dos Santos
Full Text Available O presente estudo reporta o primeiro caso de infecção por Strongyloides sp. em Leopardus tigrinus no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Fezes do exemplar parasitado de L. tigrinus foram cultivadas em fezes eqüinas esterilizadas e foi realizada infecção experimental em gato (Felis catus domesticus com três mil larvas L3 infectantes por via subcutânea, para a identificação da espécie de Strongyloides envolvida no parasitismo. As fêmeas partenogenéticas obtidas do animal experimental foram analisadas porém a comparação dos dados biométricos encontrados com os dados da literatura não permitiu a identificação da espécie. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a ocorrência de Strongyloides sp. Em L. tigrinusThe present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.
Rodríguez-Galietero, Antonio; Martínez, José Vicente González; Del Buey, Angeles; Bescós, José Angel Cristóbal
To evaluate the changes in the incidence of subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyperemia, photophobia, flap displacements, and flap retractions in myopic patients who have undergone LASIK with an IntraLase 15-kHz femtosecond laser (intraLASIK) with or without the application of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% in one eye. Two hundred eyes of 100 myopic patients were enrolled in this brimonidine tartrate fellow eye control study. These myopic patients were treated with the intraLASIK technique in both eyes. Only 1 eye was treated with brimonidine tartrate 0.2% 30 minutes before surgery. One day after surgery, subconjunctival hemorrhage, photophobia, and hyperemia were evaluated. Flap slippage and flap retractions were evaluated 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Of the 100 eyes treated with brimonidine tartrate before intraLASIK, 3 (3%) eyes showed subconjunctival hemorrhage. Complex hyperemia-photophobia was found in 8 (8%) of 100 eyes immediately after the surgery compared with non-brimonidine tartrate treated eyes (79% and 92%, respectively). Eyes treated with brimonidine showed no incidence of flap complications, whereas eyes not treated with brimonidine showed 11% flap retraction. This study suggests that brimonidine tartrate 0.2% administered before intraLASIK provides a reduction in the incidence of subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyperemia, and photophobia without increasing flap complications. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect factors associated with cardiovascular mortality in the elderly of Botucatu. METHODS: We evaluated 29 variables of interest in a cohort of patients aged ³60 using data from a survey conducted between 1983/84. The elderly cohort was analyzed in 1992 to detect the occurrence of cardiovascular deaths. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. Three models were adapted for each group of variables, and a final model was chosen from those variables selected from each group. RESULTS: We identified predictor for cardiovascular death according to age for elderly males not supporting the family, not possessing a vehicle, and previous cardiovascular disease. In elderly females, the predictor variables were previous cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic indicators (family heading and vehicle ownerrship may be added to well stabilished medical factors (diabete mellitus and hypertension to select target groups for programs intended to reduce deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in elderly people.
Miguel Angelo Rosa Martinez
Full Text Available Em face da inexistência de dados sobre esquema de trabalho em turnos em empresas de Botucatu, solicitaram-se delas informações sobre ramo de atividade, número de funcionários e esquema de trabalho. Às que registraram tal ocorrência, enviou-se um questionário visando à caracterização da forma de organização da jornada de trabalho. Das 66 empresas participantes da pesquisa, 14 referiram a existência de trabalho em turnos, englobando 6.541 funcionários, de um total de 9.502, sendo 2.346 de setores da produção. Nesses setores, os sistemas contínuo alternado e descontínuo permanente predominaram. Em oito empresas os sistemas eram alternados, cinco delas com esquemas apresentando freqüência de revezamento de seis ou mais dias. São descritas outras formas de organização encontradas. Conclui-se que, com o quadro descrito, torna-se possível estudar as relações entre trabalho em turnos, saúde e vida social dos trabalhadores.
Maurício Orlando Wilmsen
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode infections were evaluated in sheep raised in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil between April 2008 and March 2011. Every month, two tracer lambs grazing with a flock of sheep were exposed to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, the lambs were sacrificed for worm counts. Haemonchus contortus presented 100% of prevalence. The seasons exerted no significant influence on the mean intensity of H. contortus, which ranged from 315 worms in November 2010 to 2,5205 worms in January 2011. The prevalence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was also 100%, with the lowest mean intensity (15 worms recorded in February 2011 and the highest (9,760 worms in October 2009. In the case of T. colubriformis, a significant correlation coefficient was found between worm counts vs. rainfall (r = −0.32; P <0.05. Three other nematodes species were found in tracer lambs, albeit in small numbers. Their prevalence and mean intensity (in parenthesis were as follows: Oesophagostomum columbianum 28% (25.2, Cooperia curticei 7% (4.5 and Trichuris spp. 2% (1. In conclusion, the environmental conditions of the area proved to be highly favorable for the year-round transmission of H. contortus and T. colubriformis.
Draelos, Z K
Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.
Full Text Available AIM: To report on the utilization of eye care services and its associated factors among those with unilateral visual impairment (VI in a rural South Indian population. METHODS: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts (Adilabad, Mahbubnagar and West Godavari in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed interview and a comprehensive eye examination were conducted. Those with unilateral VI were asked questions about noticing any change in vision and on utilization of eye care services. The most important reason reported by the participant for not utilizing the services was used for the analysis. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between noticing a change in vision and socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, education and area of residence, severity and causes of VI. RESULTS: Among the 4456 participants aged ≥16y who were administered the questionnaire, 53.2% were women, and 54.7% had no education. Of the 489 (11%; 95% CI: 10.1-11.9 people with unilateral VI, 399 (81.6% participants reported noticing a change in their vision over the last five years but only 136 (34.1% participants had sought eye care consultation. Those who had any education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2, had blindness (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2, and cataract (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.3 as a cause of unilateral VI were more like to seek eye care consultations. The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking eye care services were “do not have money for eye checkup” in 30.7% of the participants followed by “do not have a serious problem” (30.0%. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of rural population though noticed a change in their vision did not seek eye care due to financial and person-related reasons. Eye care service providers need to address these barriers to enhance the uptake of eye care services among those with unilateral VI.
Full Text Available Rabbitfish is economically valuable teleost species which lives in shallow coastalwaters. Two species of rabbit fish have been recognized in southern sea of Iran (Persiangulf as namely Siganus sutor and Siganus javus. In the current study, in order toinvestigate the histology of the annular ligament of the S. javus’ eye, the prepared sectionsof the eyes of twelve healthy specimens were studied under light microscope. The resultsrevealed that annular ligament is a crescent shape structure which is situated between thescleral stroma anteriorly and the iris posteriorly. It contains a vascularized, amorphousand granular matrix with fibers of dense connective tissue; high glycogen content andmelanin pigments.
Stecher, Nadine; Stowasser, Annette; Stahl, Aaron; Buschbeck, Elke K
Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop. In addition, it is completely unclear how development is altered to give rise to some of the functionally most complex stemmata, such as those of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus. In this study, we used histological methods to investigate the embryonic development of the functionally complex principal stemmata Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the larval visual system of T. marmoratus. To gain insights into how cellular components of their sophisticated camera-type eyes might have evolved from the cellular components of ommatidial ancestors, we contrast our findings against known features of ommatidia development, which are particularly well understood in Drosophila. We find many similarities, such as the early presence of a pseudostratified epithelium, and the order in which specific cell types are recruited. However, in Thermonectus each cell type is represented by a large number of cells from early on and major tissue re-orientation occurs as eye development progresses. This study provides insights into the timing of morphological features and represents the basis for future molecular studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Yu Ying; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Miyoshi, Kiyofumi; Ashida, Hiroshi
The eye-tracking method was used to assess the influence of detailed, colorful illustrations on reading behaviors and learning outcomes. Based on participants' subjective ratings in a pre-study, we selected eight one-page human anatomy lessons. In the main study, participants learned these eight human anatomy lessons; four were accompanied by…
Mayer, Richard E.
The author examines the empirical, methodological, theoretical, and practical contributions of the six studies in this special issue on eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. The design of learning environments involving graphics should be consistent with a research-based theory of how people learn and evidence-based…
Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet
This study investigates the effect of two attention-enhancing techniques on L2 students' learning and processing of novel French words (i.e., target words) through video with L2 subtitles or captions. A combination of eye-movement data and vocabulary tests was gathered to study the effects of Type of Captioning (full or keyword captioning) and…
Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat
Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…
Katibeh, Marzieh; Blanchet, Karl; Akbarian, Shadi; Hosseini, Sara; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Burton, Matthew J
A recent survey of avoidable blindness in Varamin District, Iran, identified moderately high levels of visual impairment (10%) and blindness (1.5%) in people >50 years. This study aimed to define current provision, identify gaps and suggest practical solutions for improving eye health services in this area. The World Health Organization (WHO) framework for analyzing health systems has several key components: service delivery, health workforce, information system, medical products and technologies, financing, and governance. We used this structure to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the eye health system in Varamin. All public and private eye care facilities and a random selection of primary health care (PHC) units were assessed using semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaires. Varamin has 16 ophthalmic clinics, including two secondary hospitals that provide cataract surgery. There were ten ophthalmologists (1:68,000 population), two ophthalmic nurses and five optometrists working in Varamin district. There were no eye care social or community workers, ophthalmic counsellors, low vision rehabilitation staff. Although the Vision 2020 target for ophthalmologists has been met, numbers of other eye care staff were insufficient. The majority of patients travel to Tehran for surgery. The recent survey identified cataract as the leading cause of blindness, despite the availability of surgical services in the district and high health insurance coverage. Poor awareness is a major barrier. No units had a written blindness prevention plan, formal referral pathways or sufficient eye health promotion activities. Only one of the PHC units referred people with diabetes for retinal examination. There is partial integration between eye care services and the general health system particularly for prevention of childhood blindness: chemo-prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum, school vision tests, measles immunization and Vitamin A supplementation. This analysis
hybridization analysis of embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition.
Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi
identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition.
Érico T. Teramoto
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma análise da frequência das condições de céu em Botucatu. A classificação das condições de céu foi feita com base no índice de claridade (K T, calculado a partir de uma base de dados de 10 anos de radiação global diária. Em Botucatu há, ao longo do ano, predominância de dias com condição de céu claro, em média 114 dias. Para a condição de céu nebuloso a frequência média é de 61 dias e, em referência às duas condições de céu intermediárias, a frequência de céu parcialmente nebuloso com dominância para o difuso, é de 94 dias e a com dominância para o claro é de 96 dias. Os principais fatores influentes sobre as condições de céu em Botucatu são as entradas de frentes frias e a formação da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul, as quais respondem principalmente pela alteração da condição de céu claro para a de céu nebuloso ou para a de céu parcialmente nebuloso com dominância para o difuso. Os aerossóis resultantes das queimadas em lavouras de cana-de-açúcar respondem pela alteração da condição de céu claro para a de céu parcialmente nebuloso com dominância para o claro.This paper presents an analysis of the frequency of the sky conditions in Botucatu. The classification of sky conditions was made based on the clearness index (K T, calculated from a database with 10 years of measured daily global solar radiation. Throughout the year in Botucatu, there is a predominance of days with clear sky condition, on average 114 days. For cloudy sky condition, the average frequency is 61 days. About the two intermediate sky conditions, the frequency of the sky partially cloudy with dominance for the diffuse is 94 days and the one with dominance for the clear is 96 days. The main influential factors on the sky conditions in Botucatu are the inputs of cold fronts and the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. They respond primarily by altering the sky condition of
Ma, Min-Yuan; Chuang, Hsien-Chih
This study investigated the correlations between the complicacy and legibility of Chinese characters by using eye tracking analyzed with structural equation modeling. 13 university students, 6 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 21 yr. (SD = 1.7) participated. The results indicated that block types affected legibility and that saccade amplitude, number of fixations, and complicacy differed due to diverse character structures. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the number of strokes, number of nodes, and image density in stroke complicacy affected the number of fixations and saccade amplitude in eye movement data. Constructing a character complicacy and eye tracking information model to investigate the correlations between Chinese character features and human viewing behavior can provide guidance for Chinese character recognizability and type design.
Análise das condições de saúde e de vida da população urbana de Botucatu, SP: I - Descrição do plano amostral e avaliação da amostra Analysis of standards of living and health in the urban population of Botucatu, S.Paulo State (Brazil: I - Description and evaluation of the sample
Full Text Available Descreve-se o processo de amostragem para o levantamento das condições de saúde e de vida da população urbana de Botucatu, SP (Brasil, pelo método de entrevistas domiciliárias. Analisa-se a representatividade da amostra, segundo a distribuição percentual da população por estrato e segundo as variáveis sexo e idade. Comparam-se os critérios externos de estratificação sócio-econômica com a renda familiar e per capita das famílias entrevistadas. Comenta-se as dificuldades de operacionalizar o conceito de classe social através de zonas sócio-espaciais, em investigações domiciliares e em estudos epidemiológicos que utilizam dados de registro rotineiros.The sampling methodology used in an evaluation of the standards of living and health in the urban population of Botucatu, SP, Brazil is discribed. Data were obtained through domiciliar interviews and the accuracy of sampling was evaluated for each different stratum and in accord with age and sex. External criteria for socio-economic stratification of the population such as family or "per capita" income were compared. It was found difficult to work with the concept of social classes when using socio-spacial zoning in domiciliar interviews or epidemiological studies based on the normal registers.
Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.
An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.
Mian, Shahzad I; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology.
José Matheus Yalenti Perosa
Full Text Available O elevado percentual de perdas na comercialização de manga no Brasil faz com que apenas parcela da produção chegue à mesa do consumidor. O presente trabalho determinou, em equipamentos de varejo da cidade de Botucatu - SP, as perdas de manga, suas causas e emitir sugestões para a redução das mesmas. Foram selecionados 22 equipamentos entre supermercados, quitanda/sacolões e feiras livres. O volume estimado de manga comercializada neste município foi 114 t/ano. Verificaram-se as seguintes perdas médias por variedade de manga: 11,5% para 'Tommy Atkins', 12,4% para 'Haden' e 12,7% para as outras variedades. O valor total anual destas perdas no comércio varejista da cidade, em 2007, atingiu R$ 49.200,00 (US$ 25.231,00, correspondente a 14 toneladas. Os percentuais médios de perda mostram grande semelhança quando comparados a estudos realizados em outras localidades. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a necessidade de melhor gestão de estoques, de exposição da fruta para o consumidor e uso de tecnologia no transporte e armazenagem para a manutenção da qualidade e redução das perdas. Conclui-se também pela necessidade de maiores investimentos em capacitação técnica dos encarregados do setor de frutas e hortaliças.Losses in the mango commercialization process in Brazil has reduced its offer to the consumer. The present study aims at determining these losses in different purchase sites of the retail market, its causes and suggestions for reducing them. Twenty two retail points, including supermarkets, greengroceries and free fair were selected in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The total amount commercialized was 114 ton/year. The following average losses were verified for each mango variety: 'Tommy Atkins' (11, 5%, Haden (12, 4% and 12, 7% for other varieties. The total loss in retail market reached US$ 25.231, 00 corresponding to 14 tons. The average loss percentage observed is compatible with previous studies running
Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca
The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…
Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating dissociations between vision-for-action and vision-for-perception in hemispatial neglect patients through eye-tracking. Three patients and ten controls completed two gap-bisection tasks. While patients showed a rightward bias during the perceptual task, in the virtual-grasping task we have not found evidences for a similar deviation
Lundberg, Kristian; Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Søgaard Hansen, Rasmus
. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted at the mean age of 15.4 ± 0.7 years and included cycloplegic autorefraction and biometry. RESULTS: A total of 307 children participated in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School (CHAMPS) Eye Study. The cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was 0...
Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…
This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…
Wolff, Charlotte; Van 'T Zelfde, Hans; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Els
Wolff, C., Van ’T Zelfde, H., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, August). Seeing what teachers see: Exploring the use of eye tracking in teacher expertise studies. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG Learning and Professional Development, Antwerp, Belgium.
Enkin, Elizabeth; Nicol, Janet; Brooks, Zachary; Zavaleta, Kaitlyn Leigh
In the present study, we examine sentence reading in low-proficiency Spanish learners using an eye-tracking methodology. This method reveals the real-time, uninterrupted process of reading comprehension, and can therefore shed light on L2 learners' functional proficiency. We created sentence pairs that were identical except for one word. The…
L.Y. Ganushchak (Lesya Y.); A.E. Konopka (Agnieszka E.); Y. Chen (Yiya)
textabstractThis study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The
Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean
When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…
Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine
The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…
Joukar, Amin; Nammakie, Erfan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh
The application of laser in ophthalmology and eye surgery is so widespread that hardly can anyone deny its importance. On the other hand, since the human eye is an organ susceptible to external factors such as heat waves, laser radiation rapidly increases the temperature of the eye and therefore the study of temperature distribution inside the eye under laser irradiation is crucial; but the use of experimental and invasive methods for measuring the temperature inside the eye is typically high-risk and hazardous. In this paper, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the distribution of heat transfer inside the eye under transient condition was studied through three different lasers named Nd:Yag, Nd:Yap and ArF. Considering the metabolic heat and blood perfusion rate in various regions of the eye, numerical solution of space-time dependant Pennes bioheat transfer equation has been applied in this study. Lambert-Beer's law has been used to model the absorption of laser energy inside the eye tissues. It should also be mentioned that the effect of the ambient temperature, tear evaporation rate, laser power and the pupil diameter on the temperature distribution have been studied. Also, temperature distribution inside the eye after applying each laser and temperature variations of six optional regions as functions of time have been investigated. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in various regions, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Investigating the temperature distribution inside the eye under the laser irradiation can be a useful tool to study and predict the thermal effects of laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in performing laser surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathew, James; Eusebio, Alexandre; Danion, Frederic
The ability to track a moving target with the eye is substantially improved when the target is self-moved compared with when it is moved by an external agent. To account for this observation, it has been postulated that the oculomotor system has access to hand efference copy, thereby allowing to predict the motion of the visual target. Along this scheme, we tested the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) when human participants (50% females) are asked to track with their eyes a visual target whose horizontal motion is driven by their grip force. We reasoned that, if the output of M1 is used by the oculomotor system to keep track of the target, on top of inducing short latency disturbance of grip force, single-pulse TMS should also quickly disrupt ongoing eye motion. For comparison purposes, the effect of TMS over M1 was monitored when subjects tracked an externally moved target (while keeping their hand at rest or not). In both cases, results showed no alterations in smooth pursuit, meaning that its velocity was unaffected within the 25-125 ms epoch that followed TMS. Overall, our results imply that the output of M1 has limited contribution in driving the eye motion during our eye-hand coordination task. This study suggests that, if hand motor signals are accessed by the oculomotor system, this is upstream of M1.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to coordinate eye and hand actions is central in everyday activity. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this coordination remain to be clarified. A leading hypothesis is that the oculomotor system has access to hand motor signals. Here we explored this possibility by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) when humans tracked with the eyes a visual target that was moved by the hand. As expected, ongoing hand action was perturbed 25-30 ms after TMS, but our results fail to show any disruption
Currie, Craig J; Holden, Sarah E; Berni, Ellen; Owens, David R
To compare visual and anatomical outcomes between eyes treated with fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant for clinically significant chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) and fellow eyes not treated with FAc implant using data from the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK) study. In this retrospective cohort study, data on people attending hospital eye services and treated with the FAc implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015 were collected. Changes in visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between study eyes (intervention) and fellow eyes. A total of 208 people were selected. Mean age was 68.1 years and 62% were male. Mean change in VA was -0.09 LogMAR units for study eyes and 0.04 LogMAR units for fellow eyes at 12 months post-implant (p Study (ETDRS) score were achieved by more FAc treated eyes than by fellow eyes (41% versus 23%, p study and fellow eyes at 12 months. Visual acuity improved in study eyes over the 12 months following FAc implant and worsened in fellow eyes. Over the same period, study eyes showed a larger improvement in central foveal thickness. Intraocular pressure worsened in study eyes only. Change in visual acuity, central foveal thickness and intraocular pressure between FAc implant and the end of the 12-month follow-up period differed significantly between study and fellow eyes.
Epidemiological aspects of enteroparasitosis at daycare centers in the city of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos epidemiológicos das enteroparasitoses em creches na cidade de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil
Luciene Maura Mascarini
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of intestinal parasites in children and staff members of 5 municipal daycare centers in Botucatu/SP. Two cross-sectional studies were carried out in 2002 (N=379 and 2003 (N=397 and a longitudinal observational experiment in which the children from 2002 and 2003 were evaluated for a year. Questionnaires were given to staff members and parents of the children, where the following variables were recorded: socioeconomic status, sanitary habits, home, age, gender and presence of domestic animals. Coproparasitologic tests were carried out in child daycare centers. The enteroparasite prevalence was 76.74% in 2002 and 34% in 2003. The variables associated with presence of enteroparasites in the investigation carried out in 2002 were: location of daycare centers (OR=0.27 CI=0.15-0.47; family salary (OR=4.38 CI=1.91-10.04; gender (OR=0.52 CI=0.32-0.85; child's age group (OR=2.08 CI=1.06-4.08, and presence of pets at home (OR=1.85 CI=1.10-3.11; in 2003, the variables were: daycare centers located in peripheral region (OR=0.49 CI=0.31-0.78, family salary (OR=3.69 CI=2.19-6.24; mother's education (OR=6.19 CI=1.81-21.21; gender (OR=0.58 CI=0.36-0.93, and presence of pets (OR=1.68 CI=1.01-2.79. The cohort had 253 children with an incidence of 23.22%. Data from this study highlighted situations of risk in specific populations (daycare centers, which could be useful for other childcare institutions.Estimou-se a prevalência e a incidência de parasitas intestinais em crianças e funcionários de 5 creches municipais em Botucatu/SP. Foram realizados dois estudos seccionais em 2002 (N=379 e 2003 (N=397 e um estudo longitudinal observacional, onde as crianças de 2002 e 2003 foram seguidas por um ano. Foram aplicados questionários nos funcionários e nos pais das crianças, onde foram coletadas as seguintes variáveis: nível sócio-econômico, hábitos sanitários, moradia, idade, sexo e presença de animais dom
Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline
This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…
Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert
This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…
Tsai, S Y; Chi, L Y; Cheng, C Y; Hsu, W M; Liu, J H; Chou, P
To evaluate the effect of impaired vision on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the authors administered the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36) to the elderly in a metropolitan Taiwanese community and assessed their visual impairment status. A structured questionnaire was used for door-to-door data collection. Interviewers also collected information on demographics, medical history, and HRQoL. Those who were interviewed were invited to the study hospital for a detailed eye examination. An eye examination, including presenting visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity, was conducted by ophthalmologists. Presenting visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity were measured in the better eye. Impaired vision was defined as presenting visual acuity in the better-seeing eye worse than 6/12 (or 20/40) and was used to evaluate the correlation to HRQoL. A total of 1361 subjects at least 65 years of age participated in both the interview and eye examination. Internal-consistency and test-retest reliability of the eight scales were high. Based on the separate multiple regression model, after controlling for all other covariates, subjects in contact with vision services offered by an ophthalmologist had more positive scores on general health perceptions (beta = 4.29; p Impaired vision was associated with significantly lower scores in physical functioning (beta = -3.62; p social functioning scales (beta = -3.25; p = 0.015). The findings suggest that visual impairment is associated with lower quality of life and use of eye care services is associated with higher quality of life.
October 23, 1998 and it hosts on board a solar cell experiment. Silicon solar cell is a semiconductor device that senses visible and near infrared (400-1100 nm radiations. The experiment permits the simultaneous inference of direct insolation and the insolation that is reflected outside of Earth. The data of the solar cell experiment are transmitted in real time by the satellite telemetry and are received by the ground station of Cuiabá, MT-Brazil (16°S, 56°W. This fact limits their spatial coverage to a circle on the South America. The planetary albedo is obtained inside this coverage area and the data can be grouped into periods of time (annual, seasonal or monthly or studied for several places (latitude and longitude during the life of the satellite. Atmospheric transmission coefficient or clearness index (Kt, measured at meteorological stations around the Earth surface, together with simultaneous measured of the planetary albedo permits to calculate the atmospheric absorption coefficient (Ka. The developed method in this work for evaluating the Ka considers that the planetary albedo is composed by two parts: the local and the non local reflectivity. Considering this new concept, an atmospheric absorption ratio (called here Ra is defined as the quotient between Ka and the net solar irradiance power that is not transmitted through the atmosphere (100%-Kt. The atmospheric absorption ratio defined by this way is not cloud cover dependent. The frequency histogram of Ra indicates the values of 0.86±0.07 and 0.88±0.09 on the cities of Botucatu-SP and Rio de Janeiro-RJ respectively, during the years of 1999 to 2006.
Tuberculose em necropsias realizadas no Serviço de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu Tuberculosis in necropsies performed at the Department of Pathology of Botucatu Medical School
Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
Full Text Available Entre 6.316 necropsias realizadas, no período de 1969 a 2000, no Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista (FMB/UNESP, foram encontradas 240 necropsias com diagnóstico de tuberculose, sendo 117 registradas como doença principal (grupo tuberculose/doença principal e 123, como doença associada (grupo tuberculose/doença associada. No grupo tuberculose/doença principal, 100% apresentavam tuberculose ativa, com 80 ocorrências em homens e 37 em mulheres e média de idade de 47,7 anos. Caquexia (37,2% e cor pulmonale (23,7% foram as co-morbidades mais prevalentes nesse grupo. Os pulmões estavam comprometidos em 95,7% dos casos, seguido pelos linfonodos (38,9% e pleuras (27,1%. Os padrões morfológicos das lesões pulmonares foram: 1. miliar, 58,4%; 2. cavernas, 56,6%; 3. fibrose, 41,5%; 4. bronquiectasias, 26,5%; 5. enfisema, 19,4%; e 6. cistos, 1,7%. Cavernas foram observadas em diferentes áreas, com discreto predomínio no pulmão direito, sendo a localização apical preferencial (100% e quase sempre bilaterais (94%. Lesões miliares, bronquiectasias e fibrose estavam distribuídas, de forma difusa e aleatória, nos pulmões. No grupo tuberculose/doença associada também houve predomínio de homens (70,8%. Nesses casos, a AIDS e o alcoolismo crônico foram as doenças principais mais freqüentes, representando 22% e 16,3%, respectivamente. Os pulmões estavam acometidos em 85,2% dessas necropsias (100% nos casos de AIDS, seguidos pelos linfonodos (31,9% e baço (28,6%. Nossos dados corroboram a importância da necropsia no estudo e no conhecimento da tuberculose, fornecendo subsídios para uma melhor abordagem clínica e epidemiológica dessa doença em nossa região.Among 6,316 necropsies performed in the period 1969-2000 at the Department of Pathology of Botucatu Medical School UNESP, 240 were of tuberculosis. Among them, 117 were registered as the principal disease (tuberculosis
Cazzato, Valentina; Basso, Demis; Cutini, Simone; Bisiacchi, Patrizia
Gender studies report a male advantage in several visuospatial abilities. Only few studies however, have evaluated differences in visuospatial planning behaviour with regard to gender. This study was aimed at exploring whether gender may affect the choice of cognitive strategies in a visuospatial planning task and, if oculomotor measures could assist in disentangling the cognitive processes involved. A computerised task based on the travelling salesperson problem paradigm, the Maps test, was used to investigate these issues. Participants were required to optimise time and space of a path travelling among a set of sub-goals in a spatially constrained environment. Behavioural results suggest that there are no gender differences in the initial visual processing of the stimuli, but rather during the execution of the plan, with males showing a shorter execution time and a higher path length optimisation than females. Males often showed changes of heuristics during the execution while females seemed to prefer a constant strategy. Moreover, a better performance in behavioural and oculomotor measures seemed to suggest that males are more able than females in either the optimisation of spatial features or the realisation of the planned scheme. Despite inconclusive findings, the results support previous research and provide insight into the level of cognitive processing involved in navigation and planning tasks, with regard to the influence of gender.
Pruehsner, William R; Enderle, John D
With any device that is used to record or evaluate biosignals, it is in the inventor's interest to determine how that device withstands a rigorous examination in regards to its inherent safety during use. For this, a Risk Management (Hazard) Analysis is a useful exercise. With this in mind, the most probable hazard concerning the Eye Tracker System (a device used to measure saccadic eye movements utilizing Reflective Differencing of Infra-Red light) is the exposure effect to the human eye caused by the Radiant Intensity of the IR emitters mounted on the Head Mounted Transducer. Presented in this article are the results of a study used to determine the Radiant Intensity exposure of the Eye Tracker as designed. Comparing these results with accepted norms for Radiant Intensity exposure, a redesign of the Head Mounted Transducer is detailed with results given showing that this new transducer fits safely into the accepted norms of Radiant Intensity exposure. Presented are the mathematical calculations used for the initial study and the redesign.
De Luca, Maria; Zeri, Fabrizio; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi
The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the acquisition of reading fluency in a shallow orthography from the very beginning using eye movement recordings. The development of reading fluency is easier to examine in shallow (such as German, Finnish, or Italian) rather than in opaque (such as English or French) orthographies because the former limit the presence of speed-accuracy trade-offs at early stages of acquisition. To date, only cross-sectional eye movement studies of reading development are available. One normally developing child was assessed at the very beginning of first grade and at the end of the first, second, and fifth grades. Eye movement parameters during reading, reading speed and accuracy in a standard reading test, and vocal reaction time at onset to single words varying in length were measured. Reading fluency improved dramatically during the first grade and progressively less thereafter: the word-length effect decreased abruptly by the end of the first grade and then less onwards. The rate of improvement closely followed a power function. This pattern held for standard reading tests, various eye movement parameters during reading, and vocal reaction times to single word onset. These longitudinal observations indicate the rapid acquisition of reading fluency in a transparent orthography showing that the largest changes occurred within the first year of education.
Haliza Abdul Mutalib
Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.
Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Stigchel, S Van der; Sergeant, J.A.
The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye
Rommelse, N.N.J.; van der Stigchel, S.; Sergeant, J.A.
The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye
Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316
Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L
Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N=18. Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.
Foster, Andrea Susan
Science-eyed elementary teachers exhibit relentless passions for replacing traditional teaching with realistic, integrated, responsible instruction with science at its core. The purpose of this study was to explore an exemplary elementary teacher's thinking about science and how it serves as a vehicle for the learning that occurs in her primary classroom. Two research questions were investigated in this study. First, what does it mean for an exemplary elementary teacher to view all learning with science eyes? Second, in what ways does the science-oriented elementary teacher use her knowledge of science content, pedagogy, and practical experience to structure her students' learning and her classroom teaching? A naturalistic methodology was employed in this research effort. Classroom observations, teacher interviews, documents, and selected artifacts were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and the analysis tools of HyperRESEARCH (1994) in an effort to unravel the complex, intuitive knowledge of a nationally recognized first grade teacher. Data analyses provided insightful information about this exceptional teacher and how she organizes, plans, and implements effective lessons that integrate science with all subject areas. Four direct observation themes, Best Practice, Just Like a Scientist, Integrating Curriculum - A Balancing Act, and Expert Pedagogy, and six interview themes, Curriculum - What to Teach?, Instruction - How to Teach, Knowing Students, Getting Stuff, Professionalism, and Reflective Practitioner, emerged from independent analyses of two data sets. Three overall themes, Head, Heart, and Hands of an Exemplary Science Elementary Teacher, emerged from a convergent content analysis. The themes provide the foundation for a proposed model of an expert science pedagogue. Ten portrait-like, impressionistic, vignettes are included in this unique study to capture the spirit of the science-eyed elementary
Enekvist, Bruno; Johansson, Anders
The variables measured in modern pulse oximetry apparatuses include a graphical pulse curve and a specified perfusion value (PV) that could be a sensitive marker for detecting differences in sympathetic activity. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between a reduction of PV and the time to eye opening after general anaesthesia. The objective was to investigate whether PV can predict eye opening after sevoflurane anaesthesia. Prospective, explorative clinical study included 20 patients, ASA physical status 1 or 2, at Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden, from November 2012 to January 2013 scheduled for elective breast tumour surgery. A general anaesthesia was delivered with inhalation of oxygen, nitrous oxide and sevoflurane anaesthesia to a depth of 1.2 minimal alveolar concentration. Sevoflurane inspiratory and expiratory concentrations were measured. Bispectral index monitoring, PV as measured by pulse oximeter, heart rate and carbon dioxide were registered at before anaesthesia, 15 min after induction (at 1.2 minimal alveolar concentration), at end of surgery and at eye opening at the end of anaesthesia. PV values were lower before anaesthesia and at eye opening compared to at 15 min after induction and at end of surgery (P anaesthesia.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that spatial knowledge acquisition differs across individuals in both real and virtual environments. For example, in a real environment, Ishikawa & Montello (2006 showed that some participants had almost perfect configural knowledge of the environment after one or two learning trials, whereas others performed at chance even after repeated learning trials. Using a virtual version of Ishikawa & Montello's layouts, we measured eye movements while participants were learning a layout of a route, as eye movements are shown to be closely linked to performance in spatial navigation tasks. We prepared three different layouts of a route depicted in a desktop virtual environment, along with the locations of four landmarks on that route. After learning each of the routes, we administered three different measures of spatial knowledge: numbering the landmark order, estimation of direction, and map sketching. Self-reported sense-of-direction (SDQ-S was also measured. Behavioral analyses showed positive correlations across the routes in the estimation of direction. However, consistent correlations were not observed between eye movements and performance of the estimation of direction in each route. Those results suggest that eye movements do not predict individual differences in spatial knowledge acquisition.
Proudfoot, Malcolm; Menke, Ricarda A L; Sharma, Rakesh; Berna, Claire M; Hicks, Stephen L; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R
A relative preservation of eye movements is notable in ALS, but saccadic functions have not been studied longitudinally. ALS overlaps with FTD, typically involving executive dysfunction, and eye-tracking offers additional potential for the assessment of extramotor pathology where writing and speaking are both impaired. Eye-tracking measures (including anti-saccade, trail-making and visual search tasks) were assessed at six-monthly intervals for up to two years in a group of ALS (n = 61) and primary lateral sclerosis (n = 7) patients, compared to healthy age-matched controls (n = 39) assessed on a single occasion. Task performance was explored speculatively in relation to resting-state functional MRI (R-FMRI) network connectivity. Results showed that ALS patients were impaired on executive and visual search tasks despite normal basic saccadic function, and impairments in the PLS patients were unexpectedly often more severe. No significant progression was detected longitudinally in either group. No changes in R-FMRI network connectivity were identified in relation to patient performance. In conclusion, eye-tracking offers an objective means to assess extramotor cerebral involvement in ALS. The relative resistance of pure oculomotor function is confirmed, and higher-level executive impairments do not follow the same rate of decline as physical disability. PLS patients may have more cortical dysfunction than has been previously appreciated.
Full Text Available Introduction Technology is one of most important factor in todays life. IPAD is leading as people can make use of technology by just pressing buttons. Networking technology and education makes communication easier and helps people in easy education and awareness. Aim amp objectives The main aim of the study is to educate and aware among people regarding eye health and the check the visual function of their eye by using Apple I pad. Material and Methodology The following study is a home based vision screening program using IPAD which uses the basic tests like visual acuity color vision contrast sensitivity and amsler tests for checking the basic functions of the eye. The study was performed in many societies moving from one place to another using IPAD as a tool. Reliability of ipad was checked a pilot study on 25 subjects visual acuity colour vision and contrast sensitivity was taken on both ipad and Original chart like snellen ishihara and pellirobson and compared in which the results and the accuracy were same. The study also contains questionnaire on the awareness and education about eye health. The subjects included in the study were an age group of 10 to 70. Subjects like infants and blind were not included in the study. Results During the study it was observed that there is no significant difference in testing of visual acuity between ipad and Snellen standard chart. The subjects responded actively towards screening and that home vision screening can be possible. During the study it was found that 40 subjects out of 100 needed further detailed check-up and were referred in Rotary eye hospital hospital but only 3 out of 40 came for it. This shows that they are less aware and education about their eye health. Software used in IPAD were visual acuity color vision contrast sensitivity and amsler tests A questionnaire was also asked which indicated less awareness among the common people. Conclusion We examined with just an ipad and not an
Dreno, C; Gicquel, T; Harry, M; Tribut, O; Aubin, F; Brandhonneur, N; Dollo, G
We present formulation and stability evaluation of a 2% (w/v) phenylephrine hydrochloride biocompatible eye drop solution, routinely prepared in hospital pharmacy under aseptic conditions, for retinal examination of neonates and premature infants. Eye drop solution was formulated by dissolution of phenylephrine hydrochloride and disodium hydrogen phosphate as buffering agent in sterile water for injection and sodium chloride for injection as isotonic agent. The previous solution was sterile filtered through under aseptic conditions, in an iso class 5 air quality clean room under horizontal laminar airflow hood. Physical stability (visual inspection, osmolality measurements), chemical stability (pH measurement, phenylephrine assay by liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-high resolution and accurate mass) and sterility evaluation of phenylephrine eye drop solution stored at ambient temperature were studied during 60 days. The formulated eye drop solution had a pH of 6.90±0.05 and an osmolality of 285±2 mOsm/kg. Throughout the 60 days study the solutions remained clear without any precipitation or color modification, sterility was maintained, pH and osmolality were not significantly modified and no significant loss of product was detected using liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-high resolution and accurate mass instrument suggesting the lack of degradation. These results indicate that 2% phenylephrine hydrochloride eye drop solutions were physically, chemically and microbiologically stable for at least 60 days when stored in type I amber glass vials at room temperature, allowing the compounding of higher batch sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee
Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935
Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J
Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rosman, Mohamad; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Wanling; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tay, Wan-Ting; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Y
To describe the rationale and study design of a follow-up epidemiological eye study among Singaporean Malay adults. Follow-up prospective population-based study. Participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1), which was conducted from August 2004 to June 2006. This is a follow-up study of the 3280 participants who participated in the SiMES-1 and are residing in Singapore. All participants of this follow-up study will undergo various standardized validated questionnaires on socio-demographics, quality of life and impact of visual impairment. Participants will undergo assessment of blood pressure, anthropometry, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, subjective refraction, ocular biometry, slit lamp and dilated eye examination, Goldmann tonometry, optic disc imaging, digital lens and retinal photography. Retinal tomography, retinal optical coherence topography and fundus autofluorescence will also be performed. Gonioscopy and visual fields examination will be performed on selected individuals. Incidence, risk factors and impact of visual impairment and major eye diseases. A total of 3280 people who participated in the SiMES-1 will be contacted and invited to participate in this follow-up study. It is estimated that 12.8% of the participants will be deceased and there will be an 80% participation rate for the survivors of SiMES-1 (approximately 2288 participants). SiMES-2 will be one of the few follow-up epidemiological eye studies among Asians and will determine the cumulative 6-year incidence, progression, risk factors and impact of major eye diseases in Singaporean Malay adults. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Mihara, Miharu; Hayashi, Atsushi; Fujita, Kazuya; Kakeue, Ken; Tamura, Ryoi
To quantify fixation stability of the upward gaze in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) using an eye tracker. In this study, 21 normal subjects, 5 patients with MG with diplopia, 5 patients with MG without diplopia and 6 patients with superior oblique (SO) palsy were included. Subjects fixated on a target in the upward direction for 1 min. The horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) eye positions were recorded using an eye tracker. Fixation stability was first quantified using the bivariate contour ellipse areas (BCEA) of fixation points as an index of whole stability. Then, the SDs of the X and Y eye positions (SDX and SDY, respectively) were quantified as indices of directional stability, with the data divided into three 20 s fractions to detect temporal fixation fluctuation. BCEAs were larger in patients with MG (both with and without diplopia) than normal subjects and patients with SO palsy, without significant differences among the three 20 s fractions. Compared with normal subjects, SDXs were larger only in patients with MG with diplopia; SDYs were larger in both patients with MG with and without diplopia. In addition, SDYs in patients with MG with diplopia were larger than those in patients with MG without diplopia and patients with SO palsy. Furthermore, a significant difference among the three 20 s fractions was detected for SDYs in patients with MG with diplopia. Patients with MG, especially those with diplopia, exhibit fixation instability in the upward gaze. Non-invasive quantification of fixation stability with an eye tracker is useful for precisely identifying MG-specific fatigue characteristics. UMIN000023468; pre-results.
Marjanneke eDe Jong; Marjolein eVerhoeven; Hooge, Ignace T.C.; Anneloes L van Baar
Attention capacities underlie everyday functioning from an early age onwards. Little is known about attentional processes at toddler age. A feasible assessment of attention capacities at toddler age is needed to allow further study of attention development. In this study, a test battery is piloted that consists of four tasks which intend to measure the attention systems orienting, alerting, and executive attention: the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers using Eye tracking [UTATE]. The UTA...
Reading span tests (RSTs) are commonly used to measure working memory (WM) capacity in L2 research. RSTs require simultaneous processing (secondary task) and storage (primary task) of information. However, the type of the secondary task varies from one study to another. Since syntactic and semantic processing in the L2 might be different, this study examined how the eye movements of late L2 learners changed when RSTs in the L2 involving syntactic accuracy vs. semantic plausibility judgment as...
Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.
Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different
Takacs, Zsofia K.; Bus, Adriana G
The present study provides experimental evidence regarding 4-6-year-old children's visual processing of animated versus static illustrations in storybooks. Thirty nine participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…
José Matheus Yalenti Perosa
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo, avaliar as características de consumo de produtos orgânicos na cidade de Botucatu – SP, identificando, adicionalmente, como o desenvolvimento agro ecológico na região influencia o consumo de tais produtos. Foram entrevistados setenta consumidores através de um questionário estruturado, dividido em quatro blocos: (a perfil dos respondentes; (b tipo de produtos orgânicos consumidos pelos respondentes; (c local de compra de produtos orgânicos; e (d identificação das razões pelas quais o consumidor opta por este tipo de produto. As informações coletadas foram trabalhadas com estatística descritiva e análise fatorial. Os resultados mostram coerência com estudos realizados em outras localidades, indicando alto nível de escolaridade dos consumidores, preocupados com saúde e meio ambiente. Os resultados da pesquisa demonstraram que o consumidor de produtos orgânicos de Botucatu é fortemente preocupado com a reputação do produto, valorizando mecanismos de garantia da qualidade, marca, rotulagem, normas, rastreabilidade e certificação; a outras categorias de atributos como preço e acessibilidade. Foi identificado também que organismos institucionais contribuem com papel facilitador e viabilizador de movimentos favoráveis a esta categoria de produtos.
Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.
The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the
Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em cães da microrregião da Serra de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum in dogs of Botucatu range Micro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil
Carla Cristina G. de Moraes
of bovine abortion and canine neuropathy. Considering the isolation of N. caninum and the frequent serology in bovines of our region, the objectives of the present trial were to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies anti -N. caninum in dogs of the Botucatu range micro region, in the State of São Paulo, and its association with gender, age and origin (urban area - exclusively from the city; rural area - only farms and cottages; and periurban area - access to the urban and rural areas of the dogs studied. A total of 963 dogs of defined breeds or non-defined breeds, of both genders and different ages, showing no clinical symptoms, were analyzed. Animals were randomly selected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaign in the region, from May to September 1998. Serum samples obtained from the animals were evaluated by means of the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT using as antigen N. caninum, standard strain NC-1. A total of 245 animals were reagent (25.4% positive results, with 161 (27.5% males and 84 (22.3% females. According to the origin - urban, rural and periurban areas - 223 (25.8%, 11(16.9% and 11(33.3% dogs were, respectively, reagent to the IFAT. All of the 11 cities in this region presented seropositive dogs with occurrence rates ranging from 53.5 to 8.9%. The lower positive percentage was observed in dogs below 1 year old (16.2% when compared with animals from 1 to 4 years old and more than 4 years old (28.4 % and 28.0% respectively, which did not present any differences between them. Results obtained characterized the seropositivity for N. caninum in dogs from all Municipalities in the Botucatu micro region showing the wide distribution of the agent in the region.
Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.
Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...
Alamargot, Denis; Chesnet, David; Dansac, Christophe; Ros, Christine
We present a new method for studying reading during writing and the relationships between these two activities. The Eye and Pen device makes a synchronous recording of handwriting and eye movements during written composition. It complements existing online methods by providing a fine-grained description of the visual information fixated during pauses as well as during the actual writing act. This device can contribute to the exploration of several research issues, since it can be used to investigate the role of the text produced so far and the documentary sources displayed in the task environment. The study of the engagement of reading during writing should provide important information about the dynamics of writing processes based on visual information.
Engy M Mostafa
This is the first observational study of DED in southern Egypt on a large sample population. The prevalence of DED among ophthalmic outpatients at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt, was 22.8% depending on both symptoms and signs. Older age patients and females were more susceptible to DED. DED is an existing entity that can compound any eye condition causing incomplete recovery, and therefore high index of suspicion is greatly advised.
Hy?n?, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia
Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in readin...
Kumar Mishra, Ramesh
To Look and speak requires a dynamic synchronization of both visual attention and linguistic processing. This study explored patterns of visual attention in a group of Hindi speaking children and adults, as they generated sentences to real photographs. Photographs contained either a single human agent performing an intransitive action, an agent performing an action with an object or two actors involved in a mutual action in the presence of an object. The eye movements were recorded as parti...
Daniel S McGrath
Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that gamblers develop an attentional bias for gambling-related stimuli. Compared to research on substance use, however, few studies have examined attentional biases in gamblers using eye-gaze tracking, which has many advantages over other measures of attention. In addition, previous studies of attentional biases in gamblers have not directly matched type of gambler with personally-relevant gambling cues. The present study investigated the specificity of attentional biases for individual types of gambling using an eye-gaze tracking paradigm. Three groups of participants (poker players, video lottery terminal/slot machine players, and non-gambling controls took part in one test session in which they viewed 25 sets of four images (poker, VLTs/slot machines, bingo, and board games. Participants' eye fixations were recorded throughout each 8-second presentation of the four images. The results indicated that, as predicted, the two gambling groups preferentially attended to their primary form of gambling, whereas control participants attended to board games more than gambling images. The findings have clinical implications for the treatment of individuals with gambling disorder. Understanding the importance of personally-salient gambling cues will inform the development of effective attentional bias modification treatments for problem gamblers.
McGrath, Daniel S; Meitner, Amadeus; Sears, Christopher R
A growing body of research indicates that gamblers develop an attentional bias for gambling-related stimuli. Compared to research on substance use, however, few studies have examined attentional biases in gamblers using eye-gaze tracking, which has many advantages over other measures of attention. In addition, previous studies of attentional biases in gamblers have not directly matched type of gambler with personally-relevant gambling cues. The present study investigated the specificity of attentional biases for individual types of gambling using an eye-gaze tracking paradigm. Three groups of participants (poker players, video lottery terminal/slot machine players, and non-gambling controls) took part in one test session in which they viewed 25 sets of four images (poker, VLTs/slot machines, bingo, and board games). Participants' eye fixations were recorded throughout each 8-second presentation of the four images. The results indicated that, as predicted, the two gambling groups preferentially attended to their primary form of gambling, whereas control participants attended to board games more than gambling images. The findings have clinical implications for the treatment of individuals with gambling disorder. Understanding the importance of personally-salient gambling cues will inform the development of effective attentional bias modification treatments for problem gamblers.
Trevor J Crawford
Full Text Available IntroductionEye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with dementia and elderly control participants who were assessed at start of the study and followed up 12 months later.MethodsEye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target.ResultsOverall patients with dementia had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12 months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12 months.ConclusionsThese findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control.
Anastasia G Peshkovskaya
Full Text Available We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment; a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups. After each round, the respondent received information about his or her personal score in the last round and the overall winner of the game at the moment. The study proves that eye-tracking systems can be used for studying the process of decision making and forecasting. The total viewing time and the time of fixation on areas corresponding to noncooperative decisions is related to the participants' overall level of cooperation. The increase in the total viewing time and the time of fixation on the areas of noncooperative choice is due to a preference for noncooperative decisions and a decrease in the overall level of cooperation. The number of fixations on the group attributes is associated with group identity, but does not necessarily lead to cooperative behavior.
Crawford, Trevor J.; Devereaux, Alex; Higham, Steve; Kelly, Claire
Introduction: Eye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly control participants who were assessed at the start of the study and followed up 12-months later. Methods: Eye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target. Results: Overall patients with Alzheimer's disease had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12-months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12-months. Conclusions: These findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control. PMID:26157388
Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...
Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...
... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...
... Keep flushing the eye with clean water or saline for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical help right away. Do not delay. EYE CUT, SCRATCH, OR BLOW Gently apply a clean cold compress to the eye to reduce swelling and ...
Misra, Vasundhra; Vashist, Praveen; Singh, Senjam Suraj; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Vivek; Dwivedi, S N; Gupta, Sanjeev K
The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years. A total of 1552 respondents participated in the study, of which, 89.9% had heard of cataract but only (42%) were aware of any symptom of cataract. The common symptoms of cataract reported by the participants were white opacity in eyes (25.9%) and loss of vision (20.6%). Surgery as a treatment of cataract was known to only 559 (40.1%) participants. Awareness about surgery as treatment of cataract was significantly higher among people aged 45-60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-3.97) and in educated people (adjusted OR = 3.69 95% CI = 2.37-5.73). Out of 84 respondents who had been diagnosed with cataract, the health-seeking practices were observed by 70 (83.3%) participants. Among them, 51 (72.9%) had undergone surgery and another 19 (27.1%) had been advised to wait for surgery. Most of the operated patients 48 (94.1%) attended the postoperative follow-up. The study findings suggest the majority of participants have heard of cataract, but there is low awareness of its symptoms and treatment, and good eye health-seeking practices observed for cataract in urban slum population. Gaps in awareness observed can be filled up by implementing proper eye health education programs.
Salomão, Solange R; Soares, Francisco S; Berezovsky, Adriana; Araújo-Filho, Arnaud; Mitsuhiro, Marcia R K H; Watanabe, Sung E S; Carvalho, Alisson V; Pokharel, Gopal P; Belfort, Rubens; Ellwein, Leon B
To investigate the prevalence and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of cataract surgery in a low- to middle-income population in São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting those > or =50 years old for VA measurement, refraction, and ocular examination. Participants were queried as to the year and type of facility for previous cataract surgery. Surgical procedure and evidence of surgical complications were noted. Main outcome measures were presenting and best-corrected vision, and the principal cause for eyes presenting with VA 20/40, 28.1% with VA 20/40 to 20/63, 14.2% with VA visually impaired/blind because of cataract. Refractive error and other causes of impairment are common in cataract-operated eyes. Emphasis on the quality of VA outcomes and sustained government subsidy to provide access to affordable modern cataract surgery are needed.
Lu, Bao-qi; Xia, Yi-ben; Qi, Li-jian; You, Jing-lin
Raman spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to study the process andproduct of thermal transformation of nephrite cat's eye from Sichuan province. The results indicate that upon being heated till 900 degrees C, tremolite in the nephrite cat's eye is dehydrated completely and the appearance of a new characteristic band near 671 cm(-1) indicates the form of a new product. At 1 000 degrees C, the intensity of band near 1014 cm(-1) rises obviously, and the weak bands near 573 cm(-1) and 934 cm(-1) present. Up to 1100 degrees C, the band near 1033 cm(-1) appears. All these evidences show that the final thermal transformation product is identified as Ca-Mg pyroxene which is similar to diopside both in structure and in composition. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD.
Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D
Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.
Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M
Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.
Full Text Available Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social. The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.
Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella
Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021
Sietske eVan Viersen
Full Text Available The present study compared eye movements and performance of a nine-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD children (n = 10, in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2 and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to approximately 10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.
van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M
The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.
Zoi Manesi; Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Pollet, Thomas V.
Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory...
Tang, Yating; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yaping; Luo, Yi; Lu, Yi
To study the current prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an adult Chinese population. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We used a random cluster sampling method and evaluated 10 234 eligible subjects ≥45 years old (response rate, 78.1%) in the Taizhou Eye Study. Examinations were performed from July 2012 through December 2013. Participants underwent a detailed examination, including uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, axial length, slit-lamp, and fundus examinations to evaluate the prevalence and primary causes of visual impairment (VI). We defined low vision and blindness according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (low vision: BCVA, eye) and United States criteria (low vision: BCVA, eye). Using the WHO BCVA criteria, the standardized prevalence of bilateral low vision and blindness were 5.1% and 1.0%, respectively. Using the United States BCVA criteria, the standardized prevalence were 12.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Using the WHO criteria, the primary causes of bilateral low vision and blindness were cataract (59.1% and 48.5%, respectively), myopic macular degeneration (17.6% and 17.2%, respectively), and age-related macular degeneration (11.6% and 10.1%, respectively). The primary causes of monocular low vision were cataract (55.6%), age-related macular degeneration (12.6%), and myopic macular degeneration (8.9%), whereas those of monocular blindness were cataract (46.8%), atrophy of eyeball or prosthetic eye (10.2%), and cornea opacity (7.3%). A further analysis revealed that in adults 45-59 years old, myopic macular degeneration (59.6% and 27.2%, respectively) and cataract (13.8% and 23.4%, respectively) were the leading causes of bilateral and monocular VI. In adults ≥60 years old, cataract (66.8% and 61.2%, respectively) and age-related macular degeneration (12.6% and 11.8%, respectively) were the primary causes of bilateral and monocular VI. The prevalence of low
Gatchev, Emil; Petrov, Andrey; Kolev, Emil; Hristova, Russka; Demircheva, Irena; Koytchev, Rossen; Richter, Wolfram; Tegel, Friedrich; Thyroff-Friesinger, Ursula
The aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacodynamic equivalence (lowering of intraocular pressure) of two preparations of eye drops containing 20 mg dorzolamide (CAS 120279-96-1) and 5 mg timolol (CAS 26839-75-8). The study was conducted as a monocentric, observer-blinded, randomized, single-dose, two-period crossover study in 38 healthy volunteers. Each volunteer received on day 1 in each period in a random way a single dose of 1 drop of the test or the reference formulation in the conjunctival sac of the right eye separated by a wash-out period of 7 days. Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) of the right eye (by a blinded observer) was performed on day 1 of each study period pre-dose and 2 h post dosing by means of Goldmann applanation tonometry. In order to investigate the pharmacodynamic equivalence of both products, the two-sided 95% confidence interval was calculated for the difference of the primary target parameter (absolute decrease in IOP 2 h post dose), by means of a parametric (ANOVA) statistical method. The results of the statistical evaluation of the primary target parameter "absolute decrease in IOP 2 h post dose" demonstrated a decrease in the IOP of 4.72 mmHg for the eye treated with the test formulation (dorzolamide 20 mg/ml + timolol 5 mg/ml eye drops) and 4.61 mmHg for the treated with the reference formulation. The mean difference was 0.11 mmHg. The 95% confidence interval was between -0.33 and 0.55 mmHg and thus entirely within the pre-defined equivalence range (+/- 1.5 mmHg). The results of the statistical evaluation of the secondary target parameter relative (as % of baseline) decrease in IOP 2 h post dose demonstrated essentially similar effectiveness in lowering the IOP by 27.63% (test formulation) and 27.12% (reference formulation), respectively. Both drug products were well tolerated. Both formulations showed comparable results obtained at a time probably equal to the maximum effect concerning the primary target parameter
Jong, Monica; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Li, Wayne; Resnikoff, Serge; Naidoo, Kovin; He, Mingguang
The aim was to investigate the relationship of the magnitude of myopia with visual acuity in highly myopic eyes without ocular pathology. Twelve hundred and ninety-two highly myopic eyes (up to -6.00 DS both eyes, no astigmatic cut-off) with no ocular pathology from the ZOC-BHVI high myopia study in China, had cycloplegic refraction, followed by subjective refraction and visual acuities and axial length measurement. Two logistic regression models were undertaken to test the association of age, gender, refractive error, axial length and parental myopia with reduced vision. Mean group age was 19.0 ± 8.6 years; subjective spherical equivalent refractive error was -9.03 ± 2.73 D; objective spherical equivalent refractive error was -8.90 ± 2.60 D and axial length was 27.0 ± 1.3 mm. Using visual acuity, 82.4 per cent had normal vision, 16.0 per cent had mildly reduced vision, 1.2 per cent had moderately reduced vision, 0.3 per cent had severely reduced vision and no subjects were blind. The percentage with reduced vision increased with spherical equivalent to 74.5 per cent from -15.00 to -39.99 D, axial length to 67.7 per cent of eyes from 30.01 to 32.00 mm and age to 22.9 per cent of those 41 years and over. Spherical equivalent and axial length were significantly associated with reduced vision (p vision. Gender was significant for one model (p = 0.04). Mildly reduced vision is common in high myopia without ocular pathology and is strongly correlated with greater magnitudes of refractive error and axial length. Better understanding is required to minimise reduced vision in high myopes. © 2017 Optometry Australia.
Full Text Available Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ, according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided, followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces. Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task. In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1 explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2 recognize their own face.
Rodrigo França de Espíndola
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether implantation of an aspheric intraocular lens (IOL results in reduced ocular aberrations and improved contrast sensitivity after cataract surgery and, therefore, changes on frequency-doubling technology (FDT testing. Methods: The present prospective clinical study enrolled 25 patients with bilateral cataract (50 eyes, who randomly received either an aspheric (Akreos AO or a spherical (Akreos Fit IOL in one eye and the other IOL in the second eye. Assessment 12 months postoperatively included photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity testing. Higher-order aberrations (HOAs were computed. FDT testing was divided into four areas to evaluate the variation of the values at different points. The median values of the local pattern thresholds (median area contrast sensitivity [MACS] obtained with that division were calculated. Results: The Akreos AO group obtained statistically significantly lower values of HOAs and spherical aberration compared with the Akreos Fit group. There was a statistically significant between-group difference in contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. No statistically significant differences were observed in mean deviation and pattern standard deviation. The aspheric IOL exhibited higher MACS in all areas, although a statistically significant difference was reached only in the 20-degree field area (P=0.043. Conclusion: Aspheric IOLs significantly reduced spherical aberration and HOAs, improving mesopic contrast sensitivity. Although there was a trend toward slightly improved FDT in the aspheric IOL group, it was not statistically significant.
Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo
On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.
Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo
The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children.We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression.Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity].Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet.
ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN
This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036
Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie
Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.
Prevalência de Helicobacter em cães oriundos do biotério central da Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (UNESP-Botucatu Prevalence of Helicobacter in canines from animal colony of the State University of Sao Paulo (UNESP-Botucatu
Maria Lúcia de Souza
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a incidência de Helicobacter sp em cães oriundos do biotério central da UNESP. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos 109 cães oriundos do Biotério Central da UNESP Campus de Botucatu verificando a presença do Helicobacter sp através do exame de histopatologia corado pelo método Giemsa, pelo teste rápido de urease (TRU e a prevalência de Helicobacter pylori pelo teste sorológico imunocromatográfico. RESULTADOS: O resultado para a presença de Helicobacter foi de 99% pela histopatologia e pelo TRU e 78,8% de prevalência para a espécie H. pylori pelo teste sorológico. CONCLUSÃO: As formas encontradas pela microscopia de imersão foram contrárias ao resultado do teste sorológico, sendo visibilzado formas compatíveis com a espécie H. heilmannii na maioria das amostras, e uma segunda forma de Helicobacter com características morfológicas distintas do H. pylori encontrado em humanos.PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of Helicobacter sp in dogs from the animal colony of UNESP. METHODS: One hundred and nine dogs from the animal colony of UNESP- Botucatu, SP were studied to verify the presence of Helicobacter sp. The methods used were: histopathology stained by Giemsa, rapid urease test (RUT and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was tested by serologic immunocromatography. RESULTS: The presence of Helicobacter was found in 99% of the cases when using the histopathology and RUT methods. The prevalence of H. pylori tested by immunocromatography was of 78.8%. CONCLUSION: The forms found under microscopy oimmersion were contrary to the serologic test, where forms compatible to the H. heilmannii were found in the majority of the samples. A second form of Helicobacter with different morphologic characteristics from the human H. pylori was also found.
Iliya V Ivanov
Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training
Zhu, Ping; Dong, Li-fang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Chao
The white-eye pattern was firstly observed and investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system in the mixture of argon and air whose content can be varied whenever necessary, and the study shows that the white-eye cell is an interleaving of three different hexagonal sub-structures: the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots. The white-eye pattern is observed at a lower applied voltage. In this experiment, the heat capacity of water is high so that the water in water electrode is good at absorbing heat. In the process of pattern discharging the gas gap didn't increase its temperature, and the discharging phenomenon of this pattern has not changed. The temperature of the water electrodes almost keeps unchanged during the whole experiment, which is advantageous for the long-term stable measurement. Pictures recorded by ordinary camera with long exposure time in the same argon content condition show that the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots og the white-eye pattern have different brightness, which may prove that their plasma states are different. And, it is worth noting that there are obvious differences of brightness not only on the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots at the same pressure but also at the different pressure, which shows that its plasma state also changed with the variation of the pressure. Given this, in this experiment plasma temperatures of the central spot, halo, and ambient spots in a white-eye pattern at different gas pressure were studied by using optical emission spectra. The molecular vibration temperature is investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3Πu --> B3Πg ). The electron excitation temperature is researched by the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm (2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772. 42 nm (2P2 --> 1S3). The electronic density is investigated by the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm. Through the analysis of experimental results, it
Ivanov, Iliya V.; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X.; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne
Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Methods Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. Results In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the
Thomaes, Kathleen; Engelhard, Iris M; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cath, Danielle C; Van den Heuvel, Odile A
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality
Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan
This paper presents an eye-tracking study of notational, informational, and emotional aspects of nine different notational systems (Skill Meters, Smilies, Traffic Lights, Topic Boxes, Collective Histograms, Word Clouds, Textual Descriptors, Table, and Matrix) and three different information states...... of the "average" informational learning state. Qualitative data analysis of the think-aloud comments and post-study interview show that student participants reflected on the meaning-making opportunities and action-taking possibilities afforded by the representations. Implications for the design and evaluation...
Bikbov, Mukharram; Fayzrakhmanov, Rinat R; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Jonas, Jost B
Since there is a scarcity on population-based health information available for Russia, we conducted this project to assess the prevalence of major ocular and systemic disorders and their associated risk factors. A population-based cross-sectional study (Ural Eye and Medical Study (UEMS)) was performed in Bashkortostan 1300 km east of Moscow. The sampling frame consisted of all inhabitants aged over 40 years and living in an urban study area in the capital city Ufa and a rural region at 65 km outside of Ufa. The target sample size was 2500 individuals for the urban region and 2500 persons for the rural region. The study participants underwent a detailed interview, a detailed ophthalmologic examination including biometry and optical coherence tomography, and clinical examination including assessment of electrocardiography, hearing test, blood sampling, spirometry, and hand grip dynamometry. After a first study period, the study population included 4254 individuals with a mean age of 60.3 ± 11.1 years (range: 40-94 years), mean body weight of 74.8 ± 14.4 kg (range: 31-170 kg), body height of 163.6 ± 8.9 cm (range: 112-196), body mass index of 28.0 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (range: 13.96-60.96 kg/m2), mean systolic blood pressure of 133.7 ± 21.0 mmHg (range: 84-232 mmHg), and mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.2 ± 10.6 mmHg (range: 40-134 mmHg). Mean refractive error was -0.21 ± 1.94 D and mean intraocular pressure was 13.6 ± 3.9 mmHg. The UEMS provides population-based normative data for a Russian region on the quantitative traits such as axial length, quality of life and lifestyle including smoking and alcohol consumption, and prevalence and risk factors of ocular and systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and depression.
Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Horn, Hannah T; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. There is a need to establish an eye movement-based method of neuropsychological assessment suitable for severely physically impaired patients with ALS. Forty-eight ALS patients and thirty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex and education performed a hand and speech motor-free version of the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM) and the D2-test which had been especially adapted for eye-tracking control. Data were compared to a classical motor-dependent paper-pencil version. The association of parameters of the eye-tracking and the paper-pencil version of the tests and the differences between and within groups were studied. Subjects presented similar results in the eye-tracking and the corresponding paper-pencil versions of the CPM and D2-test: a correlation between performance accuracy for the CPM was observed for ALS patients (p eye-tracking (p = 0.053) and the paper-pencil version (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eye-tracking versions of the CPM (p Eye-tracking-based neuropsychological testing is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS.
Gerine M A Lodder
Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias, but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1, at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression (Task 2, at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3, and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4. In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1, and social images (T3. Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2 in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4. No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals.
Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Clemens, Ivar A. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike
The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), and social images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals. PMID:25915656
Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J
Background Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ≤6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Results Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7 years (SD=8.1, range=48–92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). Conclusions People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV. PMID:24179053
Full Text Available Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation. The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001. Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001 after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye disease is one of the most common ocular surface disorder with large number of studies carried out in various countries estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease to be between 5-34%. The prevalence of dry eye increases with age. As per Breaver Dam study regarding dry eye the prevalence of DED 13.3%. Dry eye was apparently higher in women than men. Studies have shown that cataract surgery worsen dry eye symptoms in patients with preexisting dry eye symptoms as well as without preexisting DES, mostly dry eye symptoms last for two months of post cataract surgery period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology, Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. The total number of cataract surgery performed cases were 140 in number. The study period was four months, conducted in tertiary eye center. The Cataract patients were preoperatively at normal tear secretions. Post cataract surgery period from first POD, one week POD, four weeks, six weeks, two months and three months POD examined by slit lamp, Schirmer's test I, TBUT and corneal sensitivity test were performed. RESULTS Our study revealed that increased prevalence in female sex with increased age group range from 51-70 years showed post cataract surgery period dryness of eye. The ratio of Post cataract surgery DED in male and female is 13:29. This shows increased female sex prevalence of postoperative DED. In our study, the prevalence of post cataract surgery dry eye disease was 30%. CONCLUSION 73% cataract surgeries is now clear corneal cataract surgery and this procedure cuts a large part of corneal nerves. The nerve essential for tear production gets disturbed leading to dryness and hence decreased visual function. The corneal nerves are important in self-regulation of tears since they provide the sensation in the feedback loop that signals tear production. When the functions of the nerves get blocked
88 to 31 Nov 89 4. T"TL AND SUBMIU S UD UBR DURIP - IMPROVED EYE MOVE14ENT MONITORING CAPABILITIES G - AFOSR-89-0191 FOR STUDIES IN VISUAL COGNITION ...7 r,~~93C 14. SUUIOCT TERM iS NIUMBE Of PAGIS ILB PRICE CODE 1. CLS0CIM It. SECURITY CLASSICATION 9S. SICUA CLSSN4CAH IL A ESTR OF REPORT OP TIS PAGE...OF ABSTRACT NIN t14 zw-mim I 69 DARTMOUTH MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY Program in Cognitive Neuroscience Sr Pike House Hanover, NH 03756
Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.
Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y
To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P Age-related macular degeneration may be more than a "macular" condition but one that involves the entire retina. Future longitudinal studies of peripheral changes in AMD and their impact on visual function may contribute to understanding AMD pathogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zito, G A; Cazzoli, D; Scheffler, L; Jäger, M; Müri, R M; Mosimann, U P; Nyffeler, T; Mast, F W; Nef, T
Crossing a street can be a very difficult task for older pedestrians. With increased age and potential cognitive decline, older people take the decision to cross a street primarily based on vehicles' distance, and not on their speed. Furthermore, older pedestrians tend to overestimate their own walking speed, and could not adapt it according to the traffic conditions. Pedestrians' behavior is often tested using virtual reality. Virtual reality presents the advantage of being safe, cost-effective, and allows using standardized test conditions. This paper describes an observational study with older and younger adults. Street crossing behavior was investigated in 18 healthy, younger and 18 older subjects by using a virtual reality setting. The aim of the study was to measure behavioral data (such as eye and head movements) and to assess how the two age groups differ in terms of number of safe street crossings, virtual crashes, and missed street crossing opportunities. Street crossing behavior, eye and head movements, in older and younger subjects, were compared with non-parametric tests. The results showed that younger pedestrians behaved in a more secure manner while crossing a street, as compared to older people. The eye and head movements analysis revealed that older people looked more at the ground and less at the other side of the street to cross. The less secure behavior in street crossing found in older pedestrians could be explained by their reduced cognitive and visual abilities, which, in turn, resulted in difficulties in the decision-making process, especially under time pressure. Decisions to cross a street are based on the distance of the oncoming cars, rather than their speed, for both groups. Older pedestrians look more at their feet, probably because of their need of more time to plan precise stepping movement and, in turn, pay less attention to the traffic. This might help to set up guidelines for improving senior pedestrians' safety, in terms of
Danielle Nascimento Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration. Histological fragments were fixated in buffered formalin 10%, processed by the routine paraffin inclusion technique, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. CT scan evaluation showed no differences between the live animal and the formolized head on identification of visual apparatus structures. Anatomic and histologic evaluation revealed rounded orbit, absence of the supraorbital foramen and frontal notch, little exposure of the sclera, with slight pigmentation of the exposed area and marked pigmentation at the sclerocorneal junction. Masson's Trichrome revealed the Meibomian glands, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's membrane; in the choroid, melanocytes and Bruch's membrane were observed; and in the retina, cones and rods as well as, optic nerve, the lamina cribrosa of the nerve fibers bundles. Toluidine blue highlighted the membranes: Bowman, Descemet and the endothelium; in the choroid: melanocytes; and in the retina: nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium. In view of the observed results Sapajus sp. is an important experimental model for research in the ophthalmology field, which has been shown due to the high similarity of its anatomical and histological structures with the human species.
Hooge, I.T.C.; Holmqvist, K.; Nyström, Marcus
Most modern video eye trackers use the p-CR (pupil minus CR) technique to deal with small relative movements between the eye tracker camera and the eye. We question whether the p-CR technique is appropriate to investigate saccade dynamics. In two experiments we investigated the dynamics of pupil, CR
You, Qi Sheng; Xu, Liang; Yang, Hua; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B
To describe the cumulative 5-year incidence of visual impairment and blindness in adult Chinese in greater Beijing. Population-based study. The Beijing Eye Study 2006 included 3251 subjects who had participated in the Beijing Eye Study 2001 and returned for re-examination. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, low vision and blindness were defined as best corrected visual acutiy (BCVA) Visual acuity measurements were available for 3249 (99.9%) participants. Using WHO and United States definitions, the incidences of low vision and blindness were 0.5 ± 0.1% (mean ± standard error) and 0.1 ± 0.04%, and 1.1 ± 0.2% and 0.1 ± 0.04%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, incidence of BCVA visual impairment or blindness increased significantly with greater age (P = 0.01), but was not associated with gender, region, or level of education. Causes of BCVA visual impairment or blindness were cataract (39%), glaucoma (17%), and degenerative myopia (11%). Using the WHO and the United States criteria, incidences of low vision and blindness based on presenting visual acuity, were 1.7 ± 0.2% and 0.1 ± 0.06%, and 3.8 ± 0.3% and 0.2 ± 0.08%, respectively. Incidence of visual impairment or blindness (presenting visual acuity, WHO definition) increased significantly with higher age (P visual impairment or blindness was undercorrected refractive error (76%). In adult Chinese in greater Beijing, the 5-year cumulative incidence of BCVA visual impairment or blindness was 0.6 ± 0.1% (BCVA in better-seeing eye, <20/60) or 1.7 ± 0.2% (presenting VA in better-seeing eye, <20/60), which increased significantly with age. Measured as presenting VA, this also was associated with female gender and rural region. The major cause (76%) of decreased presenting VA was undercorrected refractive error, followed by cataract. Treating undercorrection of refractive error may be the easiest and most efficient method to improve vision in this community. Proprietary or commercial
Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter readin...
Full Text Available Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi realizado um levantamento para se conhecer a distribuição do D. folliculorum e D. brevis no homem. Uma amostra de 100 pessoas atendida em clínica estética foi examinada, procurando-se estudar a associação entre a presença de ácaros e fatores como idade, raça e sexo do hospedeiro. O material colhido da região facial dos indivíduos foi montado em lâminas com o meio de Berlese. Das 100 pessoas examinadas, 72 % foram positivas. Dos casos positivos, 51 % estavam infestados pelo D. folliculorum, 2% pelo D. brevis e 19% apresentaram-se parasitados por ambas as espécies.A survey was conduced to determine the prevalence of D. folliculorum and D. brevis for the first time in Brazil. In this study, association between the presence of mites and hostfactors (age, sex and race were anatysed. Samples were obtained from 100 individuals submitted to a facial cleaning in an aesthetic clinic in Botucatu city. All the samples were mounted in Berleses medium and examined by dark-field phase microscopy. From 100 studied individuais, 72 were positive, among the positive cases, 51% showed D. folliculorum, 2% showed D. brevis and 19% both species. The parasite distribution in realtion to sex was not taken in account because the sex ratio tavoured females (90%. According to age, prevalence was high in all age groups. The factors influencing this distribution could be due. 1. the examination of extensive skin areas, 2. the group examined composed of individuals in treatment in an anaesthetic clinic could be more infested than a normal population, 3. the fact that in tropics, the prevalence is often high in all ages.
Yinying Zhao; Jialu Xie; Junhua Li; Yana Fu; Xiaolei Lin; Shangrong Wang; Jiling Ma; Yune Zhao
Purpose. To investigate the safety and efficacy of monocular treatment for elderly Chinese patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with an automated thermodynamic system. Methods. This study was a prospective, examiner-masked, contralateral eye clinical trial. The eye perceived by the patient to be worse (test eye) received a 12-minute LipiFlow treatment, while the other eye served as control. All patients were examined before treatment and one week, one month, and three months after ...
Full Text Available Jesús Tellez-Vazquez On behalf of the Dry Eye In Glaucoma Study Group (DEIGSG Glaucoma Section, Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods: A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively], conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results: After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001 (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision. The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study
Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M
The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena
To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on
Full Text Available Purpose:To obtain data on the characteristics of low-vision patients seen at a tertiary eye care hospital in India. Methods:Records of 410 patients were retrospectively reviewed at the Centre for Sight Enhancement, L.V.Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Patients underwent a comprehensive clinical low-vision examination. Data obtained included age, gender, consangunity, visual acuity, visual fields, ocular conditions causing low vision and types of low-vision devices and methods prescribed. Results:Two hundred and ninety seven (72% of 450 patients were male. One-fifth were in the 11-20 years age group (21%. Visual acuity in the better eye was <6/18 - 6/60 in almost half these patients (49.3%. One hundred and twenty two patients (29.9% referred with a visual acuity of ≥ 6/18, either had difficulty in reading normal print or had restricted visual fields. The main causes for low vision were: retinitis pigmentosa (19%, diabetic retinopathy (13%, Macular diseases (17.7%, and degenerative myopia (9%. Visual rehabilitation was achieved using accurate correction of ametropia (174 patients, approach magnification (74 patients and telescopes (45 patients for recognising faces, watching television and board work. Spectacle magnifiers (187 patients, hand/stand magnifiers (9 patients, closed-circuit television (3 patients, overhead illumination lamp (143 patients and reading stand (24 patients were prescribed for reading tasks. Light control devices (146 patients were used for glare control, and cane (128 patients and flashlight (50 patients for mobility. Patients were trained in activities to improve their daily living skills, (54 patients; counselled in environmental modification (144 patients and ancillary care (63 patients for educational and vocational needs. Conclusion:Data obtained from this study elucidates the characteristics of low-vision patients. This information is likely to help in the development of appropriate low vision services.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During face identification in humans, facial information is sampled (seeing and handled (processing in ways that are influenced by the kind of facial image type, such as a self-image or an image of another face. However, the relationship between seeing and information processing is seldom considered. In this study, we aimed to reveal this relationship using simultaneous eye-tracking measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in face identification tasks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 22 healthy adult subjects (8 males and 14 females were shown facial morphing movies in which an initial facial image gradually changed into another facial image (that is, the subject's own face was changed to a familiar face. The fixation patterns on facial features were recorded, along with changes in oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb levels in the frontal lobe, while the subjects identified several faces. In the self-face condition (self-face as the initial image, hemodynamic activity around the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG was significantly greater than in the familiar-face condition. On the other hand, the scanning strategy was similar in almost all conditions with more fixations on the eyes and nose than on other areas. Fixation time on the eye area did not correlate with changes in oxyHb levels, and none of the scanning strategy indices could estimate the hemodynamic changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that hemodynamic activity, i.e., the means of processing facial information, is not always modulated by the face-scanning strategy, i.e., the way of seeing, and that the right IFG plays important roles in both self-other facial discrimination and self-evaluation.
Rodrigo Gracia Motta
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the medical records of the patients whose mycological culture of the hair in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide was positive for dermathophytes, and review the cases of dermatophytosis. One hundred and thirty six medical records of patients (114 dogs and 22 cats with dermatophytosis attended in a period of 54 months in the Veterinary Hospital of the UNESP – Botucatu were evaluated. Results obtained in this analysis have shown that the majority of the cultures were positive for Mycrosporum canis. There was no statistical difference between genders, but the number of defined breed dogs presenting dermatophytosis was higher than mongrel dogs. Among feline cases, however, there were a higher number of mongrel cats. The majority of the people and animals in contact with the patients did not report skin lesions. 32,5% 0f the dogs presented middle intensity itchiness, while in cats itchiness was absent in 77,3% of cases. 69,3% of the animals did not present clinical signs other than dermatological. Mean ages were 4 years in dogs and 3 years in cats. There was no statistical effect of season in the occurrence of dermatophytosis. Among animals submitted to Wood lamp evaluation, 40,9% of the dogs and 33,3% of the cats were positive for dermatophytes. Most dogs had generalized lesions, while the majority of cats presented focal lesions. The most common lesions observed were: alopecia, crusts and erythema.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os prontuários dos pacientes cuja cultura micológica do pêlo, em meio Ágar Sabouraud dextrose, suplementado com cloranfenicol e ciclohexamida, foi positiva para dermatófitos, e realizar um levantamento da casuística de dermatofitose. Foram avaliados 136 prontuários de pacientes (114 caninos e 22 felinos com dermatofitose atendidos em período de 54 meses, no Hospital Veterinário da UNESP de Botucatu. Pela análise dos
Dandona, R; Dandona, L; Srinivas, M; Giridhar, P; Prasad, M N; Vilas, K; McCarty, C A; Rao, G N
Aim: To assess the prevalence and demographic associations of moderate visual impairment in the population of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: From 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, 11 786 people of all ages were sampled using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy. The eligible people were invited for interview and detailed dilated eye examination by trained professionals. Moderate visual impairment was defined as presenting distance visual acuity less than 6/18 to 6/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Results: Of those sampled, 10 293 (87.3%) people participated in the study. In addition to the previously reported 1.84% prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity less than 6/60 or central visual field less than 20° in the better eye) in this sample, 1237 people had moderate visual impairment, an adjusted prevalence of 8.09% (95% CI 6.89 to 9.30%). The majority of this moderate visual impairment was caused by refractive error (45.8%) and cataract (39.9%). Increasing age, female sex, decreasing socioeconomic status, and rural area of residence had significantly higher odds of being associated with moderate visual impairment. Conclusions: These data suggest that there is a significant burden of moderate visual impairment in this population in addition to blindness. Extrapolation of these data to the population of India suggests that there were 82 million people with moderate visual impairment in the year 2000, and this number is likely to be 139 million by the year 2020 if the current trend continues. This impending large burden of moderate visual impairment, the majority of which is due to the relatively easily treatable refractive error and cataract, would have to be taken into account while estimating the eye care needs in India, in addition to dealing with blindness. Specific strategies targeting the elderly population, people with low socioeconomic status
Yuan Yuan Hu
Full Text Available To determine the effect of 1% cyclopentolate on the refractive status of children aged 4 to 18 years.Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergardens, primary schools, junior and senior high schools in a rural county and a city. Auto-refractometry was performed before and after inducing cycloplegia which was achieved by 1% cyclopentolate eye drops.Out of 6364 eligible children, data of 5999 (94.3% children were included in the statistical analysis. Mean age was 10.0±3.3 years (range: 4-18 years. Mean difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error (DIFF was 0.78±0.79D (median: 0.50D; range: -1.00D to +10.75D. In univariate analysis, DIFF decreased significantly with older age (P<0.001;correlation coefficient r:-0.24, more hyperopic non-cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001;r = 0.13 and more hyperopic cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001;r = 0.49. In multivariate analysis, higher DIFF was associated with higher cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001; standardized regression coefficient beta:0.50; regression coefficient B: 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18, 0.20, followed by lower intraocular pressure (P<0.001; beta: -0.06; B: -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.01, rural region of habitation (P = 0.001; beta: -0.04; B: -0.07; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.03, and, to a minor degree, with age (P = 0.006; beta: 0.04; B: 0.009; 95%CI: 0.003, 0.016. 66.4% of all eyes with non-cycloplegic myopia (≤-0.50D remained myopic after cycloplegia while the remaining 33.6% of eyes became emmetropic (18.0% or hyperopic (15.7% under cycloplegia. Prevalence of emmetropia decreased from 37.5% before cycloplegia to 19.8% after cycloplegia while the remaining eyes became hyperopic under cycloplegia.The error committed by using non-cycloplegic versus cycloplegic refractometry in children with mid to dark-brown iris color decreased with older age, and in parallel
Chen, Shih-Jen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, An-Fei; Peng, Kai-Ling; Chou, Pesus; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Hsu, Wen-Ming
To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of myopic maculopathy in an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 1361 Chinese aged 65 years or older residing in Shihpai, Taipei, Taiwan, underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Of the 1361 participants, 1058 subjects had at least one gradable fundus photograph and were recruited for analysis. High myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of less than -6.0 diopter (D) in the phakic eyes or axial length greater than 26.5 mm in pseudophakic or aphakic eyes. Myopic maculopathy was defined as the appearance of lacquer cracks, focal area of deep choroidal atrophy and macular choroidal neovascularization, or geographic atrophy in the presence of high myopia. The prevalence of high myopia was 4.2% (44/1058). Signs of myopic maculopathy were present in 32 (72.7%) of the 44 high myopics, representing a prevalence of 3.0% (95% confidence interval, 2.0%-4.0%). Subjects with high myopia with myopic maculopathy had higher systolic blood pressure than those without maculopathy (146.4 ± 16.2 mm Hg vs. 127.0 ± 15.9 mm Hg, P = 0.001), and the difference persisted (P = 0.018) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, educational levels, alcohol drinking, and histories of diabetes or taking anti-hypertension medication. Of the 65 high myopic eyes, eyes with maculopathy had a greater myopic degree (-12.8 ± 5.1 D vs. -7.6 ± 1.5 D, P = 0.001) and poorer corrected visual acuity (logMAR 0.72 ± 0.6 vs. 0.27 ± 0.2, P = 0.001) than those without. The prevalence of high myopia and myopic maculopathy in this elderly Chinese population group was high. Of the major risk factors examined, high systolic blood pressure may be associated with myopic maculopathy.
Tuninetti, Alba; Warren, Tessa; Tokowicz, Natasha
This study used eye-tracking and grammaticality judgement measures to examine how second-language (L2) learners process syntactic violations in English. Participants were native Arabic and native Mandarin Chinese speakers studying English as an L2, and monolingual English-speaking controls. The violations involved incorrect word order and differed in two ways predicted to be important by the unified competition model [UCM; MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 49-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.]. First, one violation had more and stronger cues to ungrammaticality than the other. Second, the grammaticality of these word orders varied in Arabic and Mandarin Chinese. Sensitivity to violations was relatively quick overall, across all groups. Sensitivity also was related to the number and strength of cues to ungrammaticality regardless of native language, which is consistent with the general principles of the UCM. However, there was little evidence of cross-language transfer effects in either eye movements or grammaticality judgements.
Leyman, Lemke; De Raedt, Rudi; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M
Former research demonstrated that depression is associated with dysfunctional attentional processing of emotional information. Most studies examined this bias by registration of response latencies. The present study employed an ecologically valid measurement of attentive processing, using eye-movement registration. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric participants viewed slides presenting sad, angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. For each type of expression, three components of visual attention were analysed: the relative fixation frequency, fixation time and glance duration. Attentional biases were also investigated for inverted facial expressions to ensure that they were not related to eye-catching facial features. Results indicated that non-dysphoric individuals were characterised by longer fixating and dwelling on happy faces. Dysphoric individuals demonstrated a longer dwelling on sad and neutral faces. These results were not found for inverted facial expressions. The present findings are in line with the assumption that depression is associated with a prolonged attentional elaboration on negative information. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric
Whether burnout is a form of depression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of the burnout-depression distinction by comparing attentional processing of emotional information in burnout and depression. Eye-tracking technology was employed for assessing overt attentional deployment. The gaze of 54 human services employees was monitored as they freely viewed a series of emotional images, labeled as dysphoric, positive, anxiogenic, and neutral. Similar to depression, burnout was associated with increased attention for dysphoric stimuli and decreased attention for positive stimuli. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that burnout no longer predicted these attentional alterations when depression was controlled for and vice versa, suggesting interchangeability of the two entities in this matter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to (a) investigate emotional attention in burnout and (b) address the issue of the burnout-depression overlap at both cognitive and behavioral levels using eye movement measurement. Overall, our findings point to structural similarities between burnout and depression, thus deepening concerns regarding the singularity of the burnout phenomenon.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.
Erdur, Sevil Karaman; Aydin, Rukiye; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Olmuscelik, Oktay; Eliacik, Mustafa; Demirci, Goktug; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim
The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome. 108 eyes of 64 patients with metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 110 eyes of 55 healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity. Main outcome measures were Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity values and OSDI scores were significantly higher in group 1 (314.4 ± 19.1 mOsm and 38.9 ± 1.1, respectively) compared with group 2 (295 ± 14.3 mOsm and 18.69 ± 17.2, respectively) (p = 0.01 for both). The Schirmer test values and TBUT in group 1 (10 ± 3.7 mm and 14.8 ± 3.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.8 ± 2.6 mm and 18.1 ± 0.5 sec, respectively) (p metabolic syndrome can influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.
Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J
We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)- and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)-derived measures in a British population. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study--the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT.
Guthrie, Sarah E; Jones, Lyndon; Blackie, Caroline A; Korb, Donald R
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical impact of using SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX), an oil-in-water emulsion, as a rewetting eye drop in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Subjects who had previously experienced contact lens discomfort (CLD), with a mean lens wearing history of 18.6±12.8 years, were randomly assigned to use a Test (SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops; n=76) or control (habitual nonlipid contact lens rewetting eye drop; n=30) drop over their contact lenses within 5 min of lens insertion and then subsequently at 2 hr intervals up to a maximum of 4 drops per eye daily for a 1-month period. Assessments of subjective comfort, comfortable wearing time, lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE), and corneal staining were conducted at baseline and after 1 month, after 6 hr of lens wear. Comfort, wearing time, LWE, and corneal staining all showed statistically significant improvements in the test group using SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops at the 1-month visit compared with baseline data (all P<0.01) and compared with the control group at the 1-month visit (P<0.01, P=0.01, P<0.01, and P=0.03, respectively). The use of SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops as a rewetting drop in a group of wearers who experienced symptoms of CLD improved subjective comfort scores, increased comfortable wearing time, and reduced signs of LWE and corneal staining, when compared with the use of non-lipid-containing contact lens rewetting eye drops.
... form of childhood eye cancer. Hemangioma is a benign tumor of the choroid and retina that starts in the blood vessels. Other, rare cancers of the eye include: Conjunctival melanoma is a tumor of the conjunctiva, which is ...
... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...
Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to compare the accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in eyes with long axial lengths from Chinese patients subjected to cataract surgery. Methods. A total of 148 eyes with an axial length of >26 mm from 148 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were included. The Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas were used to calculate the refractive power of the intraocular lenses and the postoperative estimated power. Results. Overall, the Haigis formula achieved the lowest level of median absolute error 1.025 D (P33 mm, and median absolute errors were significantly higher for those eyes than eyes with axial length = 26.01–30.00 mm. Absolute error was correlated with axial length for the SRK/T (r=0.212, P=0.010 and Hoffer Q (r=0.223, P=0.007 formulas. For axial lengths > 33 mm, eyes exhibited a postoperative hyperopic refractive error. Conclusions. The Haigis and SRK/T formulas may be more suitable for calculating intraocular lens power for eyes with axial lengths ranging from 26 to 33 mm. And for axial length over 33 mm, the Haigis formula could be more accurate.
Ki Wan Kim
Full Text Available The necessity for the classification of open and closed eyes is increasing in various fields, including analysis of eye fatigue in 3D TVs, analysis of the psychological states of test subjects, and eye status tracking-based driver drowsiness detection. Previous studies have used various methods to distinguish between open and closed eyes, such as classifiers based on the features obtained from image binarization, edge operators, or texture analysis. However, when it comes to eye images with different lighting conditions and resolutions, it can be difficult to find an optimal threshold for image binarization or optimal filters for edge and texture extraction. In order to address this issue, we propose a method to classify open and closed eye images with different conditions, acquired by a visible light camera, using a deep residual convolutional neural network. After conducting performance analysis on both self-collected and open databases, we have determined that the classification accuracy of the proposed method is superior to that of existing methods.
Kim, Sunjung; Wiseheart, Rebecca
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs. Axes and legends were labelled either with words (mixed-modality graphs) or icons (orthography-free graphs). Students also answered informationally equivalent questions presented in sentences (orthography-only condition). Response times were slower in the dyslexic group only for processing sentences. However, eye tracking data revealed group differences for processing mixed-modality graphs, whereas no group differences were found for the orthography-free graphs. When processing bar graphs, students with dyslexia differ from their able reading peers only when graphs contain orthographic features. Implications for processing informational text are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Doolan, Katy J; Breslin, Gavin; Hanna, Donncha; Murphy, Kate; Gallagher, Alison M
Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in attentional processing of food-related visual cues between normal-weight and overweight/obese males and females. Twenty-six normal-weight (14M, 12F) and 26 overweight/obese (14M, 12F) adults completed a visual probe task and an eye-tracking paradigm. Reaction times and eye movements to food and control images were collected during both a fasted and fed condition in a counterbalanced design. Participants had greater visual attention towards high-energy-density food images compared to low-energy-density food images regardless of hunger condition. This was most pronounced in overweight/obese males who had significantly greater maintained attention towards high-energy-density food images when compared with their normal-weight counterparts however no between weight group differences were observed for female participants. High-energy-density food images appear to capture visual attention more readily than low-energy-density food images. Results also suggest the possibility of an altered visual food cue-associated reward system in overweight/obese males. Attentional processing of food cues may play a role in eating behaviors thus should be taken into consideration as part of an integrated approach to curbing obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Stehlikova, Veronika; Urban, Martin; Nentvich, Ondrej; Inneman, Adolf; Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine
In the field of astronomical X-ray telescopes, different types of optics based on grazing incidence mirrors can be used. This contribution describes the special design of a lobster-eye optics in Schmidt's arrangement, which uses dual reflection to increase the collecting area. The individual mirrors of this wide-field telescope are made of at silicon wafers coated with reflecting iridium layers. This iridium coatings have some advantages compared to more common gold layers as is shown in corresponding simulations. The iridium coating process for the X-ray mirrors was developed within a cooperation of the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague. Different mirror parameters essential for a proper function of the X-ray optics, like the surface microroughness and the problematic of a good adhesion quality of the coatings were studied. After integration of the individual mirrors into the final lobster-eye optics and the corresponding space qualification testing it is planned to fly the telescope in a recently proposed NASA rocket experiment.
Daniel J. V. Beetsma
Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.
Sherwin, Justin C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J
Aim To investigate the prevalence of, and demographic associations with, uncorrected refractive error (URE) in an older British population. Methods Data from 4428 participants, aged 48–89 years, who attended an eye examination in the third health check of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study and had also undergone an ophthalmic examination were assessed. URE was defined as ≥1 line improvement of visual acuity with pinhole-correction in the better eye in participants with LogMar presenting visual acuity (PVA) spectacles was inversely associated with URE (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, pspectacles/contact lenses for distance vision. Spectacle wear differed according to type of refractive error (p<0.001), and use rose with increasing severity of refractive error (ptrend<0.001). Conclusion Although refractive error is common, the prevalence of URE was found to be low in this population reflecting a low prevalence of PVA<0.3. PMID:22535330
Full Text Available Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception.
Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J
Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086
Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella
Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813
Ritchie, Ailsa E; Griffiths, Philip; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Davidson, Adrian W
Abstract Background: It has been postulated that eye movement disorders in CPEO have a neurological as well as a myopathic component to them. Aim: To investigate whether there is a supranuclear component to eye movement disorders in CPEO using eye movement recordings. Methods: We measured saccade and smooth pursuit characteristics together with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain and VOR suppression (VORS) gain in 18 patients with CPEO and 34 normals using Eyelink II video-o...
Horton, Anthony; Spitler, Lee; Mathers, Naomi; Petkovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon
The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is b...
Full Text Available Dogs have been shown to excel in reading human social cues, including facial cues. In the present study we used eye-tracking technology to further study dogs’ face processing abilities. It was found that dogs discriminated between human facial regions in their spontaneous viewing pattern and looked most to the eye region independently of facial expression. Furthermore dogs played most attention to the first two images presented, afterwards their attention dramatically decreases; a finding that has methodological implications. Increasing evidence indicates that the oxytocin system is involved in dogs’ human-directed social competence, thus as a next step we investigated the effects of oxytocin on processing of human facial emotions. It was found that oxytocin decreases dogs’ looking to the human faces expressing angry emotional expression. More interestingly, however, after oxytocin pre-treatment dogs’ preferential gaze toward the eye region when processing happy human facial expressions disappears. These results provide the first evidence that oxytocin is involved in the regulation of human face processing in dogs. The present study is one of the few empirical investigations that explore eye gaze patterns in naïve and untrained pet dogs using a non-invasive eye-tracking technique and thus offers unique but largely untapped method for studying social cognition in dogs.
Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A
Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement
Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea
Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.Prôcedeu-se o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre escolares de 7 a 18 anos, de condições sõcio-econômicas baixas e residentes no distritoperi-urbano de Rubião Júnior, município de Botucatu, São Paulo, com o objetivo de analisar o papel de medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas no controle das parasitoses diagnosticadas. Dos 219 alunos estudados na primeira avaliação parasitolõgica, 123 (56.1% mostraram-se positivos para unia ou mais parasitoses. O tratamento foi aplicado para 84 escolares, por serem estes portadores de parasitos patogênicos. A segunda avaliação parasitolõgica foi realizada 4 a 6 meses após o tratamento em 75 (89% escolares. Os resultados indicam que o uso combinado do tratamento e medidas profiláticas foi capaz de limitar a ocorrência de novas infecções para níveis 73-1% foram encontradas para a maioria das parasitoses, exceto
Wu, Renyi; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Zheng, Yingfeng; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Ava G; Wong, Tien Yin
To describe the relationship of smoking, sex, and socioeconomic factors with age-related cataract in Malay adults in Singapore. In a population-based study, 3280 Malay individuals aged 40 to 80 years participated (78.7% response rate). All had interviews, systemic examination, and laboratory investigations. Lens opacity was graded from slitlamp and retroillumination photographs using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Smoking-cataract associations were compared with the Blue Mountains Eye Study in Australia. Of 2927 participants (89.2%) with gradable lens photographs, 1338 (45.7%) had cataract. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes, current smokers had a higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.98), cortical cataract (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), posterior subcapsular cataract (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.91), or any cataract (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.99). These associations were not seen in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Primary or lower education (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.06-2.64) and low monthly income (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87) were both associated with nuclear cataract, while small-sized public housing was associated with posterior subcapsular cataract (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.28-2.25). Among men, 43.5% currently smoked compared with only 3.2% of women. The population attributable risk of nuclear cataract due to smoking was estimated to be 17.6% in men. Smoking and indicators of low socioeconomic status were associated with cataract in Malay persons, with 1 in 6 nuclear cataract cases in men attributable to smoking. Smoking-cataract associations were stronger in Malay than in white persons.
Naderan, Mohammad; Jahanrad, Ali
To investigate the effect of pregnancy on anterior, posterior and biomechanical corneal parameters of healthy eyes. In this prospective cohort study, 70 pregnant participants with clinically healthy eyes underwent corneal topographic imaging evaluation by Pentacam and biomechanical assessment by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) before pregnancy, at the third trimester of pregnancy (34th week of pregnancy) and 12 months after delivery. The same number of age-matched non-pregnant females was evaluated at the corresponding appointments as the control group. Assessment of the tomographic, topographic and ORA measurements before pregnancy, at the third trimester of pregnancy and 12 months post partum revealed no statistically significant changes in anterior and posterior corneal flat, steep and mean keratometry, anterior and posterior elevation measurements, central and thinnest corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor and intraocular pressure measurements (p>0.05, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)). All of the study parameters returned to their baseline levels 1â€‰year after delivery. The ophthalmic parameters of the non-pregnant group remained significantly unchanged during the study period (p>0.05, all comparisons, repeated measures ANOVA). Moreover, no statistically significant differences were found between pregnant and non-pregnant groups in the second (34th week of pregnancy) and third (post partum) appointments (p>0.05, all comparisons, one-way ANOVA). Our findings may suggest a physiological nature for ocular changes during pregnancy that these changes return to baseline values after delivery. The differences between tomographic, topographic and biomechanical corneal parameters before pregnancy, during pregnancy and post partum were not statistically or clinically significant. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is
Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Jacobsen, Nina
Purpose: Myopia is the most frequent eye disease globally and is usually caused by increasing axial growth of the eye during childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle changes such as reduced physical activity (PA) are thought to be the driving force behind the rapid increase of myopia worldwide...
Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.
Previous research has shown that Danish-learning children lag behind in early lexical acquisition compared with children learning a number of other languages. This delay has been ascribed to the opaque phonetic structure of Danish, which appears to have fewer reliable segmentation cues than other...... by the phonetic opacity of the speech stimuli. We suggest that this finding results from the interplay of a perceptually challenging speech input and a slower onset of early vocabulary experience, which in turn may delay the onset of word learning skills in Danish-learning children....... closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...
Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.
Previous research has shown that Danish-learning children lag behind in early lexical acquisition compared with children learning a number of other languages. This delay has been ascribed to the opaque phonetic structure of Danish, which appears to have fewer reliable segmentation cues than other...... closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...... with a familiar one), through carrier phrases with different phonetic structures (more vs less opaque). Our results showed two main trends. First, Danish-learning children performed poorly on the task of mapping novel labels onto novel objects. Second, when learning did occur, accuracy was affected...
Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes.
Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis
Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin
Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the
Sng, Chelvin C; Allen, John C; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Foo, Li-Lian; Zheng, Yingfeng; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S; Wong, Tien Y; Aung, Tin
We determined the ocular biometric and demographic factors associated with iris parameters in Singaporean Chinese persons from a population-based sample. Subjects were participants in the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of eye disease. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images were analyzed using customized software to measure iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris area (I-Area), and iris curvature (I-Curv). Regression analyses were performed to assess the association between iris measurements with a range of demographic and ocular variables. The contribution of each independent variable to the iris parameter of interest was determined sequentially using a stepwise selection algorithm. We included 1473 participants with a mean age of 57.7 + 8.68 years, and 50.6% were men. The mean IT750, I-Area, and I-Curv were 0.46 ± 0.10 mm, 1.49 ± 0.24 mm(2), and 0.25 ± 0.13 mm, respectively. Statistical regression models, including a range of demographic and ocular parameters, explained 59.3%, 41.9%, and 34.3% of the variability in I-Curv, IT750, and I-Area, respectively. Angle opening distance at 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD750) was the single factor associated most strongly with I-Curv, and explained 46.6% of its variation. A significant proportion of the variation in iris area, curvature, and thickness was not explained by other ocular and demographic parameters. Iris curvature was associated strongly with angle width, and of all parameters investigated, AOD750 was most highly correlated with iris curvature.
Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Yekta, Abbasali; Mohammad, Kazem; Fotouhi, Akbar
To determine the prevalence of anisometropia and its determinants in a population-based sample. In a cross-sectional population-based study, stratified cluster sampling was carried out from the population of Tehran. Respondents were transferred to a clinic for an interview and ophthalmic examinations including tests for visual acuity with and without correction, cycloplegic refraction, the slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, and lensometry. Anisometropia was defined as unequal spherical equivalent cycloplegic refractions in the two eyes. Of 4565 participants, cycloplegic refraction was performed in both eyes of 3519 people. The mean age of the examinees was 31.5 ± 18.0 (range, 5-86) years. The mean anisometropia was 0.34 diopter (D) (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.31-0.37). The prevalence rates of anisometropia more than 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 D were 18.5% (95% CI: 17.0-19.9), 6.7% (95% CI: 5.8-7.7), 3.8% (95% CI: 3.1-4.5) and 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1-3.1). The inter-gender difference in the prevalence of anisometropia ≥ 1.0D was not statistically significant (P = 0.952). The prevalence of anisometropia increased after the age of 45 years. Overall, 15.7% of the examinees had anisomyopia and 4.7% had anisohypermetropia equal to or more than 1.0D. Anisometropia was more prevalent among patients with cataracts, amblyopia, and pseudophakia. The prevalence rates of spherical and cylindrical anisometropia in the studied sample were 8.0% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of anisometropia in the population of Tehran is beyond negligible. It showed a significant increase with age. Results also indicate that myopic patients are more likely to have anisometropia.
Pan, Chen-Wei; Boey, Pui Yi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tay, Wan Ting; Wang, Jie Jin; Tan, Ava Grace; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin
To describe the associations of myopia and axial length (AL) with age-related cataract in an Asian population in Singapore. A population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3280 (78.7% response) adults of Malay ethnicity aged 40 to 80 years. Refractive error was determined by subjective refraction and AL was measured using the Zeiss IOL-Master. Digital slit lamp and retroillumination lens photographs were taken and graded for age-related nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract following the Wisconsin system. After excluding eyes with prior refractive or cataract surgery, 5474 eyes with gradable lens photographs were analyzed. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking status, and education, myopia (spherical equivalent less than -0.5 diopter [D]) was associated with an increased prevalence of nuclear (OR: 4.99, 95% CI: 3.72–6.69) and PSC cataract (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.30-1.39) but not with cortical cataract (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.68-1.08) compared with emmetropia. Per-millimeter increase in AL was not associated with any of the three cataract subtypes. When myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of less than -5.0 D to -6.0 D, the OR of myopia for PSC cataract increased dramatically. Our study shows that myopia, but not AL, was associated with nuclear cataract, supporting the concept of index myopia with aging. Myopia, especially high myopia, may predispose to PSC cataract formation. Clinically, ophthalmologists should be aware that risk of PSC cataract appears to vary by refractive status.
Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.
Purpose. To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. Methods. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Results. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants. PMID:24030456
Bhurayanontachai, Patama; Saengkaew, Suwapat; Apiromruck, Penjamaporn
Pupillary dilatation with three types of eye drops is used regularly in the clinic; however, a mixture of these drops in a single bottle may be more beneficial in reducing workloads and resources. This study compared the efficacy in pupillary dilatation between two protocols of dilating drop instillation. This prospective, randomized, comparative study included 30 eligible Thai patients. The patients randomly received preoperative pupillary dilatations by either the conventional protocol (1% tropicamide (T), 10% phenylephrine (P) and 0.1% diclofenac (D) in three separate bottles) or the fixed combination (TPD) protocol which had the three types of eye drops mixed in a single bottle in a ratio of 4:3:3. The chi-square test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. The conventional protocol group and TPD protocol group each had 15 patients. Sixty minutes after the initial instillation, all patients in the TPD protocol and 13 patients (86.7%) in conventional protocol achieved at least 6mm in the shortest diameter. The mydriatic rate between protocols showed no difference. In patients who received the TPD protocol, the systemic effects on the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased over time. The mixture of tropicamide, phenylephrine and diclofenac had a comparable efficacy for a pupillary dilatation to the conventional dilating drops in separate bottles. The systemic complications on blood pressure and arterial pulse of the TPD mixture were less than the conventional protocol. TCTR20130325001. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J
To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.
Rocío Prado Vega
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23 and control participants (n = 12 completed four 5-min driving sessions in a simulator. The participants were instructed to maintain the car in the right lane of a two-lane highway while their speed was automatically maintained at 100 km/h. Additional tasks per session were: Session 1: none, Session 2: verbalization of projected letters, Session 3: avoidance of static obstacles, and Session 4: combined letter verbalization and avoidance of static obstacles. Eye-scanning behavior was recorded with an eye-tracker. Results showed no statistically significant differences between patients and control participants for lane keeping, obstacle avoidance, and eye-scanning behavior. Steering activity, number of missed letters, and letter reaction time were significantly higher for glaucoma patients than for control participants. In conclusion, glaucoma patients were able to avoid objects and maintain a nominal lane keeping performance, but applied more steering input than control participants, and were more likely than control participants to miss peripherally projected stimuli. The eye-tracking results suggest that glaucoma patients did not use extra visual search to compensate for their visual field loss. Limitations of the study, such as small sample size, are discussed.
Csákvári, Judit; Gyori, Miklos
Although considerable amount of evidence suggest that info-communication technologies have important potential to promote higher level of adaptive functioning and more efficient learning in people with intellectual disability (ID), very little is known about how people with ID scan visually the visual user interfaces of digital tools. Eye-tracking technique is widely used to study visual scanning processes and is used more and more extensively in assistive and educational technologies, too. Therefore, it is important to explore and understand the limitations and potentials of applying eye-tracking technique in people with ID. The present paper aims this by analyzing data from 4 studies (n=38/38 and n=15/30), via contrasting data from people with ID with data from neurotypical (NT) control subjects along 3 variables, indicative of the applicability of eye-tracking technique. Results strongly suggest that there are specific difficulties in using eye-tracking in people with ID, showing considerable individual variability but depending also on the nature of the actual task. Consequentially, using eye-tracking in this group expectedly requires special considerations and specific solutions.
Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li
Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood.
Vázquez-Quiñones, Luis E; García-Castiñeiras, Sixto
In order to obtain a wider perspective of iron homeostasis in the eye, a comparative study was undertaken of several iron-related parameters (Total Iron, TI; Total Iron Binding Capacity, TIBC; Transferrin, Tf; and saturation of Tf) both in blood serum and in ocular tissues (lens, cornea, iris-ciliary body, retina) and fluids (vitreous body, aqueous humor) of several animal species (pig, cow and rat). The relative degree of oxidative stress of tissues and fluids was evaluated based on the criteria that high values of TI and Tf saturation, and low values of TIBC and Tf, would promote iron-related oxidative stress. The inclusion of both diurnal (pig, cow) and nocturnal (rat) animal species in this comparative work provided the opportunity to explore if iron homeostasis parameters are in some way influenced by the higher oxidative stress level expected in animals with diurnal living habits. This project involved also the design of new and very sensitive methods of analyses, given the fact that in many cases very small amounts of sample (i.e., aqueous humor), and/or low concentration of analytes (i.e., transferrin) are available. All results were expressed as concentration relative to mg protein as determined with the Bradford method (microplate assay). When analyzing TI/TIBC it was possible to define a loosely bound iron pool (LBIP) in ocular tissues that was proportional to the degree of vascularization of the tissues analyzed. The comparison of iron related parameters patterns within the eye and among species allowed us to reach the following conclusions: (1) The aqueous humor and vitreous body of cow and pig exhibited highest concentration of Tf and a very low saturation of Tf, while the lowest value of Tf was detected in all species in the lens; (2) TI showed the tendency to be highest in the vitreous body of cow and pig, and lowest in the lens of all three species. The very low iron concentration in the lens may effectively counteract the risk of having a low Tf
Full Text Available Minoru Tomita* Miyuki Watabe* Mitsutoshi Ito Tadahiko TsuruShinagawa LASIK Center, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan*Minoru Tomita and Miyuki Watabe contributed equally to this studyPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conductive keratoplasty (CK for the treatment of presbyopia and analyze the differences in the effects between post- and non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK eyes. Clinical preoperative factors that could affect the predictability of CK were also analyzed.Methods: The visual and refractive outcomes of CK for the treatment of presbyopia in 14 eyes of 13 post-LASIK patients (post-LASIK group mean age 50.9 ± 3.4 years and those of 25 eyes of 25 non-LASIK patients (non-LASIK group mean age 52.4 ± 4.0 years were studied. The clinical efficacy, safety, stability, and predictability of CK were statistically evaluated.Results: The mean (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] ± standard deviation [SD] of preoperative uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE were 0.64 ± 0.25 diopter (D and 0.35 ± 0.48 D, respectively, in the post-LASIK group, and 0.71 ± 0.20 D and 0.64 ± 0.61 D, respectively, in the non-LASIK group. At 6 months after CK, the mean UNVA and MRSE were 0.07 ± 0.13 D and -1.59 ± 0.86 D, respectively, in the post-LASIK group, and 0.07 ± 0.12 D and -1.06 ± 0.56 D, respectively, in the non-LASIK group. At 1 year after CK, the mean UNVA and MRSE were 0.30 ± 0.17 D and -0.58 ± 0.52 D, respectively, in the post-LASIK group, and 0.28 ± 0.34 D and -1.56 ± 0.62 D, respectively, in the non-LASIK group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in either factor at 6 months postoperative (Student’s t-test, P > 0.05. At 1 year after CK, all the treated eyes maintained corrected distance visual acuity better than -0.08 (logMAR. The mean cylindrical errors were within ±1.00 D in 100% of the post-LASIK and non-LASIK patients. As for the
Diniz Filho, Alberto; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Ferreira, Dollores Martins; Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Calixto, Nassim
To investigate, through ultrasound biomicroscopy images, the presence of plateau iris configuration in eyes with narrow-angle from patients with open-angle glaucoma and in eyes with previous acute primary angle-closure and compare the biometric features of eyes with plateau iris configuration with those of normal eyes. Ultrasound biomicroscopic images from 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and 32 patients with acute primary angle-closure were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion and specific criteria for the diagnosis of plateau iris configuration was the presence of an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes, supporting the peripheral iris so that it was parallel to the trabecular meshwork; the iris root had a steep rise from its insertion point, followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall; presence of a central flat iris plane; an absent (complete plateau iris configuration) or partially absent (incomplete plateau iris configuration) ciliary sulcus. The ultrasound biomicroscopic parameters were compared between complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration. The same parameters of both groups were compared with those of normal eyes. The following measurements were performed: anterior chamber depth; angle opening distance at 500 microm from the scleral spur; peripheral iris thickness at 500 microm from the scleral spur; iris-ciliary process distance; trabecular-ciliary process distance and angle recess area. Plateau iris configuration was found in 33 eyes of 20 (10.2%) out of 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and in 4 eyes of 2 (6.3%) out of 32 patients with acute primary angleclosure. Seventeen (77.3%) patients with plateau iris configuration were female and 5 (22.7%) male. Twenty-three (62.2%) out of 37 eyes had complete plateau iris configuration, and 14 (37.8%) had incomplete plateau iris configuration. Complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration presented similar biometric
Karlsson, Petra; Wallen, Margaret
Eye-gaze control technology enables people with significant physical disability to access computers for communication, play, learning and environmental control. This pilot study used a multiple case study design with repeated baseline assessment and parents' evaluations to compare two eye-gaze control technology systems to identify any differences in factors such as ease of use and impact of the systems for their young children. Five children, aged 3 to 5 years, with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, and their families participated. Overall, families were satisfied with both the Tobii PCEye Go and myGaze® eye tracker, found them easy to position and use, and children learned to operate them quickly. This technology provides young children with important opportunities for learning, play, leisure, and developing communication.
Suefusa, Kaori; Tanaka, Toshihisa
Objective. Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye-tracking or eye-tracking interfaces (ETIs). The two types of interface have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on a comprehensive comparison between these two types of interface has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform. Specifically, our study is focused on two major paradigms of BCI and ETI: steady-state visual evoked potential-based BCIs and dwelling-based ETIs. Approach. Recognition accuracy and the information transfer rate were measured by giving subjects the task of selecting one of four targets by gazing at it. The targets were displayed in three different sizes (with sides 20, 40 and 60 mm long) to evaluate performance with respect to the target size. Main results. The experimental results showed that the BCI was comparable to the ETI in terms of accuracy and the information transfer rate. In particular, when the size of a target was relatively small, the BCI had significantly better performance than the ETI. Significance. The results on which of the two interfaces works better in different situations would not only enable us to improve the design of the interfaces but would also allow for the appropriate choice of interface based on the situation. Specifically, one can choose an interface based on the size of the screen that displays the targets.
Dreiseitl, Stephan; Pivec, Maja; Binder, Michael
To use computer-based eye tracking technology to record and evaluate examination characteristics of the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. 16 study participants with varying levels of diagnostic expertise (little, intermediate, superior) were recorded while diagnosing a series of 28 digital images of pigmented skin lesions, obtained by non-invasive digital dermatoscopy, on a computer screen. Eye tracking hardware recorded the gaze track and fixations of the physicians while they examined the lesion images. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in examination characteristics between physicians grouped according to expertise. There were no significant differences between physicians with little and intermediate levels of expertise in terms of average time until diagnosis (6.61 vs. 6.19s), gaze track length (6.65 vs. 6.15 kilopixels), number of fixations (23.1 vs. 19.1), and time in fixations (4.91 vs. 4.17s). The experts were significantly different with 3.17s time until diagnosis, 4.53 kilopixels gaze track length, 9.9 fixations, and 1.74s in fixations, respectively. Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions had no effect on examination measurements. The results show that experience level has a significant impact on the way in which lesion images are examined. This finding can be used to construct decision support systems that employ important diagnostic features identified by experts, and to optimize teaching for less experienced physicians. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the anatomical and histological structure as well as some histochemical aspects of the eye in Hemorrhois ravergieri snake by using the light microscope. The results show that the eye was spherical and located at head sides. Histologically, the sclera composed from collagen fibers located between it fibroblasts and pigment cells. The cornea divided in to peripheral cornea and central cornea, from the special results that appeared in the central cornea was the appearance of the tertiary spectacles on its external surface. The lens was spherical, translucent and didn't contain a pigment cells in its surrounding. The Uvea composed from Choroid, Ciliary body and Iris. The Choroid composed of connective tissue contained collagen fibers, blood vessels and pigment cells. Ciliary body appeared concave in its middle and give a few folds. While, the Iris connected to Ciliary body and it straight toward the lens and it convex toward the cornea. The retina appeared duplex and it composed from eight layers and two membranes. The photoreceptors layer contained one type of rods and two types of cones that were the single and double cones. From the distinct results that appeared in the retina of this snake that the appearance of blood vessels which supplied the retina, this mean the retina in this snake was vascular, and the vitreal vessels that lined also appeared. Also, from the distinct and strange results that appeared in the retina of this snake was appearance of strange vascular structure which may be a Supplemental nutritive device.
Chen, Jianzhong; Keirsey, Jeremy K; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K
The purpose of this investigation was to characterize differentially expressed lipids in meibum samples from patients with dry eye disease (DED) in order to better understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms. Meibum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with DED (PW-DED; n = 5) and a control group of postmenopausal women without DED (n = 4). Lipid profiles were analyzed by direct infusion full-scan electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). An initial analysis of 145 representative peaks from four classes of lipids in PW-DED samples revealed that additional manual corrections for peak overlap and isotopes only slightly affected the statistical analysis. Therefore, analysis of uncorrected data, which can be applied to a greater number of peaks, was used to compare more than 500 lipid peaks common to PW-DED and control samples. Statistical analysis of peak intensities identified several lipid species that differed significantly between the two groups. Data from contact lens wearers with DED (CL-DED; n = 5) were also analyzed. Many species of the two types of diesters (DE) and very long chain wax esters (WE) were decreased by ∼20% in PW-DED, whereas levels of triacylglycerols were increased by an average of 39% ± 3% in meibum from PW-DED compared to that in the control group. Approximately the same reduction (20%) of similar DE and WE was observed for CL-DED. Statistical analysis of peak intensities from direct infusion ESI-MS results identified differentially expressed lipids in meibum from dry eye patients. Further studies are warranted to support these findings.
Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.
Purpose. We examined the association of corneal hysteresis (CH) with Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT)– and Glaucoma Detection with Variable Corneal Compensation scanning laser polarimeter (GDxVCC)–derived measures in a British population. Methods. The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study—the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Ocular response analyzer (ORA), HRT3, and GDxVCC measurements were taken at the research clinic. Three ORA measurements were taken per eye, and the single best value used. Participants meeting predefined criteria were referred for a second examination, including Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the associations of CH with HRT and GDxVCC parameters, adjusted for disc area. The GDxVCC analyses were adjusted further for typical scan score to handle atypical retardation. Results. There were complete research clinic data from 5134 participants. Corneal hysteresis was associated positively with HRT rim area (P < 0.001), and GDxVCC retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) average thickness (P = 0.006) and modulation (P = 0.003), and associated negatively with HRT linear cup-to-disc ratio (LCDR, P < 0.001), after adjustment for Goldmann-correlated IOP and other possible confounders. In the 602 participants undergoing the second examination, CH was associated negatively with LCDR (P = 0.008) after adjustment for GAT, CCT, and other possible confounders. Conclusions. Lower CH was associated with HRT and GDxVCC parameters in a direction that is seen in glaucoma and with ageing. Further research is required to establish if this is a causal relationship, or due to residual confounding by age, IOP, or CCT. PMID:24334448
Xu, Buyun; Tanaka, James W
Understanding the Face Inversion Effect is important for the study of face processing. Some researchers believe that the processing of inverted faces is qualitatively different from the processing of upright faces because inversion leads to a disproportionate performance decrement on the processing of different kinds of face information. Other researchers believe that the difference is quantitative because the processing of all kinds of facial information is less efficient due to the change in orientation and thus, the performance decrement is not disproportionate. To address the Qualitative and Quantitative debate, the current study employed a response-contingent, change detection paradigm to study eye movement during the processing of upright and inverted faces. In this study, configural and featural information were parametrically and independently manipulated in the eye and mouth region of the face. The manipulations for configural information involved changing the interocular distance between the eyes or the distance between the mouth and the nose. The manipulations for featural information involved changing the size of the eyes or the size of the mouth. The main results showed that change detection was more difficult in inverted than upright faces. Specifically, performance declined when the manipulated change occurred in the mouth region, despite the greater efforts allocated to the mouth region. Moreover, compared to upright faces where fixations were concentrated on the eyes and nose regions, inversion produced a higher concentration of fixations on the nose and mouth regions. Finally, change detection performance was better when the last fixation prior to response was located on the region of change, and the relationship between last fixation location and accuracy was stronger for inverted than upright faces. These findings reinforce the connection between eye movements and face processing strategies, and suggest that face inversion produces a qualitative
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of eye diseases and visual impairment among new patients at the eye clinic ofHospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang.Method: In this cross-sectional prospective study, 1081 new patients were examined over a period of six months. Age,gender, ethnicity, visual acuity and diagnosis were noted from the medical records.Results: Out of 1081 examined, 607 (56.1% were males, 783 (72.4% were Malays. The mean age of patients was45.2 years (ranging from one month to 91 years. Cataract (248, 22.9% was the most common eye disease, followed byretinal diseases (124, 11.5% and ocular trauma (106, 9.8%. Majority of the patients (48 suffering from ocular traumahad foreign body cornea. In 85 premature infants screened for retinopathy, 19 showed different stages of retinopathy ofprematurity. Visual impairment was noted in 89 (8.2% patients, severe visual impairment in 12 (1.1% and blindness in 35(3.2%; vision could not be determined in 85 premature infants (7.9%. Cataract was singled out as the cause of severevisual impairment in 11 out of 12 patients.Conclusion: Health education at primary health centres and availability of eye specialists in all the district hospitals willfacilitate the rehabilitation of visually impaired and blind persons by providing early treatment for eye problems (specificallyprescription for spectacles, medical treatment and cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation.
Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B
Recent studies show that both adults and young children possess powerful statistical learning capabilities to solve the word-to-world mapping problem. However, the underlying mechanisms that make statistical learning possible and powerful are not yet known. With the goal of providing new insights into this issue, the research reported in this paper used an eye tracker to record the moment-by-moment eye movement data of 14-month-old babies in statistical learning tasks. Various measures are applied to such fine-grained temporal data, such as looking duration and shift rate (the number of shifts in gaze from one visual object to the other) trial by trial, showing different eye movement patterns between strong and weak statistical learners. Moreover, an information-theoretic measure is developed and applied to gaze data to quantify the degree of learning uncertainty trial by trial. Next, a simple associative statistical learning model is applied to eye movement data and these simulation results are compared with empirical results from young children, showing strong correlations between these two. This suggests that an associative learning mechanism with selective attention can provide a cognitively plausible model of cross-situational statistical learning. The work represents the first steps in using eye movement data to infer underlying real-time processes in statistical word learning.
Mazzone, Luigi; Yu, Shan; Blair, Clancy; Gunter, Benjamin C.; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.
Objective The authors sought to study activity in neural circuits that subserve the inhibition of a semi-involuntary motor behavior, eye blinking, in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and in healthy comparison subjects. Method Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan 120 participants (51 with Tourette syndrome and 69 comparison subjects) as they either blinked normally or successfully inhibited eye blinking. The authors compared the blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during these two conditions across the Tourette and comparison groups. Results Relative to comparison subjects, patients with Tourette syndrome activated more strongly the frontal cortex and striatum during eye blink inhibition. Activation increased more with age in the dorsolateral and inferolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus in the Tourette group relative to comparison subjects. In addition, the Tourette group more strongly activated the middle frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and temporal cortices. The severity of tic symptoms in the Tourette group correlated inversely with activation in the putamen and inferolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Frontostriatal activity is increased in persons with Tourette syndrome during the inhibition of eye blinks. Activation of frontostriatal circuits in this population may help to maintain regulatory control over semi-involuntary behaviors, whether these are tics or eye blinks. PMID:20080981
Aizenman, Avi; Drew, Trafton; Ehinger, Krista A; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Wolfe, Jeremy M
As a promising imaging modality, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) leads to better diagnostic performance than traditional full-field digital mammograms (FFDM) alone. DBT allows different planes of the breast to be visualized, reducing occlusion from overlapping tissue. Although DBT is gaining popularity, best practices for search strategies in this medium are unclear. Eye tracking allowed us to describe search patterns adopted by radiologists searching DBT and FFDM images. Eleven radiologists examined eight DBT and FFDM cases. Observers marked suspicious masses with mouse clicks. Eye position was recorded at 1000 Hz and was coregistered with slice/depth plane as the radiologist scrolled through the DBT images, allowing a 3-D representation of eye position. Hit rate for masses was higher for tomography cases than 2-D cases and DBT led to lower false positive rates. However, search duration was much longer for DBT cases than FFDM. DBT was associated with longer fixations but similar saccadic amplitude compared with FFDM. When comparing radiologists' eye movements to a previous study, which tracked eye movements as radiologists read chest CT, we found DBT viewers did not align with previously identified "driller" or "scanner" strategies, although their search strategy most closely aligns with a type of vigorous drilling strategy.
Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 µm and intermediate drusen (diameter 63–124 µm are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least two consecutive visits spaced five years apart over a 20-year period were included. A 6-level severity scale, including no drusen, four levels of increasing area (from minimal (<2596 µm² to large (>9086 µm² of only small hard drusen, and intermediate drusen, was used. The five-year incidence of AMD was 3% in eyes at the start of the interval with no, minimal, small, and moderate areas of only small drusen and 5% and 25% for eyes with large area of only small drusen and intermediate drusen, respectively. Compared to eyes with a moderate area of small drusen, the odds ratio (OR of developing AMD in eyes with a large area of only small drusen was 1.8 (p < 0.001. Compared to eyes with large area of only small drusen, eyes with intermediate drusen had an OR of 5.5 (p < 0.001 of developing AMD. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that large areas of only small drusen are associated with the incidence of AMD.
Boushehrian, Hamidreza Hajiani; Abouali, Omid; Jafarpur, Khosrow; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Ahmadi, Goodarz
In this research, a series of numerical simulations for evaluating the effects of saccadic eye movement on the aqueous humour (AH) flow field and movement of pigment particles in the anterior chamber (AC) was performed. To predict the flow field of AH in the AC, the unsteady forms of continuity, momentum balance and conservation of energy equations were solved using the dynamic mesh technique for simulating the saccadic motions. Different orientations of the human eye including horizontal, vertical and angles of 10° and 20° were considered. The Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis approach was used to find the trajectories of pigment particles in the eye. Particular attention was given to the relation between the saccadic eye movement and potential formation of Krukenberg's spindle in the eye. The simulation results revealed that the natural convection flow was an effective mechanism for transferring pigment particles from the iris to near the cornea. In addition, the saccadic eye movement was the dominant mechanism for deposition of pigment particles on the cornea, which could lead to the formation of Krukenberg's spindle. The effect of amplitude of saccade motion angle in addition to the orientation of the eye on the formation of Krukenberg's spindle was investigated. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Graph representation of variables have a dual propose: the first is related to time and space variations and the second to its didactic character. Climatic elements (air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, global solar radiation (diffuse and direct, radiation balance (short wave and long wave, wind (direction and velocity, atmospheric pressure, rain indices and others display a certain characteristic curve that represents place, time weather conditions of a given region throughout the days, months and years. The factors that differentiate one place from another, in climactic terms, is the variation amplitude of the atmospheric elements in time and space. For instance, the daily curve of solar radiation levels on the earth surface is identical for two places on different latitudes. The amplitude of maximum values and total energy integrated throughout the day and the year differentiate them. The aim of current research is the representation of curves of the main climate elements with instantaneous daily and seasonal variations of the climatic conditions in the cities of Botucatu SP and Maringá PR Brazil.
Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea
Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.
Pope, James M.; Verkicharla, Pavan K.; Sepehrband, Farshid; Suheimat, Marwan; Schmid, Katrina L.; Atchison, David A.
We investigated changes in eye dimensions and retinal shape with degree of myopia, gender and race. There were 58 young adult emmetropes and myopes (range ���1.25D to ���8.25D), with 30 East-Asians (21 female/9 male), 23 Caucasians (16/7) and 5 South-Asians (1/4). Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken with a 3.0 Tesla whole-body clinical MRI system using a 4.0 cm receive-only surface coil positioned over the eye. Automated methods determined eye length, width and height,...
Full Text Available The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analysis of participants’ behaviour during eye-tracking sessions allowed improvements of the prototype.
Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N
To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.
Brian H. Ross
Full Text Available This study explores what introductory physics students actually look at when studying worked-out examples. Our classroom experiences indicate that introductory physics students neither discuss nor refer to the conceptual information contained in the text of worked-out examples. This study is an effort to determine to what extent students incorporate the textual information into the way they study. Student eye-gaze patterns were recorded as they studied the examples to aid them in solving a target problem. Contrary to our expectations from classroom interactions, students spent 40±3% of their gaze time reading the textual information. Their gaze patterns were also characterized by numerous jumps between corresponding mathematical and textual information, implying that they were combining information from both sources. Despite this large fraction of time spent reading the text, student recall of the conceptual information contained therein remained very poor. We also found that having a particular problem in mind had no significant effects on the gaze-patterns or conceptual information retention.
Zsofia Katalin Takacs
Full Text Available The present study provides experimental evidence regarding 4-6-year-old children’s visual processing of animated versus static illustrations in storybooks. 39 participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker. Outcomes corroborate the hypothesis that specifically motion is what attracts children’s attention while looking at illustrations. It is proposed that animated illustrations that are well matched to the text of the story guide children to those parts of the illustration that are important for understanding the story. This may explain why animated books resulted in better comprehension than static books.
Goyal, P; Padhi, T R; Das, T; Pradhan, L; Sutar, S; Butola, S; Behera, U C; Jain, L; Jalali, S
PurposeTo evaluate the outcome of universal newborn eye screening with wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI) system.MethodsIn this pilot study, we examined 1152 apparently healthy newborn infants in the obstetrics and gynecology ward of a civil hospital in Eastern India over 1.5 years. The examination included external eye examination, red reflex test and fundus imaging by WFDRI (RetCam II, Clarity medical system, Pleasanton, CA, USA) by a trained optometrist. The pathologies detected, net monetary gain and skilled manpower saved were documented. The results were compared with three similar studies thus far published in the literature.ResultsOcular abnormality of any kind was seen in 172 (14.93%) babies. Retinal hemorrhage in 153 babies (88.9% of all abnormal findings) was the most common abnormality; it was bilateral in 118 (77.12%) babies and 4 babies had foveal hemorrhage. Other abnormalities included vitreous hemorrhage (n=1), congenital glaucoma (n=2), uveal coloboma (n=2), retinopathy mimicking retinopathy of prematurity (n=2), and cystic fovea (n=3). The retinal hemorrhages resolved spontaneously in all eyes. One baby with congenital glaucoma received surgery and the other was treated medically. The benefits included savings in skilled manpower, a net monetary gain of INR 4.195 million (US$ 62,612) and skilled manpower saving by 319.4 h.ConclusionsThe universal neonatal eye screening using WFDRI detected pathologies that needed immediate care or regular follow up; saved skilled manpower with a net monetary gain. But compared to a red reflex test the benefits were marginal in terms of detecting treatment warranting ocular pathologies.Eye advance online publication, 24 July 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.129.
Cornsweet, T. N.; Crane, H. D.
Optical apparatus varies apparent distance of a target image from the eye by means of reflectors that are moved orthogonally to the optical axis between fixed lenses. Apparatus can be pointed at any object, test pattern, or other visual display.
Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.
This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.
Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.
Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee
Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711
Jost B Jonas
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX and its associations in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 individuals. All study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination. After medical pupil dilation, PEX was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist using slit-lamp based biomicroscopy. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination results were available for 4646 (98.6% study participants with a mean age of 49.3 ± 13.3 years (range: 30-100 years. PEX was detected in 87 eyes (prevalence: 0.95 ± 0.10% (95%CI: 0.75, 1.15 of 69 subjects (prevalence: 1.49 ± 0.18% (95%CI: 1.14, 1.83. PEX prevalence increased significantly (P<0.001 from 0% in the age group of 30-39 years, to 2.85 ± 0.56% in the age group of 60-69 years, to 6.60 ± 1.21% in the age group of 70-79 years, and to 12.3 ± 4.11% in the age group of 80+ years. In multivariate analysis, PEX prevalence was associated with higher age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B:0.11; odds ratio (OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.13, lower body mass index (P = 0.001; B: -0.12; OR: 0.88 (95CI: 0.82, 0.95 and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002; B: 0.02; OR: 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.04. In the multivariate analysis, PEX was not associated with retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (P = 0.76 and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural Central Indian population aged 30+ years, PEX prevalence (mean: 1.49 ± 0.18% was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index and higher diastolic blood pressure. It was not significantly associated with optic nerve head measurements, refractive error, any ocular biometric parameter, nuclear cataract, early age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia.
Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.
Myrjam De Keyser
Full Text Available AIM: To compare the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT in replacing medical therapy in pseudophakic and phakic eyes. METHODS: Subgroup of a prospective randomized clinical trial including patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension controlled with medication. Of 38 pseudophakic eyes were matched with 38 phakic eyes. SLT was offered as a way to decrease medication while maintaining the same low eye pressure. SLT was performed over 360°, at 3ns, spotsize 400 µm, 100 spots. Data [intraocular pressure (IOP, number of medications needed] were measured at 1h, 1wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo. An independent-samples t-test was performed to compare baseline characteristics of the phakic and the pseudophakic group and differences in evolution of mean IOP and number of used medications. Chi-squared analysis was performed to investigate proportions of fast, slow and non-responders. RESULTS: The mean IOP measurement was 13.00± 2.88 mm Hg in the phakic group (38 eyes and 13.51± CONCLUSION: IOP lowering effect of SLT is comparable between phakic and pseudophakic eyes.
Pope, James M.; Verkicharla, Pavan K.; Sepehrband, Farshid; Suheimat, Marwan; Schmid, Katrina L.; Atchison, David A.
We investigated changes in eye dimensions and retinal shape with degree of myopia, gender and race. There were 58 young adult emmetropes and myopes (range –1.25D to −8.25D), with 30 East-Asians (21 female/9 male), 23 Caucasians (16/7) and 5 South-Asians (1/4). Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken with a 3.0 Tesla whole-body clinical MRI system using a 4.0 cm receive-only surface coil positioned over the eye. Automated methods determined eye length, width and height, and curve fitting procedures determined asymmetric and symmetric ellipsoid shapes to 75%, 55% and 35% of the retina. With myopia increase, eye dimensions increased in all directions such that increase in length was considerably greater than increases in width and height. Emmetropic retinas were oblate (steepening away from the vertex) but oblateness decreased with the increase in myopia, so that retinas were approximately spherical at 7 to 8D myopia. Asymmetry of eyes about the best fit visual axis was generally small, with small differences between the vertex radii of curvature and between asphericities in the axial and sagittal planes. Females had smaller eyes than males, with overall dimensions being about 0.5mm less for the former. Race appeared not to have a systematic effect. PMID:28663880
Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...
Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc
To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A
The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P vision was reported as moderate/severe/very severe at baseline in 57.6% of DED patients vs.10.5% of normal controls (P vision, productivity, and visits to eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.
Qualidade de vida em urticária crônica: inquérito em ambulatório público universitário, Botucatu (Brasil Quality of life in chronic urticaria: a survey at a public university outpatient clinic, Botucatu (Brazil
Maria Regina Cavariani Silvares
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da urticária crônica na qualidade de vida dos pacientes de ambulatório universitário a partir do questionário DLQI (Dermatology Life Quality Index. MÉTODOS: Inquérito sobre o impacto na qualidade de vida infligido pela urticária crônica a partir do questionário DLQI validado para a língua portuguesa. Pacientes foram entrevistados durante suas consultas em ambulatório especializado, entre maio de 2009 e maio de 2010, em serviço público brasileiro (Botucatu-SP. Os escores do DLQI foram analisados segundo subgrupos: idade, gênero, escolaridade, tempo de doença e presença de angioedema. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 100 pacientes com urticária crônica. Predominou o gênero feminino (86%, a idade média foi de 41,8 anos, duração média da doença foi de seis anos e angioedema ocorreu em 82% dos pacientes. O escore médio do DLQI foi de 13,5, caracterizando grave impacto à qualidade de vida, superior a hanseníase, psoríase, eczema atópico e carcinoma basocelular. Presença de angioedema se associou a maiores escores: 14,5 x 9,9 (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of chronic urticaria on quality of life of outpatients through the university questionnaire Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI. METHODS: Survey of the impact on quality of life caused by chronic urticaria, using the DLQI questionnaire validated for the Portuguese language. Patients were interviewed during visits to a specialized outpatient clinic between May 2009 and May 2010 at a Brazilian public service (Botucatu-SP. DLQI scores were analyzed according to the following subgroups: age, gender, education, disease duration, and presence of angioedema. RESULTS: We interviewed 100 patients with chronic urticaria. There was a female predominance (86%, mean age 41.8 years, mean disease duration of 6 years, and angioedema occurrence in 82% of patients. The mean DLQI score was 13.5, characterized by serious impact on quality of life, higher
Silva, Jéssica Bruna Santana; Cristino, Eva Dias; Almeida, Natalia Leandro de; Medeiros, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de; Santos, Natanael Antonio Dos
Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task. We investigated the concentration of 0.08% blood alcohol concentration (BAC), using an intra-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experimental design with a sample size of 20 young adults (11 men and nine women). All volunteers participated in both conditions, i.e., alcohol (0.08%) and placebo (0.00%), in a counterbalanced order. We use the Tobii TX300 eye tracker to evaluate eye movements during completion of Visual Maze Test. The results showed significant differences in the following eye movement patterns: the first fixation latency, number and duration of fixations (mean and total), the number and duration of saccades (mean and total), and the total execution time in the test. In addition, we investigate the areas of interest (AOI), decision points in which the participant must decide which course to follow. We verified that the participants in the alcohol condition had a significantly greater number of fixations in both AOI, in comparison to the placebo condition. Overall, our findings confirm that moderate doses of alcohol can change the eye movements of young adults. These alterations may evidence the influence of alcohol in cognitive processes, such as flexibility, attention, and planning, which are required during resolution of Maze Task.
Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva
Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task. We investigated the concentration of 0.08% blood alcohol concentration (BAC, using an intra-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experimental design with a sample size of 20 young adults (11 men and nine women. All volunteers participated in both conditions, i.e., alcohol (0.08% and placebo (0.00%, in a counterbalanced order. We use the Tobii TX300 eye tracker to evaluate eye movements during completion of Visual Maze Test. The results showed significant differences in the following eye movement patterns: the first fixation latency, number and duration of fixations (mean and total, the number and duration of saccades (mean and total, and the total execution time in the test. In addition, we investigate the areas of interest (AOI, decision points in which the participant must decide which course to follow. We verified that the participants in the alcohol condition had a significantly greater number of fixations in both AOI, in comparison to the placebo condition. Overall, our findings confirm that moderate doses of alcohol can change the eye movements of young adults. These alterations may evidence the influence of alcohol in cognitive processes, such as flexibility, attention, and planning, which are required during resolution of Maze Task.
Wang, Lanhua; Zhao, Yanzhi; Han, Xiaotong; Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang
Longitudinal data on visual outcome of correctable visual impairments (VI) are of paramount importance for decision-maker to estimate burden and demand to treat avoidable VI. To assess the 5-year visual outcome among participants with correctable VI and to identify associated risk factors. Population-based longitudinal cohort study. Participants with correctable VI at baseline attended the 5-year follow-up visit of the Liwan Eye Study. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) with habitual refractive correction was assessed using an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Then participants with PVA visual acuity. Correctable VI was defined as having a PVA of visual outcome among participants with correctable VI. Among 1405 participants at baseline examination, 188 (13.4%) had correctable VI, of whom 118 (62.8%) were re-examined at the 5-year follow-up, including 39 (33.9%) who progressed to non-correctable VI, 43 (37.4%) who had persistent correctable VI and 33 (28.7%) who were converted to normal vision. In multivariate logistic regression, compared with participants who were no longer visual impaired, significant risk factors for participants with persistent VI were older, had income <1000 RMB/month, and more myopia spherical equivalent. Over two of three participants with correctable VI remained to have VI after 5 years, among whom 50% are correctable by spectacles, highlighting the need to improve the refractive care accessibility to treat avoidable VI in China. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M
Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.
Yang, Soonwon; Kim, Woojun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Na, Kyung-Sun
Despite the possible association between migraine and dry eye disease (DED), there are only a few studies investigating this link in a relatively limited number of patients. Therefore, we have analyzed the relationship between migraine and DED in the Korean population. This population-based cross-sectional study included 14 329 adults participating in the fifth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. Migraine, DED diagnosis, and DED symptoms were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of migraine with DED while controlling for demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors. Individuals with migraine were more likely to report a DED diagnosis (14.4% vs. 8.2%, p migraine and DED diagnosis was significant after adjustments (OR, 1.577; 95% CI, 1.340-1.855). The association between migraine and DED symptoms showed a similar pattern (OR, 1.304; 95%CI, 1.151-1.502). Although a causal relationship was not revealed, we found that patients who had a lifetime history of migraine were more likely to suffer from DED than individuals who did not present with headaches; this association may require confirmation. Large prospective cohort studies are required to evaluate the association between migraine and DED, as well as the influence of DED treatment on the frequency and severity of migraine attacks.
Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.
Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…
Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Salgado, A.; Spence, C.
The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data
Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; La Cour, M
PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in an elderly urban Danish population. METHODS: Data originated from a Danish epidemiologic cross-sectional random sample population eye survey conducted during the years 1986-1988. The population consisted of 1...
Dayana Portes Ramos
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produção de genótipos de 3 grupos genômicos de bananeira: 'Nanicão-IAC-2001', 'Grande Naine', 'Caipira' e 'Nam' (AAA; 'maçã', 'Thap maeo', 'Prata-Anã' e 'Prata-Zulu' (AAB; 'FHIA 01', 'FHIA 18', 'Prata-Graúda' e 'maçã Tropical' (AAAB, em Botucatu-SP. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características de crescimento: altura de plantas, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas, número de dias entre o plantio e o florescimento, entre o florescimento e a colheita e do plantio à colheita. As características de produção avaliadas foram: peso do cacho, número de pencas, número de frutos, peso médio dos frutos, produtividade; peso, número, comprimento e diâmetro de frutos da 2ª penca. os resultados mostraram que, no grupo AAA, 'Nanicão' apresentou boas características de crescimento e produção, no entanto 'Grande Naine' apresentou maiores valores produtivos. 'Nam' apresentou menor porte e ciclo, porém baixos valores produtivos. No grupo AAB, 'Prata-Zulu' apresentou maior circunferência do pseudocaule, boas características produtivas, porém ciclo longo e porte maior. 'Thap maeo' destacou-se por apresentar boas características de produção. 'Prata-Anã' apresentou porte reduzido, menor ciclo, porém não apresentou bom desempenho produtivo. 'FHIA 01', no grupo AAAB, apresentou maiores valores na maioria das características avaliadas. Pode concluir-se que 'Grande Naine' se destacou no grupo AAA, 'Thap maeo' no grupo AAB e 'FHIA 01' no grupo AAAB.The purpose of this research was to assess the plants growth and production of genotypes of 4 genomic groups of banana: 'Nanicão-iAC-2001', 'Grande Naine', 'Caipira' and 'Nam' (AAA; 'maçã', 'Thap maeo', 'PrataAnã'and 'Prata Zulu'(AAB; 'FHIA01', 'FHIA18', 'Prata Graúda'and 'maçã Tropical' (AAAB, in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Some growth characteristics were evaluated such as: plant height, the pseudostem
Dayana Portes Ramos
Full Text Available A bananeira Figo Cinza é uma cultivar do grupo ABB, subgrupo Figo, que apresenta tolerância ao mal-do-panamá e às sigatokas amarela e negra, demonstrando ser uma cultivar interessante para programas de melhoramento genético. Devido a isso, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características do 1º ciclo da planta, como o crescimento, produção e atributos físico-químicos dos frutos dessa cultivar, no município de Botucatu-SP. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características de crescimento: altura de plantas, circunferência do pseudocaule e número de folhas, medidas na época de emissão da inflorescência; número de dias entre o plantio e o florescimento, número de dias entre o florescimento e a colheita, e número de dias do plantio à colheita. Também foram mensuradas as seguintes características de produção: peso do cacho, número de frutos, peso médio dos frutos, número de pencas e produtividade; na 2ª penca foram avaliados peso, número, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos. Os atributos fisico-químicos analisados foram: textura, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, açúcares totais, amido e teor de potássio. Foi utilizado o método das estatísticas descritivas para a caracterização da cultivar, através dos cálculos das médias. Os resultados mostraram que 'Figo Cinza' apresentou porte médio (2,9 m, ciclo de 420 dias, produtividade média de 12,74 t ha -1 e frutos com baixa acidez (0,06%.'Figo Cinza' is a cultivar of the genomic group ABB, Figo subgroup, which provides tolerance to Panama and Sigatoka diseases that may be useful in genetic breeding programs. Then, this work aimed to evaluate the plants growth, production and also the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits from this cultivar in Botucatu city, São Paulo state, Brazil. Some growth characteristics were evaluated such as: plant height, the pseudostem circumference, number of leaves, number of days between planting and
Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs. Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a “working-memory” (WM theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs compete for limited capacity of WM resources. However, prior research has mainly relied on self-report measures. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether “recall with EMs,” relative to a “recall-only” control condition, was associated with reduced activity of primary visual and emotional processing brain regions, associated with vividness and emotionality respectively, and increased activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, associated with working memory. We used a randomized, controlled, crossover experimental design in eight adult patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. A script-driven imagery (SDI procedure was used to measure responsiveness to an audio-script depicting the participant's traumatic memory before and after conditions. Results: SDI activated mainly emotional processing-related brain regions (anterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, WM-related (DLPFC, and visual (association brain regions before both conditions. Although predicted pre- to post-test decrease in amygdala activation after “recall with EMs” was not significant, SDI activated less right amygdala and rostral ACC activity after “recall with EMs” compared to post-“recall-only.” Furthermore, functional connectivity from the right amygdala to the rostral ACC was decreased after “recall with EMs” compared with after “recall-only.” Conclusions: These preliminary results in a small sample
Chua, Jacqueline; Baskaran, Mani; Ong, Peng Guan; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
Glaucoma can remain asymptomatic until a severe stage, resulting in a high prevalence of undiagnosed glaucoma worldwide. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's total glaucoma cases. To our knowledge, no epidemiological studies have assessed ethnic differences in undiagnosed glaucoma among various Asian subgroups. To determine the prevalence of, risk factors for, and visual features of undiagnosed primary glaucoma in a multiethnic Asian population. The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study is a population-based trial in which 3353 Chinese (2009-2011), 3280 Malays (2004-2006), and 3400 Indians (2007-2009) aged 40 to 80 years were invited for an eye examination, including visual field assessment, to establish glaucoma diagnosis. Participants with undiagnosed glaucoma (ie, answering no to whether they previously had been told by a physician that they had glaucoma, not using glaucoma medication, or not having undergone glaucoma surgery) were identified. Prevalence of, risk factors for, and visual features of undiagnosed glaucoma. Of 272 participants with primary glaucoma, 196 (72.1%) were previously undiagnosed. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed primary glaucoma was highest among Malays (2.65%; 95% CI, 2.10%-3.31%), followed by Chinese (1.51%; 95% CI, 1.13%-2.01%) and Indians (0.97%; 95% CI, 0.64%-1.43%). In multivariable analysis, variables associated with higher risk of undiagnosed glaucoma were younger age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09; P = .04), Malay ethnicity (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.31-10.13; P = .01), presence of primary open-angle glaucoma (OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.60-9.14; P = .003), absence of yearly eyeglass checks (OR, 9.29; 95% CI, 3.43-25.21; P prevalence of undiagnosed primary glaucoma varied among ethnic populations in whom a mean (SD) of 49.0% (14.0%) (n = 24) of affected individuals 50 to 59 years old already had clinically significant visual field loss. Such data may assist policymakers in implementing cost
muscle could present as a painful swelling over the corresponding part of the eye with associated restriction of ocular motility involving the muscle. TUBERCULOSIS OF THE EYE. CORNEA: Primary infection of the cornea is very rare. Corneal involvement is usually due to a hypersentitivity or cross-reaction whereby the.
O'Donoghue, M N
There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study. 156 Omani citizens of more than 12 years of age were given a close ended questionnaire. Their self reported responses were collected. Six questions related to cataract, diabetic retinopathy, refractive error, blindness, home treatment, rehabilitation of visually impaired and perception of eye services at Ministry of Health hospitals were asked with three grades of responses to choose from. Results: The knowledge about cataract and diabetic retinopathy was found to be good in more than 70% of respondents. 35% of participants agreed for home treatment of minor eye ailments. The importance of using visual aids and the need to give special facilities for the visually impaired was positive in 85%. Two thirds of the respondents were satisfied with type of eye services. Association of knowledge and satisfaction to the gender and age group was not conclusive. Conclusions: Knowledge regarding cataract surgery and blindness due to diabetes, attitude towards use of spectacles, perceived need for visual rehabilitation and satisfaction with eye care services was positive in more than 60% of the interviewed people in this pilot study. A larger study representing Omani population is recommended.
Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.
Troiano, Pasquale; Monaco, Gaspare
The aim of the study is to evaluate the short-term effects of 2 kinds of artificial tears, both containing 0.4% hyaluronic acid in an aqueous solution yet having different osmolarity, on the typical symptoms of patients suffering from dry eye and on the vitality of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. A cross-over, randomized, balanced, single-blind study involving 28 patients was divided into 2 treatment groups: group A (unpreserved 0.4% hyaluronic acid eye drops 300 mOsm/L) and group B (unpreserved 0.4% hyaluronic acid eye drops 150 mOsm/L). Both treatments were administered for 7 days, being dosed as a 1 solution drop 4 times daily. After a 1-day wash-out period, the patients in group A passed over to group B and vice versa. Treatment with hypotonic solution gave better results in relieving symptoms, along with a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the state of the corneoconjunctival epithelium, than the isotonic solution. At the end of the study, 60.7% of the patients declared that they preferred hypotonic solution and only 10.7% preferred isotonic solution; the remaining 28.6% did not notice any difference between the 2 treatments. By reducing the osmolarity of tear film, the hypotonic solution not only improves the characteristics of tear film and the vitality of the epithelial cells of the cornea and conjunctiva but also proves to be effective in reducing dry eye symptoms.
Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)
It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if
Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Martinjak, Petra; Planinic, Maja; Palmovic, Marijan
Developing a better understanding of the measurement process and measurement uncertainty is one of the main goals of university physics laboratory courses. This study investigated the influence of graphical representation of data on student understanding and interpreting of measurement results. A sample of 101 undergraduate students (48 first year students and 53 third and fifth year students) from the Department of Physics, University of Zagreb were tested with a paper-and-pencil test consisting of eight multiple-choice test items about measurement uncertainties. One version of the test items included graphical representations of the measurement data. About half of the students solved that version of the test while the remaining students solved the same test without graphical representations. The results have shown that the students who had the graphical representation of data scored higher than their colleagues without graphical representation. In the second part of the study, measurements of eye movements were carried out on a sample of thirty undergraduate students from the Department of Physics, University of Zagreb while students were solving the same test on a computer screen. The results revealed that students who had the graphical representation of data spent considerably less time viewing the numerical data than the other group of students. These results indicate that graphical representation may be beneficial for data processing and data comparison. Graphical representation helps with visualization of data and therefore reduces the cognitive load on students while performing measurement data analysis, so students should be encouraged to use it.
Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather
Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Micai, Martina; Joseph, Holly; Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David
Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with inference generation in reading tasks. However, most previous studies have examined how well children understand a text after reading or have measured on-line reading behavior without response to questions. The aim of this study was to investigate the online strategies of children and adolescents with autism during reading and at the same time responding to a question by monitoring their eye movements. The reading behavior of participants with ASD was compared with that of age-, language-, nonverbal intelligence-, reading-, and receptive language skills-matched participants without ASD (control group). The results showed that the ASD group were as accurate as the control group in generating inferences when answering questions about the short texts, and no differences were found between the two groups in the global paragraph reading and responding times. However, the ASD group displayed longer gaze latencies on a target word necessary to produce an inference. They also showed more regressions into the word that supported the inference compared to the control group after reading the question, irrespective of whether an inference was required or not. In conclusion, the ASD group achieved an equivalent level of inferential comprehension, but showed subtle differences in reading comprehension strategies compared to the control group. Autism Res 2017, 10: 888-900. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Technical efficiency of hospital services is debated since performance has been heterogeneous. Staff time represents the main resource in patient care and its inappropriate allocation has been identified as a key factor of inefficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the utilisation of physicians' work time stratified by staff groups, tasks and places of work. A further aim was to use these data to estimate resource use per unit of output.A self-reporting work-sampling study was carried during 14-days at a University Eye Hospital. Staff costs of physicians per unit of output were calculated at the wards, the operating rooms and the outpatient unit.Forty per cent of total work time was spent in contact with the patient. Thirty per cent was spent with documentation tasks. Time spent with documentation tasks declined monotonically with increasing seniority of staff. Unit costs were 56 € per patient day at the wards, 77 € and 20 € per intervention at the operating rooms for inpatients and outpatients, respectively, and 33 € per contact at the outpatient unit. Substantial differences in resources directly dedicated to the patient were found between these locations.The presented data provide unprecedented units costs in inpatient Ophthalmology. Future research should focus on analysing factors that influence differences in time allocation, such as types of patients, organisation of care processes and composition of staff.
Le Marchand Loic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that
Aloy, M Á; Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Obergaulinger, M; Esteve-Taboada, J J; Ferrer-Blasco, T; Montés-Micó, R
Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-)seismic techniques. As a biomechanical system, the eyeball possesses normal vibrational modes encompassing rich information about its structure and mechanical properties. However, the integral analysis of the eyeball vibrational modes has not been performed yet. Here we develop a new finite difference method to compute both the spheroidal and, specially, the toroidal eigenfrequencies of the human eye. Using this numerical model, we show that the vibrational eigenfrequencies of the human eye fall in the interval 100 Hz-10 MHz. We find that compressible vibrational modes may release a trace on high frequency changes of the intraocular pressure, while incompressible normal modes could be registered analyzing the scattering pattern that the motions of the vitreous humour leave on the retina. Existing contact lenses with embebed devices operating at high sampling frequency could be used to register the microfluctuations of the eyeball shape we obtain. We advance that an inverse problem to obtain the mechanical properties of a given eye (e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio) measuring its normal frequencies is doable. These measurements can be done using non-invasive techniques, opening very interesting perspectives to estimate the mechanical properties of eyes in vivo. Future research might relate various ocular pathologies with anomalies in measured vibrational frequencies of the eye.
Matsubara, Kosuke; Lertsuwunseri, Vorarit; Srimahachota, Suphot; Krisanachinda, Anchali; Tulvatana, Wasee; Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Sudchai, Waraporn; Rehani, Madan
To determine the eye lens dose of the Interventional Cardiology (IC) personnel using optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) and the prevalence and risk of radiation - associated lens opacities in Thailand. 48 IC staff, with age- and sex- matches 37 unexposed controls obtained eye examines. Posterior lens change was graded using a modified Merriam-Focht technique by two independent ophthalmologists. Occupational exposure (mSv) was measured in 42 IC staff, using 2 OSLD badges place at inside lead apron and at collar. Annual eye lens doses (mSv) were also measured using 4 nanoDots OSL placed outside and inside lead glass eyewear. The prevalence of radiation-associated posterior lens opacities was 28.6% (2/7) for IC, 19.5% (8/41) for nurses, and 2.7% (1/37) for controls. The average and range of annual whole body effective dose, Hp(10), equivalent dose at skin of the neck, Hp(0.07) and equivalent dose at eye lens, Hp(3) were 0.80 (0.05-6.79), 5.88 (0.14-35.28), and 5.73 (0.14-33.20) mSv respectively. The annual average and range of eye lens dose using nano Dots OSL showed the outside lead glass eyewear on left and right sides as 8.06 (0.17-32.45), 3.55(0.06-8.04) mSv and inside left and right sides as 3.91(0.05-14.26) and 2.44(0.06-6.24) mSv respectively. Eye lens doses measured by OSLD badges and nano Dot dosimeter as Hp(10), Hp(0.07) and Hp(3). The eyes of the IC personnel were examined annually by two ophthalmologists for the prevalence of cataract induced by radiation. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Konen, Christina S; Kleiser, Raimund; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Bremmer, Frank
Both optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are subclasses of so-called slow eye movements. However, optokinetic responses are reflexive whereas smooth pursuit requires the voluntary tracking of a moving target. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine the neural basis of OKN and SPEM, and to uncover whether the two underlying neural systems overlap or are independent at the cortical level. The results showed a largely overlapping neural circuitry. A direct comparison between activity during the execution of OKN and SPEM yielded no oculomotor-related area exclusively dedicated to one or the other eye movement type. Furthermore, the performance of SPEM evoked a bilateral deactivation of the human equivalent of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex. This finding might indicate that the reciprocally inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction involves not only OKN but also SPEM, which are both linked with the encoding of object-motion and self-motion. Moreover, we could show differential activation patterns elicited by look-nystagmus and stare-nystagmus. Look-nystagmus is characterized by large amplitudes and low-frequency resetting eye movements rather resembling SPEM. Look-nystagmus evoked activity in cortical oculomotor centers. By contrast, stare-nystagmus is usually characterized as being more reflexive in nature and as showing smaller amplitudes and higher frequency resetting eye movements. Stare-nystagmus failed to elicit significant signal changes in the same regions as look-nystagmus/SPEM. Thus, less reflexive eye movements correlated with more pronounced signal intensity. Finally, on the basis of a general investigation of slow eye movements, we were interested in a cortical differentiation between subtypes of SPEM. We compared activity associated with predictable and unpredictable SPEM as indicated by appropriate visual cues. In general, predictable and unpredictable SPEM share the same neural network, yet
Guo, Xinxing; Xiao, Ou; Chen, Yanxian; Wu, Huawang; Chen, Linxing; Morgan, Ian G; He, Mingguang
To investigate the relationship among eye shape, myopic maculopathy, and visual acuity in highly myopic eyes using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observational case series. The study included 190 eyes of 95 participants with bilateral high myopia from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center-Brien Holden Vision Institute High Myopia Cohort Study, with spherical power ≤-6.00 diopters (D) in both eyes. The participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, cycloplegic refraction, and ocular biometry. Posterior staphyloma was identified with 3D MRI, and ocular shapes were categorized into spheroidal, ellipsoidal, conical, nasally distorted, temporally distorted, and barrel shapes according to the inferior view from T2-weighted 3D MRI (Achieva 3.0T; Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). Myopic maculopathy was graded as C0 to C4 according to the International Photographic Classification and Grading System using fundus photography. The statistical significance of the differences in distribution of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in eyes with different ocular shapes was determined using Pearson's chi-square tests. Distributions of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in relation to different eye shapes. The mean spherical equivalent and axial length were -11.74±4.10 D and 28.18±1.73 mm in the right eyes, respectively. The same ocular shapes were observed in both eyes in 69 participants (72.6%). The predominant shape was spheroidal (53.7%), followed by nasally distorted and conical types (both 14.7%). C2 and above myopic maculopathy was observed in all barrel-shaped eyes, in 75% temporally distorted eyes, and in 71.4% nasally distorted and conical eyes. In eyes with posterior staphyloma (n = 22), 18 (81.8%) had C2 and above myopic maculopathy compared with 40 eyes (54.8%) without posterior staphyloma (n = 73). Eyes with temporal and nasal distortion, and eyes with staphyloma were more likely to have BCVA maculopathy, whereas
Riva, Ivano; Katsanos, Andreas; Oddone, Francesco; Quaranta, Luciano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of visually non-significant cataract extraction in patients with hypotony maculopathy and reduced visual acuity due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy. Patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) < 6 mmHg and documented hypotony maculopathy due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy were prospectively recruited. Eligible patients underwent visually non-significant cataract phacoemulsification, no earlier than 12 weeks from the diagnosis of hypotony maculopathy. IOP and visual acuity before and after phacoemulsification were compared at 1 and 3 months from surgery. Correlations between age, time interval between surgeries, baseline IOP, bleb type and IOP and visual acuity changes at 3 months after phacoemulsification were investigated. From January 2010 to September 2014, 20 consecutive adult patients met the inclusion criteria. Before phacoemulsification, mean IOP was 3.1 ± 1.6 mmHg. Following phacoemulsification, mean IOP increased to 8.6 ± 4.1 mmHg at 1 month (p < 0.01) and to 9.1 ± 4.3 mmHg at 3 months (p < 0.01). IOP elevation following phacoemulsification was observed in 16 of 20 eyes (80%). Mean visual acuity improved from Snellen 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 at 1 month (p < 0.01) to 0.7 ± 0.2 at 3 months (p < 0.01) after phacoemulsification. In 4 eyes in which the IOP was not elevated, surgical revision of the previous trabeculectomy was performed. No significant correlations between investigated variables, visual acuity and IOP changes at 3 months after phacoemulsification were found. Phacoemulsification of visually non-significant cataract appears to be a safe and effective technique for managing chronic ocular hypotony with deep anterior chamber due to over-filtering blebs.
Cheung, Ning; Tan, Shu-Pei; Lee, Shu Yen; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Tan, Gavin; Kumar, Neelam; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin
To examine prevalence and risk factors of epiretinal membrane (ERM) in a large, contemporary, multiethnic Asian population. Combined analysis of three population-based studies of eye diseases, with a total of 9799 Chinese, Malays and Indians residing in the general communities of Singapore. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, interviews and laboratory blood tests were performed to assess potential risk factors. Digital retinal photographs were used to assess ERM according to a standardised protocol. ERM was classified into cellophane macular reflex (CMR) and/or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMF), and also as primary or secondary (in eyes with other retinal pathology or a history of cataract surgery). The age-standardised and ethnicity-standardised prevalence was 12.1% for any ERM, 6.8% for CMR, 6.7% for PMF and 2.8% for bilateral ERM. ERM prevalence was higher in Chinese (13.0%) compared with Malays (7.9%) or Indians (8.7%). In multivariate analysis, significant factors associated with primary ERM were older age (OR 1.08 per year increase; p<0.01), Chinese ethnicity (OR 1.60 vs Indians; p<0.01; OR 1.39 vs Malays; p<0.01), smoking (OR 0.70; p=0.01), longer axial length (OR 1.07 per mm increase; p=0.03) and cataract (OR 0.64; p<0.01). Significant factors independently associated with secondary ERM were older age (OR 1.05; p<0.01), cataract surgery (OR 10.6; p<0.01) and diabetic retinopathy (OR 2.48; p<0.01). ERM is common in Asians, particularly among Chinese. Older age is the most consistent risk factor for any ERM, and previous cataract surgery and diabetic retinopathy are the strongest risk factors for secondary ERM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David
Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such flashforwards can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements performed whilst holding the mental image in mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants’ self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N=34 explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only, those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of eye movements and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic
Hu, Yuan Yuan; Wu, Jian Feng; Lu, Tai Liang; Wu, Hui; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xing Rong
Purpose To determine the effect of 1% cyclopentolate on the refractive status of children aged 4 to 18 years. Methods Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4–18 years were selected from kindergardens, primary schools, junior and senior high schools in a rural county and a city. Auto-refractometry was performed before and after inducing cycloplegia which was achieved by 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, data of 5999 (94.3%) children were included in the statistical analysis. Mean age was 10.0±3.3 years (range: 4–18 years). Mean difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error (DIFF) was 0.78±0.79D (median: 0.50D; range: -1.00D to +10.75D). In univariate analysis, DIFF decreased significantly with older age (Prefractometry in children with mid to dark-brown iris color decreased with older age, and in parallel manner, with more myopic cycloplegic refractive error. Non-cycloplegic refractometric measures lead to a misclassification of refractive error in a significant proportion of children. PMID:25658329
Paul E. Engelhardt
Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.
Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia
Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410
Xu, Liang; Wang, Ya Xing; Guo, Yin; You, Qi Sheng; Jonas, Jost B.
Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of steep cornea/keratoconus in the adult Chinese population. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including optical low-coherence reflectometry. Steep cornea/keratoconus were defined as an anterior corneal refractive power exceeding 48 diopters. Results Mean refractive power of the cornea was 43.16±1.45 diopters (range: 36.51 to 48.46 diopters; flattest meridian) and 43.98±1.52 diopters (range: 37.00 to 52.88 diopters; steepest meridian). A steep cornea/keratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of ≥48 diopters and ≥49 diopters was detected in 27 subjects (prevalence rate: 0.9±0.2%) and 6 (0.2± 0.1%) subjects, respectively. Presence of steep cornea/keratoconus was associated with shorter axial length (Pkeratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of 48+ diopters has a prevalence of 0.9±0.2% among Chinese aged 50 years and above. Its prevalence was significantly associated with the ocular parameters of shorter axial length, smaller interpupillary distance, higher cylindrical and myopic refractive error and lower best corrected visual acuity, however, with none of the systemic parameters tested. PMID:22792169
Malley, D S; Steinert, R F; Puliafito, C A; Dobi, E T
We performed anterior keratectomies on six monkey eyes, four by excimer laser large-area ablation at 193 nm and two by mechanical keratectomy. Immunofluorescence was used to study the wound healing response histopathologically. The distribution of fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, collagen types III, IV, and VI, and keratan sulfate was determined at postoperative intervals of 24 hours, 6 days, and 1 month. At 24 hours, fibrinogen and fibronectin coated the ablated surface, but corneal epithelial cells had not yet migrated over the wound. By 6 days and persisting at 1 month, an epithelial ingrowth of seven to 10 layers, mild stromal hypercellularity, and new collagen formation were present in the repair region. At 1 month, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, and type III collagen were strongly detected in the repair region. Type VI collagen was present in both normal and healed corneal stroma at all intervals, and type IV collagen was present in Descemet's membrane only. Sulfated keratan sulfate was absent from the newly synthesized collagen stroma at all intervals. Slit-lamp photographs demonstrated corneal haze in the ablation zone in all cases at 24 hours, persisting for 1 month. The fluorescence patterns produced by excimer laser ablation and mechanical keratectomy were qualitatively identical.
Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki
Increased interest in the self has long been deemed to be one of the most peculiar characteristics of adolescence. On the basis of this, we conjectured that attentiveness towards self-relevant information, especially one's own face, becomes more pronounced during the middle adolescence. The present study tested this hypothesis by comparing the pattern of visuospatial attention allocation to their own face among early, middle and late adolescent males using an eye-tracking methodology. The results have shown a clear pattern of increased attention allocation towards their own face over a close friend's and a stranger's face in middle adolescents, but fixation durations on their own and a friend's face did not differ from each other in early and late adolescents. In addition, middle adolescents showed higher public self-consciousness and a lower level of self-esteem than early and late adolescents, respectively. These results indicate that attention allocation towards one's own face is more pronounced during middle adolescence, and is associated with increased interest in their own attributes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M
Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients' comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes.
Full Text Available Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.
Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia
Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech.
Liang, Yuan Bo; Friedman, David S; Wong, Tien Yin; Wang, Feng Hua; Duan, Xin Rong; Yang, Xiao Hui; Zhou, Qiang; Tao, Qiushan; Zhan, Si Yan; Sun, Lan Ping; Wang, Ning Li
To describe the rationale, design, methodology and baseline characteristics of the Handan Eye Study (HES), a population-based study to determine the prevalence and impact of visual impairment and major ocular diseases in Chinese adults living in a rural region north China. Population-based, cross-sectional study. 6830 Han people aged 30 years and older from 13 villages of Yongnian County, Handan city, Hebei province, China were recruited. The interviews covered demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors as well as health-related and vision-related quality of life. Ocular examination included measurement of visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure, anterior and posterior segment examinations, visual field testing, and anterior segment, fundus and optic disc photography/imaging. Physical examination included measurement of height and weight, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, fasting blood glucose, lipid levels, urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as tests of physical function including walking speed. Of the 7557 individuals eligible for the Handan Eye Study (HES), 6830 (90.4%) subjects participated the study. The majority of participants were female (53.6%), the average (+/- standard deviation) age was 52.3 (+/- 12.3) years, and 100% were self-identified Han people. In contrast to the non-participants, those who participated were more likely to be female, elderly, married, and had more years of education (P < 0.05). The HES successfully examined over 90% of eligible Han Chinese adults aged 30 and older from a rural region of north China. Results from the HES will provide key information about the prevalence, risk factors, impact, and trends of ocular disease in rural regions of China.
Paulo José Fortes Villas Boas
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um dos projetos desenvolvidos pelo Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para a Saúde (PET-Saúde da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Unesp é voltado à atenção integral à saúde do idoso: Acompanhamento Domiciliar (ACO. OBJETIVOS: Realizar ACO em idosos de USF, mensurando o impacto de medidas, e descrever a percepção de acadêmicos quanto ao ACO. METODOLOGIA: A equipe era composta por um tutor, três preceptores e 12 acadêmicos. Cada aluno realizou o acompanhamento de um idoso, aplicando a Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla, com ênfase na capacidade funcional. Após cada visita, eram realizadas discussões e propostos planos terapêuticos intervencionais não medicamentosos. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 15 idosos e foram acompanhados 12, com média etária de 84,3 (± 2,6 anos, sendo 75% do sexo feminino. Tinham dependência para AVD (atividades de vida diária 67% e para AIVD (atividades instrumentais de vida diária 85%. Durante o ACO, nenhum idoso necessitou de internação. Os acadêmicos relataram melhor compreensão do envelhecimento populacional e a adequação do ACO como forma de atenção à saúde dos idosos. CONCLUSÕES: As atividades permitiram o estabelecimento de vínculo entre a equipe. O interesse do acadêmico na atenção à saúde do idoso foi atingido. A metodologia facilitou o processo de integração ensino-serviço.
Norma Helen Medina
Full Text Available Em 1938, foram criados os Dispensários de Tracoma em São Paulo, entre eles, o de Botucatu, onde a incidência de tracoma era de 10,9%. Na década de 70, o tracoma passou a não ser mais um problema de saúde pública. A doença reapareceu no início dos anos 80, levando a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES-SP, a implantar um programa de controle, detectando-se casos novos em diversos locais, inclusive em Botucatu. Realizou-se esta investigação com o objetivo de conhecer a prevalência do tracoma em escolares e pré-escolares da rede de ensino, e implantar um programa de controle da doença em Botucatu, São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas a exame ocular externo para detectar sinais de tracoma, seguindo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram examinadas 1.393 crianças, encontrando-se uma prevalência de tracoma de 11,9%. Todos os casos foram tratados com pomada de tetraciclina a 1,0% e controlados. Durante os controles, observou-se um aumento da freqüência de faltosos de 1,6% no primeiro retorno a 62,4% para último retorno. Os resultados revelaram a necessidade de se conhecer melhor as causas da não-aderência ao programa e o seu impacto na efetividade do tratamento do tracoma.
Medina Norma Helen
Full Text Available Em 1938, foram criados os Dispensários de Tracoma em São Paulo, entre eles, o de Botucatu, onde a incidência de tracoma era de 10,9%. Na década de 70, o tracoma passou a não ser mais um problema de saúde pública. A doença reapareceu no início dos anos 80, levando a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES-SP, a implantar um programa de controle, detectando-se casos novos em diversos locais, inclusive em Botucatu. Realizou-se esta investigação com o objetivo de conhecer a prevalência do tracoma em escolares e pré-escolares da rede de ensino, e implantar um programa de controle da doença em Botucatu, São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas a exame ocular externo para detectar sinais de tracoma, seguindo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram examinadas 1.393 crianças, encontrando-se uma prevalência de tracoma de 11,9%. Todos os casos foram tratados com pomada de tetraciclina a 1,0% e controlados. Durante os controles, observou-se um aumento da freqüência de faltosos de 1,6% no primeiro retorno a 62,4% para último retorno. Os resultados revelaram a necessidade de se conhecer melhor as causas da não-aderência ao programa e o seu impacto na efetividade do tratamento do tracoma.
Ford, Andrew H; Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder has poor prognostic implications for Parkinson's disease. The authors recruited 124 patients with early Parkinson's disease to compare clinical and neuroimaging findings based on the presence of this sleep disorder. The presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was assessed with the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences were obtained for voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with sleep disorder had more advanced disease, but groups had similar clinical characteristics and cognitive performance. Those with sleep disorder had areas of reduced cortical grey matter volume and white matter changes compared with those who did not have sleep disorder. However, differences were slight and were not significant when the analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was associated with subtle changes in white matter integrity and grey matter volume in patients with early Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Kirkorian, Heather L; Anderson, Daniel R
Eye movements were recorded as 12-month-olds (n = 15), 4-year-olds (n = 17), and adults (n = 19) watched a 15-min video with sequences of shots conveying continuous motion. The central question was whether, and at what age, viewers anticipate the reappearance of objects following cuts to new shots. Adults were more likely than younger viewers to make anticipatory eye movements. Four-year-olds responded to transitions more slowly and tended to fixate the center of the screen. Infants' eye movement patterns reflected a tendency to react rather than anticipate. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adults integrate content across shots and understand how space is represented in edited video. Results are interpreted with respect to a developing understanding of film editing due to experience and cognitive maturation. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sit, Arthur J; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Kazemi, Arash; McLaren, Jay W; Pruet, Christopher M; Zhang, Xiaoming
Abnormal ocular biomechanical properties may be important for understanding the risk of glaucoma. However, there are no clinical methods for measuring standard material properties in patients. In this feasibility study we demonstrated proof-of-principle for a novel method, ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE), to determine the in vivo Young's modulus of elasticity of corneas in normal human eyes. Twenty eyes of 10 healthy subjects (mean age 51.4±7.2;±SD, range 43-64 y) were studied. A spherical-tipped probe (3-mm diameter) was placed on closed eyelids and generated a gentle harmonic vibration at 100 Hz for 0.1 second. Wave speed propagation in the cornea was measured by USWE, and Young's modulus was calculated from the wave speed. Associations between Young's modulus and intraocular pressure (IOP), age, central corneal thickness, and axial length were explored by Pearson correlation. Statistical significance was determined by using generalized estimating equation models to account for possible correlation between fellow eyes. Mean IOP was 12.8±2.7 mm Hg. Mean wave speed in the cornea was 1.82±0.10 m/s. Young's modulus of elasticity was 696±113 kPa and was correlated with IOP (r=0.57; P=0.004), but none of the other variables (P>0.1). USWE is a novel non-invasive technique for measuring ocular biomechanical properties. Corneal Young's modulus in normal eyes is associated with IOP, consistent with measurements in cadaver eyes. Further work is needed to determine elasticity in other ocular tissues, particularly the sclera, and if elasticity is altered in glaucoma patients.
Sophie I Candille
Full Text Available Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world.
Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa’ A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.
Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974
Harris, Alon; Topouzis, Fotis; Wilson, M Roy; Founti, Panayiota; Kheradiya, Nisha Shah; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Gong, Gordon; Yu, Fei; Jonescu-Cuypers, Christian P; Pappas, Theofanis; Koskosas, Archimidis; Coleman, Anne L
To investigate the association of antihypertensive medications with optic disc structure by blood pressure (BP) level, in nonglaucoma subjects. Cross-sectional, population-based study. A subset of Thessaloniki Eye Study participants was included in this study. Subjects were interviewed for medical history and underwent extensive ophthalmic examination, BP measurement, and optic disc imaging with the Heidelberg retinal tomograph. Subjects treated for hypertension were grouped in the following groups: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers; (2) beta blockers and/or calcium-channel blockers; (3) diuretics alone or combined with others; and (4) other combinations. Cup size and cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio in the above groups were compared with the untreated group, using regression models. Analyses were rerun for subjects with systolic BP (SBP)<140 mm Hg, SBP≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP (DBP)<90 mm Hg, and DBP≥90 mm Hg. Among 232 subjects, 131 were receiving antihypertensive medications. In subjects with DBP<90 mm Hg, all medications groups were associated with larger cup size and higher C/D ratio compared with the untreated group. Results were similar in subjects with SBP<140 mm Hg, with the exception of the beta blockers and/or calcium-channel blockers group. None of the medications groups were associated with the Heidelberg retinal tomograph parameters in those with DBP≥90 mm Hg or SBP≥140 mm Hg. All classes of antihypertensive medications were associated with larger cup size and higher C/D ratio in subjects with either DBP<90 mm Hg or SBP<140 mm Hg. These results suggest that there is no specific medication-related effect on optic disc structure, and the associations found are mediated through the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive medications.
López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel; Rivas, Luis; Ramírez, Nuria; Raposo, Rafaela; Méndez, Maria T
To assess the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate as vehicle for diluting autologous serum. The concentration and temporal stability of EGF, TGF-β, PDGF-AB and albumin in fresh and frozen samples of autologous serum diluted with sodium hyaluronate and saline solution, as well as the pH, osmolarity and density was studied. In parallel, the clinic effects of autologous serum diluted to 20% with sodium hyaluronate were compared with another solution of autologous serum diluted to 20% with saline in a prospective, comparative, randomized and double-blind study in 26 patients (52 eyes) with Sjögren syndrome. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmic assessment including tear film evaluation and corneal and conjunctival impression cytology at the beginning of the study and 2 months later. The growth factor (GF) concentration remained stable during 1 month at 4°C both in fresh and defrosted samples without any differences being found between both preparations. No differences were found related to osmolarity, pH and density between these preparations before and after frosting. Autologous serum diluted with sodium hyaluronate caused a significant improvement of the tear film stability, fluorescein and rose Bengal stain, break-up time, corneal and conjunctival squamous metaplasia as well as in the patient subjective perception. Sodium hyaluronate is an excellent vehicle for diluting autologous serum due to the gradual release of GF and increasing their duration and effect on the ocular surface. Preparations diluted with sodium hyaluronate are better tolerated by patients and require a lower number of drops administrations. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kamiya, K; Nakanishi, M; Ishii, R; Kobashi, H; Igarashi, A; Sato, N; Shimizu, K
To assess the additive effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy in patients with dry eye syndrome. This study evaluated 64 eyes of 32 patients (age: 62.6±12.8 years (mean±SD)) in whom treatment with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate was insufficiently responsive. The eyes were randomly assigned to one of the two regimens in each patient: topical administration of sodium hyaluronate and diquafosol tetrasodium in one eye, and that of sodium hyaluronate in the other. Before treatment, and 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, we determined tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and rose bengal vital staining scores, subjective symptoms, and adverse events. We found a significant improvement in BUT (P=0.049, Dunnett test), fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores (P=0.02), and in subjective symptoms (P=0.004 for dry eye sensation, P=0.02 for pain, and P=0.02 for foreign body sensation) 4 weeks after treatment in the diquafosol eyes. On the other hand, we found no significant change in these parameters after treatment in the control eyes. In dry eyes, where sodium hyaluronate monotherapy was insufficient, diquafosol tetrasodium was effective in improving objective and subjective symptoms, suggesting its viability as an option for the additive treatment of such eyes.
PREVALÊNCIA DE ENDOPARASITAS EM AMOSTRAS FECAIS DE AVES SILVESTRES E EXÓTICAS EXAMINADAS NO LABORATÓRIO DE ORNITOPATOLOGIA E NO LABORATÓRIO DE ENFERMIDADES PARASITÁRIAS DA FMVZ-UNESP/BOTUCATU-SP PREVALENCE OF ENDOPARASITES IN FECAL SAMPLES OF EXOTIC AND WILD BIRDS EXAMINED IN THE LABORATORY OF ORNITOPATOLOGY AND LABORATORY OF PARASITICS DISEASES OF THE FMVZ – UNESP/BOTUCATU, SP
Raimundo de Souza Lopes
Full Text Available Dos vários problemas sanitários que afetam as aves, as enfermidades parasitárias estão entre as mais frequentes. Analisou-se no presente trabalho a prevalência de endoparasitas das 207 amostras fecais de aves silvestres e exóticas atendidas no Laboratório de Ornitopatologia e no Laboratório de Enfermidades Parasitárias do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (FMVZ-UNESP, campus de Botucatu, SP. As amostras foram inicialmente analisadas através do exame direto a fresco e, após a constatação da presença de ovos, cistos ou oocistos nas fezes, as mesmas amostras foram submetidas à Técnica de Faust e ao Método de Willis. No estudo encontraram-se ovos de três gêneros de nematoídes e cistos de quatro gêneros de protozoários em cinco de doze ordens aviárias, sendo Passeriformes a que apresentou o maior número de indivíduos parasitados.
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aves, ornitopatologia, parasitologia. Among the various sanitary problems affecting birds, parasitic diseases are some of the most common ones. This study analyses the prevalence of endoparasites in 20 fecal samples of wild and exotic birds attended at the Ornitopathology and Parasitic Diseases Laboratories of the Veterinary Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnics, São Paulo State University (FMVZ-UNESP, campus Botucatu. After confirmation of eggs, cysts or oocysts through direct fecal test, Faust technique and Willis Method were performed on feces. Eggs of three genera of nematodes as well as cysts of four genera of protozoaries were found in five of 12 avian orders, with the order Passeriformes representing the most of the parasited individuals.
KEY WORDS: Birds, ornitopathology, parasitology.
Wang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Chunhui; Kong, Xiangmei; Yu, Xiaobo; Sun, Xinghuai
The purpose was to investigate peripapillary retinal vessel density in resolved acute primary angle closure (APAC) eyes. This was a prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients with unilateral APAC were included, together with the fellow eyes with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) as controls. Peripapillary retinal vessel density was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Peripapillary retinal vessel density was compared in both eyes and the potential relationship with visual field (VF) test results was evaluated. After an acute attack, the peripapillary retinal vessel density was lower in the APAC than in the PACS eyes (79.3 ± 8.2 versus 85.6 ± 4.9, respectively; P = 0.001). The VF mean deviation (MD) (-7.7 ± 6.7 versus -3.3 ± 1.8 dB, P = 0.002), and the pattern standard deviation (PSD) (4.6 ± 3.3 versus 2.4 ± 0.9 dB, P = 0.001) were worse for the APAC than the PACS eyes, but both had similar thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) (111.8 ± 9.6 versus 114.1 ± 29.1 μm, P = 0.880) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) (94.7 ± 7.5 versus 91.8 ± 9.3 μm, P = 0.328). The peripapillary retinal vessel density was significantly correlated with the VF MD (vessel density: r = 0.455, P = 0.008) and PSD (vessel density: r = -0.592, P density, which was correlated with the VF values. OCT angiography is a reliable method for detecting vascular changes in glaucomatous eyes that show no thinning of the RNFL and GCC.
He, Xiangui; Zhao, Rong; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Zhu, Jianfeng; Naduvilath, Thomas; Ma, Yingyan; Lu, Lina; Lv, Minzhi; Smith, Earl L; Resnikoff, Serge; Naidoo, Kovin; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun
Nearly half of children suffering vision impairment reside in China with myopia accounting for the vast majority. To describe the design and methodology of the Shanghai Child and Adolescent Large-scale Eye Study (SCALE). The SCALE was a city wide, school-based, prospective survey. Children and adolescents aged 4-14 years from kindergarten (middle and senior), primary schools and junior high schools of all 17 districts and counties of the city of Shanghai, China were examined in 2012-2013. Each enrolled child underwent vision assessment (distance visual acuity; uncorrected and with corrective device if worn) and their parent/carer completed a questionnaire designed to elicit risk factors associated with myopia. Additionally, non-cycloplegic autorefraction and ocular axial length was measured in a subset of the larger sample. Prevalence and the associated factors of vision impairment, myopia and high myopia in Shanghai. In 2012-2013, a total of 910 245 of the eligible 1 196 763 children and adolescents identified from census (76%, mean age 9.0 ± 2.7 years [4-14 years]) were enrolled with visual acuity screened in the city of Shanghai. Of these, 610 952 children (67% of the entire sample) underwent non-cycloplegic autorefraction and 219 188 (24% of the entire sample) had both non-cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length measurements. The study results will provide insights on the burden of vision impairment, myopia and high myopia in children and adolescents in a metropolitan area of China, and contribute to the policies and strategies to address and limit the burden. © 2017 The Authors Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Swenor, Bonnielin K; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K
To determine if the odds of mobility disability increases at a different rate among visually impaired (VI) as compared with nonvisually impaired (NVI) over an 8-year period. A total of 2520 Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study participants were followed 2, 6, and 8 years after baseline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40, or visual field of approximately less than 20°. Self-reported difficulty with three tasks was assessed at each visit: walking up 10 steps, walking down 10 steps, and walking 150 feet. Generalized estimating equation models included a 6-year spline, and explored differences in mobility difficulty trajectories by including an interaction between VI status and the spline terms. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared mobility difficulty for each task by VI status. At baseline, the VI were significantly more likely to report difficulty mobility tasks than the NVI (OR(difficultywalkingup10steps) = 1.37, CI: 1.02-1.80; OR(difficultywalkingdown10steps) = 1.55, CI: 1.16-2.08; OR(difficultywalking150feet) = 1.50, CI: 1.10-2.04). The trajectory of mobility disability did not differ by VI status from baseline to the 6-year visit. However, the difference between the VI and NVI declined at the 8-year visit, which may be due to loss of VI participants at risk of developing mobility difficulty. The VI were more likely to report mobility disability than the NVI, but the trajectory of mobility disability was not steeper among the VI as compared to the NVI over the study period.
Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael
Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Full Text Available Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++ do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbasali; Heravian, Javad; Rezvan, Farhad; Ghadimi, Hamidreza; Rezvan, Bijan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
Refractive errors are a common eye problem. Considering the low number of population-based studies in Iran in this regard, we decided to determine the prevalence rates of myopia and hyperopia in a population in Mashhad, Iran. Cross-sectional population-based study. Random cluster sampling. Of 4453 selected individuals from the urban population of Mashhad, 70.4% participated. Refractive error was determined using manifest (age > 15 years) and cycloplegic refraction (age ≤ 15 years). Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.5 diopter or worse. An spherical equivalent of +0.5 diopter or worse for non-cycloplegic refraction and an spherical equivalent of +2 diopter or worse for cycloplegic refraction was used to define hyperopia. Prevalence of refractive errors. The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in individuals ≤ 15 years old was 3.64% (95% CI: 2.19-5.09) and 27.4% (95% CI: 23.72-31.09), respectively. The same measurements for subjects > 15 years of age was 22.36% (95% CI: 20.06-24.66) and 34.21% (95% CI: 31.57-36.85), respectively. Myopia was found to increase with age in individuals ≤ 15 years and decrease with age in individuals > 15 years of age. The rate of hyperopia showed a significant increase with age in individuals > 15 years. The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.64% (95% CI: 23.76-27.51). In children and the elderly, hyperopia is the most prevalent refractive error. After hyperopia, astigmatism is also of importance in older ages. Age is the most important demographic factor associated with different types of refractive errors. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Pandey, Araniko; Lamichhane, Gyanendra; Khanal, Roshija; Rai, Salma K C; Bhari, Arjun Malla; Borroni, Davide; Gautam, Narayan
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in low and middle income countries. In Nepal, there are less studies regarding DR and they too are limited around Kathmandu valley. This study was done to assess visual morbidity in patients with DR at a peripheral tertiary eye care center of Nepal. This was a prospective, hospital based, cross-sectional study in which all consecutive cases of DR were evaluated. DR was classified according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group - report no. 10 Table A5-1 (Modified Airlie House Classification). Data entry and analysis was done in an SPSS unit version 20. Wherever applicable, variables were set as 100 eyes. Total number of patients included in this study was 50. Commonest age group was 50-69 yrs. (43/77 yrs.; min/max) comprising 80% of the total population (n = 50) and the predominant population was male (76%). Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was found in 69%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 31% and advanced diabetic eye disease (ADED) in 3% (n = 100). All the stages of DR were present at significant proportions in this study, noteworthy was the percentage of PDR. This study shows an urgency to gather a national data on DR, raise awareness among diabetics and train effective man power at a local level to diagnose DR at an early stage.
... AskMayoExpert. Conjunctivitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/red-eye/basics/definition/SYM-20050748 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...
Edmunds, Sarah R.; Rozga, Agata; Li, Yin; Karp, Elizabeth A.; Ibanez, Lisa V.; Rehg, James M.; Stone, Wendy L.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show reduced gaze to social partners. Eye contact during live interactions is often measured using stationary cameras that capture various views of the child, but determining a child's precise gaze target within another's face is nearly impossible. This study compared eye gaze coding derived from…
Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.; Lindekleiv, H.
Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. Methods: The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87years from the TromsO Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based TromsO Study in Norway. Retinal images from both...... eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis....... Results: The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1...
Munch, Inger Christine; Ek, Jakob; Kessel, Line
PURPOSE: To study associations of small, hard macular drusen and peripheral drusen with genotypes associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Digital grayscale fundus photographs recorded in red-free illumination were graded for the presence of drusen in 1107 subjects aged 30...... to 66 years. Participants were genotyped for AMD-related polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFH), in LOC387715, and in complement factor B (CFB). RESULTS: The prevalence of 20 or more small, hard macular drusen per eye was 14%, with no association to the investigated polymorphisms. Peripheral drusen...... macular drusen (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6) and with peripheral drusen (OR, 2.5; 95% CI,1.2-5.4) CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the presence of 20 or more small, hard macular drusen per eye was not associated with known AMD-related polymorphisms, whereas the study confirmed an association of peripheral drusen...
Antonio M. Fea
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT. A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n=20 patients mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n=10 patients. The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p<0.05. Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.
de Kluizenaar, Y; Roda, C.; Dijkstra, NE; Fossati, S; Mandin, C; Mihucz, VG; Hänninen, O; de Oliveira Fernandes, E; Silva, GV; Carrer, P; Bartzis, J; Bluijssen, P.M.
Objectives Ocular discomfort is a prevalent health complaint in offices. It is hypothesized that, in addition to individual and occupational factors, the buildings' indoor environment may affect eye complaints. However, insight in potential building-related causal factors, needed to allow
C. Augood (Cristina); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); J.H. Seland (Johan ); G. Soubrane; L. Tomazzoli (Laura); F. Topouzis (Fotis); G.C. Bentham (Graham ); M. Rahu; J. Vioque (Jesus); I.S. Young (Ian ); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.)
textabstractObjective: To estimate the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an older population from 7 European countries. Methods: Randomly sampled people 65 years and older were invited to an eye examination in centers across 7 European countries (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France,
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil
The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…
Ring, Melanie; Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.
Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. "Autism Res" 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data…
Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David
Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…
Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew
Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of attention and…
Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W
Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic
Chinnery, Holly R; Naranjo Golborne, Cecilia; Downie, Laura E
To investigate whether oral, long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplementation, for 3 months, induces changes to the central corneal sub-basal nerve plexus in dry eye disease and whether nerve alterations correlate with clinical findings. This prospective, comparative study involved the final 12 participants enrolled in a randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 participants with moderate dry eye disease. Participants received either placebo (olive oil 1500 mg/day; n = 4) or ω-3 EFA supplements (~1000 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid + ~500 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid; n = 8) for 90 days. The main outcome measure was the mean change in central corneal sub-basal plexus nerve parameters between days one and 90, quantified using in vivo confocal microscopy. Secondary outcomes included mean change in tear osmolarity, corneal dendritic cell density and basal epithelial cell density. Compared with baseline, the reduction in OSDI score and tear osmolarity at day 90 were greater in the ω-3 EFA group than the placebo group (OSDI: ω-3 EFA, mean ± SEM: -15.6 ± 2.8 vs placebo: -2.8 ± 4.1 units, t5 = 2.6, p = 0.04; tearosmolarity: ω-3 EFA: -22.63 ± 5.7 vs placebo: -8 ± 2.7 mOsmol/L, t9 = 2.3, p = 0.04). At day 90, corneal total nerve branch density (CTBD: 91.1 ± 8.6 vs 45.1 ± 13.4 branches/mm2 , F1,10 = 14, p = 0.004) and corneal nerve branch density on the main fibre (CNBD: 63.4 ± 6.5 vs 27.9 ± 11.5 branches/mm2 , F1,10 = 6, p = 0.03) were higher in the ω-3 EFA group compared with placebo. Relative to day 1, CNBD (branches/mm2 ) increased at day 90 in the ω-3 EFA group (+20.0 ± 9.2, t8 = 3.2 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-10.8 ± 3.2). Similar changes were evident for corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL, mm/mm2 ), which increased from baseline at day 90 in the omega-3 EFA group (+2.9 ± 1.6, t8 = 3.4 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-2.7 ± 0.5). There was a negative correlation between CTBD and tear osmolarity (r10 = -0
Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...
Rahimi, Firoozeh; Hashemian, Mohammad Nasser; Khosravi, Amir; Moradi, Golnaz; Bamdad, Shahram
To report the characteristics and laboratory findings of 182 patients with bacterial keratitis diagnosed at Farabi Eye Hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this retrospective study, data were collected on demographics, risk factors, location, size and depth of the ulcer, height of the hypopyon, uncorrected visual acuity, results of smear and culture tests, and antibiotic sensitivity of cultured bacteria. There were 110 (60.4%) males and 72 (39.6%) females with an average age of 56.0 ± 2.3 years. Ocular trauma (17.6%) and positive history of corneal surgery (14.3%) were major risk factors. The mean age of contact lens users was 22.5 ± 7.7 years. Sixty patients (33%) used topical antibiotics, 21 (11.5%) patients utilized topical steroid, and 26 (14.3%) cases used both topical antibiotic and steroid at presentation. Culture results were, 81 (44.5%) cases were Gram-positive, 63 (34.6%) were Gram-negative, 10 (5.5%) were mixed bacteria and in 28 (15.4%) cases had detected growth. The isolated bacterial species from the corneal ulcers were less resistant to ceftazidime (6%) and amikacin (6%). The majority of patients were treated with medical therapy; however, 81 cases (44.5%) received at least one surgical procedure. Among the patients with bacterial corneal ulcers, trauma was the most common risk factor. Over-the-counter antibiotic and steroid were commonly used in the majority of patients. The most common bacteria isolated were Gram-positives, and they were less resistant to ceftazidime and amikacin. Penetrating keratoplasty was the most common surgical procedure in patient who required surgery.
Chua, Daniel; Wong, Wanling; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien Y
To describe the prevalence and risk factors of ocular trauma in an urban Southeast Asian population. A population-based survey of 3,400 (75.6% response rate) adults of Indian ethnicity aged 40-80 years residing in Singapore was conducted in 2007-2009. An age-stratified (10-year age group) random sampling procedure was performed to select participants. Ocular trauma was defined as any eye injury requiring medical attention and any history of ocular trauma was documented using a standardized and validated questionnaire comprising seven questions. Potential risk factors associated with ocular trauma included age, gender, socioeconomic status, occupation, housing type, alcohol consumption, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and history of falls. Ocular trauma was reported in 5.1% (n = 162; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-6.1%) of the study population, of whom 26.5% (n = 43) required hospitalization. A total of 42.0% (n = 68) of cases resulted from a blunt object, 36.4% (n = 59) from a sharp object, and 15.4% (n = 25) from chemical burns. After adjusting for age and sex, men had a higher prevalence of ocular trauma (7.1% vs. 3.0%, age-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.1). A history of cigarette smoking was associated with higher likelihood of ocular trauma (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) but not consumption of alcohol (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6). One in twenty Indian adults in this urban Southeast Asian population had a history of ocular trauma, similar to the prevalence reported in Malays living in Singapore. Men and cigarette smokers were more likely to have incurred ocular trauma.
Meng, Xianwei; Uto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kazuhide
Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication.
Wicks, L J; Telford, R M; Cunningham, R B; Semple, S J; Telford, R D
In Australian government-funded primary schools, the responsibility for physical education (PE) falls mainly on general classroom teachers, many of whom possess limited PE training. This study sought to examine the impact of specialist-taught PE on eye-hand coordination (EHC) development. In this 4-year cluster-randomized intervention, participants were 187 boys and 172 girls initially in grade 2 in 29 primary schools, where no school employed university-trained specialist PE teachers. In 13 (intervention) schools, specialist PE teachers conducted 268 PE classes (two 45-minute sessions/wk) from grade 2 to grade 6. The intervention was based on traditional PE educational objectives, including fundamental motor skills, but did not specifically focus on EHC. The remaining 16 (control) schools continued with common-practice PE taught by general classroom teachers (30-60 min/wk). EHC was measured by a ball throw and wall-rebound catch test and recorded at ages 8, 10, and 12 (SD 0.3) at ends of grades 2, 4, and 6, respectively. There was steady yearly improvement of EHC in both groups, but no evidence of any intervention effect in boys (P=.88) or girls (P=.20). The introduction of specialist-taught PE during 4 years of primary school did not influence EHC development. Considering evidence that classroom teachers make little contribution to PE in this jurisdiction, together with the steady progression of EHC over the 4 years, other influences such as organized sport, after-school activities, natural development, and parental instruction are conceivably more influential factors in EHC development during primary school years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Klein, Alison P; Duggal, Priya; Lee, Kristine E; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Klein, Ronald; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Klein, Barbara E K
Refraction, as measured by spherical equivalent, is the need for an external lens to focus images on the retina. While genetic factors play an important role in the development of refractive errors, few susceptibility genes have been identified. However, several regions of linkage have been reported for myopia (2q, 4q, 7q, 12q, 17q, 18p, 22q, and Xq) and for quantitative refraction (1p, 3q, 4q, 7p, 8p, and 11p). To replicate previously identified linkage peaks and to identify novel loci that influence quantitative refraction and refractive errors, linkage analysis of spherical equivalent, myopia, and hyperopia in the Beaver Dam Eye Study was performed. Nonparametric, sibling-pair, genome-wide linkage analyses of refraction (spherical equivalent adjusted for age, education, and nuclear sclerosis), myopia and hyperopia in 834 sibling pairs within 486 extended pedigrees were performed. Suggestive evidence of linkage was found for hyperopia on chromosome 3, region q26 (empiric P = 5.34 × 10(-4)), a region that had shown significant genome-wide evidence of linkage to refraction and some evidence of linkage to hyperopia. In addition, the analysis replicated previously reported genome-wide significant linkages to 22q11 of adjusted refraction and myopia (empiric P = 4.43 × 10(-3) and 1.48 × 10(-3), respectively) and to 7p15 of refraction (empiric P = 9.43 × 10(-4)). Evidence was also found of linkage to refraction on 7q36 (empiric P = 2.32 × 10(-3)), a region previously linked to high myopia. The findings provide further evidence that genes controlling refractive errors are located on 3q26, 7p15, 7p36, and 22q11.
... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...
Full Text Available ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...
... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...
Kongsted, Alice; Jørgensen, L V; Bendix, T
To evaluate whether smooth pursuit eye movements differed between patients with long-lasting whiplash-associated disorders and controls when using a purely computerized method for the eye movement analysis.......To evaluate whether smooth pursuit eye movements differed between patients with long-lasting whiplash-associated disorders and controls when using a purely computerized method for the eye movement analysis....
Da Yong Yang
Full Text Available To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert.The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight.Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9% children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6-21 years participated. Mean spherical refractive error was -1.58±2.00 diopters. In multivariate analysis, higher IOP (right eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001; standardized coefficient beta: -0.13; regression coefficient B: -0.13; 95% Confidence interval (CI:-0.18, -0.07, higher diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001;beta:0.13;B:0.05;95%CI:0.03,0.07, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.23;95%CI:0.12,0.34, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.035;beta: -0.06;B: -0.10;95%CI: -0.19, -0.001, and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.03;beta:0.06;B:0.42;95%CI:0.04,0.89. If age and diastolic blood pressure were dropped, higher IOP was associated with higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.09; B:0.13;95%CI:0.06,0.21 after adjusting for higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001 and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.04. Correspondingly, higher IOP of the left eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001;beta: -0.15;B: -0.16;95%CI: -0.21, -0.10, female gender (P<0.001;beta:0.09;B:0.65;95%CI:0.30,1.01, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.08;B:0.19;95%CI:0.06,0.32, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.03;beta: -0.06;B: -0.12;95%CI: -0.22, -0.01, and higher estimated CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.17;95%CI:0.09,0.24.In school children, higher IOP was associated with steeper corneal curvature and with younger age and higher blood pressure, or alternatively, with higher estimated CSFP. Corneal curvature radius should be included in the
Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography ("any" mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik
responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms....... Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during...... was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006) and second (p = 0.014) nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016), compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid...
Heathcote, L C; Lau, J Y F; Mueller, S C; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Bosmans, M; Vervoort, T
Pain is common and can be debilitating in childhood. Theoretical models propose that attention to pain plays a key role in pain outcomes, however, very little research has investigated this in youth. This study examined how anxiety-related variables and attention control interacted to predict children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking methodology, and their pain tolerance on the cold pressor test (CPT). Children aged 8-17 years had their eye-gaze tracked whilst they viewed photographs of other children displaying painful facial expressions during the CPT, before completing the CPT themselves. Children also completed self-report measures of anxiety and attention control. Findings indicated that anxiety and attention control did not impact children's initial fixations on pain or neutral faces, but did impact how long they dwelled on pain versus neutral faces. For children reporting low levels of attention control, higher anxiety was associated with less dwell time on pain faces as opposed to neutral faces, and the opposite pattern was observed for children with high attention control. Anxiety and attention control also interacted to predict pain outcomes. For children with low attention control, increasing anxiety was associated with anticipating more pain and tolerating pain for less time. This is the first study to examine children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking technology in the context of a salient painful experience. Data suggest that attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on multiple outcomes relevant to young people's pain experiences. This study uses eye tracking to study attention to pain cues in children. Attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on attention bias to pain and tolerance of cold pressor pain in youth. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J
of dry eye symptoms such as poor quality of vision. This study demonstrates that 0.5% carmellose and 0.1% hyaluronic acid allowed better stabilization of the tear film and thus a significant improvement in the quality of vision compared to normal saline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article presents data on the incidence of malignant tumors of the eye and its adnexa in Russia (according to the state reporting and St. Petersburg (in accordance with the Population-based Cancer Registry (PCR. There is reflected information included in the new X volume of the monograph of the International Agency for Research on Cancer «Cancer in five continents,» where only data for St. Petersburg were presented from Russia. During the period since the publication of our first article («Ophthalmology» 2012 №3 the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation has taken into account our proposal and included information on registered cases of primary malignant tumors of the eye and its adnexa (C69 in the state reporting (f. №7. Data on the frequency of new cases of malignant tumors are summarized in Russia by the staff of the P.A. Herzen Moscow Research Oncological Institute. Published data are for 2011‑2013.Purpose. To present the latest data on the incidence of malignant tumors of the eye and adnexa.Material and methods. There were used statistical materials of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the statistical materials of the P.A. Herzen Moscow Research Oncological Institute, data of the Population-based Cancer Registry of St. Petersburg. The standard methods of estimation of analytical rates were used as well.Results. Taking into account that at a national level (F. №35 there is no possibility of estimating of analytical rates such as the level of morphological verification, the distribution of patients according to the stage of disease, the possibility of analysis by administrative territories of malignant tumors of the eye and adnexa by age and sex groups, these estimations can be carried out only on the basis of the territorial registries.Conclusions. Data on mortality from malignant tumors of the eye still remain inaccessible to researchers as far as the State Statistics Committee considers them as other group
Full Text Available Thomas Kaercher,1 Ulrich Thelen,2 Gerrett Brief,3 Robert J Morgan-Warren,4 Richard Leaback41Augenarztpraxis, Heidelberg, Germany; 2University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 3Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of Optive Plus®, an artificial tear containing castor oil, in patients with dry eye, in a routine clinical setting. Methods: This was a prospective, noninterventional study of patients with dry eye who switched from a prior therapy or who were naïve to treatment (n=1,209. Patients were issued Optive Plus® artificial tears. Dry eye severity, tear break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer score, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score, and patient assessment of symptoms were recorded at baseline and at the follow-up visit (4 weeks after starting Optive Plus®. Results: The cause of dry eye was determined to be aqueous deficiency, lipid deficiency, or a mixture of aqueous and lipid deficiency (in 19.5%, 20.1%, and 47.8%, respectively, of the total study population. The severity of dry eye decreased from baseline to the follow-up visit, showing a decrease of the more severe levels (2–4 and a concurrent increase in mild level (1 of the rating scale. Patients reported an improvement in dry eye symptoms over the duration of the study, specifically 74.2% (n=152, 85.4% (n=182, and 82.4% (n=417 of patients in the aqueous-deficient, lipid-deficient, and mixed-deficiency groups, respectively. TBUT was measured in 475 patients. Baseline measurements for mean and standard deviation were 9.0±3.5, 7.1±3.6, and 6.6±3.0 seconds for the aqueous-deficient, lipid-deficient, and mixed-deficiency groups, respectively. These increased to 10.5±3.5, 10.0±3.6, and 9.2±3.1 seconds at the final visit. Overall, 92.5% of all patients were satisfied with the use of Optive Plus®, and 86% said they would purchase Optive Plus®. Ten percent of patients reported adverse events, and 1.8% of
Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah
Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.
Full Text Available Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as
Full Text Available Kensaku Miyake,1 Norihiko Yokoi2 On behalf of Dry Eye After Cataract Surgery Investigational Study Group (DASIS group 1Miyake Eye Hospital, Nagoya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design: This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods: Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms, and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results: At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036, fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012, but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (P<0.001. The majority of postoperative dry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%. The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7% compared with before surgery (69.7%. Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015, but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001. Total subjective symptom
Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili; Sinha, Ajit; Gupta, Rajesh
To investigate associations between anthropomorphic parameters and ocular dimensions in a typical rural society untouched by the effects of urbanization. The Central India Eye and Medical Study performed in rural Central India included 4,711 participants aged 30 or more years. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination. After controlling for age, gender, level of education, and body mass index (BMI), taller subjects were more likely to have larger eyes with a longer axial length (+0.23 mm for each 10 cm increase in height), lower corneal refractive power (-0.50 diopters for each 10 cm increase in height), deeper anterior chambers (+0.03 mm for each 10 cm increase in height), and longer vitreous cavity (+0.20 mm for each 10 cm increase in height). Central corneal thickness (P = 0.97) and lens thickness (P = 0.08) were not significantly associated with body height. After controlling for age, gender, level of education and height, subjects with a higher BMI had shorter globes (-0.02 mm for each unit increase in BMI), flatter corneas (-0.03 diopters for each unit increase in BMI) and thicker corneas (+0.49 μm for each unit increase in BMI), thicker lenses and longer vitreous cavities. Body height as compared with the BMI had a stronger influence on the ocular biometric data. After correcting for age, gender, level of education and axial length, for each increase in body height by 10 cm or for each increase in BMI by one unit, the refractive error significantly increased by 0.23 diopters (P height and size of the eye were associated with each other: taller subjects had larger eyes with a flatter cornea. An increase in body height per 10 cm was associated with an increase in anterior chamber depth by 1% and an increase in vitreous cavity length by 1%. Subjects with a higher body mass index had shorter eyes, flatter and thicker corneas, and thicker lenses. Taller subjects and subjects with a higher BMI were more hyperopic. Since
Byrd, Julia M; Longmire, Michelle R; Syme, Noah P; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Rose, Linda
We present a method to reintroduce ophthalmic training into the medical school curriculum. To evaluate knowledge and skills acquired when participating in a service project, the Community Vision Project, and to develop a quantitative method for testing skills with the direct ophthalmoscope in patients. Second-year medical students participated in the study. After 1 month, their knowledge was compared with that of peers and graduates (internal medicine residents). Also at 1 month, their direct ophthalmoscope skills were compared with those of upperclassmen who had completed all core clerkships. One year later, after the participants had completed their core clerkships, long-term ophthalmoscope skills retention was tested, and their performance was compared with that of their classmates. Training occurred in mobile eye clinics. Knowledge and skills assessments were performed in the hospital eye clinic among students and residents at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Patients were recruited from the hospital eye clinic. Participants attended a 3-hour training session held by an attending physician in the hospital eye clinic and took part in at least 1 mobile eye clinic. A knowledge assessment quiz was administered to participants (n = 12), their classmates (n = 18), and internal medicine residents (n = 33). Skills assessment with the direct ophthalmoscope was performed at 1 month and at 1 year in 5 participants and 5 nonparticipants. Tonometer skills were assessed by comparing participants' readings with those of an ophthalmologist's obtained in patients at the mobile eye clinics. RESULTS Participants' median knowledge assessment scores were 48% higher than those of their classmates and 37% higher than those of internal medicine residents (P < .001 for both). Short-term (1 month) direct ophthalmoscopy median scores were 60% (quartile 1 to quartile 3 range, 40%-80%) for participants and 40% (quartile 1 to quartile 3 range, 20%-60%) for nonparticipating
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity and long-range regression (i.e., word relocation processes in reading. We analyzed eye movements during a whodunit task, in which readers were asked to answer a content question while original text was being presented. The eye movements were more efficient in relocating a target word when the target was at recency positions within the text than when it was at primacy positions. Furthermore, both verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity partly predicted the efficiency of the initial long-range regression. The results indicate that working memory representations have a strong influence at the first stage of long-range regression by driving the first saccade movement toward the correct target position, suggesting that there is a dynamic interaction between internal working memory representations and external actions during text reading.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721
Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J
In this study, we investigated fifth-graders' (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies.
Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne
A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy skills. The resulting data were subjected to a variety of analyses aimed at describing the relationship between the FC user's looking and pointing behaviours, in order to make inferences about the complex question of 'authorship'. The eye-tracking data present a challenge to traditional 'facilitator influence' accounts of authorship, and are consistent with the proposition that this FC user does indeed author the sophisticated texts that are attributed to him; he looks for longer at to-be-typed letters before typing them, and looks ahead to subsequent letters of words before the next letter of the word is typed.
Wibirama, Sunu; Nugroho, Hanung A
Mobile devices addiction has been an important research topic in cognitive science, mental health, and human-machine interaction. Previous works observed mobile device addiction by logging mobile devices activity. Although immersion has been linked as a significant predictor of video game addiction, investigation on addiction factors of mobile device with behavioral measurement has never been done before. In this research, we demonstrated the usage of eye tracking to observe effect of screen size on experience of immersion. We compared subjective judgment with eye movements analysis. Non-parametric analysis on immersion score shows that screen size affects experience of immersion (paddiction. Our experimental results are also useful to develop a guideline as well as intervention strategy to deal with smartphone addiction.
Assia, Ehud I.; Barequet, Irina S.; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael
Non-penetrating trabeculectomy (NPT) is a potential replacement to conventional trabeculectomy, as it eliminates the necessity of penetrating the eye which is the cause of most of the complications entailed by the latter operation. NPT however, requires considerable surgical skill, is time consuming and entails complications of its own. We have shown that it can be easily performed by using the CO2 laser to ablate the sclera and corneoscleral tissues to the required depth. The use of the CO2 laser eliminates the danger of inadvertent perforation, a common complication of NPT as the tissue ablation ceases when the end-point of the operation, the aqueous humor percolation, is reached. Our experiments, performed on animal and human cadaver eyes showed that CO2 laser NPT rapid is easily mastered and performed rapid and eliminates almost completely the risk of complications.
Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the safety and efficacy of monocular treatment for elderly Chinese patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD with an automated thermodynamic system. Methods. This study was a prospective, examiner-masked, contralateral eye clinical trial. The eye perceived by the patient to be worse (test eye received a 12-minute LipiFlow treatment, while the other eye served as control. All patients were examined before treatment and one week, one month, and three months after treatment. Clinical parameters included dry eye symptoms, lipid layer thickness (LLT, partial blink (PB ratio, invasive tear breakup time (ITBUT and cornea staining, Schirmer I test, meibomian glands yielding liquid secretion (MGYLS, and meibomian gland dropout. Results. A total of 29 patients were examined during the three-month follow-up. At each posttreatment visit, they had a significant reduction in dry eye symptoms accompanied by an increase of ITBUT and MGYLS and a reduction in corneal staining compared with the baseline parameters. There was a significant improvement in MGYLS and ITBUT in the test eye compared with the control eye. Other clinical parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusion. LipiFlow is an effective treatment for patients with MGD. Monocular treatment with LipiFlow may be a cost-effective treatment option to those afflicted with MGD in the developing world.
Zhao, Yinying; Xie, Jialu; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Lin, Xiaolei; Wang, Shangrong; Ma, Jiling; Zhao, Yune
Purpose. To investigate the safety and efficacy of monocular treatment for elderly Chinese patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with an automated thermodynamic system. Methods. This study was a prospective, examiner-masked, contralateral eye clinical trial. The eye perceived by the patient to be worse (test eye) received a 12-minute LipiFlow treatment, while the other eye served as control. All patients were examined before treatment and one week, one month, and three months after treatment. Clinical parameters included dry eye symptoms, lipid layer thickness (LLT), partial blink (PB) ratio, invasive tear breakup time (ITBUT) and cornea staining, Schirmer I test, meibomian glands yielding liquid secretion (MGYLS), and meibomian gland dropout. Results. A total of 29 patients were examined during the three-month follow-up. At each posttreatment visit, they had a significant reduction in dry eye symptoms accompanied by an increase of ITBUT and MGYLS and a reduction in corneal staining compared with the baseline parameters. There was a significant improvement in MGYLS and ITBUT in the test eye compared with the control eye. Other clinical parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusion. LipiFlow is an effective treatment for patients with MGD. Monocular treatment with LipiFlow may be a cost-effective treatment option to those afflicted with MGD in the developing world.
Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun
Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops.
Topouzis, Fotis; Wilson, M Roy; Harris, Alon; Founti, Panayiota; Yu, Fei; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Pappas, Theofanis; Koskosas, Archimidis; Salonikiou, Angeliki; Coleman, Anne L
To investigate the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) with ocular perfusion pressure status (ocular perfusion pressure with or without antihypertensive treatment). Cross-sectional, population-based study. A total of 2554 randomly selected, ≥ 60-year old subjects participated in the Thessaloniki Eye Study. Only clinic-visit participants (n = 2261), who had uniformly collected data, were included in the analyses. A logistic regression model was run for OAG in all clinic-visit participants; covariates included age, sex, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, antihypertensive treatment, intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-lowering treatment, pseudoexfoliation, and vascular factors identified as risk factors for glaucoma in a previous analysis. Similar logistic regression models were run separately for POAG and PEXG. In addition, logistic regression models were run for OAG, POAG, and PEXG in subjects with and without antihypertensive treatment. Also, logistic regression models were run to assess the role of systolic ocular perfusion pressure in OAG, POAG, and PEXG. Among clinic-visits, 1212 subjects (53.7%) were using antihypertensive treatment. An association of borderline significance was found between low diastolic ocular perfusion pressure and POAG (OR = 0.84 per 10 mm Hg, 95% CI = 0.70-1.01, P = .059). The effect of antihypertensive treatment on POAG was not statistically significant (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.75-1.91, P = .45). In subgroup analyses, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure was significantly associated with POAG in subjects using antihypertensive treatment (OR = 0.78 per 10 mm Hg, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97, P = .028). No association was found between diastolic ocular perfusion pressure and PEXG, regardless of the use of antihypertensive treatment. No associations were found between systolic ocular perfusion pressure and OAG, POAG, or PEXG, regardless of the use of antihypertensive
Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Gupta, Rajesh; Khare, Anshu; Sinha, Ajit
The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of visual impairment in rural central India. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects with an age of 30+ years. Presenting visual acuity (PRVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Visual impairment and blindness were defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and United States (US) standard. On the basis of PRVA and using WHO and US standards, 1049 [22%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.1, 23.5] subjects and 1290 (27%; 95% CI: 26.1, 28.7) subjects, respectively, were visually impaired, and 35 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) subjects and 116 (2.5%; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. The corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 17%, 21%, 0.5% and 2%, respectively. Using best-correcting glasses could eliminate PRVA-visual impairment/blindness in 729 subjects (67% of all subjects with visual impairment/blindness). On the basis of BCVA and using WHO and US standards, 333 (7%; 95% CI: 6.3, 7.8) subjects and 473 (10%; 95% CI: 9.2, 10.9) subjects, respectively, had visual impairment, and 22 (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) and 31 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. Corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 5%, 8%, 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Causes for BCVA-visual impairment/blindness were cataract (75%), postoperative posterior capsular opacification (4%), surgical complications (2%), corneal opacifications (2%), age-related macular degeneration (2%), other macular diseases (1%), and glaucoma (1%). Age-standardized prevalence of PRVA-visual impairment/blindness (WHO definition) in the adult population of rural central India was 17%. Most frequent cause was undercorrected refractive error. Supply of correct glasses is the most efficient way to improve vision in the rural central India. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Jost B Jonas
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP, trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44 × Body Mass Index[kg/m(2] + 0.16 × Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18 × Age[Years]-1.91. RESULTS: Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7% subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI:0.25,0.33 after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:-0.10;B:-0.20;95%CI:-0.25,-0.15. Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P = 0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03. TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P = 0.003;beta:-0.04;B -0.02,95%CI:-0.04,-0.01 after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P = 0.03;beta:-0.03;B:-1.20;95%CI:-2.28,-0.12 after adjusting for
Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.
Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M.
A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such “flashforwards” can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants’ self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties. PMID:26321964
Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M
A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such "flashforwards" can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants' self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties.
Takamura, Etsuko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi
Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. Trial design and methods In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was −0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Conclusions Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile. PMID:22914501
Choudhury, Sanjukta; Thomas, Jith; Sylvain, Nicole J.; Ponomarenko, Olena; Gordon, Robert A.; Heald, Steve M.; Janz, David M.; Krone, Patrick H.; Coulthard, Ian; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.
Maternal transfer of elevated selenium (Se) to offspring is an important route of Se exposure for fish in the natural environment. However, there is a lack of information on the tissue specific spatial distribution and speciation of Se in the early developmental stages of fish, which provide important information about Se toxicokinetics. The effect of maternal transfer of Se was studied by feeding adult zebrafish a Se-elevated or a control diet followed by collection of larvae from both groups. Novel confocal synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate Se within intact preserved larvae. Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging was used to compare Se distributions within specific planes of an intact larva from each of the two groups. The elevated Se treatment showed substantially higher Se levels than the control; Se preferentially accumulated to highest levels in the eye lens, with lower levels in the retina, yolk and other tissues. Confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine that the speciation of Se within the eye lens of the intact larva was a selenomethionine-like species. Preferential accumulation of Se in the eye lens may suggest a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to elevated Se and Se-induced ocular impairments reported previously. This study illustrates the effectiveness of confocal X-ray fluorescence methods for investigating trace element distribution and speciation in intact biological specimens
Ashok Kumar P
Full Text Available AIM Role of Interleukin-6 and HS-CRP Levels in the assessment of active thyroid eye disease. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective observational study of 30 patients from the age group of 20-60 years with thyroid eye disease done at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. All patients were subjected to detailed history, ocular examination, systemic examination, biochemical analysis and Imaging. Patients are categorised as mild, moderate and severe active disease based on clinical activity score. For the period of two years, patients are followed at regular periodic intervals according to the severity of disease and results were analysed. RESULTS Out of 30 patients studied, majority of the patients were females (60%, and 70% of the patients had bilateral disease. Among 30 patients, 83.33% in hyperthyroid state, 3.33% in Hypothyroid state, 13.33% in Euthyroid state (Table 3. Smoking being important risk factor in 30% among males. 50% of patients presented with mild disease, 30% with moderate disease, 0% with severe disease. IL-6, HS-CRP levels are increased only in patients with severe active disease (Table 6. Remission attained in all patients when treated earlier with steroids. CONCLUSION Identifying disease activity early and aggressive treatment with systemic steroids in active phase of moderate and severe disease has reduced the morbidity associated with disease. Correlation of IL-6, HS-CRP, TFT levels are significantly increased only in patients with active phase of severe thyroid eye disease but not significantly elevated in active phase of moderate disease. Another pitfall is IL-6 is an expensive ELISA based diagnosis. Thus, IL-6 & HS-CRP cannot be routinely used to screen patients with Thyroid eye disease.
Wu, H M; Casson, R J; Newland, H S; Muecke, J; Selva, D; Aung, T
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anisometropia in a rural adult population in central Myanmar. A population-based ophthalmic survey was conducted in rural villages in central Myanmar. Ansiometropia was assessed in subjects with phakic eyes. The severity of anisometropia was defined as the absolute difference of the spherical equivalent between the two eyes. Prevalence of anisometropia (> or =1.0 D) in all participants was 35.3% (95% CI 32.7-37.9%); severe anisometropia (> or =2.0 D) was present in 18.9 % (95% CI 16.8-21.0%). There was no significant gender difference in anisometropia prevalence or severity. Prevalence and severity of anisometropia were significantly associated with age. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that cataract, myopia, but not age, were associated with anisometropia. The between-eye differences in axial length (r = 0.15, p anisometropia. Prevalence of anisometropia is relatively high in this rural adult population in Myanmar. Myopia and cataract, but not increasing age, are the potential risk factors of anisometropia in this population.
Farah, J; Struelens, L; Dabin, J; Koukorava, C; Donadille, L; Jacob, S; Schnelzer, M; Auvinen, A; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I
This paper presents the dosimetry part of the European ELDO project, funded by the DoReMi Network of Excellence, in which a method was developed to estimate cumulative eye lens doses for past practices based on personal dose equivalent values, H(p)(10), measured above the lead apron at several positions at the collar, chest and waist levels. Measurement campaigns on anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out in typical interventional settings considering different tube projections and configurations, beam energies and filtration, operator position