John A. Stanturf; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Callie Jo Schweitzer; James P. Shepard
Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests is the subject of considerable interest in the Southern United States, but restoration success is elusive. Techniques for establishing bottomland tree species are well developed, yet problems have occurred in operational programs. Current plans for restoration on public and private land suggest that as many as 200,000 ha could...
John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; James P. Shepard; Callie J. Schweitzer; C. Jeffrey Portwood; Lamar C. Jr. Dorris
Large-scale restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (USA) under federal incentive programs, begun in the 1990s, initially achieved mixed results. We report here on a comparison of four restoration techniques in terms of survival, accretion of vertical structure, and woody species diversity. The range of treatment intensity...
J.A Stanturf; E.S Gardiner; J.P Shepard; C.J Schweitzer; C.J Portwood; L.C Dorros
Large-scale restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (USA)under federal incentive programs, begun in the 1990s. initially achieved mixed results. We report here on a comparison of four restoration techniques in terms of survival. accretion of vertical structure and woody species diversity. The...
Brian Roy Lockhart; Philip A. Tappe; David G. Peitz; Christopher A. Watt
Snags are defined simply as standing dead trees. They function as an important component of wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, little information has been gathered regarding snags in bottomland forest ecosystems. We initiated a study to determine the effects of harvesting on the flora and fauna of a bottomland hardwood ecosystem adjacent the Mississippi River in...
Bobby D. Keeland; John W. McCoy; Kristi Wharton
Conversion of woodlands to other land-use types has resulted in the loss of over 80 percent of the historic bottomland hardwood forests of the Lower Mississippi Valley. This represents a loss of more than 6 million ha of forested wetlands. Heightened interests in reforestation and the mixed results associated with past afforestation efforts emphasize the need for more...
Luben D. Dimov; Jim L. Chambers; Brian Roy Lockhart
Sustainable forest management and conservation require understanding of underlying basic structural and competitive relationships. To gain insight into these relationships, we analyzed spatial continuity of tree basal area (BA) and crown projection area (CPA) on twelve 0.64-ha plots in four mixed bottomland hardwood stands in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi....
Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman
Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and 0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (~1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps...
Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.
Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.
Loraine Ketzler,; Christopher Comer,; Twedt, Daniel J.
Silviculture used to alter forest structure and thereby enhance wildlife habitat has been advocated for bottomland hardwood forest management on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although some songbirds respond positively to these management actions to attain desired forest conditions for wildlife, the response of other species, is largely unknown. Nocturnal insects are a primary prey base for bats, thereby influencing trophic interactions within hardwood forests. To better understand how silviculture influences insect availability for bats, we conducted vegetation surveys and sampled insect biomass within silviculturally treated bottomland hardwood forest stands. We used passive blacklight traps to capture nocturnal flying insects in 64 treated and 64 untreated reference stands, located on 15 public conservation areas in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Dead wood and silvicultural treatments were positively associated with greater biomass of macro-Lepidoptera, macro-Coleoptera, and all insect taxa combined. Biomass of micro-Lepidoptera was negatively associated with silvicultural treatment but comprised only a small proportion of total biomass. Understanding the response of nocturnal insects to wildlife-forestry silviculture provides insight for prescribed silvicultural management affecting bat species.
Norris, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Twedt, Daniel J.
Effects of silvicultural activities on birds are of increasing interest because of documented national declines in breeding bird populations for some species and the potential that these declines are in part due to changes in forest habitat. Silviculturally induced disturbances have been advocated as a means to achieve suitable forest conditions for priority wildlife species in bottomland hardwood forests. We evaluated how silvicultural activities on conservation lands in bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana, USA, influenced species-specific densities of breeding birds. Our data were from independent studies, which used standardized point-count surveys for breeding birds in 124 bottomland hardwood forest stands on 12 management areas. We used Program DISTANCE 5.0, Release 2.0 (Thomas et al. 2006) to estimate density for 43 species with > 50 detections. For 36 of those species we compared density estimates among harvest regimes (individual selection, group selection, extensive harvest, and no harvest). We observed 10 species with similar densities in those harvest regimes compared with densities in stands not harvested. However, we observed 10 species that were negatively impacted by harvest with greater densities in stands not harvested, 9 species with greater densities in individual selection stands, 4 species with greater densities in group selection stands, and 4 species with greater densities in stands receiving an extensive harvest (e.g., > 40% canopy removal). Differences in intensity of harvest influenced densities of breeding birds. Moreover, community-wide avian conservation values of stands subjected to individual and group selection, and stands not harvested, were similar to each other and greater than that of stands subjected to extensive harvest that removed > 40% canopy cover. These results have implications for managers estimating breeding bird populations, in addition to predicting changes in bird communities as a result of prescribed and future
Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer
Bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States have declined in extent since European settlement. Forest restoration activities over the past decade, however, have driven recent changes in land use through an intensified afforestation effort on former agricultural land. This intense afforestation effort, particularly in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial...
Lynne C. Thompson; David M. General; Brian Roy Lockhart
We assessed effects that harvesting treatments had on the ant community in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest in west-central MS. Ants were collected on Pittman Island using pitfall traps from July to November in 1996, 1997, and 2000. The forest received three replicated harvesting treatments in 1995, including: 1) uncut controls (check), 2) selection...
Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.
Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.
Winston Paul Smith; Daniel J. Twedt; David A. Wiedenfeld; Paul B. Hamel; Robert P. Ford; Robert J. Cooper
To compare efficacy of point count sampling in bottomland hardwood forests, duration of point count, number of point counts, number of visits to each point during a breeding season, and minimum sample size are examined.
John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier
Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...
Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman
We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest...
Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.
ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.
Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris
Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...
Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.
For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.
Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.
In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate
Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.
Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.
This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...
Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez
Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...
Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.
We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.
The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This research was designed to collect data on the understory plant composition of remnant bottomland hardwood forest tracts on accessible public lands in the LMAV...
John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Margaret S. Devall; Theodor D. Leininger; Melvin E. Warren
Programs to restore southern bottomland hardwood forests to the floodplains of the Mississippi have been tested on Federal land and are now being applied to private holdings. The initial goals were to provide wildlife habitat and improve water quality, but other benefitsâpossible income from biomass and carbon creditsâmay make restoration cost-effective, even for small...
Theodor D. Leininger; A. Dan Wilson; Donald G. Lester
Hurricane Andrew caused damage to more than 780 sq.km of bottomland hardwood and cypress-tupelo forests in the Atchafalaya Basin of Louisiana in August 1992. Trees in bottomland hardwood sites were examined, in early May 1994, for signs and symptoms of wood decay fungi, and for insect damage, ostensibly present before the hurricane, which may have predisposed trees to...
Scott Horn; James L. Hanula; Michael D. Ulyshen; John C. Kilgo
We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinera) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 gree ntree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data...
Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.
ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.
Randy K. Kolka; J. H. Singer; C. R. Coppock; W. P. Casey; C. C. Trettin
The hydrologic pathways of four bottomland hardwood wetland sites were investigated with transects consisting of nests of shallow wells and piezometers. Sites included a disturbed but recently restored system, two disturbed systems that are recovering naturally and a relatively undisturbed reference site. Water table elevations in both uplands and bottomlands were...
Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger
Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009â2010. Mass...
John A. Stanturf; William H. Conner; Emile S. Gardiner; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Andrew W. Ezell
In the last decade, about 370,000 acres (150,000 ha) of economically marginal farmland in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) have been restored to bottomland hardwood forests (Stanturf and others 1998, King and Keeland 1999, Schoenholtz and others 2001). Planting of this considerable acreage is due to several federal programs, such as the Wetlands Reserve...
Eric A. Nelson; Neil C. Dulohery; Randall K. Kolka; William H. McKee
The Savannah River swamp, a 3020 ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River, USA is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically, the swamp consisted of approximately 50% bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Draft report describes acoustically sampling for bats and estimation of flying insect biomass within various hardwood forests stand condictions of the MAV. Efforts...
Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.
Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.
Joanne C. Crawford; Clayton K. Nielsen; Eric M. Schauber; John W. Groninger
Specialist wildlife that evolved within forest ecosystems can be sensitive to disturbance regime changes and thereby serve as indicators of optimal scale for forest management. Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests were once extensive within the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, but land cover conversion has reduced BLH by about 80 percent over the last century. Since...
David R. Larsen; Ian Scott
In the field of forestry, the output of forest growth models provide a wealth of detailed information that can often be difficult to analyze and perceive due to presentation either as plain text summary tables or static stand visualizations. This paper describes the design and implementation of a cross-platform computer application for dynamic and interactive forest...
Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self
Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...
Stephen E. Peairs
Full Text Available Changes in understory light levels following a partial overstory harvest with three retention levels, combined with midstory/understory removal of selected species were examined. Overstory retention levels were set at basal areas (ba 16.1 (BA16, 11.6 (BA11, and 6.9 (BA6 m2 per hectare (ha. Prior to mechanical overstory removal, non-oak unmerchantable midstory/understory stems ≥ 5.1 cm were injected with an aqueous herbicide solution. Hemispherical photographs were used to calculate percent canopy closure and total understory light at 1.4 m above ground. Percent canopy closure was reduced 3, 14, 24, and 30 percent for injection only (IO, BA16, BA11, and BA6, respectfully, compared to the non-harvest control (NHC (~95 percent canopy closure. Understory light levels for NHC, IO, BA16, BA11, and BA6 were 7–9 percent, 11–14 percent, 24–28percent, 37–46 percent, and 44–52 percent of full sunlight, respectively. Post-harvest understory light of BA16 was significantly lower than BA11 and BA6, which were similar. Understanding partial harvest impacts on canopy closure and subsequent understory light conditions will aid forest managers with regeneration harvest planning to promote oak reproduction.
John L. Nelson; John W. Groninger; Loretta L. Battaglia; Charles M. Ruffner
A direct hit from an F4 tornado on May 2003, followed by a partial salvage logging operation at Mermet Lake State Conservation Area on the Ohio River bottoms of southern IL have provided a rare opportunity to assess the responses of a bottomland hardwood forest to severe wind and soil disturbances. The study area encompasses 700 acres and is representative of many...
Daniel T. Johns; Brett Williams; Hans M. Williams; Matthew Stroupe
In January 1998, three tracts in Hardin County, TX, were hand-planted with seven species of 1-0 bareroot bottomland hardwood seedlings. The tracts, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Texas, were previously 20-year-old pine plantations. The tracts are located within the floodplain of Village Creek. An objective for this conversion is the restoration of a bottomland...
Brian R. Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodore D. Leininger; Kristina F. Connor; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; A. Dan Wilson; Margaret S. Devall
Bottomland hardwood ecosystems, important for their unique functions and values, have experienced considerable degradation since European settlement through deforestation, development, and drainage. Currently, considerable effort is underway to restore ecological functions on degraded bottomland sites. Restoration requires a better understanding of the biological...
Rodrigo V. Leite; Brent R. Frey; Jonathan Stoll
The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) once had the largest expanse of bottomland forestÂ cover in the United States, but these diverse forests have been heavily cleared for agricultural purposes. InÂ recent decades significant forest restoration efforts have been attempting to restore bottomland forest coverÂ and the environmental services it provides (e.g. water...
Douglass F. Jacobs; Emile S. Gardiner; K. Francis Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez; M. Elizabeth Corbin; Kevyn E. Wightman; Marcus F. Selig
Afforestation of bottomland hardwood species has increased in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV) in recent years. Rising demand for hardwood nursery stock and poor performance of some planted seedlings has created concern regarding the quality of seedlings currently available for afforestation in the LMRAV. Furthermore, no definitive guidelines for...
Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.
Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland
David R. Larsen; Ian R. Scott
Growth models can produce a wealth of detailed information that is often very difficult to perceive because it is frequently presented either as summary tables, stand view or landscape view visualizations. We have developed new tools for use with the Sylvan model (Larsen 1994) that allow the analysis of wood-quality changes as a consequence of forest management....
Jonathan Stoll; Brent R. Frey
Over the last several decades, bottomland restoration efforts have established hundreds ofÂ thousands of acres of planted hardwood stands throughout the Southeastern U.S. Much of the initial researchÂ focused on planting approaches and early growth and survival, contributing to more effective establishmentÂ methods. However, less research attention has been focused on...
Paul B. Hamel; Thomas L. Foti; [Editors
A symposium entitled "Bottomland hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: characteristics and management of natural function, structure, and composition" convened on October 28, 1995, as part of the Natural Areas Conference, October 25-28, 1995, In Fayetteville, AR. The symposium's goal was to provide informatibn that managers need to begin...
Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner
within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...
The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are
Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.
Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree species (e.g., cottonwood [Populus deltoides], or sycamore [Platanus occidentalis]) in the planting stock
Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf
Tree season soon will be upon us. No, not cottontrees! The best time for planting dormant hardwood seedlings in the Delta is from December through February. All trees native to the Delta have some value as wildlife habitat. While some tree species produce mast, foliage, nectar, or fiber that are eaten by animals, others provide cover, vertical structure for nesting...
Troy S. Taylor; Edward F. Loewenstein; Arthur H. Chappelka
Forests of the Coastal Plain of Alabama are among the most diverse, productive, and complex in the United States. Long-term mismanagement, however, coupled with a lack of refined scientific knowledge on bottomland oak silvical characteristics and on their regeneration dynamics, has resulted in a reduction in both the quantity and quality of the oak component in many of...
Brian Roy Lockhart
Site index is a species-specific indirect measure of forest productivity expressed as the average height of dominant and codominant trees in a stand of a specified base age. It is widely used by forest managers to make informed decisions regarding forest management practices. Unfortunately, forest managers have difficulty in determining site index for southern US...
Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.
Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.
St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in
Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez
Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...
George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs
This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...
Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe
To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...
Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Melvin L. Warren
We report our efforts, initiated in 1995, to quantify ecological processes and functions in a relatively undisturbed, mature hardwood forest. The 320-ha site is located in central Louisiana on the upper reaches of Iatt Creek, an anastomosing minor stream bottom. The forest is a mature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (
David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; Thomas. Faust
A stocking diagram for Midwestern bottomland eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.)-silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.)-American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) forests was developed following the methods of S.F. Gingrich (1967. Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland...
Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.
Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated
James G. Dickson; Raymond M. Sheffield
Forests of the South are very diverse and productive. Included among southern forests are the boreal spruce- fir forests of the highest mountain peaks of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the lowest bottomland hardwoods on flood-deposited soil with elevations near sea level. In between are the diverse upland hardwood stands in northerly mountainous areas of the South and...
Sami ULLAH; Faulkner, Stephen P.
Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to...
Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant
A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Silviculture in bottomland hardwood forests has been advocated by land managers of public conservation lands within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to improve...
Carl C. Trettin; Brooke J. Czwartacki; Craig J. Allan; Devendra M. Amatya
Hydrology is recognized as one of the principal factors regulating soil biogeochemical processes in forestedÂ wetlands. However, the consequences of tidally mediated hydrology are seldom considered within forested wetlands thatÂ occur along tidal water bodies. These tidal water bodies may be either fresh or brackish, and the tidal streams function asÂ a reservoir to...
William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White
Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...
John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Benjamin O. Knapp; David R. Larsen; Stephen R. Shifley; Henry E. Stelzer
Proceedings from the 2016 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Columbia, MO. The published proceedings include 31 papers pertaining to research conducted on artificial and natural regeneration, biomass and carbon, forest dynamics, forest health, modeling and utilization, prescribed fire, soils and nutrients, and wind disturbance. A correction to Table 2,...
K.L. Waddell; T.M. Barrett
This report provides a multiownership assessment of oak woodlands and other hardwood forests in California, excluding only reserved lands outside of national forests. Because sampling intensity on woodlands was doubled from the previous 1981-84 inventory, and because national forests were inventoried, this is the most complete assessment to date for California...
Kelly Kindscher; Jenny Holah
Western hardwood gallery forests are found across an extremely large, diverse geographical area that encompasses the Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Remnant forests of this type still exist in the "Prairie Peninsula," which historically projected an eastern finger into Ohio. The forests are restricted to floodplains of major rivers and are in...
Stanley M. Filip; David A. Marquis; William B. Leak
Northern hardwood forests provide the industries of New England with their most valuable woods: yellow birch and sugar maple for veneer, paper birch for turning stock, and other hardwood species for a variety of specialty products. As a result of recent developments in hardwood pulping, these northern hardwood forests now represent a tremendous reservoir of raw...
Brian Roy Lockhart; Robert C. Weih; Keith M. Smith
The relationship between a tree's crown radius and diameter at breast height (DBH) has a variety of uses including forest competition studies, tree crown densities, spacing and stocking relationships, wildlife habitat suitability models, and tree volume estimations. Estimating DBH from mean crown radius (MCR) is of interest to natural resource managers because MCR...
Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.
Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas
Brian R. Lockhart; Bob Keeland; John McCoy; Thomas J. Dean
Prior to European settlement, bottomland hardwood forests covered about 24 million acres in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV). Due to the rich nature of these alluvial soils and the development of flood control structures, much of this land has been converted to agricultural production.
Pierce, Aaron R.; King, S.L.
Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller
A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...
D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina
Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...
Chris B. LeDoux; Dennis M. May; Tony Johnson; Richard H. Widmann
Procedures developed to assess available timber supplies from upland hardwood forest statistics reported by the USDA Forest Services' Forest Inventory and Analysis unit were modified to assess the feasibility and profitability of cable logging in southern upland hardwood forests. Depending on the harvest system and yarding distance used, cable logging can be...
Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.
To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.
Frank R. III Thompson; Daniel R. Dessecker
Describes the history, ecology, and silviculture of central hardwood forests and the status and ecology of early-successional forest songbirds and ruffed grouse. Concludes with management guidelines for early-successional communities in central hardwood forests.
John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi
EXCERPT FROM:Â Natural Disturbances and Historic Range VariationÂ 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forestsÂ throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...
Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller
Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...
A. R. Gillespie; J. Waterman; K. Saylors
Concerns of poor oak regeneration, changing climate, biodiversity patterns, and carbon cycling in the Central Hardwoods have prompted ecological and physiological studies of old-growth forests and their role in maintaining the landscape. To examine the effects of old-growth canopy structure on the physiological productivity of overstory and understory species, we...
Eric J. Holzmueller
Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.
Daniel C. Dey; Emile S. Gardiner; John M. Kabrick; John A. Stanturf; Douglass F. Jacobs
Establishing trees in agricultural bottomlands is challenging because of intense competition, flooding and herbivory. A summary is presented of new practices and management systems for regenerating trees in former agricultural fields in the eastern USA. Innovations have come from improvements in planting stock and new silvicultural systems that restore ecological...
D.C. Dey; E.S. Gardiner; J.M. Kabrick; J.A. Stanturf; D.F. Jacobs
Establishing trees in agricultural bottomlands is challenging because of intense competition, flooding and herbivory. A summary is presented of new practices and management systems for regenerating trees in former agricultural fields in the eastern USA. Innovations have come from improvements in planting stock and new silvicultural systems that restore ecological...
Plant Tissues," Phytochemistry , Vol 7, pp 1973-1988. Anderson, P. H. 1977. "Delineation of Deciduous Wetland Forests in Northeastern Connecticut," M.S... thesis , University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Anderson, W. B., and Kemper, W. D. 1965. "Corn Growth as Affected by Aggregate Stability, Soil
Patrick H. Brose
A field guide of 40 photographs of common hardwood trees of eastern oak forests and fuel loadings surrounding their bases. The guide contains instructions on how to rapidly assess a tree's likelihood to be damaged or killed by prescribed burning.
Tara L. Keyser; Peter M. Brown
Key message In Appalachian hardwood forests, density,Â stem size, and productivity affected growth duringdrought for red oak, but not white oak species. MinorÂ effects of density suggest that a single low thinning does...
Justin L. Hart; Merrit M. Cowden; Scott J. Torreano; J. Patrick R. Vestal
We quantified species composition, stand structure, canopy disturbance history, and Quercus establishment and canopy accession patterns in an upland hardwood forest in Tennessee. The forest established in the mid-1800s and exhibited structural characteristics that were within the range of what has been reported from other late-successional forests...
Travis W. Idol; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder
Soil microorganisms mediate many of the major processes involved in soil N cycling. Also, they are strong competitors with plants for available soil N. Thus, changes in microbial N because of forest harvesting may have significant impacts on N availability and overall forest N cycling. A chronosequence of upland hardwood forest stands in southern Indiana, USA, ranging...
M.B. Adams; J.A. Burger; A.B. Jenkins; L. Zelazny
The eastern hardwood forests of the US may be threatened by the changing atmospheric chemistry and by changes in harvesting levels. Many studies have documented accelerated base cation losses with intensive forest harvesting. Acidic deposition can also alter nutrient cycling in these forests. The combination of increased harvesting, shorter rotations, and more...
David R. Coyle; T. Evan Nebeker; Elwood R. Hart; William J. Mattson
Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS...
D.G. Neary; J.L. Michael; M.J.M. Wells
Herbicides show promise to improve the efficiency and economics of forest stand conversion and regeneration. However, the impacts of herbicides on forest ecosystems and the ultimate fate of these chemicals are not completely understood. A major problem in pine regeneration in northern mixed hardwood forests is competition from fast-growing and easily sprouting species...
John W. McCoy; Bobby D. Keeland; Kristi Wharton
Several oak species are frequently planted for reforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV), but the success of these plantings has been variable. The survival and growth of planted seed or seedlings are affected by a variety of factors, including competition, herbivory, site preparation, precipitation, planting stock quality, and planting...
Luben D Dimov; Jim L Chambers; Brian R. Lockhart
& Context Understanding tree interactions requires an insight into their spatial distribution. & Aims We looked for presence and extent of tree intraspecific spatial point pattern (random, aggregated, or overdispersed) and interspecific spatial point pattern (independent, aggregated, or segregated). & Methods We established twelve 0.64-ha plots in natural...
Winston Paul Smith; David N. Pashley; [Editors
Today's land stewards are faced with the challenge of managing natural resources in a social climate with increasing expectations of accountability for an even broader spectrum of ecological and social values. The "buzz" words of days past (i.e., biodiversity, wetland values and functions) are becoming the realities of ecosystem management. Nowhere is...
Emile S. Gardiner; James M. Oliver
The world's third largest river, the Mississippi, extends more than 3700 km through the central U.S. where it drains 41% of the conterminous U.S. before reaching the Gulf of Mexico. The river historically served as a primary travel corridor and trade route for Native American Indians, provided access for exploration and colonization to early European settlers, and...
Ullah, S.; Faulkner, S.P.
Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to develop characteristic ecological functions including denitrifier activity. One way to enhance denitrifier activity in restored wetland forests is to amend the soils with an available carbon (C) source. This research investigated the effects of cotton gin trash (CGT) amendment on denitrification rate and N2O:N2 emission ratio from a restored bottomland forest soils and compared it to those from an adjacent unamended natural forest soils. CGT amendment increased denitrification rates in the restored forest soils to the level of the natural forest soils. N2O:N2 emission ratios from the restored and natural forest soils were highly variable and were not significantly different from each other. These findings suggest that restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the LMV will require organic carbon amendment to achieve enhanced denitrifier activity for NO3 removal while the restored forest is developing into a mature state over time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christel Kern; Gus Erdmann; Laura Kenefic; Brian Palik; Terry. Strong
The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In 1926, the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest. In response to social...
Danaë M A Rozendaal
Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in
Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Hatten, G.; Flaherty, J.
Canopy scale emissions of isoprene from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan were measured using the eddy covariance technique during the summer growing periods from 1999 through 2001. The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of isoprene emissions from forest ecosystems to better describe the role of isoprene in local and regional atmospheric chemical cycles. A second objective of this work was to contribute to the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) goal of characterizing the role of biogenic emissions in processing atmospheric nitrogen. Isoprene is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, and it is very reactive in the atmosphere. Long-term flux measurements are important for investigating the interannual variability in emissions due to interannual variability in climate. In addition, continuous flux data are useful for verifying canopy scale models that are used to generate emission inventories for regional photochemical models. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the (PROPHET) site located within 100 m of the AmeriFlux Tower. The site is a 90-year old stand classified as mid-aged conifer and deciduous, with aspen and oak two of the dominant species. Fluxes of isoprene, CO2, H2O, and sensible heat were measured using a fast response isoprene sensor (FIS), an open-path infrared gas analyzer, and a 3-D sonic anemometer. Concurrent measurements of these canopy scale fluxes are useful for understanding the physiological controls on isoprene emissions and potential links between isoprene emissions and other forest ecosystem dynamics. The multi-year data set will be presented and year-to-year variations in isoprene emissions will be explored in the context of interannual variations among the other canopy scale parameters.
McGaughey, Robert J. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Reutebuch, Stephen E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the
Patrick J. McHale; Myron J. Mitchell; Dudley J. Raynal; Francis P. Bowles
To investigate the effects of elevated soil temperatures on a forest ecosystem, heating cables were buried at a depth of 5 cm within the forest floor of a northern hardwood forest at the Huntington Wildlife Forest (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Temperature was elevated 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5?C above ambient, during May - September in both 1993 and 1994. Various aspects of...
Daniel L. Lindner; Harold H., Jr. Burdsall; Glen R. Stanosz
Effects of forest management on fungal diversity were investigated by sampling fruit bodies of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in forest stands that have different management histories. Fruit bodies were sampled in 15 northern hardwood stands in northern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Sampling was conducted in five old-growth stands, five uneven-age...
Mary A. Arthur; Beth A. Blankenship; Angela Schörgendorfer; David L. Loftis; Heather D. Alexander
Without large scale disturbances to alter forest structure and open the canopy, historically oak-dominated forests of the central and Appalachian hardwood regions of eastern North America are shifting to dominance by shade-tolerant, âmesophyticâ species. In response, prescribed fire is applied with increasing frequency and spatial extent to decrease non-oak species and...
Charles H. Michler
Hardwood tree improvement in Indiana is on the brink of entering the 21st century with the recent initiation of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University. At a time when midwestern agriculture has enthusiastically embraced genetically modified insect and herbicide resistant corn and soybean crops and all the human genes are...
Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin
Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successionalÂ forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling andÂ sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lackÂ of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...
Bovard, B D; Curtis, P S; Vogel, C S; Su, H-B; Schmid, H P
Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (D) and soil water interact to control transpiration in the dominant canopy species of a mixed hardwood forest in northern Lower Michigan. An improved understanding of how these environmental factors affect whole-tree water use in unmanaged ecosystems is necessary in assessing the consequences of climate change on the terrestrial water cycle. We used continuously heated sap flow sensors to measure transpiration in mature trees of four species during two successive drought events. The measurements were scaled to the stand level for comparison with eddy covariance estimates of ecosystem water flux (Fw). Photosynthetically active radiation and D together explained 82% of the daytime hourly variation in plot-level transpiration, and low soil water content generally resulted in increased stomatal sensitivity to increasing D. There were also species-specific responses to drought. Quercus rubra L. showed low water use during both dry and wet conditions, and during periods of high D. Among the study species, Acer rubrum L. showed the greatest degree of stomatal closure in response to low soil water availability. Moderate increases in stomatal sensitivity to D during dry periods were observed in Populus grandidentata Michx. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Sap flow scaled to the plot level and Fw demonstrated similar temporal patterns of water loss suggesting that the mechanisms controlling sap flow of an individual tree also control ecosystem evapotranspiration. However, the absolute magnitude of scaled sap flow estimates was consistently lower than Fw. We conclude that species-specific responses to PAR, D and soil water content are key elements to understanding current and future water fluxes in this ecosystem.
Paul B. Hamel; James S. Meadows; Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf
Forested wetlands of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) are the most productive of birds, including neotropical migratory birds, of all land uses there. Forest land uses are difficult to maintain in economic competition with annual crops. We compare perspectives of a bird biologist, a wildlife manager, a production forester, and an economic pragmatist to the issue:...
Emily Carter; Robert B. Rummer; Bryce Stokes
A study was installed in an upland hardwood forest to evaluate the site impacts associated with three alternative prescriptions --- clearcut, deferment cut, and strip cut. Two methods of site impact assessment were employed: 1) assignment of disturbance classes to selected points within each treatment area; and 2) measurement of soil bulk density, gravimetric water...
Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer
Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...
Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord
Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...
A. J. Burton; K. S. Pregitzer; R. L. Hendrick
Minirhizotrons were used to observe fine root (≤1 mm) production, mortality, and longevity over 2 years in four sugar-maple-dominated northern hardwood forests located along a latitudinal temperature gradient. The sites also differed in N availability, allowing us to assess the relative influences of soil temperature and N availability in controlling fine...
Kurt S. Pregitzer; David D. Reed; Glenn D. Mroz; Andrew J. Burton; John A. Witter; Donald A. Zak
The Michigan gradient study was established in 1987 to examine the effects of climate and atmospheric deposition on forest productivity and ecosystem processes in the Great Lakes region. Four intensively-monitored northern hardwood study sites are located along a climatic and pollutant gradient extending from southern lower Michigan to northwestern upper Michigan. The...
Chris B. LeDoux
Forest landowners, managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision/policy makers need to understand the opportunity cost associated with different levels of allowable management and required/voluntary protection in streamside management zones (SMZs). Four different logging technologies, two mature hardwood stands, three levels of streamside zone protection,...
William B. Leak
Second-growth timber occupies more than one-third of the commercial northern hardwood forest land in New England. The origin of these stands - clearcutting, or land abandonment with or without fire - determined their present characteristics; they are essentially even-aged, with a high proportion of intolerant and intermediate species and many stems of sprout origin (...
Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars
Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.
Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit
This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.
Gary W. Miller; Jeffrey W. Stringer; David C. Mercker
Crop tree release (CTR) is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation. By favoring the development of selected crop trees within a hardwood stand...
Michael Ulyshen; Villa Soon; James Hanula
1. Despite a growing interest in forest canopy biology, very few studies have examined the vertical distribution of forest bees. In this study, bees were sampled using 12 pairs of flight-intercept traps suspended in the canopy (â¡15 m) and near the ground (0.5 m) in a bottomland hardwood forest in the southeastern United States. 2. In total, 6653 bees from 5 families...
Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch
This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...
Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.
ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.
K.F. Connor; G.M. Schaefer; J.B. Donahoo; M.S. Devall; E.S. Gardiner; T.D. Leininger; A.D. Wilson; N.M. Schiff; P.B. Hamel; S.J. Zarnoch
Lindera melissifolia (Walter) Blume, or pondberry, is federally listed as an endangered shrub and grows in warm, humid lowland forests of seven states in the southeastern United States. The dioecious plants usually form clonal colonies as a result of rhizome sprouting. Although L. melissifolia can annually produce many bright...
David N. Wear; Robert Huggett
This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...
J. Michael Vasievich; W. L., Jr. Mills; Heidi R. Cherry
Timber sales conducted on State-owned forests in INdiana from 1982 to 1994 were analyzed to determine changes in costs and prices and the effect of sale conditions on costs and prices. The data set included 445 sales that ranged in size from less than 1 acre to more than 500 acres. Sales were predominantly partial cuts in mature hardwood timber. Marked timber volume...
Travis W. Idol; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder
Net N mineralization, nitrification, and N uptake were monitored in the A (0-8 cm) and B (8-30 cm) soil horizons from 1997 to 1999 across a chronosequence of upland hardwood forest stands in southern Indiana, USA. Stand ages were 1, 6, 12, 31, and 80-100 years at the beginning of the study. Contrary to previous studies, there was no apparent stimulation of N...
Charlie Long; Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras
A time study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and cost of a feller-buncher operating in a Central Appalachian hardwood forest. The sites harvested during observation consisted of primarily red maple and black cherry. Trees felled in the study had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 16.1 in. and a total merchantable height of 16 ft. A Timbco 445C...
Katie Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Stan Zarnoch; Kris Connor
Restoration of structure and function of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests is a focal issue of forest land managers in the eastern United States due to widespread regeneration failure and poor overstory recruitment of oaks, particularly on productive sites. Prescribed fire is increasingly used as a tool in oak ecosystem restoration, with the goal of reducing competition...
Pamela H. Templer; Andrew F. Schiller; Nathan W. Fuller; Anne M. Socci; John L. Campbell; John E. Drake; Thomas H. Kunz
Projected changes in climate for the northeastern USA over the next 100 years include a reduction in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack, which could affect soil temperatures and frost regimes. We conducted a snow-removal experiment in a northern hardwood forest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire over 2 years to induce soil...
Michaeleen Gerken Golay; Janette Thompson; Randall Kolka; Kris Verheyen
Question: Herbaceous plant communities in hardwood forests are important for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, such as nutrient storage. Are there differences in herbaceous layer nutrient storage for urban park and state preserve forests, and is there seasonal variation? Location:...
D. Jordan; V. C. Hubbard; F., Jr. Ponder; E. C. Berry
Earthworms can alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a forest ecosystem. Any physical manipulation to the soil ecosystem may, in turn, affect the activities and ecology of earthworms. The effects of organic matter removal (logs and forest floor) and soil compaction on earthworm activities were measured in a central hardwood region (oakhickory)...
Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang
A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...
Daniel R. Petit; Lisa J. Petit; Thomas E. Martin; others
The relative abundances of bird species and the ecological characteristics of the overall avian community were quantified within 20 late-rotation pine-hardwood sites in the Ouschitn and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas and Oklahoma during 1992 and 1993. In addition, similarities in species composition and guild representation were compared with those of forest...
Kathleen E. Franzreb
I compared avian species richness, density, and diversity for neotropical migrants, short distance migrants, and permanent residents following timber harvesting in cove hardwood forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. The forest stands were 4-103 years old, had undergone a clearcut or selective tree removal, and represented four successional...
Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.
Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.
Full Text Available Prescribed fire has several benefits for managing forest ecosystems including reduction of fuel loading and invasive species and enhanced regeneration of desirable tree species. Along with these benefits there are some limitations like nutrient and sediment loss which have not been studied extensively in mixed hardwood forests. The objective of our research was to quantify the amount of sediment movement occurring on a watershed scale due to prescribed fire in a southern Illinois mixed hardwood ecosystem. The research site was located at Trail of Tears State Forest in western Union county, IL, USA and included five watershed pairs. One watershed in each pair was randomly assigned the prescribed burn treatment and the other remained as control (i.e., unburned. The prescribed burn treatment significantly reduced the litter depth with 12.6%–31.5% litter remaining in the prescribed burn treatment watersheds. When data were combined across all watersheds, no significant differences were obtained between burn treatment and control watershed for total suspended solids and sediment concentrations or loads. The annual sediment losses varied from 1.41 to 90.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four prescribed burn watersheds and 0.81 to 2.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four control watersheds. Prescribed burn watershed 7 showed an average soil sediment loss of 4.2 mm, whereas control watershed 8 showed an average accumulation of sediments (9.9 mm, possibly due to steeper slopes. Prescribed burning did not cause a significant increase in soil erosion and sediment loss and can be considered acceptable in managing mixed hardwood forests of Ozark uplands and the Shawnee Hills physiographic regions of southern Illinois.
Kambiz Abrari Vajari
Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type
Aim of study: Corrected Backmund and Surface Distribution Algorithms (SDA) for analysis of forest road network are introduced and presented in this study. Research was carried out to compare road network performance between two districts in a hardwood forest. Area of study: Shast Kalateh forests, Iran. Materials and methods: In uncorrected Backmund algorithm, skidding distance was determined by calculating road density and spacing and then it was designed as Potential Area for Skidding Operations (PASO) in ArcGIS software. To correct this procedure, the skidding constraint areas were taken using GPS and then removed from PASO. In SDA, shortest perpendicular distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to road was measured at both districts. Main results: In corrected Backmund, forest openness in district I and II were 70.3% and 69.5%, respectively. Therefore, there was little difference in forest openness in the districts based on the uncorrected Backmund. In SDA, the mean distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to the roads of districts I and II were 199.45 and 149.31 meters, respectively. Forest road network distribution in district II was better than that of district I relating to SDA. Research highlights: It was concluded that uncorrected Backmund was not precise enough to assess forest road network, while corrected Backmund could exhibit a real PASO by removing skidding constraints. According to presented algorithms, forest road network performance in district II was better than district I. (Author)
Species such as buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata ) are generally restricted to areas of regular...aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp privet Forestiera acuminata Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Water locust Gleditsia...Hazel alder Alnus rugosa River birch Betula nigra Hawthorn Crataegus mollis Honey locust Gleditsia triacanthos American holly Ilex opaca Black gum
Gerardo L.F. Carfagno
Full Text Available Lower predation has been documented for birds’ nests located over water and a recent study found lower predation on wood duck (Aix sponsa nests in bottomland forest during flooding. In a three-year study we used radio telemetry to determine whether flooding affected use of bottomlands by ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta and thus might explain reduced nest predation. Of the 22 ratsnakes we tracked, only five used bottomlands and three of them did so exclusively, suggesting a surprising degree of habitat specialization by individual snakes. Those individuals regularly moved into flooded forest and their frequency of movement and distance moved appeared unaffected by flooding. Although it seems unlikely that ratsnakes leave bottomlands during floods, they may prey more extensively on small mammals that are restricted to trees when the forest is flooded, thereby reducing predation pressure on nesting birds.
Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H
Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
John R. Brooks; Gary W. Miller
Data from even-aged hardwood stands in four ecoregions across the mid-Appalachian region were used to test projection accuracy for three available growth and yield software systems: SILVAH, the Forest Vegetation Simulator, and the Stand Damage Model. Average root mean squared error (RMSE) ranged from 20 to 140 percent of actual trees per acre while RMSE ranged from 2...
Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Alexandra Rodríguez; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer; Peter M. Groffman
Climate of the northern hardwood forests of North America will become significantly warmer in the coming decades. Associated increases in soil temperature, decreases in water availability and changes in winter snow pack and soil frost are likely to affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Most studies of the effects of climate change on soil function have...
Stanley R. Gemborys
A phytosociological study was conducted in a virgin northern hardwood- spruce-fir forest in the Bowl in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. There is no evidence of fire or human disturbance but hurricane winds were significant in the past. Bray and Curtis ordination was used to develop an XY vegetational mosaic. Differentiating species were Picea rubens and Acer...
K. Johnson; F. N. Scatena; Y. Pan
The long-term response of total soil organic carbon pools (âtotal SOCâ, i.e. soil and dead wood) to different harvesting scenarios in even-aged northern hardwood forest stands was evaluated using two soil carbon models, CENTURY and YASSO, that were calibrated with forest plot empirical data in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Overall, 13 different harvesting scenarios...
Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.
Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow
The terrestrial biosphere is a variable sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is important to understand how carbon storage in trees is affected by natural climate variability to better characterize the sink. Quantifying the sensitivity of forest carbon storage to climate will improve carbon budgets and have implications for forest management practices. Here we explore how climate variability affects the ability of a northern mixed hardwood forest in Michigan to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide in woody tissues. This site is ideal for studies of carbon sequestration; The University of Michigan Biological Station is an Ameriflux site, and has detailed meteorological and biometric records, as well as CO2 flux data. We have produced an 82- year aspen (Populus grandidentata) tree-ring chronology for this site, and measured ring widths at several heights up the bole. These measurements were used to estimate annual wood volume, which represents carbon allocated to aboveground carbon stores. Standard dendroclimatological techniques are used to identify environmental factors (e.g. temperature or precipitation) that drive tree-ring increment variability in the past century, and therefore annual carbon storage in this forest. Preliminary results show that marker years within the tree- ring chronology correspond with years that have cold spring temperatures. This suggests that trees at this site are temperature sensitive.
Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.
Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.
Laurel A Kluber
Full Text Available Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,
Wen J Wang
Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak
Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.
and Gibbons, J.W., eds., Freshwater emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma: U.S. Fish wetlands and wildlife, CONF-8603101, U.S. Depart- and Wildlife...butyl Fusilade 2000 Herbaceous 3 oz/acre 5 oz/acre Glyphosate Accord CR Herbaceous Panic grasses Goldenrod Bermuda grass Roundup Herbaceous Fescue
Murray, Bryan D; Holland, Jeffrey D; Summerville, Keith S; Dunning, John B; Saunders, Michael R; Jenkins, Michael A
Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To examine how forest management affects diversity at multiple spatial scales, we analyzed a long-term data set that captured changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of moths (Lepidoptera), longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and breeding birds in response to contemporary silvicultural systems in oak-hickory hardwood forests. We used these data sets to address the following questions: how do even- and uneven-aged silvicultural systems affect taxonomic and functional diversity at the scale of managed landscapes compared to the individual harvested and unharvested forest patches that comprise the landscapes, and how do these silvicultural systems affect the functional similarity of assemblages at the scale of managed landscapes and patches? Due to increased heterogeneity within landscapes, we expected even-aged silviculture to increase and uneven-aged silviculture to decrease functional diversity at the landscape level regardless of impacts at the patch level. Functional diversity responses were taxon-specific with respect to the direction of change and time since harvest. Responses were also consistent across patch and landscape levels within each taxon. Moth assemblage species richness, functional richness, and functional divergence were negatively affected by harvesting, with stronger effects resulting from uneven-aged than even-aged management. Longhorned beetle assemblages exhibited a peak in species richness two years after harvesting
Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin Wang; Gary Miller
Tree spatial patterns were characterized for a 75-year-old mixed hardwood forest dominated by northern red oak, chestnut oak, red maple and yellow-poplar. All trees ≥5 inches diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured for diameter, total height, crown height, and crown width along with their locations in the field over an area of 8 acres. The spatial...
Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson III; David R. Larsen
In central hardwood forests, mean cavity-tree abundance increases with increasing standsize class (seedling/sapling, pole, sawtimber, old-growth). However, within a size class, the number of cavity trees is highly variable among 0.1-ha inventory plots. Plots in young stands are most likely to have no cavity trees, but some plots may have more than 50 cavity trees/ha....
Ruba C. Bilal; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; John A. Peterson
We are investigating biogeochemical cycling in a mixed hardwood forest in the Ridge and ValleyÂ physiographic province in Montgomery County, Virginia. The broad aim of the study is to understand howÂ carbon, water and nutrient cycles vary among diverse stand types in a relatively small spatial area. The specificÂ objectives here are to determine patterns in soil CO2...
Hutton, J. L.; Schmid, H.; Villani, M. G.; Su, H.; Pressley, S. N.; Gilbert, C. A.
Due to the failure of gradient-diffusion theory to account for observations of turbulent transport in forest canopies, the relationship between a distributed source and its concentration profile has been an interesting challenge for micrometeorologists over the last 10 years. In this context Lagrangian models of trace gas exchange have emerged as useful tools for the prediction of tranport processes in and over complex canopies. This research presents an analysis of M.R. Raupach's localized near-field theory (LNF) and an alternative spatially explicit approach proposed by Warland and Thurtell, (Boundary Layer Meteorology, 2000, Vol. 96, pp. 453-471). Measurement intensives from two summers at an AmeriFlux site in Pellston, Michigan provide high-resolution turbulence information and profiles of isoprene concentration for model implementation. In both forward Lagrangian analysis and the spatial Lagrangian model (WT2000), turbulence statistics and source distribution estimates derived from enclosure measurements of isoprene emissions are used as model input to predict concentration profiles for comparison with measured concentration profiles. Inverse Lagrangian dispersion analysis is used to infer to sources and sinks of isoprene in a mixed hardwood forest for comparison with measured emission factors within the canopy. The quantitative agreement between modeled and measured profiles of isoprene and isoprene emsision factors with respect to plausible chemical dynamics for the time period of interest will be discussed.
Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.
Guillermo A. Mendoza; Roger J. Meimban; William Sprouse; William G. Luppold; Philip A. Araman
Spreadsheet and simulation models are tools which enable users to analyze a large number of variables affecting hardwood material utilization and profit in a systematic fashion. This paper describes two spreadsheet models; SEASaw and SEAIn, and a hardwood sawmill simulator. SEASaw is designed to estimate the amount of conversion from timber to lumber, while SEAIn is a...
Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Matthew St. Pierre; Daniel. Eklund
The most readily available source of woody biomass is through whole-tree harvesting that removes what has been traditionally left as slash [i.e., fine woody debris (FWD)]. While FWD has the potential to be used as energy feedstock, a critical element of managing for biodiversity is maintaining woody debris on the forest floor.
Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Eric R. Britzke,; Nathan R. Beane,; Joshua B. Johnson,
Conservation of summer maternity roosts is considered critical for bat management in North America, yet many aspects of the physical and environmental factors that drive roost selection are poorly understood. We tracked 58 female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to 105 roost trees of 21 species on the Fort Knox military reservation in north-central Kentucky during the summer of 2011. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) was used as a day roost more than expected based on forest stand-level availability and accounted for 48.6% of all observed day roosts. Using logistic regression and an information theoretic approach, we were unable to reliably differentiate between sassafras and other roost species or between day roosts used during different maternity periods using models representative of individual tree metrics, site metrics, topographic location, or combinations of these factors. For northern bats, we suggest that day-roost selection is not a function of differences between individual tree species per se, but rather of forest successional patterns, stand and tree structure. Present successional trajectories may not provide this particular selected structure again without management intervention, thereby suggesting that resource managers take a relatively long retrospective view to manage current and future forest conditions for bats.
Delton Alderman; William Luppold
West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...
William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman
West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...
Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris
Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and
Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Flaherty, Julia; Chen, Jack; Vogel, Christoph
We report continuous whole canopy isoprene emission fluxes from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan for the 1999-2002 growing seasons. The eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene, CO2, latent heat, and sensible heat are presented along with an analysis of the seasonal and year-to-year variations. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET). In general, isoprene emissions increased throughout the day with increasing temperature and light levels, peaked at midafternoon, and declined to zero by night. There were significant variations from one 30-min period to the next, and from one day to the next. Average midday isoprene fluxes were 2.8, 3.2, and 2.9 mg C m-2 h-1 for 2000 through 2002, respectively. Insufficient data were available to include 1999. Last frost and full leaf out were significantly later in 2002 compared to the other years; however, total accumulated isoprene emissions for each year varied by less than 10%. Fully developed isoprene emissions occurred between 400 and 500 heating degree days, roughly half those required at other sites. Using long-term net ecosystem exchange measurements from the UMBS˜Flux group, isoprene emissions represent between 1.7 to 3.1% of the net carbon uptake at this site. Observations for 2000-2002 were compared with the BEIS3 emission model. Estimates agree well with observations during the midsummer period, but BEIS3 overestimates observations during the spring onset of emissions and the fall decline in emissions. This work provides a unique long-term data set useful for verifying canopy scale models and to help us better understand the dynamics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene.
Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.
Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood
D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman
The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...
Felix Jr. Ponder; Matthew John Kramer; Freida Eivazi
Many acres of once productive Missouri farmland along the Missouri River are being planted to bottomland hardwoods. Once trees become established on many of these sites, however, most show symptoms of chlorotis due to high pH levels (>7.5) in soil. Six treatments containing combinations of iron (Fe), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) were tested for their effectiveness...
G. J. Jordan; M. J. Ducey; J. H. Gove
We present the results of a timed field trial comparing the bias characteristics and relative sampling efficiency of line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for downed coarse woody material. Seven stands in a managed northern hardwood forest in New Hampshire were inventoried. Significant differences were found among estimates in some stands, indicating...
Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael. Miller
Increased nitrogen (N) deposition caused by human activities has altered ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. To understand the effects of altered N availability, we measured the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the microbial community in northern hardwood forests exposed to long-term (12 years) simulated N deposition (30 kg N ha-1...
R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa
Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....
Daniel A. Yaussy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler; Daniel C. Dey; Eugene J. DeGayner
Many national forests and grasslands in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States recently have undergone Land Management Plan revision, which include management areas that promote restoration through a variety of management activities. Monitoring is a vital component of adaptive management whereby the effects from a variety of treatments (including controls)...
Schliemann, S. A.; Bockheim, J.
In late-successional northern hardwood forests, treefall gaps play an important role in biogeochemistry. After a gap forms, the microclimate changes markedly. In particular, solar radiation, soil temperature, and soil moisture are affected. These changes in microclimate can impact mineral weathering, microbial decomposition, and leaching rates. Microclimate is also impacted by the size of a gap. Larger gaps tend to have higher solar radiation, higher soil moisture, and higher soil temperature. In northern hardwood forests, our understanding of the relation between nutrient cycling and gap size is incomplete. Our objective was to investigate the impact of gap size on carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pools in the northern hardwood forest. We identified 12 natural treefall gaps ranging in size from 27-590 m2 and 4 control plots, located under closed canopy in the Dukes experimental forest, located in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, USA. We analyzed the following fluxes and transformations of carbon and nitrogen: leaching losses from forest floor and soil, inputs through precipitation/throughfall, and transformations through mineralization and weathering. In addition, we measured the following nutrient pools: vegetation (plant biomass and coarse woody debris) and soil (soil organic matter, forest floor litter, and microbial biomass). During the first two years, percent (by weight) carbon content in living vegetation increased with gap size. In addition, all gap plots had significantly higher percent cover and vegetation mass (herb, sedges, seedlings) than the closed forest. Carbon mineralization (soil respiration) was similar across all gap and control plots.
Byung Bae Park; Ruth D. Yanai; Timothy J. Fahey; Scott W. Bailey; Thomas G. Siccama; James B. Shanley; Natalie L. Cleavitt
Losses of soil base cations due to acid rain have been implicated in declines of red spruce and sugar maple in the northeastern USA. We studied fine root and aboveground biomass and production in five northern hardwood and three conifer stands differing in soil Ca status at Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; and Cone Pond, NH. Neither aboveground biomass and...
J.M. Vose; B.D. Clinton; W.T. Swank
Establishment and maintenance of pitch pine/hardwood ecosystems in the southern Appalachians depends on intense wildfire. These ecosystems typically have a substantial evergreen shrub component (Kalmia latifolia) which limits regeneration of future overstory species. Wildfires provide microsite conditions conducive to pine regeneration and reduce...
This paper will describe techniques for growing bareroot seedlings of some of the âtrickierâ species that nursery managers often times have limited success growing. In addition, some information is provided about hardwood seed management and how that has improved nursery successes.
W. Mark Ford; Brian R. Chapman; Michael A. Menzel; Richard H. Odom
We surveyed cove hardwood stands aged 15, 25, 50, and ≥85 years following clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia to assess the effects of stand age and stand habitat characteristics on salamander communities using drift-fence array and pitfall methodologies from May 1994 to April 1995. Over a 60,060 pitfall trapnight effort, we...
Dale S. Solomon; Lianjun Zhang
Maximum size-density relationships were investigated for two mixed-hardwood ecological types (sugar maple-ash and beech-red maple) in New England. Plots meeting type criteria and undergoing self-thinning were selected for each habitat. Using reduced major axis regression, no differences were found between the two ecological types. Pure species plots (the species basal...
Larsen, T. A.; Wemple, B.; Keeton, W.
Forested landscapes of the northeastern U.S. face increasing pressure from development and recreational uses. Changes in forest structure and the distribution of canopy openings may have measurable impacts on hydrology, particularly in high elevation terrain where gradients in atmospheric inputs are great. Here, we report findings of a pilot study conducted in spring 2007 to examine the effects of forest stand and canopy structure, canopy openings and topography on snow distribution. Our sampling sites are located within on-going studies of canopy development following silvicultural treatments and forest clearings from recreational development (i.e. alpine skiing) in the mixed hardwood-conifer forests of northwestern Vermont. Our findings indicate that snow water equivalent (SWE) was significantly related to key forest metrics including conifer abundance and mean diameter at breast height (dbh). SWE exhibited strong elevational trends over three sampling dates and was more spatially variable on south-facing slopes than on all other aspects. Comparisons between forested and open sampling sites showed no differences in SWE for early (DOY 60 and 68) sampling dates, but differences were significant for later sampling dates (DOY 71 and 82) at high elevation sites. Along ski trail clearings, surveys using ground-penetrating (GPR) radar showed significant differences in SWE for trails covered with man- made snow, relative to those covered with natural snow. Collectively, our findings suggest that (1) mixed forests of the Northeast have limited ability to influence snowpacks through interception when some conifer component exists in the stand, (2) these forests have detectable effects on snowmelt dynamics relative to clearings, (3) topography exerts strong controls on snow distribution, and (4) man-made snow on recreational ski trails introduces an additional layer of variability in snowpack distribution. We speculate on the hydrologic consequences of these findings using
Cohen, L. J.; Furbish, D. J.
Riparian vegetation has been recognized as a controlling factor of stream channel morphology, but specific influences on bed topography and planform geometry are yet to be fully clarified. In temperate environments, hardwood trees serve as prominent bank stabilizers and help create diverse habitats for a variety of aquatic organisms in alluvial channels. This project explores the influence of riparian vegetation on channel geometry in alluvial streams of different sizes. Exposed rootwads increase bank stability and slow channel migration rates, but also cause pool scour that affects thalweg and bedform locations downstream, implying that woody riparian vegetation influences flow conditions and two-dimensional bed geometry in alluvial streams. Field data suggest that the presence of hardwood vegetation modulates channel width, bed topography and planform geometry in low-order streams. In larger channels, rootwads have less influence on planform curvature, but create patchy variations in bed topography that establish thalweg locations and amplify relief of curvature-dominated bedforms. Flume experiments illustrate the genesis of rootwad-induced pool scour and its effect on downstream pool and bar formation. Experimental rootwad pools reflect the relative size and shape of those observed in natural channels. Introduction of riparian obstructions to planar beds also influences thalweg location several channel widths downstream, further supporting the idea of riparian influence on bedform modulation and regulation.
Alexander J. Michalek; Brian Roy Lockhart; Thomas J. Dean; Bobby D. Keeland; John W. McCoy
Interest in restoring bottomland hardwoods on abandoned agricultural fields has gained considerably over the past 15 years, due primarily to federal cost-share programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program and the Wetlands Reserve Program. While a variety of artificial regeneration techniques are available to afforest these lands, none have met with consistently...
Ivan P Edwards
Full Text Available High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition may result in greater terrestrial carbon (C storage. In a northern hardwood ecosystem, exposure to over a decade of simulated N deposition increased C storage in soil by slowing litter decay rates, rather than increasing detrital inputs. To understand the mechanisms underlying this response, we focused on the saprotrophic fungal community residing in the forest floor and employed molecular genetic approaches to determine if the slower decomposition rates resulted from down-regulation of the transcription of key lignocellulolytic genes, by a change in fungal community composition, or by a combination of the two mechanisms. Our results indicate that across four Acer-dominated forest stands spanning a 500-km transect, community-scale expression of the cellulolytic gene cbhI under elevated N deposition did not differ significantly from that under ambient levels of N deposition. In contrast, expression of the ligninolytic gene lcc was significantly down-regulated by a factor of 2-4 fold relative to its expression under ambient N deposition. Fungal community composition was examined at the most southerly of the four sites, in which consistently lower levels of cbhI and lcc gene expression were observed over a two-year period. We recovered 19 basidiomycete and 28 ascomycete rDNA 28S operational taxonomic units; Athelia, Sistotrema, Ceratobasidium and Ceratosebacina taxa dominated the basidiomycete assemblage, and Leotiomycetes dominated the ascomycetes. Simulated N deposition increased the proportion of basidiomycete sequences recovered from forest floor, whereas the proportion of ascomycetes in the community was significantly lower under elevated N deposition. Our results suggest that chronic atmospheric N deposition may lower decomposition rates through a combination of reduced expression of ligninolytic genes such as lcc, and compositional changes in the fungal community.
Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming
Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses.
Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll
Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...
Christine A. Costello; Mariko Yamasaki; Peter J. Pekins; William B. Leak; Christopher D. Neefus
Clearcutting creates habitat for many species of early successional songbirds; however, little information is available on bird use of small forest openings created by group selection harvests. Group selection harvests are increasing on the White Mountain National Forest due to negative public response to clearcutting. The objective of this study was to determine if...
Linda T.A. Van Diepen; Erik Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer
Our previous investigation found elevated nitrogen deposition caused declines in abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with forest trees, but little is known about how nitrogen affects the AMF community composition and structure within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that N deposition would lead to significant changes in the AMF community...
Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley
As impacts of climate change expand, determining accurate measures of forest biomass and associated carbon storage in forests is critical. We present sampling guidance for 12 combinations of percent error, plot size, and alpha levels by disturbance regime to help determine the optimal size of plots to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon in an old-growth Central...
Cathryn H. Greenberg; Christopher E. Moorman; Amy L. Raybuck; Chad Sundol; Tara L. Keyser; Janis Bush; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton
Forest restoration efforts commonly employ silvicultural methods that alter light and competition to influence species composition. Changes to forest structure and microclimate may adversely affect some taxa (e.g., terrestrial salamanders), but positively affect others (e.g., early successional birds). Salamanders are cited as indicators of ecosystem health because of...
Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak
Most temperate forests in U.S. are recovering from heavy exploitation and are in intermediate successional stages where partial tree harvest is the primary disturbance. Changes in regional forest composition in response to climate change are often predicted for plant functional types using biophysical process models. These models usually simplify the simulation of...
Matthew J. Reilly
Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.
Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F
We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.
Kerry D. Woods
Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer
Michael S. Strickland; Jayna L. Devore; John C. Maerz; Mark A. Bradford
Invasive plant species affect a range of ecosystem processes but their impact on belowground carbon (C) pools is relatively unexplored. This is particularly true for grass invasions of forested ecosystems. Such invasions may alter both the quantity and quality of forest floor inputs. Dependent on both, two theories, âprimingâ and âpreferential substrate utilizationâ,...
Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P
Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Daniel J. Hocking; Kimberly J. Babbitt; Mariko. Yamasaki
In forested ecosystems timber harvesting has the potential to emulate natural disturbances, thereby maintaining the natural communities adapted to particular disturbances. We compared the effects of even-aged (clearcut and patch cut) and uneven-aged (group cut, single-tree selection) timber management techniques with natural ice-storm damage and unmanipulated reference...
Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Gene E. Likens; Jerry M. Melillo; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; D. P. C. Peters
Nitrogen (N) supply often limits the productivity of temperate forests and is regulated by a complex mix of biological and climatic drivers. In excess, N is linked to a variety of soil, water, and air pollution issues. Here, we use results from an elevation gradient study and historical data from the long-term Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (New Hampshire, USA) to...
Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Linda H. Pardo; Timothy J. Fahey
Forests of northeastern North America have been exposed to anthropogenic acidic inputs for decades, resulting in altered cation relations and disruptions to associated physiological processes in multiple tree species, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the current study, the impacts of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) additions on mature...
James E. Van Kley; George R. Parker
This study, a multifactor ecological classification system, using vegetation, soil characteristics, and physiography, was developed for the landscape of the Hoosier National Forest in Southern Indiana. Measurements of ground flora, saplings, and canopy trees from selected stands older than 80 years were subjected to TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination....
P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix; Clayton E. Dygert; Kathryn L. Holmes
The composition and structure of ground-flora vegetation was examined across headwater riparian areas of Johnson Woods, an old-growth forest located in northcentral Ohio. While the distribution patterns of these species groups is variable, classification and gradient analyses indicate that ground-flora vegetation is related strongly to landform and distance from the...
Edward F. Loewenstein; Keith W. Grabner; George W. Hartman; Erin R. McMurry
The oak dominated forests in the Ozarks of southern Missouri evolved under the influence of fire for thousands of years. However, fire exclusion and timber harvests have changed historical fuel loads and modified vegetative structure. The resurgent interest in restoration of fire dependent ecosystems in conjunction with the needs of resource managers to control fuel...
Eric B. Sucre; Thomas R. Fox
Decomposing stumps are prevalent in managed forest ecosystems although the impact of these microsites on nutrient retention and cycling is relatively unknown. In this study, stumps were defined as the aboveground and belowground (i.e., root system) left over from previous harvests. The objective of this study was to quantify the total soil volume occupied by stumps and...
Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C
Heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential impacts of short-term high temperature events on forest functioning remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat waves can have severe impacts in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests.
Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.
Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.
R. Sam Williams; Regis Miller; John Gangstad
Ten tropical hardwoods from Bolivia were evaluated for weathering performance (erosion rate, dimensional stability, warping, surface checking, and splitting). The wood species were Amburana cearensis (roble), Anadenanthera macrocarpa (curupau), Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (jichituriqui), Astronium urundeuva (cuchi), Caesalpinia cf. pluviosa (momoqui), Diplotropis...
Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Matthew St. Pierre; Dan. Eklund
The most readily available source of woody biomass is through whole-tree harvesting that removes what has been traditionally left as slash [i.e., fine woody debris (FWD)]. While FWD has the potential to be used as energy feedstock, a critical element of managing for biodiversity is maintaining woody debris on the forest floor.
Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.
Katie P. Gaines; Jane W. Stanley; Frederick C. Meinzer; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Weile Chen; Thomas S. Adams; Henry Lin; David M. Eissenstat; Nathan Phillips
We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process...
Dunckel, Kathleen Lois
Introduced invasive pests and climate change are perhaps the most important and persistent catalyst for changes in forest composition. Infestation and outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) along the eastern coast of the USA, has led to widespread loss of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), and a shift in tree species composition towards hardwood stands. Maine's forest dominated landscape and position at the leading edge of the HWA invasion provides an excellent opportunity to inform sustainable forest management (SFM) practices by using spatially explicit models to predict current tree species distribution, future range shifts, and solicit broad based feedback from Maine residents about forest management goals and preferences. This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the ecological and social implications of changes in mixed northern hardwood forests due to disturbance. A two stage mapping approach was used where presence/absence of eastern hemlock is predicted with an overall accuracy of 85% and the continuous distribution (% basal area) was predicted with an accuracy of 83%. Given the importance of climate variables in predicting eastern hemlock, forecasts of future range shifts are possible using data generated through climate scenarios. The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30) dataset was used to model future shifts in the geographic range of eastern hemlock throughout the state of Maine. The results clearly describe a significant shift in eastern hemlock range with gains in total geographic area that is suitable habitat. Sustaining forest systems across the landscape requires not only ecological knowledge, but also the integration of multiple socio-economic criteria as well, including data obtained through broad-based public participation approaches. Here, 3000 Maine residents were surveyed and asked how they: (1) value local forests; (2) view forest management goals and threats to forest
Kayanna L. Warren
Full Text Available There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm soil carbon between control (nonharvested and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region.
W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker
Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...
Erupe, M.; Mwaniki, G.; Rosenkrance, C.; Pressley, S. N.; Kanawade, V. P.; Lee, S.; Slade, J. H.; Shepson, P. B.; VanReken, T. M.
During the summer of 2009 the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteractions EXperiment (CABINEX) was conducted at the Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) facility in northern Michigan. A major goal of the study was to understand how aerosol physical and chemical properties are affected by emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and by other environmental drivers within and just above the forest canopy. During CABINEX, extensive measurements of aerosol properties were made below the forest canopy, including particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, cloud-forming potential, and light scattering properties. Further measurements were made at two additional heights on the PROPHET tower and above the canopy from an airborne platform. This presentation synthesizes the available aerosol data from CABINEX to examine how processes on the canopy scale affect the aerosol population. The analysis will focus largely on two questions: 1) how does the variability in local turbulence conditions affect the gradient of particle size distribution through the canopy?; and 2) what are the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol population, and how do these measured properties reconcile with the available composition, size distribution, and light scattering data? Results of these analyses will be compared to meteorological and trace gas observations made during CABINEX to evaluate the importance of local canopy-scale aerosol processing relative to the larger-scale spatial and temporal variability.
Kenneth C. Colbert; David R. Larsen; James R. Lootens
Height-diameter equations are often used to predict the mean total tree height for trees when only diameter at breast height (dbh) is measured. Measuring dbh is much easier and is subject to less measurement error than total tree height. However, predicted heights only reflect the average height for trees of a particular diameter. In this study, we present a set of...
Marinos, R.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Likens, G.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.
Forested ecosystems in the Northeast U.S.A. are currently recovering from decades of acidic deposition that decreased soil pH, leached base cations, and increased soluble aluminum (Al) in soils. Because most research examining SOM dynamics in these ecosystems has taken place against a background of acidic deposition, it remains poorly understood how SOM pools will change as a result of the long-term trajectory of recovery from acidic deposition throughout the region. These potential changes may alter soil fertility status as well as the chemistry of receiving freshwater bodies. Watershed-scale experiments that increase soil pH and base cation status may provide insight into how SOM pools in these recovering ecosystems will respond on timescales of decades to centuries, but results from these experiments have been equivocal. At Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, a watershed-scale acid remediation treatment of calcium silicate caused a 40% decline of SOM pools in the humic (Oa) soil horizon, in addition to increasing soil pH and base saturation. We sought to understand the mechanisms driving this substantial loss of SOM. We found that, in the Oa horizon of the treatment watershed, respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were significantly, positively correlated with exchangeable calcium (Ca) and uncorrelated with soil pH; in a linear regression, exchangeable Ca explained 76% of the variation in respiration and 74% of the variation in nitrogen mineralization in the treatment soils. These metrics were uncorrelated in soils from a nearby reference watershed, where Ca is uniformly low. This suggests that the rate and magnitude of soil Ca changes during recovery from acid deposition may provide an important long-term control on the stability of SOM in these ecosystems. Additionally, we found substantially enhanced in-stream biotic uptake of the inorganic N released from this enhanced SOM decomposition, with growing-season N flux from the treatment
James H. Miller
Herbicides can play an important role in hardwood management by providing foresters and landowners with a means to eliminate undesirable stand components. Although herbicide technology for hardwood management still needs much development, some methods are available and MU be used to enhance the value of the stand. With an emphasis on safety, detailed information about...
Hardwood lumber production has trended downward nationally since 1999 as marginal mills have closed and others have consolidated in response to market conditions. Still, forests throughout Ohio continue to provide multiple benefits to landowners and all Ohioans. Important changes are taking place in hardwood markets, both domestically and abroad. With a knowledge of...
David L. Loftis
Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined seral stages to a well-defined ,climax stage( s) are not a useful conceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatments in complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...
M. D. Ostrander
In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...
Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun
Forest stand stability to strong winds such as hurricanes has been found to be associated with a number of forest, soil and topography factors. In this study, through applying geographic information system (GIS) and logit regression, we assessed effects of forest characteristics and site conditions on pattern, severity and probability of Hurricane Katrina disturbance to forests in the Lower Pearl River Valley, USA. The factors included forest type, forest coverage, stand density, soil great group, elevation, slope, aspect, and stream buffer zone. Results showed that Hurricane Katrina damaged 60% of the total forested land in the region. The distribution and intensity of the hurricane disturbance varied across the landscape, with the bottomland hardwood forests on river floodplains most severely affected. All these factors had a variety of effects on vulnerability of the forests to the hurricane disturbance and thereby spatial patterns of the disturbance. Soil groups and stand factors including forest types, forest coverage and stand density contributed to 85% of accuracy in modeling the probability of the hurricane disturbance to forests in this region. Besides assessment of Katrina's damage, this study elucidates the great usefulness of remote sensing and GIS techniques combined with statistics modeling in assessment of large-scale risks of hurricane damage to coastal forests.
Yanai, R. D.; Bae, K.; Levine, C. R.; Lilly, P.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Fatemi, F. R.; Blum, J. D.; Arthur, M.; Hamburg, S.
Ecosystem nutrient budgets are difficult to construct and even more difficult to replicate. As a result, uncertainty in the estimates of pools and fluxes are rarely reported, and opportunities to assess confidence through replicated measurements are rare. In this study, we report nutrient concentrations and contents of soil and biomass pools in northern hardwood stands in replicate plots within replicate stands in 3 age classes (14-19 yr, 26-29 yr, and > 100 yr) at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, USA. Soils were described by quantitative soil pits in three plots per stand, excavated by depth increment to the C horizon and analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Variation in soil mass among pits within stands averaged 28% (coefficient of variation); variation among stands within an age class ranged from 9-25%. Variation in nutrient concentrations were higher still (averaging 38%, within element, depth increment, and extraction type), perhaps because the depth increments contained varying proportions of genetic horizons. To estimate nutrient contents of aboveground biomass, we propagated model uncertainty through allometric equations, and found errors ranging from 3-7%, depending on the stand. The variation in biomass among plots within stands (6-19%) was always larger than the allometric uncertainties. Variability in measured nutrient concentrations of tree tissues were more variable than the uncertainty in biomass. Foliage had the lowest variability (averaging 16% for Ca, Mg, K, N and P within age class and species), and wood had the highest (averaging 30%), when reported in proportion to the mean, because concentrations in wood are low. For Ca content of aboveground biomass, sampling variation was the greatest source of uncertainty. Coefficients of variation among plots within a stand averaged 16%; stands within an age class ranged from 5-25% CV, including uncertainties in tree allometry and tissue chemistry. Uncertainty analysis can help direct research
Full Text Available This study was carried out in Hungary, in an old unmanaged riparian poplar-willow forest during the breeding seasons of 2014 and 2015. The occurrence of two invasive tree species, the green ash and boxelder, is significant in the study area, which influences negatively the populations of native riparian tree species in Central Europe. We studied Great-spotted Woodpecker nest sites in the presence of these invasive species. Throughout the study period, eight and twelve nesting cavity trees were mapped. Trees were recorded in 20-20 circular plots of 0.05 ha both for each mapped nest trees and random plots as well. Species, diameter at breast height and condition were recorded for each tree. Composition and diversity of nest site and random plots were compared. Distributions and preferences were calculated for nest tree use. Most of the recorded trees were invasive. Nest site plots had more native trees compared to random plots. Nest site showed higher diversity in terms of all three variables. Decayed and dead willow and white poplar hybrid trees were preferred for nesting. Diameter at breast height of nest trees was between 30-90 cm. Studies about cavity excavators in transformed habitats have high importance for nature conservation of riparian forests.
Delucia, E; Sipe, T; Herrick, J; Maherali, H
Above- and belowground tissues of co-occurring saplings (0.1-1 m height) of Acer saccharum Marsh. (very shade tolerant), Acer rubrum L. (shade tolerant), Fraxinus americana L. (intermediate shade tolerant), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (shade intolerant) were harvested from a forest understory to test the hypothesis that the pattern of biomass allocation varied predictably with shade-tolerance rank. The placement and length of branches along the main axis were consistent with the formation of a monolayer of foliage for the tolerant and intermediate species. Other morphological characteristics did not vary predictably with shade-tolerance rank. The maintenance of high specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area/leaf mass) and leaf area ratio (LAR; leaf area/sapling mass) is considered important for growth under extreme shade, yet these traits were not clearly related to the shade-tolerance rank of these species. Fraxinus americana, an intermediate species, had the highest LAR and growth rate in the understory, and with the exception of P. serotina, the very shade-tolerant A. saccharum had the lowest LAR. Prunus serotina maintained a large starch-rich tap root and shoot dieback was common, yielding the largest root/shoot ratio for these species. The observed allocation patterns were not similar to the long-standing expectation for the phenotypic response of juvenile trees to shade, but were consistent with three hypothetical "growth strategies" in the understory: (1) the low SLA and LAR of A. saccharum may provide a measure of defense against herbivores and pathogens and thus promote persistence in the understory, (2) the high SLA for F. americana and high LAR for F. americana and A. rubrum may enable these species to achieve high growth rates in shade, and (3) the large carbohydrate stores of P. serotina may poise this species for opportunistic growth following disturbance. The relative importance of resistance to herbivores and pathogens vs. the maintenance of high growth
Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D
Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is
Forest inventory information is a principle driver for forest management decisions. Information gathered through these inventories provides a summary of the condition of forested stands. The method by which remote sensing aids land managers is changing rapidly. Imagery produced from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offer high temporal and spatial resolutions and have added another approach to small-scale forest management. UAS imagery is less expensive and easier to coordinate to meet project needs compared to traditional manned aerial imagery. This study focused on producing an efficient and approachable work flow for producing forest stand board foot volume estimates from UAS imagery in mixed hardwood stands of West Virginia. A supplementary aim of this project was to evaluate which season was best to collect imagery for forest inventory. True color imagery was collected with a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS and was processed in Agisoft Photoscan Professional. Automated segmentation was performed with Trimble eCognition Developer's multi-resolution segmentation function with manual optimization of parameters through an iterative process. Individual tree volume metrics were derived from field data relationships and volume estimates were processed in EZ CRUZ forest inventory software. The software, at best, correctly segmented 43% of the individual tree crowns. No correlation between season of imagery acquisition and quality of segmentation was shown. Volume and other stand characteristics were not accurately estimated and were faulted by poor segmentation. However, the imagery was able to capture gaps consistently and the high resolution imagery was able to provide a visualization of forest health. Difficulties, successes and time required for these procedures were thoroughly noted.
Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze
Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...
Katie Greenberg; Kendrick Weeks; Gordon S. Warburton
EXCERPT FROM:Â Natural Disturbances and Historic Range VariationÂ 2015 Â Multiple natural disturbance types historically created conditions thatwere suitable for many, but not all, disturbance-dependent wildlife species in theÂ Central Hardwood Region (CHR). In...
William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold
The quality of data concerning international hardwood products trade declined in the 1980s because of several problems associated with the collection and processing of individual export transaction records. This note examines the source, impact, and remedies for data problems caused by data screening procedures, nonreporting, recording errors, and alternative...
Fumigation with methyl bromide is essential in the production of hardwood seedlings in nurseries in the southern United States. However, the proposed rules under the 2008 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Mitigation will further restrict the use of methyl bromide for nursery use.
Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.
During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.
Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.
Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.
Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan
Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...
Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt
Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled Ã£Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.Ã¤ The...
William D. Dijak; Brice B. Hanberry; Jacob S. Fraser; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Frank R. Thompson
Context. Global climate change impacts forest growth and methods of modeling those impacts at the landscape scale are needed to forecast future forest species composition change and abundance. Changes in forest landscapes will affect ecosystem processes and services such as succession and disturbance, wildlife habitat, and production of forest...
Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve. Westin
The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...
Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz
Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth
In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.
William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer
Analysis of pretreatment data is essential to determine long-term effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles. We present pre-treatment amphibian and reptile capture data from April 2005 to May 2006 for a long-term study on herpetofaunal response to prescribed burning and tree thinning in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL, United States....
Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.
when the median age of surviving 2004 subcanopy trees will reach the median age (99 years) of the 2004 large canopy trees. The change will be greatest for forests in the upper reach (45.0 percent). Forest composition changes from pre-1954 to 2085 were calculated using Floodplain Indices from 1976 and 2004 tree-size classes and replicate plots. Species composition in high bottomland hardwood forests is expected to continue to change, and some low bottomland hardwood forests are expected to become high bottomland hardwood forests. Organisms associated with floodplain forests will be affected by the changes in tree species, which will alter the timing of leaf-out, fruiting, and leaf-drop, the types of fruit and debris produced, and soil chemistry. Swamps will contain more bottomland hardwood species, but will also have an overall loss of tree density. The density of trees in swamps significantly decreased by 37 percent from 1976 to 2004. Of the estimated 4.3 million (17 percent) fewer trees that existed in the nontidal floodplain in 2004 than in 1976, 3.3 million trees belonged to four swamp species: popash, Ogeechee tupelo, water tupelo, and bald cypress. Water tupelo, the most important tree in the nontidal floodplain in terms of basal area and density, has declined in number of trees by nearly 20 percent since 1976. Ogeechee tupelo, the species valuable to the tupelo honey industry, has declined in number of trees by at least 44 percent. Greater hydrologic variability in recent years may be the reason swamps have had a large decrease in tree density. Drier conditions are detrimental for the growth of swamp species, and periodic large floods kill invading bottomland hardwood trees. The loss of canopy density in swamps may result in the swamp floor being exposed to more light with an increase in the amount of ground cover present, which in turn, would reduce tree replacement. The microclimate of the swamp floor would become wa
... proper form by the Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood and its individual members (Petitioners... Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood are: Columbia Forest Products, Commonwealth Plywood Inc... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China...
Iris B. Montague
Many obstacles may deter hardwood manufacturers from obtaining chain-of-custody certification. Because the hardwood and softwood forest products industries have many differences between them, current certification systems may not fit the unique demographics of the hardwood industry. For this reason, it is important to understand chain-of-custody certification as it...
Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford
The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...
Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph
The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...
Todd E. Ristau; Susan L. Stout
Assessment of regeneration can be time-consuming and costly. Often, foresters look for ways to minimize the cost of doing inventories. One potential method to reduce time required on a plot is use of percent cover data rather than seedling count data to determine stocking. Robust linear regression analysis was used in this report to predict seedling count data from...
Chris J. Peterson; Lisa M. Krueger; Alejandro A. Royo; Scott Stark; Walter P. Carson
Do large disturbances differ from small ones in characteristics other than size? The importance of disturbances in forest dynamics is unquestioned, and the size of the disturbed area (size of gap) is the most common way of differentiating disturbances. But few studies have examined other disturbance characteristics to see if small and large disturbances are different....
Ralph E. J. Boerner; Kelly L. M. Decker; Elaine K. Sutherland
We assessed the effect of a single, dormant season prescribed fire on soil enzyme activity in oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) forests in southern Ohio, USA. Four enzymes specific for different C sources were chosen for monitoring: acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, chitinase and phenol oxidase. Postfire acid phosphatase activity was generally reduced by burning and...
Loss, Scott R; Blair, Robert B
European earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) are spreading into previously earthworm-free forests in the United States and Canada and causing substantial changes, including homogenization of soil structure, removal of the litter layer, and reduction in arthropod abundance and species richness of understory plants. Whether these changes affect songbirds that nest and forage on the forest floor is unknown. In stands with and without earthworms in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin (U.S.A.), we surveyed for, monitored nests of, and measured attributes of habitat of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus), both ground-dwelling songbirds, and we sampled earthworms at survey points and nests. Bird surveys indicated significantly lower densities of Ovenbirds and Hermit Thrushes in relation to Lumbricus invasions at survey point and stand extents (3.1 and 15-20 ha, respectively). Modeling of Ovenbird nest survival (i.e., the probability that nestlings successfully fledge) indicated that lower survival probabilities were associated with increased sedge cover and decreased litter depth, factors that are related to Lumbricus invasions, possibly due to reduced nest concealment or arthropod abundance. Our findings provide compelling evidence that earthworm invasions may be associated with local declines of forest songbird populations. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Kerry D. Woods
When unlogged, mesic forest of the Great lakes region of North America are "slow systems' dominant trees can live for over 300 years and canopy-residence times range from 100 to over 200 years (frelich & Lorimer 1991: Frelich & Graumlich 1994: parshall 1995: Dahir & Lorimer 1996: Woods 2000). Catastrophic wind-throw caused by tornadoes and derecho...
William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer
We evaluated the response of amphibians and reptiles to two levels of prescribed burning and three levels of thinning using a field experiment consisting of a beforeâafter, control-impact, and factorial complete block design over a four year period in the William B. Bankhead National Forest located in northwestern Alabama. We captured 2643 individuals representing 47...
Barton D. Clinton
Understanding spatial and temporal variation in the understory light regime of southern Appalachian forests is central to understanding regeneration patterns of overstory species. One of the important contributors to this variability is the distribution of evergreen shrub species, primarily Rhododendron maximum L. We measured photosynthetically...
Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates
Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...
Chris B. LeDoux; Ethel Wilkerson
Forest landowners, managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision and policy-makers need to understand the opportunity costs and ecological benefits associated with different widths of streamside management zones (SMZs). In this paper, a simulation model was used to assess the opportunity costs of SMZ retention for four different logging systems, two mature...
K. Percy; M. Nosal; W. Heilman; T. Dann; J. Sober; D. Karnosky
In many forested regions of North America, background O3 levels have been rising despite the fact that hourly maximum concentrations have been decreasing. Unlike Europe, where critical levels based on a response threshold are used to assess risk, Canada and the United States use the best available scientific knowledge balanced by social, economic...
Peter M. Groffman; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; John Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Nina K. Lany; Anne M. Socci; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Paul Schaberg; Geoffrey F. Wilson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Christine L. Goodale; Mark B. Green; Steven P. Hamburg; Chris E. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell; Jennifer L. Morse; Linda H. Pardo; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse
Evaluations of the local effects of global change are often confounded by the interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors that overshadow the effects of climate changes on ecosystems. Long-term watershed and natural elevation gradient studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and in the surrounding region show surprising results demonstrating the effects...
Jill M. Wick; Yong Wang
We evaluated habitat use and home range size of hooded warblers (Wilsonia citrine) and worm-eating warblers (Helmitheros vermivorus) in six treated mixed oak-pine stands on the Bankhead National Forest in north-central AL. Study design is a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of three thinning levels (no thin, 11...
Scott H. Stoleson; Todd E. Ristau; David S. deCalesta; Stephen B. Horsley
Use of herbicides in forestry to direct successional trajectories has raised concerns over possible direct or indirect effects on non-target organisms. We studied the response of forest birds to an operational application of glyphosate and sulfometuron methyl herbicides, using a randomized block design in which half of each 8 ha block received herbicide and the other...
George R., Jr. Trimble
Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.
Dodds, Kevin J.; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Nathan W. Siegert; Michael J. Bohne
Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presen...
Full Text Available Biological invasions represent a serious threat for the conservation of biodiversity in many ecosystems. While many social insect species and in particular ant species have been introduced outside their native ranges, few species have been successful at invading temperate forests. In this study, we document for the first time the relationship between the abundance of the introduced ant, Pachycondyla chinensis, in mature forests of North Carolina and the composition, abundance and diversity of native ant species using both a matched pair approach and generalized linear models. Where present, P. chinensis was more abundant than all native species combined. The diversity and abundance of native ants in general and many individual species were negatively associated with the presence and abundance of P. chinensis. These patterns held regardless of our statistical approach and across spatial scales. Interestingly, while the majority of ant species was strongly and negatively correlated with the abundance and presence of P. chinensis, a small subset of ant species larger than P. chinensis was either as abundant or even more abundant in invaded than in uninvaded sites. The large geographic range of this ant species combined with its apparent impact on native species make it likely to have cascading consequences on eastern forests in years to come, effects mediated by the specifics of its life history which is very different from those of other invasive ants. The apparent ecological impacts of P. chinensis are in addition to public health concerns associated with this species due to its sometimes, deadly sting.
Guénard, Benoit; Dunn, Robert R
Biological invasions represent a serious threat for the conservation of biodiversity in many ecosystems. While many social insect species and in particular ant species have been introduced outside their native ranges, few species have been successful at invading temperate forests. In this study, we document for the first time the relationship between the abundance of the introduced ant, Pachycondyla chinensis, in mature forests of North Carolina and the composition, abundance and diversity of native ant species using both a matched pair approach and generalized linear models. Where present, P. chinensis was more abundant than all native species combined. The diversity and abundance of native ants in general and many individual species were negatively associated with the presence and abundance of P. chinensis. These patterns held regardless of our statistical approach and across spatial scales. Interestingly, while the majority of ant species was strongly and negatively correlated with the abundance and presence of P. chinensis, a small subset of ant species larger than P. chinensis was either as abundant or even more abundant in invaded than in uninvaded sites. The large geographic range of this ant species combined with its apparent impact on native species make it likely to have cascading consequences on eastern forests in years to come, effects mediated by the specifics of its life history which is very different from those of other invasive ants. The apparent ecological impacts of P. chinensis are in addition to public health concerns associated with this species due to its sometimes, deadly sting.
Campbell, John L; Socci, Anne M; Templer, Pamela H
The depth and duration of snow pack is declining in the northeastern United States as a result of warming air temperatures. Since snow insulates soil, a decreased snow pack can increase the frequency of soil freezing, which has been shown to have important biogeochemical implications. One of the most notable effects of soil freezing is increased inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention is thought to be due to reduced root uptake, but has not yet been measured directly. We conducted a 2-year snow-removal experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to determine the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal significantly increased the depth of maximal soil frost by 37.2 and 39.5 cm in the first and second winters, respectively (P snow removal (P = 0.023 for 2009 and P = 0.005 for 2010). These observed reductions in root nitrogen uptake coincided with significant increases in soil solution concentrations of ammonium in the Oa horizon (P = 0.001 for 2009 and 2010) and nitrate in the B horizon (P effects of winter climate change on root function has significant consequences for nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy
Managers of public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley have implemented forest management strategies to improve bottomland hardwood habitat for target wildlife species. Through implementation of various silvicultural practices, forest managers have sought to attain forest structural conditions (e.g., canopy cover, basal area, etc.) within values postulated to benefit wildlife. We evaluated data from point count surveys of breeding birds on 180 silviculturally treated stands (1049 counts) that ranged from 1 to 20 years post-treatment and 134 control stands (676 counts) that had not been harvested for >20 years. Birds detected during 10-min counts were recorded within four distance classes and three time intervals. Avian diversity was greater on treated stands than on unharvested stands. Of 42 commonly detected species, six species including Prothonotary Warbler (Prothonotaria citrea) and Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) were indicative of control stands. Similarly, six species including Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were indicative of treated stands. Using a removal model to assess probability of detection, we evaluated occupancy of bottomland forests at two spatial scales (stands and points within occupied stands). Wildlife-forestry treatment improved predictive models of species occupancy for 18 species. We found years post treatment (range = 1–20), total basal area, and overstory canopy were important species-specific predictors of occupancy, whereas variability in basal area was not. In addition, we used a removal model to estimate species-specific probability of availability for detection, and a distance model to estimate effective detection radius. We used these two estimated parameters to derive species densities and 95% confidence intervals for treated and unharvested stands. Avian densities differed between treated and control stands for 16 species, but only Common Yellowthroat
John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin
A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...
Brian J. MacGowan; Lenny D. Farlee; Robert N. Chapman
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts on plants and animals. Information from the HEE should and will be made available to a diverse group of potential users. This paper summarizes educational efforts during the pre-treatment period and highlights potential mechanisms and...
Chris B. LeDoux
Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...
Paula M. Pijut; Shaneka S. Lawson; Charles H. Michler
Hardwood tree species in forest, plantation, and urban environments (temperate regions of the world) are important biological resources that play a significant role in the economy and the ecology of terrestrial ecosystems, and they have aesthetic and spiritual value. Because of these many values of hardwood tree species, preserving forest tree biodiversity through the...
Dodds, Kevin J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Siegert, Nathan W; Bohne, Michael J
Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%).
Kevin J. Dodds
Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.
Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.
The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were
Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James
This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.
John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Kenneth Outcalt; William H. Conner; James M. Guldin
Restoration of the myriad communities of bottomland hardwood and wetland forests and of the diverse communities of fire-dominated pine forests is the subject of intense interest in the Southern United States. Restoration practice is relatively advanced for bottomland hardwoods and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), and less so for swamps and...
J.M. Vose; W.T. Swank
Prescribed fire is currently used as a site preparation treat-ment in mixed pine-hardwood ecosystems of the southern Appalachians.Stands receiving this treatment typically consist of mixtures of pitch pine (Pinus rigidu Mill.), scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and dense under-stories dominated by...
Timothy B. Harrington; Mingguang Xu; M. Boyd Edwards
At Murder Creek Research Natural Area, Georgia, USA, we compared structural characteristics of late-successional pine-hardwood stands two to three years after infestation by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) to those of adjacent noninfested stands. Death of up to eight Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata...
John M. Kabrick; Benjamin O. Knapp; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen
There is interest in restoring shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) in pineâoak woodlands where it once was abundant. Because of its shade intolerance and slow initial growth rate, shortleaf pine restoration has remained a challenge because competition from hardwoods exhibits greater initial growth following canopy removal but greater shade tolerance with...
Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; James L. Chamberlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; John W. Coulston
Forest land area in Tennessee amounted to 13.78 million acres. About 125 different species, mostly hardwood, account for an estimated 22.6 billion cubic feet of all growing-stock volume on timberland in the State. Hardwood forest types occupy the vast majority of the State's forest land, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group, accounting for about 10.1...
Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.
During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of treatments, and an untreated control, were applied to oak plantations (20 - 30 years post-planting) on three National Wildlife Refuges (Cache River, AR; Grand Cote, LA; and Yazoo, MS) during summer 2010. We sampled habitat using fixed-radius plots in 2009 (pre-treatment) and in 2012 (post-treatment) at random locations. Retained basal area was least in diagonal corridor treatments but had greater variance in patch-cut treatments. All treatments increased canopy openness and the volume of coarse woody debris. Occurrence of birds using early successional habitats was greater on sites treated with patch cuts and diagonal intersections. Canopy openings on row-thinned stands are being filled by lateral crown growth of retained trees whereas patch cut and diagonal intersection gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.
Robert L. Brisbin
Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...
W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough
The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...
H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller
Uneven-age management or partial cutting methods as described in this paper allow foresters to manage eastern hardwood stands and harvest forest products without clearcutting. These methods can involve regular periodic harvests, at least for the short term, based on stand conditions and growing-site capabilities. We are not going to make the decision as to which is the...
John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard
Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...
David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen
The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.
Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph
Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentuckyâs timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...
Delton Alderman; Matthew Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; David Brinberg
Historically, eastern hardwoods have been a staple of forest products production. However, hardwood producers are now faced with serious challenges from substitutable products, such as imports of foreign species, utilization of foreign species in overseas manufacture (e.g., case goods, etc.), and composite-based materials that are imported or manufactured here in the...
Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Charles Possee
The hardwood forests of the southern U.S. are not naturally composed of singe predominant species. The diversity of tree species within these stands is one of the qualities that make them so valuable for multiple use stand management. While many of the best hardwood sites have been planted to pines since the 1950's, some proportion of these pine stands now being...
Gary W. Miller
Forest managers often question the economic feasibility of cultural practices in hardwood sapling stands. Investment factors, including initial treatment cost, required rate of return, investment period, and stand response to treatment are discussed in terms of how they affect the outcome of early investments in even-aged hardwood stands. Attention is focused on...
Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.
Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....
Lemon, Mary Grace T.; Allen, Scott T.; Edwards, Brandon L.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.
Decreased water availability due to hydrologic modifications, groundwater withdrawal, and climate change threaten bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest communities. We used satellite-derived (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) data to investigate spatial heterogeneity of canopy temperature (an indicator of plant-water status) in a floodplain forest of the upper Sabine River for 2008–2014. High LST pixels were generally further from the river and at higher topographic locations, indicating lower water-availability. Increasing rainfall-derived soil moisture corresponded with decreased heterogeneity of LST between pixels but there was weaker association between Sabine River stage and heterogeneity. Stronger dependence of LST convergence on rainfall rather than river flow suggests that some regions are less hydrologically connected to the river, and vegetation may rely on local precipitation and other contributions to the riparian aquifer to replenish soil moisture. Observed LST variations associated with hydrology encourage further investigation of the utility of this approach for monitoring forest stress, especially with considerations of climate change and continued river management.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We propose to conduct an initial assessment of bat occurrence within bottomland forests on National Wildlife Refuges relative to silvicultural treatments prescribed...
Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self
The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of theÂ most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for suchÂ applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed atÂ Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...
Eric S. Fabio; Mary A. Arthur; Charles C. Rhoades
Understanding how natural factors interact across the landscape to influence nitrogen (N) cycling is an important focus in temperate forests because of the great inherent variability in these forests. Site-specific attributes, including local topography, soils, and vegetation, can exert important controls on N processes and retention. Seasonal monitoring of N cycling...
Zone Species II III IV V VI Acer negundo (boxelder) X X X X Acer rubrum (red maple) X X X X Alnus serrulata (common alder) X X X Amorpha...virginiana (persimmon) X X X X Euonymus americanus (strawberry bush) X X Fagus grandifolia (American beech) X X Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) X
Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf; Andrew W. Ezell
With ongoing attempts to reforest both cut-over and abandoned agricultural land in the lower Mississippi alluvial plain, it has become evident that there exists a need for an efficient regeneration system that makes biological and economic sense. Also, there is a need to address how to minimize oomoetitkm from invading weeds, to deter predation by small mammals, and...
Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners
Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...
H. A. Alden
This report describes 53 taxa of hardwoods of North America, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, toxicity and uses) and additional sources for...
Glenn A. Cooper
A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.
Paul A. Murphy
Between 1964 and 1974, forest area in Louisiana declined 9 percent to 14.5 million acres. Softwood volume increased 31 percent to 9 billion cubic feet, and hardwood declined 7 percent to 7.7 billion. All softwood size classes had increases in volume, and all hardwood size classes had decreases.
George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall
The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...
William F.J. Parsons; James G. Bockheim; Richard L. Lindroth
The future capacity of forest ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon is likely to be influenced by CO2-mediated shifts in nutrient cycling through changes in litter chemistry, and by interactions with pollutants like O3. We evaluated the independent and interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O...
Ryan L. Woods; Douglass F. Jacobs
During the spring of 2007, a low thinning was implemented in stands on the Hoosier National Forest that had been clearcut harvested between 1975 and 1979; treatments consisted of 60- and 75-percent residual stocking, as well as control plots with no thinning. The 60-percent treatment increased the relative oak density per acre in all stands with the exception of one...
D. F. Karnosky; D. R. Zak; K. S. Pregitzer; C. S. Awmack; J. G. Bockheim; R. E. Dickson; G. R. Hendrey; G. E. Host; J. S. King; B. J. Kopper; E. L. Kruger; M. E. Kubiske; R. L. Lindroth; W. J. Mattson; E. P. McDonald; A. Noormets; E. Oksanen; W. F. J. Parsons; K. E. Percy; G. K. Podila; D. E. Riemenschneider; P. Sharma; R. Thakur; A. S& #244ber; J. S& #244ber; W. S. Jones; S. Anttonen; E. Vapaavuori; B. Mankovska; W. Heilman; J. G. Isebrands
1. The impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 have been examined over 4 years using an open-air exposure system in an aggrading northern temperate forest containing two different functional groups (the indeterminate, pioneer, 03-sensitive species Trembling Aspen, Populus tremuloides...
Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson; W.H. Conner
Seedling establishment and survival on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina is being monitored as part of the Pen Branch Bottomland Restoration Project. Bottomland tree species were planted from 1993-1995 across a hydrologic gradient which encompasses the drier upper floodplain corridor, the lower floodplain corridor and the continuously inundated delta. Twelve...
Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz
Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.
Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell
How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...
Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.
Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack over the next 100 years. Even when coupled with warmer winter air temperatures, the absence of snow as insulation can increase soil frost during the winter months. Past research has determined that there are species-level effects of soil frost on dominant forest trees. For example, in stands dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), induced soil frost led to increased fine root mortality and soil nitrate leaching. Soil frost also increased fine root mortality in stands dominated by yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), but there was no significant change in leaching of soil nitrate. We hypothesized that greater nitrogen (N) losses from stands dominated by sugar maple may be due to reduced N uptake by fine roots of this tree species. To determine the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of N, we established a snow manipulation experiment in mixed sugar maple/American beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire (n=4 paired snow-removal and reference plots; each 13m X 13m). Snow removal occurred during the first six weeks of winter over two years. During each growing season following snow removal, we used the N depletion technique to measure in situ rates of uptake of ammonium and nitrate by fine roots of sugar maple during the early, peak and late growing season. Among all sampling dates and plots, we observed significantly lower uptake of N as nitrate compared to ammonium. During the first growing season, at moderate ammonium availability (35 μM N) we observed significantly less uptake of ammonium by fine roots of sugar maple in the snow removal plots relative to the reference plots during the early growing season (April-May), with no significant differences in uptake of ammonium during the peak (July) and late (September) growing season. We observed no differences in
Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; Patricia D. Shannon; Chris W. Swanston
The Central Hardwood region contains a mosaic of forests, woodlands, savannas, and other ecosystems that will increasingly be affected by a changing climate over the next century. Understanding potential impacts is important to sustaining healthy forests under changing conditions. The objectives of the Climate Change Response Framework (forestadaptation.org) are to...
Robert A. Sargent; John C. Kilgo; Briand R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller
Nesting success of songbirds often is poor in edge-dominated habitats. Because the spatial juxtaposition of forest fragments relative to other habitats may influence nest success, we tested the hypothesis that the depredation rate for bird nests in small hardwood forests would decrease if the degree of edge contrast with adjoining habitats was reduced. Over 4 trials,...
Dale S. Solomon; Richard A. Hosmer; Homer T., Jr. Hayslett; Homer T. Hayslett
A matrix model, FIBER, has been developed to provide the forest manager with a means of simulating the management and growth of forest stands in the Northeast. Instructional material is presented for the management of even-aged and multi-aged spruce-fir, mixedwood, and northern hardwood stands. FIBER allows the user to simulate a range of silvicultural treatments for a...
Tim McDonald; Bryce Stokes
Visual impacts of forest operations are of increasing concern to forest managers. Tools are available for evaluating, and potentially avoiding, problems in visual quality resulting from poorly designed harvest unit boundaries. One of these visualization tools is applied in comparing various harvest unit shape alternatives in an upland hardwood stand on steeply sloping...
David L. Sonderman; Robert L. Brisbin
Forest managers have no objective way to determine the relative value of culturally treated forest stands in terms of product potential. This paper describes the first step in the development of a quality classification system based on the measurement of individual tree characteristics for young hardwood stands.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...
Diane De Steven; Stephen P. Faulkner; Bobby D. Keeland; Michael J. Baldwin; John W. McCoy; Steven C. Hughes
In the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV), complete alteration of river-floodplain hydrology allowed for widespread conversion of forested bottomlands to intensive agriculture, resulting in nearly 80% forest loss. Governmental programs have attempted to restore forest habitat and functions within this altered landscape by the methods of tree planting (...
Owings, Charlotte F; Jacobs, Douglass F; Shields, Joshua M; Saunders, Michael R; Jenkins, Michael A
Underplanting tree seedlings in areas where natural regeneration is limited may offer a tool by which desired overstory composition can be maintained or restored in forests. However, invasive plant species and ungulate browsing may limit the effectiveness of underplanting, and in-turn, the successful restoration of forest ecosystems. Individually, the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been found to negatively affect the regeneration of native tree species in the Midwestern United States, but few studies have examined their interactive or cumulative effects. Using exclosures and shrub removal at five sites, we examined the effects of white-tailed deer and L. maackii both on underplanted seedlings of Castanea dentata and Quercus rubra and on the composition, species richness and diversity of naturally regenerated native tree seedlings. Individually, both deer and L. maackii had negative effects on the survival of underplanted seedlings, but we identified no interactive effects. The presence of L. maackii or deer alone resulted in similar declines in the survivorship of Q. rubra seedlings, but the presence of deer alone resulted in lower survival of C. dentata seedlings than the presence of L. maackii alone. Lonicera maackii reduced light levels, increased seedling moisture stress and decreased relative basal diameter growth for Q. rubra seedlings. Deer reduced the relative growth in height of underplanted C. dentata and Q. rubra seedlings and increased moisture stress of C. dentata seedlings. No effects of L. maackii or deer were found on soil or foliar nitrogen or the overall abundance, species richness and diversity of naturally regenerated seedlings. However, L. maackii and white-tailed deer did affect the abundance of individual tree species, shifting composition of the regeneration layer towards shade tolerant and unpalatable and/or browse tolerant species.
L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser
The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...
Harold O. Belzer; Robert C. Morris
The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner)3 may be found throughout the United States and Canada wherever hardwoods grow. It is a native insect that has attracted attention since colonial times. Regionwide outbreaks have occurred at intervals varying from 6 to 16 years in northern areas. Southern gum forests in southwest Alabama and southern Louisiana...
Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph
Occupancy of 240 nest boxes in pure pine, pine-hardwood, upland hardwood, and bottomland hardwood forests (60 boxes in each forest type) were monitored for six years on the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches County in eastern Texas. Three boxes were placed at twenty sites in each forest type. Initially, each site had a box with 3.2, 4.7, or 5.7 cm...
Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Lewis, Lori J.; Howell, David A.
swamps. Surface soils in upper and lower tidal reaches are predominantly organic, saturated mucks. In the downstream part of the lower tidal reach, conductivities of surface soils are high enough (greater than 4 milli-mhos per centimeter) to exclude many tree species that are intolerant of salinity. Species richness of canopy and subcanopy plants in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River is high compared to other river floodplains in North America. A total of 77 tree, shrub, and woody vine species were identified in the canopy and subcanopy of floodplain wetland forests (n = 8,376). Fourteen specific forest types were mapped using digitized aerial photographs, defined from vegetative sampling, and described in terms of plant species composition. For discussion purposes, some specific wetland types were combined, resulting in three general wetland forest types for each reach. Riverine high bottomland hardwoods have higher canopy species richness than all other forest types (40-42 species), with Quercus virginiana the most important canopy tree by basal area. The canopy composition of riverine low bottomland hardwoods is dominated by five species with Quercus laurifolia the most important by basal area. Riverine swamps occur in the lowest and wettest areas with Taxodium distichum the most important canopy species by basal area. Upper tidal bottomland hardwoods are differentiated from riverine forests by the presence of Sabal palmetto in the canopy. Upper tidal mixed forests and swamps are differentiated from riverine forests, in part, by the presence of Fraxinus profunda in the canopy. Nyssa aquatica, the most important canopy species by basal area in upper tidal swamps, is absent from most forests in the lower tidal reach where its distribution is probably restricted by salinity. Hydric hammocks, a wetland type that is rare outside of Florida, are found in the lower tidal reach and are flooded every 1-2 years by either storm surge or river floods. Lowe
Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del
To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.
Robert Gillespie; Dan Cramsey; Dick Miller; Dennis Hamel; Carl Puuri; F. Bryan Clark; John Erickson; Nelson Loftus; Lloyd Casey; H. Clay Smith; Bob Marquis; Martin Dale; Charles E. McGee; Robert D. Williams; Gayne G. Erdmann; R. M. Godman; Stephen G. Boyce; Paul A. Schrauder; DonaId E. Beck; David A. Marquis; James L. McConnell; Paul S. Debald; David R. Houston; Walter Knapp; Tom Turpin; Warren Bacon; Arnold Schulz
This year's National Silviculture Workshop was held in Roanoke, Virginia and the Monongahela National Forest. The purpose of the meetings were to discuss current silvicultural issues affecting all Regions and to review in detail the state-of-the-art application of hardwood management in the United States. These proceedings include the presentations of individuals...
Joseph J. Mendel; Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale
Tree quatity index tables are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. From these, tree value conversion standards are developed for each species, log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height. The method of calculating tree value conversion standards and adapting them to different conditions is explained. A computer...
James E. Johnson; Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras; Cynthia D. West
In recent years foresters managing hardwoods in the Southern Appalachians have been investigating a variety of regeneration methods that lead to the development of a two-aged stand. The reserved trees that make up the older age class usually meet a variety of objectives such as timber, wildlife food and cover, and aesthetic values. A series of 20 operational cuts in...
Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann
The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...
Chris B. LoDoux
Cut-to-length (CTL) logging applications are becoming more popular in hardwood forests. CTL harvesting causes much less damage to the residual stand than conventional harvesting because logs and trees are not pulled through the stand and trees can be felled directionally.
John Paul McTague; Daniel J. Robison; David O' Loughlin; Joseph Roise; Robert Kellison
Growth and yield data from across 13 southern States, collected from 1967 to 2004 from fully-stocked even-aged southern hardwood forests on a variety of site types, was used to calculate site index curves. These derived curves provide an efficient means to evaluate the productivity-age relation which varies across many sites. These curves were derived for mixed-species...
Ronald A. Rathfon; Michael R. Saunders
Foresters in the Central Hardwoods Region commonly fell or girdle interfering trees and apply herbicide to the cut surface when performing intermediate silvicultural treatments. The objective of this study was to compare the use of single and double chainsaw girdle methods in combination with a herbicide treatment and, within the double girdle method, compare herbicide...
William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold
The following Guest Editorial, "The Number of Hardwood Sawmills Continues to Decrease - Is that Bad?" is presented by William G. Luppold, Ph.D., of the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station - Forestry Sciences Laboratory. In this article, Dr. Luppold examines many of the key issues surrounding the size and loss of sawmills, which has influenced...
George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart
How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...
Chris Gronewold; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik
An understanding of long-term growth dynamics is central to the development of sustainable uneven-aged silvicultural systems for northern hardwood forests in eastern North America. Of particular importance are quantitative assessments of the relationships between stocking control and long-term growth and quality development. This study examined these relationships in a...
Michael R. Saunders; Robert K. Swihart
Over the next century, the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana will provide numerous opportunities for collaborative research on how forest management affects the ecological, economic, and social resources of southern Indiana. Here, we highlight the pre-treatment research conducted at the HEE sites from 2006 through 2008 and discuss the role that pre-...
Daniel J. Robison; Tracy San Filipo; Charlie Lawrence III; Jamie L. Schuler; Bryan J. Berenguer
Young even-aged upland Piedmont mixed hardwood and pine stands were treated with a variety of fertilizer and release (competition control) treatments. The sites studied are on the NC State University Hill Demonstration Forest in central North Carolina, and are characterized by formerly highly eroded agricultural sites (Richter et al. 2000) now in their third rotation...
H. E. ' Gene' Garrett
A convincing case can be made that current land-use patterns in the Central Hardwood region reflect a significant underutilization of our land-based resources. A land-use strategy is required that would allow landowners who are interested in converting marginal crop lands to forests, or unproductive woodlots to productive woodlots, to make the change without financial...
The effects of three levels of organic matter removal (OMR) and three levels of soil compaction (SC) on the development of understory vegetation in a central hardwood forest were evaluated 9 years after treatments were applied as part of a national program of long-term soil productivity research. The three levels of biomass removal (OMR) were removal of merchantable...
R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann
Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...
Paul Koll; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese
We investigated the effects of three organic amendments on soil properties and seedling growth at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. Pine sawdust (red pine, Pinus resinosa), hardwood sawdust (maple [Acer spp.] and aspen [Populus spp.]), and peat were individually incorporated into a loamy sand nursery soil in August 2006, and soil properties...
D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman
The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...
Full Text Available The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.
Zhu, Jie; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Guofang; Noormets, Asko; McNulty, Steve G.; King, John S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Wang, Xuan
The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs) participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.
Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman
This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...
Brian D. Beheler; Charles H. Michler
Control of competing vegetation is an important early cultural practice that can improve survival and vigor in hardwood tree plantings. The type of program used depends on landowner objectives, species of weeds present, equipment available, and types of herbicides available. Pre-planting planning can greatly increase effectiveness of an herbicide program for the first...
Brian Roy Lockhart; Bob Keeland; John McCoy; Thomas J. Dean
A study was implemented to test site preparation methods and artificial regeneration of three oak (Quercus spp.) species on four agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in Louisiana, USA. Six years after establishment, few consistent differences were found in oak density between sowing acorn methods (seed drill versus broadcast...
William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras
The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...
Shannon C. Rogers; William L. Hoover; Shorna B. Allred
Forest management practices on public forests are controversial with many organizational and individual stakeholders. Forest managers' understanding of the attitudes of stakeholders is necessary to honor statutory requirements and the social contract under which they operate. The human dimension component of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana...
Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold
Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased stronglyâfrom 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...
Harper, Craig A.; Ford, W. Mark; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.
Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is
Riparian woods Bulrush Scirpus polyphyllus Bottomland forest Ginseng Panax quinquefolius Forest Aster Aster undulatus Forest, Old field Golden Seal...Hardwood Forests of Southern Illinois-- Regeneration and Succession. Ecology 44:29-41. Hus, H. 1908. An Ecological Cross Section of the Mississippi River
Randall J. Rousseau
A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...
Emile S. Gardiner; John D. Hodges; T. Conner Fristoe
Five bottomland oak species were direct seeded along a topographical gradient in a flood plain to determine if environmental factors related to relative position in the flood plain influenced seedling establishment and survival. Two years after installation of the plantation, seedling establishment rates ranged from 12Â±1.6 (mean Â± standard error) percent for overcup...
Emile S. Gardiner; Jimmie L. Yeiser
We initiated a study on a bottomland site in the southern United States to examine the effects of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunberg) control and seedlings of two root classes on survival and growth of underplanted cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings. Three honeysuckle control treatments were assigned to...
D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn
This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...
Douglass F. Jacobs
Optimizing fertilization programs in the nursery and field may help improve regeneration and restoration of temperate deciduous hardwoods. Our research program has demonstrated the applicability of nutrient loading in fine hardwood systems to promote seedling uptake and storage of nutrients during the nursery phase. We also have shown the benefits of nutrient loading...
G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens
From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...
D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman
Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...
Hardwoods are disappearing from the California landscape at alarming rates. This is due to a variety of influences, both natural and man made. It is clear that conservation and rehabilitation of hardwood resources will require a large effort on the part of research institutes, universities, government agencies, special interest groups, private developers, maintenance...
Emile S. Gardiner
0aks (Querczrs spp.) are among the most ecologically and economically valued trees of the floodplain forests which occupy the river valleys that dissect the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastem United States. In these floodplain forests, several species from the sections Quercus and Lobarae are commonly found distributed along a gradient of sites ranging...
Andy Maceyka; William F. Hansen
Evaluating hydrology within coastal marine terrace features has always been problematic as watershedÂ boundaries and stream detail are difficult to determine in low gradient terrain with dense bottomland forests. VariousÂ studies have improved hydrologic detail using USGS Topographic Contour Maps (Hansen 2001, Eidson and othersÂ 2005) or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR...
Andrea F. Currylow; Brian J. MacGowan; Rod N. Williams
To understand better how eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are affected by forest management practices, we monitored movements of box turtles prior to silvicultural treatments within the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana. During 2007 and 2008, we tracked 23-28 turtles on six units of the HEE. Estimated minimum convex...
P.S. Meng; K. Hoover; M.A. Keena
The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), threatens urban and forest hardwood trees both where introduced and in parts of its native range. Native to Asia, this beetle has hitchhiked several times in infested wood packaging used in international trade, and has established breeding populations in five U.S. states, Canada,...
Michael R. Saunders; Justin E. Arseneault
In long-term, large-scale forest management studies, documentation of pre-treatment differences among and variability within experimental units is critical for drawing the proper inferences from imposed treatments. We compared pre-treatment overstory and large shrub communities (diameters at breast height >1.5 cm) for the 9 research cores with the Hardwood Ecosystem...
Jeffrey D. Holland; John T. Shukle; Hossam Eldien M. Abdel Moniem; Thomas W. Mager; Kapil R. Raje; Kyle Schnepp; Shulin. Yang
Longhorned beetles are a diverse and important group of insects in forest ecosystems; several species attack weakened or stressed trees, relatively few attack healthy trees, and most species use only dead and decomposing wood. We surveyed longhorned beetles and metallic wood-boring beetles using four different types of traps at 36 Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (Indiana...
Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj
Forest fertilization is a useful tool that, when combined with other silvicultural practices, results in increased forest growth. Many experiments have demonstrated that both hardwoods and conifers of the northern forest respond to the addition of one or more nutrients. Examples of pitfalls and successes are given. Present status of research and future research needs...
Therese A. Thompson; R. Greg Thorn; Kevin T. Smith
Fungi in the Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) are the primary decomposers in temperate forests of dead wood on and in the forest soil. Through the use of isolation techniques selective for saprotrophic Agaricomycetes, a variety of wood decay fungi were isolated from a northern hardwood stand in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. In particular,
G.R., Jr. Trimble; G.R. Trimble
This is a report on the potential of young even-aged hardwood stands, based on measurements made when the stands were 7 years old. It was designed to provide forest managers with data that can aid them in deciding whether or not to do early cultural work. As a basis for this appraisal, we determined for the stands: (1) the number, size, and distribution of stems; (2)...
Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.
Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.
Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Jennifer D. Knoepp
Information is lacking on ecosystem effects of understory burning in mesic mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests of the southern Appalachians. Native Americans used periodic fires in these forests for driving game and opening the forest. In April 1998, we conducted a low- to moderate-intensity fire in a coveÂhardwood forest in the Nantahala National...
Devendra M. Amatya; Artur Radecki-Pawlik
Three 1st2nd, and 3rd order experimental forested watersheds located within Francis Marion National Forest in Coastal South Carolina were monitored for rainfall and stream outflows. These watersheds were WS80, a pine-hardwood forest (206 ha); WS79 a predominantly pine forest (500 ha); and WS78, a...
Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey
Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...
Kurt H. Johnsen; Tara L. Keyser; John R. Butnor; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beenecke; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; Ge. Sun
Sixty percent of the Southern United States landscape is forested (Wear 2002). Forest types vary greatly among the five subregions of the South, which include the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Appalachian-Cumberland, Mid-South, and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Current inventory data show upland hardwood forests being the predominant forest type in the South (>30...
Christel C. Kern; Manfred Schoelch; Paul Crocker; Dean Fellman; Angela Marsh; Dave Mausel; Marshall Pecore; Joseph Phillippi; Ronald Waukau; Anthony Waupochick
Ideally, variants of single-tree, group, and patch selection create new, spatially aggregated age classes and maintain a diversity of tree species and sizes in multiaged, mixed-species forests. We explored this notion in northern hardwood forests on the Menominee Nation, a forest ecosystem without the exploitive cutting history of most forests in the western Great...
Charles X. Grano
Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...
Philip A. Araman
The United States has become a major player in the world market for hardwood logs, lumber, dimension stock, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry and...
Douglass F. Jacobs
Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...
Michael G. Shelton
Five forest floor weights (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 MgJha), three forest floor compositions (pine, pine-hardwood, and hardwood), and two seed placements (forest floor and soil surface) were tested in a three-factorial. split-plot design with four incomplete, randomized blocks. The experiment was conducted in a nursery setting and used wooden frames to define 0.145-m
James A. Johnson; Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata
Tests the feasibility and economics of compacting hardwood tops with a prototype shearing and bunching device prior to skidding. Presents productivity levels and costs associated with compacting, skidding, and chipping hardwood tops.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains compartment level forest inventory of mature hardwood trees and the assoicated cruise data. Summary data at the compartment level is presented. In...
Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky
Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...
Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt
Conversion of bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) to agricultural land has caused a loss of ecosystem services. The primary approaches to reverse this have been the Wetlands Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program, which provide financial incentives to landowners to reforest. However, other forest production regimes...
Bobby D. Keeland; Brian Roy Lockhart; John W. McCoy; Thomas J. Dean
Greater than 80 percent of the bottomland hardwood forests of the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) have been lost to conversion over the past 100 years. Of the forests that remain, most are highly fragmented and degraded. Attempts to reforest some of this area over the past 15-20 years have highlighted the need for more information on the relative success of...
The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...
Cynthia D. Huebner; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose
Research on herbaceous vegetation restoration in forests characterised by overstorey tree harvests, excessive deer herbivory, and a dominant fern understorey is lacking. Most of the plant diversity found in Eastern hardwood forests in the United States is found in the herbaceous understorey layer. Loss of forest herbaceous species is an indicator of declining forest...
Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest
Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, Mark J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, Birgit; Blair, J.B.
Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event.
Thomas Brandeis; Stanley Zarnoch; Christopher Oswalt; Jeffery Stringer
Hardwood lumber harvested from the temperate broadleaf and mixed broadleaf/conifer forests of the east-central United States is an important economic resource. Forest industry stakeholders in this region have a growing need for accurate, reliable estimates of high-quality wood volume. While lower-graded timber has an increasingly wide array of uses, the forest products...
Philip A. Araman
Canada became the largest market for primary product hardwood exports in 1987 after slipping to No. 3 in 1986. Preferences for fine hardwoods and limited Canadian supplies of species such as oak should assure continued strong demands for U.S. hardwoods. Another reason for continued strong demand is that some Canadian firms process U.S. lumber and logs for export. This...
Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Dave R. Larsen
The management of artificial hardwood stands suffers from a paucity of information. As a result, many managers and scientists turn to conventional pine plantation management as a source for informing silvicultural decisions. Such an approach when managing hardwoods ignores the development occurring in natural hardwood stands, which produce stems prized for their growth...
William G. Luppold; Gary W. Miller; Gary W. Miller
Timber harvesting has been disturbing Central Appalachian hardwood forests since colonial times, but its most profound influence on forest composition has occurred during the last 130 years. Between the end of the Civil War and the Great Depression, the lumber industry went from state to state harvesting relatively large portions of the timber resource. This...
Elmer G. Kelso
There are 605,000 acres of commercial forest land on the White Mountain National Forest (based on a 1960 timber inventory). Of this, 258,000 acres are classed as northern hardwood timber type. In general, this would include some 27 percent yellow birch, 16 percent sugar maple, and 31 percent beech in trees that are 6 inches and larger.
Gary W. Zinn; Edward Pepke
To obtain the best economic returns from a hardwood forest, you must consider markets. Management decisions made now will affect a stand's future character and value, whether or not the decision results in immediate timber sales. Progressive forest landowners will have a management plan for their woodlots. Typically, such plans are largely land- and resource-...
Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E
The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.
J.L. Larkin; P.B. Wood; T.J. Boves; J. Sheehan; D.A. Buehler
Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea), one of the fastest declining avian species in North America, are associated with heterogeneous canopies in mature hardwood forests. However, the age of most second and third-growth forests in eastern North American is not sufficient for natural tree mortality to maintain structurally diverse canopies. Previous research suggests...
Michael S. Strickland; Mac A. Callaham; Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf; Jonathan W. Leff; Noah Fierer; Mark A. Bradford
Terrestrial ecosystems are globally under threat of loss or degradation. To compensate for the impacts incurred by loss and/or degradation, efforts to restore ecosystems are being undertaken. These efforts often focus on restoring the aboveground plant community with the expectation that the belowground microbial community will follow suit. This âField of Dreamsâ...
J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher
Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...
B.R. Parresol; D.A. Scott; S.J. Zarnoch; L.A. Edwards; J.I. Blake
Spatially explicit mapping of forest productivity is important to assess many forest management alternatives. We assessed the relationship between mapped variables and site index of forests ranging from southern pine plantations to natural hardwoods on a 74,000-ha landscape in South Carolina, USA. Mapped features used in the analysis were soil association, land use...
Thomas F. Lloyd; Thomas A. Waldrop
Forest operation systems have been developed for mixed pine and hardwood stands in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States that reduce the cost and environmental impacts of forest operations. This has been done by studying the interrelations of forest operations with site edaphic properties and the biology of plant communities that reside on each site. In...
Robert C. Morrissey; Martin-Michel Gauthier; John A., Jr. Kershaw; Douglass F. Jacobs; Burnell C. Fischer; John R. Siefert
Large woody vines, most notably grapevines, are a source of great concern for forest and wildlife managers in many parts of the Central Hardwood Forest Region of the United States. We examined grapevine dynamics in stands aged 21 - 35 years. The plots, located in regenerated clearcuts in the Hoosier National Forest (HNF), were evaluated for vine control, site, and tree...
H. Clay Smith
Grapevines (Vitis spp.) are becoming a major problem to forest managers in the Appalachians, especially when clearcutting is done on highly productive hardwood sites. Where present, grapevines can reduce tree quality and growth, and eventually kill the tree. Silvical characteristics of grapevines are discussed as background for grapevine control....
James Vose; Chelcy Ford
Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10â20%, generally do not contribute to...
Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton
The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha pine-hardwood forest in southeastern Arkansas, U.S.A. that originated from diameter-limit cutting of the virgin forest before 1915. In 1935, these 32 ha were reserved from timber management. Between 1937 and 1993, eight inventories were taken of all living trees > g-cm DBH, using 2.5-cm DBH classes within three...
Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph
Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.
Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith
Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...
Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....
Adrian M. Gilbert
Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.
Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud
A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...
Jeff Palmer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth Porterfield
Presents the users manual and CD-ROM for SOLVE, a computer program that helps sawmill managers improve efficiency and solve problems commonly found in hardwood sawmills. SOLVE provides information on key operational factors including log size distribution, lumber grade yields, lumber recovery factor and overrun, and break-even log costs. (Microsoft Windows? Edition)...
Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold
This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...
Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt
Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...
Lino Della-Bianca; Donald E. Beck
A woodland tract of southern Appalachian cove hardwoods and mixed oak has been managed under the selection satem of silviculture since 1946.Simply cutting in all commercial diameter classes (i.e. 6.0 inches and larger), as was the practice during the first 24 years, failed to develop enough desirable saplings and poles to maintain the system.After 1970,...
Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis.
This CD-ROM is an educational CD-ROM aimed at classroom audiences in 5th grade and above. Using QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR), the Boreal Virtual Forest is designed so that students are able to see views from inside the central hardwood forest and look up or down or spin around 360 degrees. The program allows students to become familiar with…
Ma, Jun; Hu, Yuanman; Bu, Rencang; Chang, Yu; Deng, Huawei; Qin, Qin
The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR) reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0) was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.
Full Text Available The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0 was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.
Parresol, Bernard, R.
Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.
Andrew James Londo; Donald Leo Grebner
Mississippi is the leading producer of timber in the south- central region of the United States with a combined 78 billion board feet of hardwood and softwood sawtimber harvested annually. Most of this timber comes from private nonindus-trial forest land, which accounts for 66 percent of the Stateâs 18.6 million acres of forest land. The forest products industry...
Cliff R. Hupp
Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...
climate (see Section 3.10). In general, pine-oak forests dominate the dry upland terraces. Beech ( Fagus americanus) and other hardwoods are found on...moist, shaded slopes and ravines. Bottomlands and creek areas favor sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica ), sycamore (Platanaus
J.W. Groninger; W.M. Aust; M. Miwa; John A. Stanturf
The establishment of bottomland hardwood forest stands and riparian buffers on frequently-flooded soybean (Glycine max.) lands in the Lower Mississippi Valley represents a tremendous opporunity to prvide both economic and environmental benefits to the region. Selecting appropriate sites for reestablishing tree cover, accurately predicting the productivity of planted...
R. H. Fenton
Although sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) is one of the most valuable hardwoods in bottomland forests from southern New Jersey and southern Illinois southward, relatively little is known about its production and distribution of seed. Knowledge of both is essential in planning successful measures for reproducing the species. To provide some of...
Kristina Connor; Gretchen Schaefer; Jillian Donahoo; Margaret Devall; Emile Gardiner; Tracy Hawkins; A. Dan Wilson; Nathan Schiff; Paul Hamel; Ted. Leininger
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia [Walt.] Blume: Lauraceae) is an endangered, dioecious, clonal shrub that grows in bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. Prior work has emphasized vegetative reproduction associated with the clonal nature of this species. Little has been published about the early morphological and biochemical...
Tracey B. Champlin; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman
Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood...
Brent R. Frey; Ellen M. Boerger
Groundstory vegetation typically accounts for the greatest proportion of plant diversity in temperate forests, representing a critical structural component and mediating numerous ecosystem processes, including tree regeneration. The effects of thinning on groundstory vegetation have received limited study in bottomland hardwood stands. This study investigated...
Andrew Dowdy; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges; Andrew B. Self
Bottomland hardwood forests were damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 when it made landfall along the Gulf Coast. Regenerating these areas, which can be difficult without planning and artificial regeneration, has often been problematic when using 1-0 bare-root seedlings because of inconsistencies with the seedling quality. Some growers have begun producing...
John A. Conrad III; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges
Hurricane Katrina had a devastating impact on bottomland hardwood forests in 2005. Artificial regeneration was considered the most appropriate method for reforesting these areas, but few studies have evaluated methods for artificially regenerating oaks on clear cut sites in the southern United States. First-year survival and growth of two oak species, live oak (Quercus...
S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren
Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...
Raymond E. Graber; William B. Leak; William B. Leak
Seed fall was measured for 11 years in a 200-year-old stand of sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech in New Hampshire. Yellow birch had 5 good seed years, sugar maple had 3, and beech had none. Viable seed fall of yellow birch began in August and continued through autumn and winter. Most of the viable sugar maple seed fell during a short period in October. Beech seed...
Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz
The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...
William G. Luppold; Scott. Bowe
After a decade of record demand in the 1990s, production and price of hardwood lumber declined moderately between 1999 and 2005 and then plummeted between 2005 and 2009. The decline in hardwood lumber price affected all species. However, walnut was the last species to decline in price, starting in 2007, and has had the largest price increase since hitting its low point...
William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon
Hardwood lumber prices are unique because of the large number of marketable species and variability of prices across species. Previous research showed that long-run fashion decisions regarding species selection may be influenced by price, so the interaction between fashion and species price may act to keep prices (hence, demand) of different hardwood species together...
William G. Luppold
A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...
Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw
Decay can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient decay in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...
David Brinberg; Earl Kline; Delton Alderman; Philip Araman; Ed Cesa; Steve Milauskas; Tom Walthousen; Jan Wiedenbeck
With the increase of globalization, the North American hardwood industry is facing many challenges to remain competitive and sustainable, facing drastic changes in the areas of labor, land, manufacturing, markets and marketing, and supply chain. The hardwood industry is especially vulnerable, with the influx of foreign manufacturers and suppliers with greater natural...
Peter J. Ince
In the context of other recent years, 2006 turned out to be a relatively "normal" year for the U.S. hardwood chip market in terms of factors that influence supply and demand; such as prevailing weather conditions, energy price trends, and pulp and paper production. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in 2005...
Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...
C. H. Michler; R. Meilan; K. E. Woeste; P. M. Pijut; D. Jacobs; P. Aldrich; J. Glaubitz
Fine hardwood trees in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States are an important resource for the furniture, cabinetry, flooring, modular home, and paneling manufacturing industries. Consumers find wood from these trees to be very desirable because of quality factors such as grain, strength and color. To enhance wood production, tree improvement programs can...
William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner
Domestic Hardwood lumber consumption has changed considerably in this century, but how do these changes differ from changes that have occurred over the last 50 years and how have they affected lumber price? In this article, we examine how changes in consumption have influenced aggregate Hardwood lumber prices as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted...
James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac
A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing...
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear
Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...
...; business practices; and other factors. Hardwood lumber can be sold green, air dried, or kiln dried. Green... dried lumber can be sold rough or dressed in the same quarter inch thickness increments as green lumber... sporadic, underfunded, and narrowly targeted. Since early 2008 the Endowment has directly invested monies...
S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham
Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...
James L. Howard; David B. McKeever
This paper describes the current state of the United States economy and provides general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption, and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product prices, and...
James L. Howard; David B. McKeever
This paper describes the current state of the U.S. economy and provides general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption, and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product prices, and housing starts...
Richard M. DeGraaf; Per. Angelstam
Depredation on artificial ground and cup nests in even-aged seedling/sapling, pole, and mature stands of continuous northern hardwood forest was studied in the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire, USA from May to June 1988. Track-board nests were used to identify predators of ground nests; plain ground nests and cup nests were used to investigate the...
Bianca N. I. Eskelson; Vicente J. Monleon
Forest wildfires consume fuel and are followed by post-fire fuel accumulation. This study examines post-fire surface fuel dynamics over 9 years across a wide range of conditions characteristic of California fires in dry conifer and hardwood forests. We estimated post-fire surface fuel loadings (Mg ha _1) from 191 repeatedly measured United States...
Technology transfer has been an important part of the research program at Bent Creek Experimental Forest (Bent Creek) since its establishment in 1925. Our stated mission is to develop and disseminate knowledge and strategies for restoring, managing, sustaining, and enhancing the vegetation and wildlife of upland hardwood-dominated forest ecosystems of the Southern...
S. P. Meyer; G. R. Parker
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) is an herbaceous species found throughout the central hardwood forest ecosystem that is harvested from the wild for the medicinal herb trade. A total of 147 goldenseal populations were classified according to the Ecological Classification Guide developed for the Hoosier National Forest, and change in population...
James L. Howard; David B. McKeever; Shaobo Liang
This report describes the current state and near-term prospective of the U.S. economy supported by general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product...
James L. Howard; David B. McKeever
This paper describes the current state of the U.S. economy and provides general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption, and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product prices, and housing starts...
David B. McKeever; James L. Howard
This paper describes the current state of the U.S. economy and provides general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption, and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product prices, and housing starts...
James L. Howard; David B. McKeever
Laura S. Kenefic; Christel C. Kern
This paper describes our recent and successful efforts to reopen the pioneering U.S. Forest Service "Partial Cutting Study" on the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan. This experiment in northern hardwood silviculture was initiated in 1926 and closed in 1966. Although the research conducted there informed the use of uneven-aged silviculture throughout the...
Kurt W. Gottschalk; Rose-Marie Muzika
Mixed hardwood forests of the Appalachian region support one of the most diverse communities of woody plants in North America, but the composition and relative dominance of the forest changes substantially with slight changes in physiography, soil type, or microclimate. Composition of oak and other species highly preferred by the gypsy moth determines the...
Turbulent velocity, temperature, water vapor concentration, and other scalars were measured at the canopy-atmosphere interface of a 13–14-m-tall uniform pine forest and a 33-m-tall nonuniform hardwood forest. These measurements were used to investigate whether the mixing la...
Mary Beth. Adams
In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fluid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fluid application,...
Jonathan Phillips; Daniel A. Marion; Chad Yocum; Stephanie H. Mehlhope; Jeff W. Olson
We studied tree uprooting associated with an EF2 tornado that touched down in portions of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas in 2009. In the severe blowdown areas all trees in the mixed shortleaf pineâhardwood forest were uprooted or broken, with no relationship between tree species or size and whether uprooting or breakage occurred. There was also no...
Norman L., Jr. Christensen; Kurt. Fesenmeyer
Because there are few long-term dendrochronological and lake sediment data for the southern Appalachians, little is known regarding the history of fire in this region's forests through the Holocene. Radio-carbon ages for 82 soil charcoal samples collected from local depositional sites along a topographic gradient from mixed hardwood (Liriodendron...
Jonathan M. Cohen; Jean C. Mangun; Mae A. Davenport; Andrew D. Carver
Diverse public opinions, competing management goals, and polarized interest groups combine with problems of scale to create a complex management arena for managers in the Central Hardwood Forest region. A mixed-methods approach that incorporated quantitative analysis of data from a photo evaluation-attitude scale survey instrument was used to assess attitudes toward...
Alexeyev V.A.; Markov M.V.; R.A. Birdsey; Birdsey R.A.
Contains statistical data on area and growing-stock volume of forest lands in Oblasts, Krays and Republics of Russian Federation, for the period 1961-1998. Positive dynamics of average growing stock for coniferous, deciduous hardwood and deciduous softwood tree stands by stand-age groups were disclosed. The impact of main anthropogenic and natural factors, including...
David V. SANDBERG; Franklin R. Ward
This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Coastal Douglas-firâHemlock Type, Coastal Douglas-firâHardwood Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-051....
... Products Company, Springfield, OR combined as The Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood. The final... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant...
Kenneth A. Brinkman
Picloram (4 amino-3, 5, 6-tri-chloropicolinic acid), manufactured under the name of Tordon, controls most pole-size and smaller hardwoods in the Lake States by stem injections spaced up to 6 incest apart.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describes anticipated hardwood reforestation activites on agricultural fields of Dahomey NWR form 1992 - 1995. Site selection, tree compositon and spacing are...
The data set consists of evapotranspiration measurements made at the USGS Dead River forested wetland climate station beginning November 21, 2009 and ending February 29, 2016. Annual ET rates corrected to a near-surface energy-budget varied from 1448 mm (2012) to 1614 mm (2010). The eddy-covariance method was used, with high-frequency sensors installed above the forest canopy to measure sensible and latent heat fluxes. Ancillary meteorological data are also included in the data set: net radiation, soil temperature and moisture, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, and ground-water levels. Data were collected at 30-minute resolution, with evapotranspiration corrected to the near-surface energy-budget at a daily timescale. The study was conducted at an undeveloped mixed hardwood swamp within Dead River Wilderness Park, located at the end of Dead River Rd., west of U.S. Highway 301, 27 km northeast of Tampa in Hillsborough County, Florida (latitude 28 07’ 43” N longitude 82 15’ 44” W, Section 13, Township 27S, Range 20E). Study instruments were installed in November 2009. The 46-m instrument tower was located about 90 m northeast of the final pullout before the parking area, which is 2.6 km from the park entrance gate on Dead River Rd. The station is within the Hillsborough River floodplain, and is inundated at high river stages (Lewelling, 2004). The site is classified as a freshwater palustrine forested broad-leaf deciduous wetland that is seasonally flooded (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010). Dominant tree species are cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto), red maple (Acer rubrum), sweet-gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), live oak (Quercus virginiana), elm (Ulmus americana), with occasional slash pine, magnolia, and hickory. Canopy height is 20-24 m. The site is located near the middle of the floodplain at least 1 km away from different land cover types in all directions. The floodplain extends farther to the
Sara J Elliott
Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study
Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.
Escolano, J.O.; Tamolang, F.N.
Kraft cooking of hardwood mixtures containing combinations of Shorea polysperma, S. negrosensis, Pentocone contorta, S. squamata, Dipterocarpus grandifluorus, Anisoptera thurifera, S. blume, and Hopea acuminata at 170 degrees gave pulp in 48% yield, with permanganate No. 13.8, burst factor 70-80, tear factor 129-130, MIT double folds 475-700, and breaking length 8500-9800 m. Physiochemical and strength characteristics of tropical hardwoods and their pulps are also reviewed.
David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf
Bird species distribution and predation rates on natural and artificial nests were compared among unmanaged mature, shelterwood, and clearcut northern hardwoods forest to evaluate the effect of these practices on bird populations. Twenty-three of the 48 bird species detected during the study differed significantly in abundance among unmanaged mature forest,...
Bal, Tara L.
Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…
... investigation, the Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood and its individual members (Petitioners), made a... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...
... China (``PRC'') filed in proper form on behalf of Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...
... this investigation are the Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood (Petitioners). In addition to... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination; 2011 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...
David L. Sonderman
A procedure is shown for measuring external tree characteristics that are important in determining the current and future quality of young hardwood trees. This guide supplements a precious study which describes the quality classification system for young hardwood trees
Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL
The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel
Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell
A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...
Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman
Product and supplier attributes that are critical in hardwood lumber purchase decisions (i.e., determinant) were investigated in four segments of the domestic market for hardwood lumber: millwork producers (Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2431), hardwood dimension and flooring producers (SIC 2426), wood household furniture producers (SIC 2511), and wood...
William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner
Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...
Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith
Global competition, a slowing housing market, and shifts in the customer base have contributed to reduced demand for hardwood lumber and have increased the need for specialized services by suppliers of hardwood lumber such as sawmills or distributors. Customers of hardwood lumber suppliers also have started initiatives to reduce internal costs dramatically, frequently...
J.W. Van Sambeek
The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...
... hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2264 Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. If you operate a hardwood veneer dryer, you must record the annual volume percentage of softwood veneer...
Jay E Jones
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values, a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and
William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner
Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....
Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.
Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.
Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Alison H. Magill; John Aber; William H. McDowell
Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight, open-chained, organic polycations which are found in all organisms and have been linked with stress responses in plants. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects of chronic N additions to pine and hardwood stands at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA on foliar polyamine and...
Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang
This paper describes a set of empirical net forest growth models based on forest growing-stock density relationships for three U.S. regions (North, South, and West) and two species groups (softwoods and hardwoods) at the regional aggregate level. The growth models accurately predict historical U.S. timber inventory trends when we incorporate historical timber harvests...
Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto
Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.
Thomas, Z.; Ghazavi, G.; Merot, P.
Wooded linear structures in general, and hedgerows in particular, were formerly very abundant in the European landscape, but have undergone a considerable decline in their density in the past decades, before being stabilized. Currently, we observe locally an increase due to the multiple advantages offered by these structures and the effect of agricultural policies. The aim of the present study was to quantify spatially and temporally the impact of an oak hedgerow (Quercus robur) on the various terms of the water balance. This study was carried out at the plot scale by focusing on aspects related to water transfer in the soil and aquifer. From the results obtained on a local scale, we proposed a functional scheme that allowed us to represent the role of hedge trees in water cycle. In this study, groundwater level and soil-water potential were monitored continually at various distances from the hedgerow along two 28 m length transects, at a spacing of 10 m, enabling us to obtain fine-scale information on the functioning of the soil-groundwater system. We evaluate tree transpiration from sap flow density measurements. Functional scheme were proposed illustrating the role of hedgerow, which can then be used for integrating the impact of the hedge trees into hydrological models. For the period when oak trees had their leaves (leafed period), the determining processes that need to be represented are the rainfall interception, tree transpiration and capillary rise. Other terms of the water balance, such as drainage, are directly affected by the presence of the hedgerow. Drainage is strongly reduced under the hedgerow, and decreases significantly at a certain distance from the hedgerow, when capillary rise increased under the hedgerow and decreased far away. Our results show that the impact of a bottomland hedgerow on water balance components can be highly variable according to the climatic conditions. Hedge tree transpiration increased for a wet year when soil
John M. Lhotka; James J. Zaczek
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether soil scarification following seed fall can be used to increase the density of oak regeneration in a mixed-oak stand. The study area was a 4.5-hectare stand dominated by cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Eli.). The understory had a high percent cover of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans...
Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in
James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Verl Emrick
We measured forest floor CO2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO2 fluxes. An automated, IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers...
Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer
For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...
Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph
Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...
Gary W. Miller; Jay Sullivan
Some growth and yield simulators applicable to central hardwood forests can be formulated for use in mathematical programming models that are designed to optimize multi-stand, multi-resource management problems. Once in the required format, growth equations serve as model constraints, defining the dynamics of stand development brought about by harvesting decisions. In...
Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette
The regeneration and dominance of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has been associated with fire throughout eastern North America. Red oak in central Ontario grows near the northern edge of its distribution in mixed hardwood - coniferous forests under mesic conditions where it competes with more shade-tolerant species. We hypothesized that the...
William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner
In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...
Aaron D. Stottlemyer; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop
Impacts of spring prescribed fire, mechanical mastication, and no-treatment (control) on fuels and natural hardwood tree regeneration were examined in beetle-killed stands in the South Carolina Piedmont. Mechanical mastication ground the down and standing dead trees and live vegetation into mulch and deposited it onto the forest floor. The masticated debris layer had...
Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
A study was installed on the George Washington National Forest to gather hardwood arvesting production data. The silvicultural prescription for the harvested unit was shelterwood with reserves. There was no biomass removal component included in this study. One purpose of this study was to gather baseline harvesting data for future comparisons of production impacts from...
Bigalow, S.W.; Canham, C.D.
1 A study was carried out in oak-northern hardwood forest in NW Connecticut USA involving measurements of growth, light and soil environment of saplings of six canopy trees that are strongly associated with particular soil types as adults. The objectives were to determine patterns of growth response
Esmaiili, Marzieh; Abdi, Ehsan; Jafary, Mohammad; Majnounian, Baris
Landslides are known as one of the major natural hazards and often incurring economics and human life losses. The role of tree roots in slope stability is very important, especially when human lives and infrastructure are at risk. The anchorage of roots and improvement of slope stability mainly depend on specific properties of root network systems, such as tensile strength. These properties of the roots which govern the degree of reinforcement are different among tree species. Although, many studies have been conducted about plant biotechnical properties of species, yet there is lack of knowledge on comparing root systems of softwood and hardwood tree species for similar site conditions. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the tensile strength of the root system of Picea abies (softwood species) and Fraxinus excelsior (hardwood species) planted on two forested hillslopes. To this aim, single root specimens were sampled for each species and their tensile strength were then measured in laboratory using a computer controlled Instron Universal Testing Machine. According to the results root tensile strength tends to decrease with diameter according to a power law for both species. Based on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), a significant difference has been observed in the tensile strength between the two studied species. Also the results showed that the value of mean root tensile strength for Picea abies (19.31 ± 2.64 MPa) was much more than that of Fraxinus excelsior (16.98 ± 1.01 MPa) within all root diameter classes. The data presented in this study may expand the knowledge of biotechnical properties of Picea abies and Fraxinus excelsior, as biomaterial for soil bioengineering.
Forest management planning aims at fulfilling the overall goals for the forest owner. The economic optimal scheduling of treatments in spatially discrete forest stands, the time dimension, has been thoroughly investigated in research. The spatial dimension is less investigated. Normally, spatially discrete stands are defined as treatment units. These are inventoried using subjective methods with unknown precision. As an alternative to this conventional way to describe the forest, the present investigation used kriging for estimating forest characteristics spatially continuously using georeferenced sample plots. Using stratification by age, several variables interesting for forest management planning displayed spatial autocorrelation, even though the estate was thoroughly managed. No hardwood variables displayed the autocorrelation necessary for using kriging. 20 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs
Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut
Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...
Donald L. Sirois
A Rome TXH Tree Extractor was used to explore the harvesting of four species of southern hardwoods by extraction. The test indicate that harvesting by extraction is feasible for harvestang, if tree size is limited to 9 inches DBH or less. Stump and below ground biomass averaged 18 percent of total tree biomass.
Philip A. Araman; Ssang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn
This paper concerns the scanning, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, grades the boards, and then searches for higher value boards within the original board. The goal is to derive maximum commercial value based on current...
John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma
Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.
Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Wan H. Wang
>Wettability of sanded and nonsanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwood species were[was] judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol-formaldehyde resins. As exÂpected, contact angle values on transverse secÂtions were higher than on tangential sections for both sanded and...
E. Paul Craft
An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...