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Sample records for bottomland hardwood forest

  1. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  2. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  3. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  4. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

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    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  5. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  6. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

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    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  8. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

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    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  9. Quantifying the Role of Bottomland Hardwood Forest Flood Attenuation in the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Romine, J.; Chinnasamy, P.; Huang, D.; Schulz, J.

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary floodplain management is a growing concern, particularly in regions where climate change predictions include increased precipitation such as the central U.S. and Missouri. Historically, bottomland hardwood forests (BHF) played a significant role in runoff and flood attenuation. However, most of the floodplain BHF in Missouri was removed in the 19th and 20th centuries to cultivate the rich underlying soils. In many instances, BHF conversion required the installation of drainage and flood control structures, such as drainage tiles, ditches, levees, and dams. Many stream and river channels were straightened and enlarged to further reduce flooding. Structural changes, coupled with changes in vegetation and soils, drastically altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and the remnant BHF. Today, century-old management practices are coming under scrutiny in the Midwest in terms of management efficacy in contemporary urbanizing watersheds. Therefore, work is being conducted in central Missouri to quantify current floodplain flow attenuation of a 303(d) listed impaired urban stream. Instrumentation was installed in lower reaches of the Hinkson Creek Watershed (230km2) in the spring of 2010 in a case study comparing a remnant BHF and an abandoned agricultural floodplain site using replicated study designs. Instrumentation includes two 80 m2 grids of nine equally spaced four meter deep piezometers to monitor groundwater flow and volumetric water content (VWC) sensor profiles that monitor VWC at 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth. Grids were enlarged to 120 m2 to measure leaf area index (LAI), surface infiltration capacity with double ring infiltrometers, and soil characteristics. Soil characteristics were quantified by extracting soil cores at soil depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302). LAI in the BHF was on average 3.06 (SD = 0.65, min = 1.31, max = 4.38, n = 42). Preliminary analysis indicates that average infiltration capacity is 44 cm/hr (SD = 38

  10. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  11. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  12. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  13. Survey of understory plant diversity in mature bottomland hardwood tracts in the Mississippi Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This research was designed to collect data on the understory plant composition of remnant bottomland hardwood forest tracts on accessible public lands in the LMAV...

  14. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  15. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  16. 2013 Field Report For: Bat Occurrence Relative to Silvicultural Treatments Intended to Yield Desired Forest Conditions for Priority Wildlife Species in Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Draft report describes acoustically sampling for bats and estimation of flying insect biomass within various hardwood forests stand condictions of the MAV. Efforts...

  17. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  18. Bottomland Hardwood Forest Influence on Floodplain Hydrology and Stream Bank Stability in an Urbanizing Watershed of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zell, C.; Huang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) to agricultural and urban land uses in the 19th and 20th centuries altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and remnant BHF. Broadened and steepened stream channels lead to increased channel instability, accelerated erosion, and reduced floodplain hydrologic connectivity. A case study was implemented to investigate floodplain and stream hydrogeomorphological processes comparing a remnant BHF and Ag site (sites = 0.90 km apart). 120 m2 grids were established to estimate canopy cover (LAI = 3.1), soil characteristics by the soil core method at depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302), and surface soil infiltration capacity (n = 42). 80 m2 grids (each site) were implemented with nine equally spaced piezometers to estimate shallow groundwater depth and flow. Stream bank erosion study sites were located adjacent to BHF and agricultural floodplain study sites using the erosion pin method (10 pin plots, n = 342 pins). Results indicate average porosity (n = 150) of 0.56 (SD = 0.04) and 0.59 (SD = 0.04) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Average infiltration capacity was 44 cm/hr (SD = 38 cm/hr) and 59 cm/hr (SD = 54 cm/hr) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Depth integrated calculations of equivalent depth of soil water (EDSW) were significantly different (CI = 99%) 33.3 cm/m (SD = 2.24 cm/m) and 36.9 cm/m (SD = 2.68 cm/m) between Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Shallow groundwater analyses (Water Year 2011) indicated that average head at the BHF and Ag sites increased by approximately 0.25 m, and 0.50 m, respectively 90 m inland from the streambank. Stream bank erosion results showed that during a drier (762 mm) than average (10yr avg = 1077 mm) rainfall year (Water Year 2011), 15.7 and 177.8 tonnes of soil erosion occurred on the right side (facing downstream) stream banks of the BHF and Ag sites, respectively. Average bank erosion depth measured at the BHF and Ag sites was 18 and 112 mm

  19. Results of a workshop concerning ecological zonation in bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulatory responsibilities concerning the discharge of dredged or fill material into the Nation's waters. In addition to its advisory role in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' permit program, EPA has a number of specific authorities, including formulation of the Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines, use of Section 404(c) to prohibit disposal at particular sites, and enforcement actions for unauthorized discharges. A number of recent court cases focus on the geographic scope of Section 404 jurisdiction in potential bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands and the nature of landclearing activities in these areas that require a permit under Section 404. Accordingly, EPA needs to establish the scientific basis for implementing its responsibilities under Section 404 in bottomland hardwoods. EPA is approaching this task through a series of workshops designed to provide current scientific information on bottomland hardwoods and to organize that information in a manner pertinent to key questions, including the following. What are the characteristics of bottomland hardwoods (in terms of hydrology, soils, vegetation, fish, wildlife, agricultural potential, and the like) and how can the functions (e.g., flood storage, water quality maintenance, detrital export) that they perform best be quantified? How do perturbations like landclearing, levee construction, and drainage impact the functions that bottomland hardwoods perform and how can these effects best be quantified? And finally, how significant are the impacts and how is their significance likely to change under various management scenarios? The first workshop in this series was held December 3-7, 1984, in St. Francisville, Louisiana. The workshop was attended by over 40 scientists and regulators (see ACKNOWLEDGMENTS section) and facilitated by the editors of this report under an Interagency Agreement between EPA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

  20. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  1. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  2. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  3. Seasonal bird use of canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Liessa, T,; Moorman, Christopher, E.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT.—Bird use of small canopy gaps within mature forests has not been well studied, particularly across multiple seasons. We investigated seasonal differences in bird use of gap and forest habitat within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Gaps were 0.13- to 0.5-ha, 7- to 8-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings. Our study occurred during four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration) in 2001 and 2002. We used plot counts and mist netting to estimate bird abundance in canopy gaps and surrounding mature forest habitats. Using both survey methods, we observed more birds, including forest-interior species, forest-edge species, field-edge species, and several individual species in canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all periods. Interactions between period and habitat type often were significant in models, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Bird activity generally shifted between the interior of canopy gaps and the immediate gap edge, but many species increased their use of forested habitat during the breeding period. This suggests that many species of birds selectively choose gap and gap-edge habitat over surrounding mature forest during the non-breeding period. Creation of small canopy gaps within a mature forest may increase local bird species richness. The reasons for increased bird activity in gaps remain unclear.

  4. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are

  5. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.

  6. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  7. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  8. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  9. The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  10. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  11. Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Kyung Yoon; Nam Jin Noh; Haegeun Chung; A-Ram Yang; Yowhan Son

    2015-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) processes and inorganic N availability are closely coupled with ecosystem productivity and various ecological processes. Spatio-temporal variations and environmental effects on net N transformation rates and inorganic N concentrations in bulk soil and ion exchange resin were examined in an upland pine forest (UPF) and a bottomland alder forest (BAF), which were expected to have distinguishing N properties. The annual net N mineralization rate and nitrification rate (kg N·ha−...

  12. Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification next term in restored forested wetlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Sami ULLAH; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to...

  13. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  14. Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrogen (N processes and inorganic N availability are closely coupled with ecosystem productivity and various ecological processes. Spatio-temporal variations and environmental effects on net N transformation rates and inorganic N concentrations in bulk soil and ion exchange resin were examined in an upland pine forest (UPF and a bottomland alder forest (BAF, which were expected to have distinguishing N properties. The annual net N mineralization rate and nitrification rate (kg N·ha−1·year−1 were within the ranges of 66.05–84.01 and 56.26–77.61 in the UPF and −17.22–72.24 and 23.98–98.74 in the BAF, respectively. In the BAF, which were assumed as N-rich conditions, the net N mineralization rate was suppressed under NH4+ accumulated soils and was independent from soil temperature. On the other hand, in the UPF, which represent moderately fertile N conditions, net N transformation rates and N availability were dependent to the generally known regulation by soil temperature and soil water content. Stand density might indirectly affect the N transformations, N availability, and ecosystem productivity through different soil moisture conditions. The differing patterns of different inorganic N indices provide useful insight into the N availability in each forest and potential applicability of ion exchange resin assay.

  15. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  16. Tree Fall Gap Characteristics within an Appalachian Hardwood Forest in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Jamie M.; Heitzman, Eric; James S Rentch

    2009-01-01

    We examined the attributes of canopy gaps on the 3,100 ha West Virginia University Research Forest (WVURF) near Morgantown, WV. The WVURF is a 70-80 year-old, second-growth, Appalachian hardwood forest. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe specific gap characteristics (size, age, and fraction) of the forest as a whole, and 2) to assess whether gap characteristics varied by slope position (cove, mid, ridge), aspect (NE, NW, SE, SW), and forest cover type (cove hardwood, mesic oa...

  17. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, Robert J. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Reutebuch, Stephen E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station

    2012-09-01

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  18. Mycorrhizal Response to Experimental pH and P Manipulation in Acidic Hardwood Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kluber, Laurel A.; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; DeForest, Jared L.; Charlotte R Hewins; Shaw, Alanna N.; Kurt A Smemo; David J. Burke

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  19. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  20. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  1. Impacts of harvesting forest residues for bioenergy on nutrient cycling and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.

  2. Social Insects Dominate Eastern US Temperate Hardwood Forest Macroinvertebrate Communities in Warmer Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R King; Warren, Robert J.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms, termites, and ants are common macroinvertebrates in terrestrial environments, although for most ecosystems data on their abundance and biomass is sparse. Quantifying their areal abundance is a critical first step in understanding their functional importance. We intensively sampled dead wood, litter, and soil in eastern US temperate hardwood forests at four sites, which span much of the latitudinal range of this ecosystem, to estimate the abundance and biomass m−2 of individuals in...

  3. Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification in restored forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, S.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to develop characteristic ecological functions including denitrifier activity. One way to enhance denitrifier activity in restored wetland forests is to amend the soils with an available carbon (C) source. This research investigated the effects of cotton gin trash (CGT) amendment on denitrification rate and N2O:N2 emission ratio from a restored bottomland forest soils and compared it to those from an adjacent unamended natural forest soils. CGT amendment increased denitrification rates in the restored forest soils to the level of the natural forest soils. N2O:N2 emission ratios from the restored and natural forest soils were highly variable and were not significantly different from each other. These findings suggest that restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the LMV will require organic carbon amendment to achieve enhanced denitrifier activity for NO3 removal while the restored forest is developing into a mature state over time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Principal forest dieback episodes in northern hardwoods: development of numeric indices of areal extent and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of forest dieback in the Northern Hardwoods biome of Canada and the United States was determined for period from 1910 to 1990. Information from annual forest service pathology inventories in the two countries and other published literature was coded to estimate yearly the severity and areal extent of dieback on white/yellow birch and sugar maple from 1910 to 1990. Principal dieback episodes occurred as distinct waves coincident with maturation of the forest population in each of six regions. These episodes endured an average of 11 years. It is hypothesized that, once forest populations are mature, they are susceptible to extreme stresses such as freezing and drought which serve to synchronize the onset and subsidence of major dieback episodes. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  6. Organic matter budget in a mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic-matter flows through a mixed-hardwood forest were analyzed as part of a study of the unusual behavior of 137Cs in Florida ecosystems. The data suggest that rates of organic-matter flow in the mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida more closely approach those of similar systems in tropical areas than in temperate areas. Annual litterfall was 1069 g/m2; litter turnover, 1.3/year; net daytime productivity of leaves and twigs, 12.4 g m-2 day-1; nighttime respiration, 5.1 g m-2 day-1; and stem respiration, 1.4 g m-2 day-1. Constancy of litter storage (820 g/m2) and leaf fall and lack of net wood deposition indicate that the forest is in steady state. It was concluded that 137Cs accumulation in this forest is probably caused by intrinsic ecosystem processes, as previously suggested, rather than by buildup that might be expected in a successional ecosystem

  7. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  8. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  9. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes. PMID:24796872

  10. Improving Site Quality Estimates in the Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians with Environmental and Spatial Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Claudia Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the upland hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians, management tools are needed based on the characteristics of the site to quantify the site quality where no accurate maps of site quality exist. Three studies were conducted to achieve this objective. The first study tested if independent measures of forest productivity, based on vegetation and environment, in a six-county study area in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina would correlate with measures of forest productivity ob...

  11. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  12. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel A Kluber

    Full Text Available Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake. We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM communities and soil microbial activity in an ecosystem-level experiment where soil pH and P availability were manipulated in mixed deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity. Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do

  13. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  14. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. PMID:26546366

  15. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  16. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  17. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Evans; Richard Odom; Lynn Resler; W. Mark Ford; Steve Prisley

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species co...

  18. Daily MODIS data trends of hurricane-induced forest impact and early recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near pre-hurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.

  19. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equ...

  20. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  1. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  2. Hardwoods for Woody Energy Crops in the Southeast United States:Two Centuries of Practitioner Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes opinions from forest industry experts on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the Southeast United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Experts observe that high productivity rates in southeastern plantations are confined to limited site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands where they compete with higher-value crops. These species are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require few inputs and offer high potential productivity, but are limited by frost to the lower coastal plain and Florida. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods and lower costs of production. Because of existing stands and know-how, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources.

  3. Forest Succession and Maternity Day roost selection by Myotis septentrionalis in a mesophytic hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Silvis; Ford, W. Mark; Eric R. Britzke; Nathan R. Beane; Joshua B. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of summer maternity roosts is considered critical for bat management in North America, yet many aspects of the physical and environmental factors that drive roost selection are poorly understood. We tracked 58 female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to 105 roost trees of 21 species on the Fort Knox military reservation in north-central Kentucky during the summer of 2011. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) was used as a day roost more than expected based on forest stand-level availability and accounted for 48.6% of all observed day roosts. Using logistic regression and an information theoretic approach, we were unable to reliably differentiate between sassafras and other roost species or between day roosts used during different maternity periods using models representative of individual tree metrics, site metrics, topographic location, or combinations of these factors. For northern bats, we suggest that day-roost selection is not a function of differences between individual tree species per se, but rather of forest successional patterns, stand and tree structure. Present successional trajectories may not provide this particular selected structure again without management intervention, thereby suggesting that resource managers take a relatively long retrospective view to manage current and future forest conditions for bats.

  4. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  5. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood

  6. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  7. A Threshold Relation Between Harvest Intensity and Stream Chemistry in a Northern Hardwood Forest of the Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Murdoch, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Clearcutting of northern hardwood forests in mountainous landscapes of the northeastern U.S. has been shown to cause large increases in stream nitrate (NO3-) concentrations accompanied by increased stream acidity, elevated losses of nutrient base cations, and aluminum concentrations sufficient to be toxic to brook trout. An 18 ha clearcut in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York, USA in 1997 resulted in stream NO3- concentrations that peaked at > 1,000 μmol L-1, and base cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) concentrations that increased by more than three-fold during the first year after harvest. In contrast, previous timber-stand improvement harvests in 1995 and 1996 in which analysis of these previous data, we hypothesized that there is likely a harvest threshold for changes in stream-water chemistry below which only minimal and tolerable changes in water quality occur. We tested this hypothesis by completing four forest harvests during 2002 to 2006 in which varying amounts of basal area were removed from northern hardwood forest plots and watersheds. These results have shown that at a basal area removal of about 33%, stream NO3- and K+ concentrations increased, but less than proportionally to the concentration changes observed after the clearcut. Calcium and Mg2+ concentrations increased as well, but these changes were about proportional to the concentration changes observed after the clearcut. Additionally, stream NO3- concentrations returned to background values within two years at the 33% partial harvest compared to about eight years in the clearcut. Soil-water lysimeter data from two other harvests in which 30 and 50% of basal area were removed from hardwood forest plots are consistent with that of the previous partial harvest. Nitrate concentrations increased less than proportionally to the changes observed after the clearcut, and returned rapidly to background values. These data suggest that expansion of the crowns and root networks of remaining trees can

  8. Fine root dynamics and forest production across a calcium gradient in northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B.B.; Yanai, R.D.; Fahey, T.J.; Bailey, S.W.; Siccama, T.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Cleavitt, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Losses of soil base cations due to acid rain have been implicated in declines of red spruce and sugar maple in the northeastern USA. We studied fine root and aboveground biomass and production in five northern hardwood and three conifer stands differing in soil Ca status at Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; and Cone Pond, NH. Neither aboveground biomass and production nor belowground biomass were related to soil Ca or Ca:Al ratios across this gradient. Hardwood stands had 37% higher aboveground biomass (P = 0.03) and 44% higher leaf litter production (P root biomass (roots smaller than 1 mm ranged from 0.62 to 1.86 y-1 and increased significantly with soil exchangeable Ca (P = 0.03). As a result, calculated fine root production was clearly higher in sites with higher soil Ca (P = 0.02). Fine root production (biomass times turnover) ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 Mg ha-1 y-1 for hardwood stands and from 0.9 to 2.3 Mg ha-1 y -1 for conifer stands. The relationship we observed between soil Ca availability and root production suggests that cation depletion might lead to reduced carbon allocation to roots in these ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  10. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests.

  11. Changes in nitrogen cycling during the past century in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, K. K.; Craine, J. M.; Oswald, W. W.; Leavitt, P. R.; Likens, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen availability, defined here as the supply of nitrogen to terrestrial plants and soil microorganisms relative to their demands, limits the productivity of many temperate zone forests and in part determines ecosystem carbon content. Despite multidecadal monitoring of nitrogen in streams, the long-term record of nitrogen availability in forests of the northeastern United States is largely unknown. Therefore, although these forests have been receiving anthropogenic nitrogen deposition for the past few decades, it is still uncertain whether terrestrial nitrogen availability has changed during this time and subsequently whether forest ecosystems have responded to increased nitrogen deposition. Here, we reconstructed changes in vegetation and other ecosystem characteristics using a millennial-scale lacustrine sediment record and high-intensity sampling of wood from living trees in the watershed of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA. In particular, we used stable nitrogen isotopes in wood and lacustrine sediments to demonstrate that nitrogen availability in a northeastern forest has declined over the past 75 years, likely due to ecosystem recovery from EuroAmerican land use. We determined a presettlement trajectory of ecosystem change, and found the forest nitrogen availability has only recently returned to levels forecast from these trajectories, rendering the trajectory of future forest nitrogen cycling uncertain. Our results suggest that chronic disturbances caused by humans, especially logging and agriculture, are major drivers of terrestrial nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems today, even a century after cessation.

  12. Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for

  13. [Effects of harvest disturbance on soil CH4 flux in a secondary hardwood forest in Northeast china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Long, Sun

    2013-10-01

    From June, 2007 to October, 2009, a measurement with static chamber/gas chromatograph techniques was conducted on the soil CH4 flux in a typical secondary hardwood forest in Northeast China under the effects of different harvest disturbances, i.e., uncut (control), clear cutting (including both farming and reforestation after clear cutting), 50% stand volume removed, and 25% stand volume removed. In all of the four treatments, the soil was the sink of atmospheric CH4, but cutting decreased the soil CH4 uptake flux, with the order of uncut (-85.03 microg CH4 x m;(-2) x h(-1)) > 50% stand volume removed (-80.31 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > 25% stand volume removed (-70.97 microg CH4 x m(-2)h(-1)) > farming after clear cutting (-65.57 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > reforestation after clear cutting (-62.02 miocrog CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)). During the study period, the seasonal patterns of the soil CH4 uptake flux in all treatments were similar, with a higher value in growth season and a lower one in winter. After the harvest disturbance, the soil temperature, humidity, and NO(3-)-N, and NH(4+)-N contents were all increased, and the soil CH4 flux had a significant quadratic correlation with soil temperature, and a negative linear correlation with soil moisture content. It was suggested that the increase of the soil moisture, NO(3-)-N, and NHa(4+)-N contents after the forest harvest was the main cause of the decrease of the soil CH4 uptake flux.

  14. Numerical Response of Breeding Birds Following Experimental Selection Harvesting in Northern Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Hache

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silvicultural treatments have been shown to alter the composition of species assemblages in numerous taxa. However, the intensity and persistence of these effects have rarely been documented. We used a before-after, control-impact (BACI paired design, i.e., five pairs of 25-ha study plots, 1-control and 1-treated plot, to quantify changes in the density of eight forest bird species in response to selection harvesting over six breeding seasons, one year pre- and five years postharvest. Focal species included mature forest associates, i.e., Northern Parula (Setophaga americana and Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens, forest generalists, i.e., Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius and Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, early-seral specialists, i.e., Mourning Warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia and Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica, species associated with shrubby forest gaps, i.e., Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens, and mid-seral species, i.e., American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla. As predicted, we found a negative numerical response to the treatment in the Black-throated Green Warbler, no treatment effect in the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, and a positive treatment effect in early-seral specialists. We only detected a year effect in the Northern Parula and the American Redstart. There was evidence for a positive treatment effect on the Swainson’s Thrush when the regeneration started to reach the pole stage, i.e., fifth year postharvest. These findings suggest that selection harvesting has the potential to maintain diverse avian assemblages while allowing sustainable management of timber supply, but future studies should determine whether mature-forest associates can sustain second- and third-entry selection harvest treatments.

  15. Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides at a hardwood forest site in northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Seok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.

  16. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm2g-1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm2g-1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm2g-1 for all species and 192 cm2g-1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  17. Change in Soil and Forest Floor Carbon after Shelterwood Harvests in a New England Oak-Hardwood Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayanna L. Warren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm soil carbon between control (nonharvested and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region.

  18. Biological and physical influences on soil 14CO2 seasonal dynamics in a temperate hardwood forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While radiocarbon (14C abundance in standing stocks of soil carbon has been used to evaluate rates of soil carbon turnover on timescales of several years to centuries, soil-respired 14CO2 measurements are an important tool for identifying more immediate responses to disturbance and climate change. Soil 14CO2 data are often temporally sparse, however, and could be interpreted better with more context for typical seasonal ranges and trends. We report on a semi-high-frequency sampling campaign to distinguish physical and biological drivers of soil 14CO2 at a temperate forest site in Northern Wisconsin, USA. We sampled 14CO2 profiles every three weeks during snow-free months through 2012, in three intact plots and one trenched plot that excluded roots. Respired 14CO2 declined through the summer in intact plots, shifting from an older C composition that contained more bomb 14C, to a younger composition more closely resembling present 14C levels in the atmosphere. In the trenched plot respired 14C was variable but remained comparatively higher than in intact plots, reflecting older bomb-enriched 14C sources. Although respired 14CO2 from intact plots correlated with soil moisture, related analyses did not support a clear cause-and-effect relationship with moisture. The initial decrease in 14CO2 from spring to midsummer could be explained by increases in 14C-deplete root respiration; however, 14CO2 continued to decline in late summer after root activity decreased. We also investigated whether soil moisture impacted vertical partitioning of CO2 production, but found this had little effect on respired 14CO2 because CO2 contained modern bomb-C at depth, even in the trenched plot. This surprising result contrasted with decades to centuries-old pre-bomb CO2 produced in lab incubations of the same soils. Our results suggest that root-derived C and other recent C sources had dominant impacts on 14CO2 in situ, even at depth. We propose that 14CO2 may have

  19. Nutrient Budgets in Successional Northern Hardwood Forests: Uncertainty in soil, root, and tree concentrations and pools (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Bae, K.; Levine, C. R.; Lilly, P.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Fatemi, F. R.; Blum, J. D.; Arthur, M.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem nutrient budgets are difficult to construct and even more difficult to replicate. As a result, uncertainty in the estimates of pools and fluxes are rarely reported, and opportunities to assess confidence through replicated measurements are rare. In this study, we report nutrient concentrations and contents of soil and biomass pools in northern hardwood stands in replicate plots within replicate stands in 3 age classes (14-19 yr, 26-29 yr, and > 100 yr) at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, USA. Soils were described by quantitative soil pits in three plots per stand, excavated by depth increment to the C horizon and analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Variation in soil mass among pits within stands averaged 28% (coefficient of variation); variation among stands within an age class ranged from 9-25%. Variation in nutrient concentrations were higher still (averaging 38%, within element, depth increment, and extraction type), perhaps because the depth increments contained varying proportions of genetic horizons. To estimate nutrient contents of aboveground biomass, we propagated model uncertainty through allometric equations, and found errors ranging from 3-7%, depending on the stand. The variation in biomass among plots within stands (6-19%) was always larger than the allometric uncertainties. Variability in measured nutrient concentrations of tree tissues were more variable than the uncertainty in biomass. Foliage had the lowest variability (averaging 16% for Ca, Mg, K, N and P within age class and species), and wood had the highest (averaging 30%), when reported in proportion to the mean, because concentrations in wood are low. For Ca content of aboveground biomass, sampling variation was the greatest source of uncertainty. Coefficients of variation among plots within a stand averaged 16%; stands within an age class ranged from 5-25% CV, including uncertainties in tree allometry and tissue chemistry. Uncertainty analysis can help direct research

  20. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

    2012-02-06

    ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by

  1. Effect of Land Use on Soil Properties in Debris Flow Bottomland: A Case Study at Xiaojiang Basin, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiuying; LI Fadong; LIU Mengyu; SONG Xianfang; OU Guoqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of different land use on soil physics and nutrients properties of the debris flow bottomland, a case study at Daqing gully (in Xiaojiang Basin, Yunnan) was conducted in 2004. Soil samples were taken at depth of 0-10,10-20,20-40,40-60,60-80 cm under three land use patterns crop bottomland(CL), forest bottomland(FL), and barren bottomland(BL). The results showed that the developing bottomland to CL promoted soil toaccumulate total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP), pH value transferred from neutral to alkalescency, and organic matter decreased significantly. Furthermore, the contents of total nitrogen (TN) and available nitrogen (AN) in CL were lower than that of FL and BL because the growth of crops consumed more nutrients in soil. The results also showed that the contents of TP, AP and available potassium (AK) in soil were positively correlated with soil particle.

  2. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  3. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  4. The relation of harvesting intensity to changes in soil, soil water, and stream chemistry in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Germain, Rene H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that clearcutting of northern hardwood forests mobilizes base cations, inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), and nitrate (NO3--N) from soils to surface waters, but the effects of partial harvests on NO3--N have been less frequently studied. In this study we describe the effects of a series of partial harvests of varying proportions of basal area removal (22%, 28% and 68%) on Alim, calcium (Ca2+), and NO3--N concentrations in soil extracts, soil water, and surface water in the Catskill Mountains of New York, USA. Increases in NO3--N concentrations relative to pre-harvest values were observed within a few months after harvest in soils, soil water, and stream water for all three harvests. Increases in Alim and Ca2+ concentrations were also evident in soil water and stream water over the same time period for all three harvests. The increases in Alim, Ca2+, and NO3--N concentrations in the 68% harvest were statistically significant as measured by comparing the 18-month pre-harvest period with the 18-month post-harvest period, with fewer significant responses in the two harvests of lowest intensity. All three solutes returned to pre-harvest concentrations in soil water and stream water in the two lowest intensity harvests in 2–3 years compared to a full 3 years in the 68% harvest. When the results of this study were combined with those of a previous nearby clearcut and 40% harvest, the post-harvest increases in NO3--N concentrations in stream water and soil water suggest a harvesting level above which the relation between concentration and harvest intensity changes; there was a greater change in concentration per unit change in harvest intensity when basal area removal was greater than 40%. These results indicate that the deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems previously demonstrated for intensive harvests in northern hardwood forests of northeastern North America that receive high levels of atmospheric N deposition can be greatly

  5. Nest site characteristics of the Great-spotted Woodpecker in a bottomland riparian forest in the presence of invasive tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ónodi Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Hungary, in an old unmanaged riparian poplar-willow forest during the breeding seasons of 2014 and 2015. The occurrence of two invasive tree species, the green ash and boxelder, is significant in the study area, which influences negatively the populations of native riparian tree species in Central Europe. We studied Great-spotted Woodpecker nest sites in the presence of these invasive species. Throughout the study period, eight and twelve nesting cavity trees were mapped. Trees were recorded in 20-20 circular plots of 0.05 ha both for each mapped nest trees and random plots as well. Species, diameter at breast height and condition were recorded for each tree. Composition and diversity of nest site and random plots were compared. Distributions and preferences were calculated for nest tree use. Most of the recorded trees were invasive. Nest site plots had more native trees compared to random plots. Nest site showed higher diversity in terms of all three variables. Decayed and dead willow and white poplar hybrid trees were preferred for nesting. Diameter at breast height of nest trees was between 30-90 cm. Studies about cavity excavators in transformed habitats have high importance for nature conservation of riparian forests.

  6. Satellite optical and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term recovery from Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  7. Rapid inventory of the ant assemblage in a temperate hardwood forest: species composition and assessment of sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Aaron M; Record, Sydne; Arguello, Alexander; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2007-08-01

    Ants are key indicators of ecological change, but few studies have investigated how ant assemblages respond to dramatic changes in vegetation structure in temperate forests. Pests and pathogens are causing widespread loss of dominant canopy tree species; ant species composition and abundance may be very sensitive to such losses. Before the experimental removal of red oak trees to simulate effects of sudden oak death and examine the long-term impact of oak loss at the Black Rock Forest (Cornwall, NY), we carried out a rapid assessment of the ant assemblage in a 10-ha experimental area. We also determined the efficacy in a northern temperate forest of five different collecting methods--pitfall traps, litter samples, tuna fish and cookie baits, and hand collection--routinely used to sample ants in tropical systems. A total of 33 species in 14 genera were collected and identified; the myrmecines, Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica punctiventris, and the formicine Formica neogagates were the most common and abundant species encountered. Ninety-four percent (31 of 33) of the species were collected by litter sampling and structured hand sampling together, and we conclude that, in combination, these two methods are sufficient to assess species richness and composition of ant assemblages in northern temperate forests. Using new, unbiased estimators, we project that 38-58 ant species are likely to occur at Black Rock Forest. Loss of oak from these forests may favor Camponotus species that nest in decomposing wood and open habitat specialists in the genus Lasius. PMID:17716467

  8. Quantifying canopy complexity and effects on productivity and resilience in late-successional hemlock-hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert T; Fotis, Alexander T; Woods, Kerry D

    2015-04-01

    The regrowing forests of eastern North America have been an important global C sink over the past 100+ years, but many are now transitioning into late succession. The consequences of this transition are unclear due to uncertainty around the C dynamics of old- growth forests. Canopy structural complexity (CSC) has been shown to be an important source of variability in C dynamics in younger forests (e.g., in productivity and resilience to disturbance), but its role in late-successional forests has not been widely addressed. We investigated patterns of CSC in two old-growth forest landscapes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA, to assess factors associated with CSC and its influence on productivity and disturbance resilience (to moderate-severity windstorm). CSC was quantified using a portable below-canopy LiDAR (PCL) system in 65 plots that also had long-term (50-70+ years). inventory data, which were used to quantify aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), disturbance history, and stand characteristics. We found high and variable CSC relative to younger forests across a suite of PCL-derived metrics. Variation in CSC was driven by species composition and size structure, rather than disturbance history or site characteristics. Recent moderate severity wind disturbance decreased plot-scale CSC, but increased stand-scale variation in CSC. The strong positive correlation between CSC and productivity illustrated in younger forests was not present in undisturbed portions of these late-successional ecosystems. Moderate severity disturbance appeared to reestablish the positive link between CSC and productivity, but this relationship was scale and severity dependent. A positive CSC-productivity relationship was evident at the plot scale with low-severity, dispersed disturbance, but only at a patch scale in more severely disturbed areas. CSC does not appear to strongly correlate With variation in productivity in undisturbed old-growth forests, but may play a very

  9. Quantifying canopy complexity and effects on productivity and resilience in late-successional hemlock-hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert T; Fotis, Alexander T; Woods, Kerry D

    2015-04-01

    The regrowing forests of eastern North America have been an important global C sink over the past 100+ years, but many are now transitioning into late succession. The consequences of this transition are unclear due to uncertainty around the C dynamics of old- growth forests. Canopy structural complexity (CSC) has been shown to be an important source of variability in C dynamics in younger forests (e.g., in productivity and resilience to disturbance), but its role in late-successional forests has not been widely addressed. We investigated patterns of CSC in two old-growth forest landscapes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA, to assess factors associated with CSC and its influence on productivity and disturbance resilience (to moderate-severity windstorm). CSC was quantified using a portable below-canopy LiDAR (PCL) system in 65 plots that also had long-term (50-70+ years). inventory data, which were used to quantify aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), disturbance history, and stand characteristics. We found high and variable CSC relative to younger forests across a suite of PCL-derived metrics. Variation in CSC was driven by species composition and size structure, rather than disturbance history or site characteristics. Recent moderate severity wind disturbance decreased plot-scale CSC, but increased stand-scale variation in CSC. The strong positive correlation between CSC and productivity illustrated in younger forests was not present in undisturbed portions of these late-successional ecosystems. Moderate severity disturbance appeared to reestablish the positive link between CSC and productivity, but this relationship was scale and severity dependent. A positive CSC-productivity relationship was evident at the plot scale with low-severity, dispersed disturbance, but only at a patch scale in more severely disturbed areas. CSC does not appear to strongly correlate With variation in productivity in undisturbed old-growth forests, but may play a very

  10. Nitrate elimination by denitrification in hardwood forest soils of the Upper Rhine floodplain - correlation with redox potential and organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Brettar, Ingrid; Trémolières, Michèle; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Denitrification in floodplains is a major issue for river- and groundwater quality. In the Upper Rhine valley, floodplain forests are about to be restored to serve as flood retention areas (polders). Besides flood attenuation in downstream areas, improvement of water quality became recently a major goal for polder construction. Redox potential monitoring was suggested as a means to support assessment of nitrogen elimination in future floodplains by denitrification during controlled flooding. ...

  11. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed. PMID:26850158

  12. Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L; Socci, Anne M; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-08-01

    The depth and duration of snow pack is declining in the northeastern United States as a result of warming air temperatures. Since snow insulates soil, a decreased snow pack can increase the frequency of soil freezing, which has been shown to have important biogeochemical implications. One of the most notable effects of soil freezing is increased inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention is thought to be due to reduced root uptake, but has not yet been measured directly. We conducted a 2-year snow-removal experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to determine the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal significantly increased the depth of maximal soil frost by 37.2 and 39.5 cm in the first and second winters, respectively (P climate change on root function has significant consequences for nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. PMID:24574104

  13. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  14. Increased nitrogen leaching following soil freezing is due to decreased root uptake in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L; Socci, Anne M; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-08-01

    The depth and duration of snow pack is declining in the northeastern United States as a result of warming air temperatures. Since snow insulates soil, a decreased snow pack can increase the frequency of soil freezing, which has been shown to have important biogeochemical implications. One of the most notable effects of soil freezing is increased inorganic nitrogen losses from soil during the following growing season. Decreased nitrogen retention is thought to be due to reduced root uptake, but has not yet been measured directly. We conducted a 2-year snow-removal experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to determine the effects of soil freezing on root uptake and leaching of inorganic nitrogen simultaneously. Snow removal significantly increased the depth of maximal soil frost by 37.2 and 39.5 cm in the first and second winters, respectively (P soil freezing, root uptake of ammonium declined significantly during the first and second growing seasons after snow removal (P = 0.023 for 2009 and P = 0.005 for 2010). These observed reductions in root nitrogen uptake coincided with significant increases in soil solution concentrations of ammonium in the Oa horizon (P = 0.001 for 2009 and 2010) and nitrate in the B horizon (P nitrogen from the Oa horizon that was attributable to soil freezing was 7.0 and 2.8 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The excess flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the B horizon was lower, amounting to 1.7 and 0.7 kg N ha(-1) in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Results of this study provide direct evidence that soil freezing reduces root nitrogen uptake, demonstrating that the effects of winter climate change on root function has significant consequences for nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems.

  15. Soil nitrogen affects phosphorus recycling: foliar resorption and plant-soil feedbacks in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Craig R; Yanai, Ruth D; Fisk, Melany C; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Quintero, Brauuo A; Fahey, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have attempted to link foliar resorption of nitrogen and phosphorus to their. respective availabilities in soil, with mixed results. Based on resource optimization theory, we hypothesized that the foliar resorption of one element could be driven by the availability of another element. We tested various measures of soil N and P as predictors of N and P resorption in six tree species in 18 plots across six stands at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Phosphorus resorption efficiency (P soil N content. to 30 cm depth, suggesting that trees conserve P based on the availability of soil N. Phosphorus resorption also increased with soil P content, which is difficult to explain basdd on single-element limitation, butfollows from the correlation between soil N and soil P. The expected single-element relationships were evident only in the 0 horizon: P resorption was high where resin-available P was low in the Oe (P soil N content on foliar P resorption is the first evidence of multiple-element control on nutrient resorption to be reported from an unmanipulated ecosystem.

  16. Application of Ca stable isotopes to long-term changes in the Ca cycle of a Northern Hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.; Bailey, S. W.; Bullen, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (New Hampshire, USA) presents an unusual opportunity for the application of innovative isotope methods in forest biogeochemistry. Changes in biogeochemical cycling resulting from decades of acid deposition, subsequent reductions in acid deposition, and a series of experimental treatments (harvesting, Ca amendment) have been studied continuously for 60 years at this site. Importantly, researchers have archived soil, water, and vegetation samples for much of the site's history. Our work seeks to complement earlier mass balance studies of Ca cycling by measuring Ca isotope ratios on archived samples. In the first component of our study, we examined the Ca isotopic response to an experimental clearcut in the early 1980's. Earlier work showed that the clearcut promoted dramatic loss of Ca from the watershed, indicated by a 5-fold increase in streamwater Ca concentrations. The mechanism for this loss was unclear as no resolvable changes in soil Ca pools were observed. Our work shows that streamwater dissolved Ca becomes isotopically lighter as Ca concentrations increase. These data are best accounted for by an increase in Ca loss from the soil cation exchange complex. Soil exchangeable δ44Ca itself evolves towards lighter values in the years following the experimental harvest. We interpret this as replenishment of the soil exchange complex by release of isotopically light Ca from root biomass. In the second component of our study, we examine decadal-scale changes in streamwater and soil Ca in an un-manipulated biogeochemical reference watershed. Historical data from Hubbard Brook show that streamwater Ca concentrations began decreasing sharply in the early 1970's, attributed to decreased deposition of both acidity and Ca with the passage of the Clean Air Act. Preliminary data indicate no resolvable change in the average δ44Ca of streamwater, with variability mostly attributable to discharge (flowpath control). Preliminary data

  17. Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2005-01-01

    The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were

  18. Leaf-on canopy closure in broadleaf deciduous forests predicted during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.

  19. Bottomland Reforestation Plan : Division II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to set guidelines for the selection, conversion techniques, assignment of priorities and post treatment evaluation of non-forested areas that...

  20. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (pagricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  1. Interference interactions in experimental pine-hardwood stands

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericksen, Todd Simon

    1991-01-01

    Competition for resources and other interference from non-crop vegetation often limits the productivity of pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in the southern United States. However, forest researchers have yet to fully quantify the effect of this interference on forest tree yield and there is an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms of interference. To better quantify the effects of interference interactions and elucidate their mechanisms, a field replacement series experime...

  2. Drier Forest Composition Associated with Hydrologic Change in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    when the median age of surviving 2004 subcanopy trees will reach the median age (99 years) of the 2004 large canopy trees. The change will be greatest for forests in the upper reach (45.0 percent). Forest composition changes from pre-1954 to 2085 were calculated using Floodplain Indices from 1976 and 2004 tree-size classes and replicate plots. Species composition in high bottomland hardwood forests is expected to continue to change, and some low bottomland hardwood forests are expected to become high bottomland hardwood forests. Organisms associated with floodplain forests will be affected by the changes in tree species, which will alter the timing of leaf-out, fruiting, and leaf-drop, the types of fruit and debris produced, and soil chemistry. Swamps will contain more bottomland hardwood species, but will also have an overall loss of tree density. The density of trees in swamps significantly decreased by 37 percent from 1976 to 2004. Of the estimated 4.3 million (17 percent) fewer trees that existed in the nontidal floodplain in 2004 than in 1976, 3.3 million trees belonged to four swamp species: popash, Ogeechee tupelo, water tupelo, and bald cypress. Water tupelo, the most important tree in the nontidal floodplain in terms of basal area and density, has declined in number of trees by nearly 20 percent since 1976. Ogeechee tupelo, the species valuable to the tupelo honey industry, has declined in number of trees by at least 44 percent. Greater hydrologic variability in recent years may be the reason swamps have had a large decrease in tree density. Drier conditions are detrimental for the growth of swamp species, and periodic large floods kill invading bottomland hardwood trees. The loss of canopy density in swamps may result in the swamp floor being exposed to more light with an increase in the amount of ground cover present, which in turn, would reduce tree replacement. The microclimate of the swamp floor would become wa

  3. Invertebrate resources in Mississippi hardwood bottomlands, moist-soil habitat, and flooded cropland: Completion report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of invertebrate resources in green tree reservoirs and seasonally-flooded crop fields at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge. Mean winter invertebrate...

  4. Temporal variability in (13)C of respired CO(2) in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Prater, James L; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Temporal variability in the (13)C of foliage (delta(13)C(F)), soil (delta(13)C(S)) and ecosystem (delta(13)C(R)) respired CO(2) was contrasted between a 17.2-m tall evenly aged loblolly pine forest and a 35-m tall unevenly aged mature second growth mixed broadleaf deciduous forest in North Carolina, USA, over a 2-year period. The two forests are located at the Duke Forest within a kilometer of each other and are subject to identical climate and have similar soil types. The delta(13)C(F), collected just prior to dawn, was primarily controlled by the time-lagged vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in both stands; it was used for calculating the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) ( Ci/ Ca). A remarkable similarity was observed in the relationship between Ci/ Ca and time-lagged VPD in these two forests despite large differences in hydraulic characteristics. This similarity emerged as a result of physiological adjustments that compensated for differences in plant hydraulic characteristics, as predicted by a recently proposed equilibrium hypothesis, and has implications to ecophysiological models. We found that in the broadleaf forest, the delta(13)C of forest floor CO(2) efflux dominated the delta(13)C(R), while in the younger pine forest, the delta(13)C of foliage respired CO(2) dominated delta(13)C(R). This dependence resulted in a more variable delta(13)C(R) in the pine forest when compared to the broadleaf forest due to the larger photosynthetic contribution. Given the sensitivity of the atmospheric inversion models to delta(13)C(R), the results demonstrate that these models could be improved by accounting for stand characteristics, in addition to previously recognized effects of moisture availability, when estimating delta(13)C(R). PMID:15340829

  5. Hardwood seedling establishment below Aleppo pine depends on thinning intensity in two Mediterranean sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gavinet, J.; Vilagrosa, A.; Chirino, E.; Granados, M.E.; Vallejo, V.R.; Prévosto, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Developing silvicultural methods to help Mediterranean forests adapt to climate change is of high importance. Introducing resprouting hardwood species below pine stands is expected to promote diversity and resilience of these stands, particularly to forest fires. Aims: To examine how the intensity of pine thinning influences understory micro environment and the establishment of various hardwood seedlings in two Mediterranean sites. Methods: Aleppo pine stands were thinned dow...

  6. Variability in net ecosystem exchange from hourly to inter-annual time scales at adjacent pine and hardwood forests: a wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C; Katul, Gabriel G; Siqueira, Mario B S; Juang, Jehn-Yih; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram

    2005-07-01

    Orthonormal wavelet transformation (OWT) is a computationally efficient technique for quantifying underlying frequencies in nonstationary and gap-infested time series, such as eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE). We employed OWT to analyze the frequency characteristics of synchronously measured and modeled NEE at adjacent pine (PP) and hardwood (HW) ecosystems. Wavelet cospectral analysis showed that NEE at PP was more correlated to light and vapor pressure deficit at the daily time scale, and NEE at HW was more correlated to leaf area index (LAI) and temperature, especially soil temperature, at seasonal time scales. Models were required to disentangle the impacts of environmental drivers on the components of NEE, ecosystem carbon assimilation (Ac) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Sensitivity analyses revealed that using air temperature rather than soil temperature in RE models improved the modeled wavelet spectral frequency response on time scales longer than 1 day at both ecosystems. Including LAI improved RE model fit on seasonal time scales at HW, and incorporating parameter variability improved the RE model response at annual time scales at both ecosystems. Resolving variability in canopy conductance, rather than leaf-internal CO2, was more important for modeling Ac at both ecosystems. The PP ecosystem was more sensitive to hydrologic variables that regulate canopy conductance: vapor pressure deficit on weekly time scales and soil moisture on seasonal to interannual time scales. The HW ecosystem was sensitive to water limitation on weekly time scales. A combination of intrinsic drought sensitivity and non-conservative water use at PP was the basis for this response. At both ecosystems, incorporating variability in LAI was required for an accurate spectral representation of modeled NEE. However, nonlinearities imposed by canopy light attenuation were of little importance to spectral fit. The OWT revealed similarities and differences in

  7. Identifying Impact Factors on Successful Exporting of the United States Hardwood Industries to Mexico, Asia, and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Parhizkar, Omid

    2008-01-01

    Transportation and competitiveness practices of hardwood lumber exporters and other firms were studied and compared to determine the most important factors associated with exporting hardwood products. It was found that exporters differed significantly in their transportation methods, marketing activities, and production profiles from those other hardwood lumber firms. They also were significantly larger than expected in their total production and employment. As the forest products business ...

  8. The Influence of Promotional Brochures and Pricing Strategies on Consumer Purchase Decisions for Forest Stewardship Council Certified Hardwood Boards in Home Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Gomon, Stephanie J

    2004-01-01

    This study is one of the first of its kind to examine actual consumer purchasing decisions for forest products certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Consumer purchasing was examined based on the presence or absence of a promotional brochure and a price premium for red oak and yellow poplar surfaced-four-sides (S4S) boards. This research also compared typical demographic factors for purchasers and non-purchasers of FSC certified S4S boards. Finally, the study examined subscales f...

  9. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (ppreferential flow paths in the below ground BHF. Results suggest historic forest removal and cultivation of the Ag site lead to an effective homogenization of the upper soil profile, and facilitated the development of strong VWC spatial dependency. Conversely, higher hydraulic conductivity of the more heterogeneous BHF subsurface likely results in a wetting of the deeper profile (75 cm) during climatically wet periods, and thus a more effective processing of hydrologic inputs. Collective results highlight the greater extent and degree to which forest vegetation impacts subsurface hydrology, relative to grassland/agricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519576

  10. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  11. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  12. Forested wetland mitigation resulting from discharges of cooling water into streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020-ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Historically, the swamp consisted of ∼50% bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10% shrub, marsh, and open water. The hydrology was controlled by flooding the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950s. Water, often in excess of 40 to 50 degrees C was discharged into one of the small streams from 1954 to 1988, at various levels, ranging from 20 to 40 times the prior flow rate of the stream. This had a major impact on the adjacent swamp land, with erosion, silting, and vegetation destruction. The Final Environmental Impact Statement, Continued Operation of K, L, and P Reactors, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, and the subsequent record of decision directed that these areas be restored to functional forested wetland status to the extent possible. This paper describes work begun to reach that objective

  13. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  14. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  15. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  16. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... notice in the Federal Register of October 3, 2012 (77 FR 60460). The conference was held in Washington... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair...

  17. Surfactant Formulations to Enhance Triclopyr Amine Efficacy: Effects on Adhesion, Retention and Contact Phytotoxicity On three Hardwood Species

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, W. Alison

    1998-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L) is the leading Southern (USA) pine, in terms of acres planted (Fortson et al.,1996). Since commercial forest acreage is predicted to remain fairly constant over the next 50 years, productivity must be increased if the South is going to meet a larger share of the nationà ­s timber supply needs (Gjerstad and Barber, 1987). Hardwoods have been shown to have a consistent negative growth impact on pines, and uncontrolled hardwoods continue to compete aggressivel...

  18. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  19. Properties of recycled polypropylene based composites incorporating treated hardwood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Galia; Jaunslavietis, Jevgenijs; Ozolins, Jurijs; Neiberte, Brigita; Verovkins, Anrijs; Vitolina, Sanita; Shakels, Vadims

    2016-05-01

    The effect of different treatment of hardwood sawdust under mild conditions on contact angles, adhesion energy and water sorption was studied. A comparison of these indices for the hardwood treated sawdust and the composites filled with them was performed. The treatment promoted the compatibility between the recycled polypropylene and the hardwood filler. The inclusion of the lignin-based compatibiliser in the composite, containing the ammoxidised wood filler, essentially improved its mechanical properties.

  20. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... road. The specific mix of products produced by a hardwood sawmill is influenced by mill location; local... such as medium density fiberboard and particle board, composite material, plastic, and imported lumber... include recycled pallet parts, composite products, plastic, and cardboard. Price and Cost Trends \\6\\...

  1. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of.... The percentage of revenue represented by the assessment rate would be 0.01 percent for sales of... products, and 0.03 percent for sales of hardwood plywood. Thus, the percentage revenue represented by...

  2. Papue New Guinea hardwoods: future source of raw material for pulping and papermaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, F.H.; Logan, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sample mixtures of tropical hardwoods from forests in Papue New Guinea were readily pulped and gave satisfactory yields by the sulphate process but not by the NSSC process. The pulping properties are described of five species that are being considered for reforestation programs viz. Eucalyptus deglupta, Terminalia brassii, Acacia auriculiformis, Gmelina arborea and Albizia falcataria. Potential problems are briefly discussed in relation to heterogeneity and defects in the mixtures, chip storage, digestor production efficiency, whole-tree utilization, vessel-picking and other surface properties of paper, and black liquor properties.

  3. Papua New Guinea hardwoods: future source of raw material for pulping and papermaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, F.H.; Logan, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sample mixtures of tropical hardwoods from forests in Papua New Guinea were readily pulped and gave satisfactory yields by the sulphate process but not by the NSSC process. The pulping properties are described of five species that are being considered for reforestation programs viz. Eucalyptus deglupta, Terminalia brassii, Acacia auriculiformis, Gmelina arborea and Albizia falcataria. Potential problems are briefly discussed in relation to heterogeneity and defects in the mixtures, chip storage, digestor production efficiency, whole-tree utilization, vessel-picking and other surface properties of paper, and black liquor properties.

  4. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A; Ikem, Abua

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p<0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. PMID:26005752

  5. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, H. Tyler; David G. Krementz

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management st...

  6. Point Counts of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Fotests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, Minimum Sample Size, and Points Versus Visits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides guidelines concerning sampling effort to achieve appropriate level of precision regarding avian point count sampling in the MAV. To compare efficacy of...

  7. Whole-tree clearcutting in New England: Manager's guide to impacts on soils, streams, and regeneration. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of impacts of whole-tree clearcutting in spruce-fir, northern hardwood, and central hardwood forest types are summarized for use by practicing foresters, land managers, environmental protection agencies and organizations, and the general public. Guidelines are given for protecting soils, stream water quality, nutrient cycles, and site productivity

  8. Fernbank Forest Birds in the Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    Provided is a listing of the common nesting birds and the neotropical migrant birds with nesting records in the approximate 65 acres of Fernbank Forest which is a preserve of mature urban hardwoods and pines within 10 miles of downtown Atlanta and a relic of what was once a large, uninterrupted tract of the Piedmont forest. (JJK)

  9. Bottomalnd hardwood reforestatoin plan Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describes anticipated hardwood reforestation activites on agricultural fields of Dahomey NWR form 1992 - 1995. Site selection, tree compositon and spacing are...

  10. Agroforestry is promising for previously cleared hardwood rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    McCreary, Doug

    2001-01-01

    Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of most hardwood rangelands in the coastal foothills of California. But owners of these lands may be able to increase revenues by simultaneously producing two crops, trees and sheep. In 1993, we initiated an agroforestry project at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center to study the ability of three pine species and one hybrid to grow on cleared hardwood rangelands that are grazed by sheep. This study also evaluated the response of planted s...

  11. Establishment of bottomland oak plantations on the Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Stocking, height, and diameter growth, and invasion of both herbaceous and woody plant species are reported for 5 direct seeded and 5 planted seedling stands of bottomland oaks, all of which were between 4 and 8 years old. Stocking was generally higher in the planted seedling stands. Both height and diameter growth were substantially higher in the planted seedling stands. Low stocking and poor growth, especially for the direct seeded stands, was associated with medium-textured soils and a heavy cover of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and goldenrod (Solidago altissima). Invasion of woody species was heavily dominated by light-seeded species, and was highest in stands close to mature trees.

  12. The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.

  13. Arboriculture for quality timber production with hardwood: results after 20 years from planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.

  14. Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge Forest Stand Conditons and Habitat Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains compartment level forest inventory of mature hardwood trees and the assoicated cruise data. Summary data at the compartment level is presented. In...

  15. Efficacy of Treatments against Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Effects on Forest Understory Plant Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Storer; Shartell, Lindsey M.; Nagel, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Garlic mustard, an invasive exotic biennial herb, has been identified in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but is not yet widely distributed. We tested the effectiveness and impact of management tools for garlic mustard in northern hardwood forests. Six treatment types (no treatment control, hand-pull, herbicide, hand-pull/herbicide, scorch, and hand-pull/scorch) were applied within a northern hardwood forest invaded by garlic mustard. We sampled understory vegetation within plots to compare g...

  16. Evaluation of Methods to Control Mold on Hardwood Pallets

    OpenAIRE

    Blount, Thomas Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were:1.����To compare the drying cost and drying time for oak and poplar pallets for the following mold mitigation strategies for hardwood pallets: air drying, forced air drying (fan shed), kiln drying to 25% moisture content and chemical treatment, and2.����Develop and evaluate a procedure for preventing and controlling mold growth on heat treated hardwood palletsTwenty red oak pallets and twenty yellow-poplar pallets were tested for each drying...

  17. Logging in hardwood stands established on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance and costs for different harvesting systems in broad leaf stands established on former tillage is presented. The calculations, combined with a forecast of the market development, shows that it is risky to aim production exclusively at bulk products as fibre or fibre/energy. The harvest of fibre or energy wood can, however, be used as a means to increase profitability of a silvicultural programme aimed at production of high quality hardwood lumber. Management and logging in these stands will be carried out with small scale technology, often by the private forest owner. Todays large scale systems are not competitive in these stands. The cost calculations show that we lack economically sound systems for harvesting stands in the interval up to 5 cm DBH. The lowest logging cost for these stands was calculated for motor manual felling and chipping with a chipper/dumper mounted on a farm tractor. This alternative is competitive also in the interval 5-10 cm DBH but there is a number of other feasible systems, e.g. off-road chippers processing motor manually felled and piled trees. Tree section systems with extraction by forwarder or a farm tractor with grapple loader and a bogic trailer operates at low costs to roadside but costs for processing and, maybe, a more expensive secondary transportation must then be added. For thinnings in the interval 10-25 cm DBH tree chipping is the most cost efficient if only energy assortments is to be harvested. However, at the current price relations between energy wood and pulpwood tree section systems are preferable also in stands over 10 cm since it allows a combined harvest of fibre and energy. For the same reason, the seemingly most interesting system in later thinnings is a system with differentiated processing. The term denotes a system where pulpwood is cut motor manually down to 12.5 cm and extracted by forwarder or farm tractor. The remaining tops and branches are processed by an off-road chipper. (36 refs., 11 figs.)

  18. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  19. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  20. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  1. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the Vicksburg Field Research Station of the National Wetlands Research Center initiated research on the ecology of migratory birds within forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The MAV was historically a nearly contiguous bottomland hardwood forest, however, only remnants remain. These remnants are fragmented and often influenced by drainage projects, silviculture, agriculture, and urban development. Our objectives are to assess species richness and relative abundance, and to relate these to the size, quality, and composition of forest stands. Species richness and relative abundance were estimated for 53 randomly selected forest sites using 1 to 8 point counts per site, depending on the size of the forest fragment. However, statistical comparisons among sites will be restricted to an equal number ofpoint counts within the sites being compared. Point counts, lasting five minutes, were conducted from 11 May to 29 June 1992, foltowing Ralph, Sauer, and Droege (Point Count Standards; memo dated 9 March 1992). Vegetation was measured at the first three points on each site using a modification of the methods employed by Martin and Roper (Condor 90: 5 1-57; 1988). During 252 counts, 7 1 species were encountered, but only 62 species were encountered within a 50-m radius of point center. The mean number of species encountered within 50 m of a point, was 7.3 (s.d. = 2.7) and the mean number of individuals was 11.2 (s.d. = 4.2). The mean number of species detected at any distance was 9.6 (s.d, = 2.8) and the mean number of individuals was 15.6 (s.d. = 7.9). The most frequently encountered warblers in the MAV were Prothonotary Warbler and Northern Parula. Rarely encountered warblers were American Redstart and Worm-eating Warbler. The genera, Quercus, Ulmus, Carya, and Celtis were each encountered at 80 or more of the 152 points at which vegetation was sampled. Species most frequentlyencountered were: sugarberry (Celtis laevagata), water hickory (Caqa

  2. Predicting impacts of climate change on the aboveground carbon sequestration rate of a temperate forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    Full Text Available The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0 was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.

  3. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  4. Herbicide Hardwood Crop Trees Release in Central West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kochenderfer, Jeffrey Davis

    1999-01-01

    Repeated partial cutting in the Appalachian hardwood region has often favored the development of tolerant species like American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and stands with a high proportion of cull trees. Crop tree release is a widely recommended practice to improve species composition and growth rates in these unevenaged structured stands. Chemical control offers some distinct advantages from the standpoint of safety and residual stand damage, over mechani...

  5. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  6. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  7. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  8. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York: hardwood ecosystems and associated surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Myron J.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Inamdar, Shreeram; McGee, Greg G.; Mbila, Monday O.; Raynal, Dudley J

    2003-06-01

    Factors that regulate the fate of atmospherically deposited nitrogen to hardwood forests and subsequent transport to surface waters in the Adirondack region of New York are described. - Studies on the nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Adirondack northern hardwood ecosystems were summarized. Specific focus was placed on results at the Huntington Forest (HFS), Pancake-Hall Creek (PHC), Woods Lake (WL), Ampersand (AMO), Catlin Lake (CLO) and Hennessy Mountain (HM). Nitrogen deposition generally decreased from west to east in the Adirondacks, and there have been no marked temporal changes in N deposition from 1978 through 1998. Second-growth western sites (WL, PHC) had higher soil solution NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations and fluxes than the HFS site in the central Adirondacks. Of the two old-growth sites (AMO and CLO), AMO had substantially higher NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations due to the relative dominance of sugar maple that produced litter with high N mineralization and nitrification rates. The importance of vegetation in affecting N losses was also shown for N-fixing alders in wetlands. The Adirondack Manipulation and Modeling Project (AMMP) included separate experimental N additions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} at WL, PHC and HFS and HNO{sub 3} at WL and HFS. Patterns of N loss varied with site and form of N addition and most of the N input was retained. For 16 lake/watersheds no consistent changes in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations were found from 1982 to 1997. Simulations suggested that marked NO{sub 3}{sup -} loss will only be manifested over extended periods. Studies at the Arbutus Watershed provided information on the role of biogeochemical and hydrological factors in affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. The heterogeneous topography in the Adirondacks has generated diverse landscape features and patterns of connectivity that are especially important in regulating the temporal and spatial patterns of NO{sub 3}{sup

  9. Consequences of landscape patterns on the genetic composition of remnant hardwood stands in the Southeast: A pilot study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godt, Mary Jo, W.; Hamrick, J., L.

    2003-01-01

    Report of a pilot study intended to generate genetic data for a tree species in fragmented hardwood stands. It was anticipated that this data would permit assessment of the feasibility of long-term genetic research for which external funding support could be generated. A second objective was to initiate studies that addressed fundamental questions of how landscape structure, in conjunction with the population dynamics and reproductive characteristics of the tree species, influences genetic structure and long-term viability of hardwood forest stands on the Savannah River Site and in similar southeastern landscapes. Fragmentation of plant habitats can result in small, genetically isolated populations. Spatial isolation and small population size may have several consequences, including reduced reproduction, increased inbreeding and the stochastic loss of genetic variability. Such losses of genetic and genotypic diversity can reduce plant fitness and may diminish population viability. Deleterious genetic effects resulting from small population sizes can be ameliorated by gene flow via pollen and seed into fragmented populations.

  10. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  11. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  12. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  13. Market signals of unsustainable and inequitable forest extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaafsma, Marije; Burgess, Neil David; Swetnam, Ruth D.;

    2014-01-01

    Natural forests and woodlands of the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) in Tanzania are under threat from deforestation and degradation. The estimated annual revenues from EAM hardwood for domestic use are USD 10 million in terms of planks, and twice as much when processed into furniture. Timber profits...... are largely captured by people whose livelihoods do not directly depend on other EAM ecosystem services. Market data, such as declining plank sizes and shifts to low-quality timber species, contain possible early warning signals of unsustainable hardwood harvesting. Policy recommendations include simplifying...

  14. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  15. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Bislimovska

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers.

  16. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Likens, G. E.; Tartowski, S. L.; Berger, T. W.; Richey, D. G.; Driscoll, C. T.; Frank, H. G.; De Klein, A.

    1997-01-01

    Although trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of chlorofluorocarbon replacements, is being dispersed widely within the biosphere, its ecological fate is largely unknown. TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation a...

  17. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Tautenhahn, S.; Lichstein, J.; Jung, M.; Kattge, J.; Bohlman, S.; Heilmeier, H.; A. Prokushkin; Kahl, A.; Wirth, C.

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition towards reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms control...

  18. Canopy gap dynamics of second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Schuler, T.M.; Nowacki, G.J.; Beane, N.R.; Ford, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration requires an understanding of the natural disturbance regime of the target community and estimates of the historic range of variability of ecosystem components (composition, structure, and disturbance processes). Management prescriptions that support specific restoration activities should be consistent with these parameters. In this study, we describe gap-phase dynamics of even-aged, second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia that have been significantly degraded following early Twentieth Century harvesting and wildfire. In the current stage of stand development, gaps tended to be small, with mean canopy gap and extended canopy gap sizes of 53.4m2 and 199.3m2, respectively, and a canopy turnover rate of 1.4%year-1. The majority of gaps resulted from the death of one or two trees. American beech snags were the most frequent gap maker, partially due to the elevated presence of beech-bark disease in the study area. Gaps ranged in age from 1 to 28 years, had a mean of 13 years, and were unimodal in distribution. We projected red spruce to be the eventual gap filler in approximately 40% of the gaps. However, we estimated that most average-sized gaps will close within 15-20 years before red spruce canopy ascension is projected (30-60 years). Accordingly, many understory red spruce will require more than one overhead release - an observation verified by the tree-ring record and consistent with red spruce life history characteristics. Based on our observations, silvicultural prescriptions that include overhead release treatments such as thinning from above or small gap creation through selection harvesting could be an appropriate activity to foster red spruce restoration in the central Appalachians. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta

    2015-12-01

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  20. Chemicals from biomass - BioForest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiningen, A. van (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), e-mail: adriaan.vanheiningen@aalto.fi; Granstroem, T. (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept.of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology), e-mail: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the BioForest project is to develop the science and technology of a series of integrated processing steps which economically convert mixed hardwood and softwood biomass and recycled fibers into commodity chemicals at an existing forest products complex which also produces wood and/or pulp and paper. The commodity products will be produced from the biomass carbohydrates using a novel biomass fractionation process, a modified ABE (Acetone- Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation process, and a novel continuous solvent recovery method from the fermentation liquid. The mixture of solvents produced by the modified ABE process consists of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol. The key technological barriers which have been accomplished in the Bioforest project are following: 1. Fundamental understanding of the kinetics of delignification, hemicellulose dissolution and cellulose degradation during SEW fractionation of softwood and hardwood 2. Optimization of SEW fractionation of softwood biomass with a total treatment time as short as 30 minutes 3. Simultaneous SEW fractionation of hardwood and softwood biomass 4. Production of a high concentration (> 100 g/L) hemicellulose monosugar solution from SEW spent fractionation liquor at a sugar yield larger than 85% by multistep conditioning 5. Construction of E.coli strain harboring isopropanol dehydrogenase gene capable of acetone conversion to isopropanol 6. Successful fermentation of the conditioned hemicellulose monosugar solution to ABE (Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol) solvents using advanced column technology (patent pending) or semi-solid pulp fermentations with the volumetric productivities of 5.5 and 13.5 g/L h respectively. (orig.)

  1. Downstream effects of dams on channel geometry and bottomland vegetation: Regional patterns in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Scott, M.L.; Auble, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    The response of rivers and riparian forests to upstream dams shows a regional pattern related to physiographic and climatic factors that influence channel geometry. We carried out a spatial analysis of the response of channel geometry to 35 dams in the Great Plains and Central Lowlands, USA. The principal response of a braided channel to an upstream dam is channel-narrowing, and the principal response of a meandering channel is a reduction in channel migration rate. Prior to water management, braided channels were most common in the southwestern Plains where sand is abundant, whereas meandering channels were most common in the northern and eastern Plains. The dominant response to upstream dams has been channel-narrowing in the southwestern Plains (e.g., six of nine cases in the High Plains) and reduction in migration rate in the north and east (e.g., all of twelve cases in the Missouri Plateau and Western Lake Regions). Channel-narrowing is associated with a burst of establishment of native and exotic woody riparian pioneer species on the former channel bed. In contrast, reduction in channel migration rate is associated with a decrease in reproduction of woody riparian pioneers. Thus, riparian pioneer forests along large rivers in the southwestern Plains have temporarily increased following dam construction while such forests in the north and east have decreased. These patterns explain apparent contradictions in conclusions of studies that focused on single rivers or small regions and provide a framework for predicting effects of dams on large rivers in the Great Plains and elsewhere. These conclusions are valid only for large rivers. A spatial analysis of channel width along 286 streams ranging in mean annual discharge from 0.004 to 1370 cubic meters per second did not produce the same clear regional pattern, in part because the channel geometries of small and large streams are affected differently by a sandy watershed.

  2. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.

  3. Effects of tree species on soil properties in a forest of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in the distr

  4. Community organization of tree species along soil gradients in a north-eastern USA forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigalow, S.W.; Canham, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    1 A study was carried out in oak-northern hardwood forest in NW Connecticut USA involving measurements of growth, light and soil environment of saplings of six canopy trees that are strongly associated with particular soil types as adults. The objectives were to determine patterns of growth response

  5. Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project for the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Boatwright, N.I. III [Canal Environmental Services (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project was conducted as an initial step towards regenerating creek habitat on the Savannah River Site (SRS) that was damaged by past plant operating activities. Seed from various hardwood species was collected from the coastal plain of South Carolina (See Table 1). The contract required that seed collected from each tree be kept separate through processing and delivery. Height and dbh measurements and a photograph of each tree were also required. The contract procurement area was expanded eastward in an effort to alleviate problems associated with locating adequate seed sources in and around SRP.

  6. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  7. The input of gaseous and particulate sulfur to a forest ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    EATON, JOHN S.; Likens, Gene E.; Bormann, F.Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is the predominant anion in precipitation entering the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, a northern hardwood forest in north-central New Hampshire. Sulfur is also the dominant element in airborne particulate matter. Losses of sulfur from the ecosystem in stream water exceed inputs in precipitation plus that released from weathering. Using the ecosystem method, it is possible to estimate (by difference) that 6.1 kg/ha/yr of sulfur is obtained from dry deposition on the ecosystem. The ...

  8. Effects of tree species on soil properties in a forest of the northeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Dijkstra

    2001-01-01

    Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in the distribution and abundance of tree species alter the spatial and temporal pattern of soil acidity and Ca cycling in this forest. With continuing stress of acid atmospheric deposition, these alterations ...

  9. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  10. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  11. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  12. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  13. On the potential of Kriging for forest management planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, F.

    1996-12-31

    Forest management planning aims at fulfilling the overall goals for the forest owner. The economic optimal scheduling of treatments in spatially discrete forest stands, the time dimension, has been thoroughly investigated in research. The spatial dimension is less investigated. Normally, spatially discrete stands are defined as treatment units. These are inventoried using subjective methods with unknown precision. As an alternative to this conventional way to describe the forest, the present investigation used kriging for estimating forest characteristics spatially continuously using georeferenced sample plots. Using stratification by age, several variables interesting for forest management planning displayed spatial autocorrelation, even though the estate was thoroughly managed. No hardwood variables displayed the autocorrelation necessary for using kriging. 20 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Survival and growth of hardwoods in brown versus gray sandstone on a surface mine in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, P; Skousen, J; Ziemkiewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining in West Virginia removes the eastern deciduous forest and reclaiming the mined land to a productive forest must consider soil depth, soil physical and chemical properties, soil compaction, ground cover competition, and tree species selection. Our objective was to evaluate tree survival and growth in weathered brown sandstone and in unweathered gray sandstone. Brown and gray sandstone are often substituted when insufficient native topsoil is available for replacement. Three 2.8-ha plots were constructed with either 1.5 or 1.2 m of brown sandstone, or 1.5 m of gray sandstone at the surface. Half of each plot was compacted with a large dozer. Percent fines (sandstone and 34% in gray. Brown sandstone's pH was 5.1, while gray sandstone's pH was around 8.0. In March 2005, 2-yr-old seedlings of 11 hardwood species were planted. After 3 yr, tree survival was 86% on 1.5-m gray sandstone, 67% on 1.5-m brown sandstone, and 82% on 1.2-m brown sandstone. Survival was 78% on noncompacted and 79% on compacted areas. Average volume of all trees (height x diameter(2)) was significantly greater on brown sandstone (218 cm(3)) than gray sandstone (45 cm(3)) after 3 yr. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) had the highest survival (100%) and significantly greater volume (792 cm(3)) than all other tree species. Survival of the other 10 species varied between 65% for tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and 92% for redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), and volume varied between 36 cm(3) for white pine (Pinus strobes L.) and 175 cm(3) for tulip poplar. After 3 yr, brown sandstone appears to be a better topsoil material due to the much greater growth of trees, but tree growth over time as these topsoils weather will determine whether these trends continue.

  15. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  16. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  17. Environmental parameters regulating sulfur retention in a variety of forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field incubations utilizing 35S-labelled sulfate were conducted in a white pine and a hardwood forest. The A horizon soil formed approximately 3.0 nmol of organic S g-1 dry weight, which did not differ significantly from results obtained in similarly designed laboratory incubations. Total intrinsic S in this horizon contained substantial amounts of sulfonate S and ester sulfate, and organic 35S fractions in several linkage groups were found to predominate following field incubation. Capacities for sulfate adsorption, organic S formation and organic S mineralization were assayed for 01/02, A1, E2 and Bh horizons of a coastal pine forest. A1 horizon soil from various locations within New Mexico National Forests adsorbed 1.2 to 4.9 nmol g-1 of added sulfate and formed between 1.6 and 4.8 nmol g-1 of added sulfate and formed between 1.6 and 4.8 nmol g-1 of organic S during 48h. Methionine mineralization and the fate of both mineralization-derived and added sulfate were examined in hardwood forest soils which had been suction dried to contain between 2 and 80% moisture. Incubation of 35S-methionine with organic matter extracted from the 02 litter layer of a hardwood forest, resulted in the formation of 35S-methionine-labelled organic component

  18. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  19. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  20. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  1. Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lavoie; Mack, Michelle C; John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Analie Barnett; Louis Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sa...

  2. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo L. Ruiz; Ross, Michael S.; Danielle E. Ogurcak; Jay P. Sah

    2010-01-01

    In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks) occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as “old-growth,” while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree isla...

  3. Increasing resistance and resilience of Mediterranean conifer forests: the experience of Spain and France and their implications for management

    OpenAIRE

    Prévosto, B.; Reque, J.A.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Ladier, J.; Vilagrosa, A.

    2015-01-01

    Management strategies, using thinning combined or not combined with underplanting, have been tested in experimental forests of Spain and southern France to promote growth, recruitment and increase their resilience. In dry and fire-prone areas of southern Spain and France, Pinus halepensis forests were thinned at different levels and hardwood species were introduced under pine canopy and in opened areas. Thinning activities increased light, modified microclimate and soil moisture availabil...

  4. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  5. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douyong Min,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  6. Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; Jeuck, Ben; Du, Jing; Yong, Qiang; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Many biorefineries have not been commercialized due to poor economic returns from final products. In this work, a novel process has been developed to coproduce valuable sugars, xylo-oligosaccharides, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. The modified process includes a mild autohydrolysis pretreatment, which enables for the recovery of the xylo-oligosaccharides in auto-hydrolysate. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the residue is sulfomethylated to produce lignosulfonates. Recycling the sulfomethylation residues increased both the glucan recovery and lignosulfonate production. The glucose recovery was increased from 81.7% to 87.9%. Steady state simulation using 100g of hardwood produced 46.7g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 25.7g lignosulfonates, which were significantly higher than that produced from the no-recycling process with 39.1g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 15.0g lignosulfonates. The results indicate that this novel biorefinery process can improve the production of fermentable sugars and lignosulfonate from hardwood as compared to a conventional biorefinery process. PMID:27543951

  7. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  8. Functioning of South Moravian Floodplain Forests (Czech Republic in Forest Environment Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Klimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available South Moravian floodplain forests at the confluence of the Morava and Dyje Rivers, which are related to the floodplain forests of Austria and Slovakia to a considerable degree, have been strongly affected by changes in forest environment caused by natural and anthropogenic impacts. The dominant change factors encompassed changes in the 12–14th centuries resulting in the formation of a flooded alluvium and a significant transition of hardwood floodplain to softwood floodplain. Their further development was affected particularly by forestry activities, and they saw a gradual transformation into hardwood floodplain forests with dominant species of oak, ash, hornbeam, and others. The primary impact in the 20th century was stream regulation and the construction of three water reservoirs, which resulted predominantly in changes in the groundwater table. Response to these changes was registered particularly in the herb layer. The contemporary forest management adjusts to environmental changes and makes efforts to alleviate the negative impacts of previously implemented changes through restoration projects.

  9. Satellite inventory of Minnesota forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marvin E.; Burk, Thomas E.; Ek, Alan R.; Coppin, Pol R.; Lime, Stephen D.; Walsh, Terese A.; Walters, David K.; Befort, William; Heinzen, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The methods and results of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to classify and estimate the acreage of forest covertypes in northeastern Minnesota are described. Portions of six TM scenes covering five counties with a total area of 14,679 square miles were classified into six forest and five nonforest classes. The approach involved the integration of cluster sampling, image processing, and estimation. Using cluster sampling, 343 plots, each 88 acres in size, were photo interpreted and field mapped as a source of reference data for classifier training and calibration of the TM data classifications. Classification accuracies of up to 75 percent were achieved; most misclassification was between similar or related classes. An inverse method of calibration, based on the error rates obtained from the classifications of the cluster plots, was used to adjust the classification class proportions for classification errors. The resulting area estimates for total forest land in the five-county area were within 3 percent of the estimate made independently by the USDA Forest Service. Area estimates for conifer and hardwood forest types were within 0.8 and 6.0 percent respectively, of the Forest Service estimates. A trial of a second method of estimating the same classes as the Forest Service resulted in standard errors of 0.002 to 0.015. A study of the use of multidate TM data for change detection showed that forest canopy depletion, canopy increment, and no change could be identified with greater than 90 percent accuracy. The project results have been the basis for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Forest Service to define and begin to implement an annual system of forest inventory which utilizes Landsat TM data to detect changes in forest cover.

  10. PRESENCE OF HARDWOOD CHIPS AND ITS IMPACT ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hardwood admixture (15-25% birch or aspen in kraft cooking on the strength properties of the fully bleached pulp was investigated. Results obtained from both lab- and mill-processed ECF bleached pulps showed that adding 15-25% birch or aspen to the production of fully bleached softwood kraft pulp had a minor effect on the strength properties. No significant effect was observed for the hardwood admixture on the apparent density over a wide range of breaking length. Under the conditions studied, the results showed that pulping of mixed softwood/hardwood chips (chip blending resulted in overall better strength properties than the pulp blending at a given freeness. It was hypothesized that the softwood fibers would be cooked to a higher kappa number in the cooking of mixed softwood/hardwood chips for the same target kappa number, thus having higher fiber strength due to higher pulp viscosity and preservation of the hemicellulose. This was supported by the results from zero-span tensile strength of the long fiber fraction of the samples from chip blending and pulp blending. The implication is that some softwood kraft pulp mills can add up to 25% of hardwood chips to the kraft cooking of softwood chips without significantly affecting the overall pulp strength properties.

  11. Evaluation on Ability of Main Forest Types to Store Floodwater and Prevent Flood in Subtropic Zone of China%亚热带地区主要林分类型蓄、洪防洪能力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党坤良; 王经民

    2001-01-01

    Ability of main forest types for store floodwater and prevent flood in subtropic zone of China was analysec. The result showed that the ability of Cunningh amia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana forests was stronger than that evergr een hardwood, deciduous hardwood mix ed forest, bamboo and needle-hardwoed mixed forest while one time rainstorm, co n tinuous rainstorm and general rainstorm occurred in the yellow soil region. Howe ver, in the red soil region, the ability of evergreen hardwood, deciduous hardwo o d, mixed forest and needle hardwood mixed forest was stronger than that of C. lanceolata, P. massoniana and bamboo forests if continuous rainstorm and gerer al r ainstorm occurred, while the ability of evergreen hardwood, deciduous hardwood m ixed and bamboo forest was stronger than that of C. lanceolata, P. massoniana and needle-hardwood mixed forest when one time rainstorm appeared.%对我国亚热带黄壤、红壤地区不同林分的蓄洪和防洪能力进行了评价。得出在黄壤地区,杉木林和马尾松林抗一次性暴雨、连续暴雨和一般暴雨能力优于常绿阔叶林、常绿落叶阔叶林、毛竹林和针阔混交林;在红壤地区,在连续性暴雨和一般暴雨情况下,常绿阔叶林、常绿落叶阔叶林和针阔混交林 抗洪能力优于杉木林、马尾松林和毛竹林;在一次性暴雨情况下,常绿阔叶林、常绿落叶阔叶林和毛竹林抗洪 能力优于杉木林、马尾松林和针阔混交林。

  12. Carbon density and distribution of six Chinese temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, QuanZhi; Wang, ChuanKuan

    2010-07-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) storage and distribution is important for forest C cycling studies and terrestrial ecosystem modeling. Forest inventory and allometric approaches were used to measure C density and allocation in six representative temperate forests of similar stand age (42-59 years old) and growing under the same climate in northeastern China. The forests were an aspen-birch forest, a hardwood forest, a Korean pine plantation, a Dahurian larch plantation, a mixed deciduous forest, and a Mongolian oak forest. There were no significant differences in the C densities of ecosystem components (except for detritus) although the six forests had varying vegetation compositions and site conditions. However, the differences were significant when the C pools were normalized against stand basal area. The total ecosystem C density varied from 186.9 tC hm(-2) to 349.2 tC hm(-2) across the forests. The C densities of vegetation, detritus, and soil ranged from 86.3-122.7 tC hm(-2), 6.5-10.5 tC hm(-2), and 93.7-220.1 tC hm(-2), respectively, which accounted for 39.7% +/- 7.1% (mean +/- SD), 3.3% +/- 1.1%, and 57.0% +/- 7.9% of the total C densities, respectively. The overstory C pool accounted for > 99% of the total vegetation C pool. The foliage biomass, small root (diameter Mongolian oak forest, in which the small roots tended to be vertically distributed downwards. The C density of coarse woody debris was significantly less in the two plantations than in the four naturally regenerated forests. The variability of C allocation patterns in a specific forest is jointly influenced by vegetation type, management history, and local water and nutrient availability. The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests. PMID:20697872

  13. A Study of the Propagation of the Hardwood Cuttings of Some Rose Hips

    OpenAIRE

    ERCİŞLİ, Sezai; Güleryüz, Muharrem

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the rooting abilities of hardwood cuttings from ten rose-hip types collected in Gümüşhane in 1994-1995 were evaluated. The cuttings, taken in November, December and January, were planted in a perlit medium under a mist unit. In order to stimulate rooting, IBA doses of 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm were used. The results showed that type 29-To-16 of Rosa canina had the highest rooting rate (86.25%), while type 29-Ke-27 of Rosa foetida had the lowest (3.33%). According to the avera...

  14. Silviculture's Role in Managing Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa B. Jain

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forests, which are often undeveloped, are a major source of raw materials for many countries. They are circumpolar in extent and occupy a belt to a width of 1000 km in certain regions. Various conifer and hardwood species ranging from true firs to poplars grow in boreal forests. These species exhibit a wide range of shade tolerance and growth characteristics, and occupy different successional positions. The climate is subarctic, with short growing seasons, and the soils are shallow. Both wildfires and timber harvesting play an important role in shaping the structure and composition of boreal forests. Both uneven-aged and even-aged silvicultural systems can be used to produce commercial harvests, but systems can also be designed to meet a variety of other forest management objectives. Wildlife habitat maintenance, water production or conservation, and fire hazard reduction are only some of the objectives for which silvicultural systems can be designed. Coarse wood debris, snags, shrubs, canopy layers, and species composition are examples of forest attributes that can be managed using silvicultural systems. Systems can be designed to sustain predator habitat, yet provide a continual production of wood products. Uneven-aged systems tend to favor the regeneration and development of shade-tolerant species, whereas even-aged systems tend to favor shade-intolerant species. These systems and all of their permutations can create and maintain a suite of different stand compositions and structures that can be used to meet a wide variety of management objectives.

  15. MASS TRANSFER PROPERTIES (PERMEABILITY AND MASS DIFFUSIVITY OF FOUR AUSTRALIAN HARDWOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Redman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of mass transfer properties was achieved in the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions for four Australian hardwood species: spotted gum, blackbutt, jarrah, and messmate. Measurement of mass transfer properties for these species was necessary to complement current vacuum drying modeling research. Water-vapour diffusivity was determined in steady state using a specific vapometer. Permeability was determined using a specialized device developed to measure over a wide range of permeability values. Permeability values of some species and material directions were extremely low and undetectable by the mass flow meter device. Hence, a custom system based on volume evolution was conceived to determine very low, previously unpublished, wood permeability values. Mass diffusivity and permeability were lowest for spotted gum and highest for messmate. Except for messmate in the radial direction, the four species measured were less permeable in all directions than the lowest published figures, demonstrating the high impermeability of Australian hardwoods and partly accounting for their relatively slow drying rates. Permeability, water-vapour diffusivity, and associated anisotropic ratio data obtained for messmate were extreme or did not follow typical trends and is consequently the most difficult of the four woods to dry in terms of collapse and checking degradation.

  16. Analysis of integrated production of forest biomass and commercial timber. Information report No. LAU-X-112E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    This study proposes a method and some computer tools to carry out a coherent, systematic analysis of the financial attractiveness of integrating the production of forest biomass for energy with the production of traditional forest products. The authors applied the proposed general approach to hardwood and mixed stands in Common Area 1202 of the publicly-owned Quebec forest in the lower St Lawrence Valley. The study follows the steps of the ECO-4 modular forest management software that was completely revised to accept equations predicting forest biomass. This report presents the results of the computer simulations, indicating the feasibility of integrating biomass recovery into the harvesting of traditional forest products, and the factors affecting that feasibility. An appendix includes a document on the weaknesses that characterize the preparation of field decisions on forest management and the remedies that appear necessary.

  17. Mapping aboveground forest biomass combining dendrometric data and spectral signature of forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocat, H.; Tourneux, F.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measures and explicit spatial representations of forest biomass compose an important aspect to model the forest productivity and crops, and to implement sustainable forest management. Several methods have been developed to estimate and to map forest biomass, combining point-sources measurements of biophysical variables such as diameter-at-breast height (DBH), tree height, crown size, crown length, crown volume and remote sensing data (spectral vegetation index values). In this study, we propose a new method for aboveground biomass (AGB) mapping of forests and isolated trees. This method is tested on a 1100 km2 area located in the eastern France. In contrast to most of studies, our model is not calibrated using field plot measurements or point-source inventory data. The primary goal of this model is to propose an accessible and reproducible method for AGB mapping of temperate forests, by combining standard biomass values coming from bibliography and remotely sensed data. This method relies on three steps. (1) The first step consists of produce a map of wooded areas including small woods and isolated trees, and to identify the major forest stands. To do this, we use an unsupervised classification of a Landsat 7 ETM+ image. Results are compared and improved with various land cover data. (2) The second step consists of extract the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values of main forest stands. (3) Finally, these values are combined with standard AGB values provided by bibliography, to calibrate four AGB estimation models of different forest types (broadleaves, coniferous, coppices, and mixed stands). This method provides a map of aboveground biomass for forests and isolated trees with a 30 meters spatial resolution. Results demonstrate that 71 % of AGB values for hardwoods vary between 143 and 363 t.ha-1, i.e. × 1 standard deviation around the average. For coniferous stands, most of values of AGB range from 167 to 256 t.ha-1.

  18. Teale Hardwoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  19. Pervasive Local-Scale Tree-Soil Habitat Association in a Tropical Forest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allié, Elodie; Pélissier, Raphaël; Engel, Julien; Petronelli, Pascal; Freycon, Vincent; Deblauwe, Vincent; Soucémarianadin, Laure; Weigel, Jean; Baraloto, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We examined tree-soil habitat associations in lowland forest communities at Paracou, French Guiana. We analyzed a large dataset assembling six permanent plots totaling 37.5 ha, in which extensive LIDAR-derived topographical data and soil chemical and physical data have been integrated with precise botanical determinations. Map of relative elevation from the nearest stream summarized both soil fertility and hydromorphic characteristics, with seasonally inundated bottomlands having higher soil phosphate content and base saturation, and plateaus having higher soil carbon, nitrogen and aluminum contents. We employed a statistical test of correlations between tree species density and environmental maps, by generating Monte Carlo simulations of random raster images that preserve autocorrelation of the original maps. Nearly three fourths of the 94 taxa with at least one stem per ha showed a significant correlation between tree density and relative elevation, revealing contrasted species-habitat associations in term of abundance, with seasonally inundated bottomlands (24.5% of species) and well-drained plateaus (48.9% of species). We also observed species preferences for environments with or without steep slopes (13.8% and 10.6%, respectively). We observed that closely-related species were frequently associated with different soil habitats in this region (70% of the 14 genera with congeneric species that have a significant association test) suggesting species-habitat associations have arisen multiple times in this tree community. We also tested if species with similar habitat preferences shared functional strategies. We found that seasonally inundated forest specialists tended to have smaller stature (maximum diameter) than species found on plateaus. Our results underline the importance of tree-soil habitat associations in structuring diverse communities at fine spatial scales and suggest that additional studies are needed to disentangle community assembly mechanisms

  20. Fuelwood characteristics of certain hardwood and softwood tree species of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (IN))

    1992-01-01

    The acute shortage of fuelwood in rural India and greater emphasis on the development of the fuelwood needs of the people has necessitated the identification of tree species which can be utilized as fuelwood. Twenty-six perennial species growing in their natural habitat in Central India and 16 indigenous and exotic Pinus species from the Himalayan region at Kalika were collected for screening fuelwood properties; calorific value, density, ash, silica, moisture, nitrogen, volatile matter and Fuel Value Index. The results suggest that Woodfordia fruticosa, Gardenia turgida, Gardenia resinifera, Litsea sebifera, Acacia donaldi, Wrightia tinctoria, Alanagium savifolium, Sterblus asper, Mitragyna parvifolia and Lagerstroemia parviflora have good fuelwood properties among perennial hardwoods and Pinus oocarpa, Pinus patula, Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus ponderosa are desirable softwood species. (author).

  1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  2. Nuclear DNA amounts in 112 species of tropical hardwoods -- new estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, D; Bhargava, A; Chatterjee, A

    2004-09-01

    The 4C DNA values of 112 species, belonging to 37 families have a range from 0.83 pg (Bixa orellana) to 15.54 pg (Thryallis angustifolia), showing a 18.72-fold variation. The genome size varies from 0.21 pg (Bixa orellana) to 3.32 (Thespesia populnea), with a 15.8-fold difference. The Bombacaceae has the minimum range (1.08-fold) of variation, while the maximum (5.0-fold) is shown by the Fabaceae. The Boraginaceae, Lauraceae, Malpighiaceae, and Malvaceae generally have higher 4C DNA values of > 10 pg, while the Bixaceae, Caricaceae, Oxalidaceae, and Santalaceae have lower values of < 2.0 pg. These data add further to our knowledge on variation in DNA amount in tropical hardwoods. PMID:15375726

  3. Production of furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of hardwood over ZSM-5 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongling; Liu, Haitang; Pang, Bo; Yu, Guang; Du, Jian; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to produce furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production processing in a green method. The maximum furfural yield of 82.4% and the xylose conversion of 96.8% were achieved at 463K, 1.0g ZSM-5, 1.05g NaCl and organic solvent-to-aqueous phase ratio of 30:15 (V/V) for 3h. The furfural yield was just 51.5% when the same concentration of pure xylose solution was used. Under the optimized condition, furfural yield was still up to 67.1% even after the fifth reused of catalyst. Catalyst recycling study showed that ZSM-5 has a certain stability and can be efficiently reused.

  4. Weak Environmental Controls of Tropical Forest Canopy Height in the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youven Goulamoussène

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy height is a key variable in tropical forest functioning and for regional carbon inventories. We investigate the spatial structure of the canopy height of a tropical forest, its relationship with environmental physical covariates, and the implication for tropical forest height variation mapping. Making use of high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived Digital Canopy Model (DCM and environmental covariates from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM acquired over 30,000 ha of tropical forest in French Guiana, we first show that forest canopy height is spatially correlated up to 2500 m. Forest canopy height is significantly associated with environmental variables, but the degree of correlation varies strongly with pixel resolution. On the whole, bottomland forests generally have lower canopy heights than hillslope or hilltop forests. However, this global picture is very noisy at local scale likely because of the endogenous gap-phase forest dynamic processes. Forest canopy height has been predictively mapped across a pixel resolution going from 6 m to 384 m mimicking a low resolution case of 3 points·km − 2 . Results of canopy height mapping indicated that the error for spatial model with environment effects decrease from 8.7 m to 0.91 m, depending of the pixel resolution. Results suggest that, outside the calibration plots, the contribution of environment in shaping the global canopy height distribution is quite limited. This prevents accurate canopy height mapping based only on environmental information, and suggests that precise canopy height maps, for local management purposes, can only be obtained with direct LiDAR monitoring.

  5. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  6. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Brissey, Courtney L. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  7. [Composition and carbon storage of woody debris in moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its secondary forests in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Provinve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Pan; Liu, Wen-Yao; Yang, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Li, Da-Wen

    2007-10-01

    This paper studied the composition and carbon storage of woody debris in the primary moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its main secondary forests (regenerated Lithocarpus forest, Populus bonatii forest, and Alnus nepalensis forest) in Ailao Moutains of Yunnan Province. The results showed that in the primary forest, the carbon storage of woody debris amounted to 36.56 t x hm(-2). Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus xylocarpus and L. chintungensis were the main contributors, and most of them were the logs with larger diameter and at intermediate stage of decay. The unique environment of richer precipitation, higher humidity and lower temperature in the study area, and the decay-resistance of hardwood were favorable to the accumulation of woody debris. The three secondary forests had a carbon storage of 1.2-5.0 t x hm(-2), which decreased in the order of regenerated Lithocaropus forest > P. bonatii forest > A. nepalensis forest, showing a tendency of increasing carbon storage with succession course. PMID:18163291

  8. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... of three general characteristics of forests under existing decentralized management regimes. First, these forests already accumulate biomass and, in some cases, generate leakage, which threatens to undercut REDD+ additionality. Second, these forests are many and small, which will drive up REDD......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  9. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  10. 75 FR 1587 - Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls Hardwoods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an introduced insect that has the potential to devastate all native ash species similar to what occurred to...

  11. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-01-01

    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76. PMID:25305468

  12. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  13. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  14. Influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on forest vegetation of coastal Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Janet L; Gregory, Matthew J; Spies, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Information about how vegetation composition and structure vary quantitatively and spatially with physical environment, disturbance history, and land ownership is fundamental to regional conservation planning. However, current knowledge about patterns of vegetation variability across large regions that is spatially explicit (i.e., mapped) tends to be general and qualitative. We used spatial predictions from gradient models to examine the influence of environment, disturbance, and ownership on patterns of forest vegetation biodiversity across a large forested region, the 3-million-ha Oregon Coast Range (USA). Gradients in tree species composition were strongly associated with environment, especially climate, and insensitive to disturbance, probably because many dominant tree species are long-lived and persist throughout forest succession. In contrast, forest structure was strongly correlated with disturbance and only weakly with environmental gradients. Although forest structure differed among ownerships, differences were blurred by the presence of legacy trees that originated prior to current forest management regimes. Our multi-ownership perspective revealed biodiversity concerns and benefits not readily visible in single-ownership analyses, and all ownerships contributed to regional biodiversity values. Federal lands provided most of the late-successional and old-growth forest. State lands contained a range of forest ages and structures, including diverse young forest, abundant legacy dead wood, and much of the high-elevation true fir forest. Nonindustrial private lands provided diverse young forest and the greatest abundance of hardwood trees, including almost all of the foothill oak woodlands. Forest industry lands encompassed much early-successional forest, most of the mixed hardwood-conifer forest, and large amounts of legacy down wood. The detailed tree- and species-level data in the maps revealed regional trends that would be masked in traditional coarse

  15. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mekala Sundaram; Willoughby, Janna R; Nathanael I Lichti; Michael A Steele; Swihart, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or c...

  16. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  17. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  18. Selectivity Studies of Oxygen and Chlorine Dioxide in the Pre-Delignification Stages of a Hardwood Pulp Bleaching Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Barroca, Maria J. M. C.; Marques, Pedro J. T. S.; Seco, Isabel M.; Castro, José Almiro A. M.

    2001-01-01

    This work is concerned with the role of oxygen on the selectivity of chlorine dioxide in the pre-delignification stage of a E. globulus pulp bleaching plant. Its main purpose is to study the selectivity of chlorine dioxide when applied to an oxygen pre-delignified hardwood kraft pulp and to compare it to that of a conventional pre-delignification with chlorine dioxide (D). The intrinsic viscosity and kappa number were used to follow the polysaccharides degradation and the delignification rate...

  19. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz; Santamaría, C.; M. Albareda; Daza, A; Duan, J.; Glick, B.R.; Camacho, M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729), have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual culti...

  20. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  1. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  2. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pastor

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  3. Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors

  4. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  5. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J Kevin; O'Brien, Joseph J; Will, Rodney E; Mitchell, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1-10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by >95%, and inadequate fire frequencies threaten many of the remnants today. In the absence of frequent fire, rapid colonization of hardwoods and shrubs occurs, and a broad-leaved midstory develops. This midstory encroachment has been the focus of much research and management concern, largely based on the assumption that the midstory reduces understory plant diversity through direction competition via light interception. The general application of this mechanism of degradation is questionable, however, because midstory density, leaf area, and hardwood species composition vary substantially along a soil moisture gradient from mesic to extremely xeric sites. Reanalysis of recently reported data from xeric longleaf pine communities suggests that the development of the forest floor, a less conspicuous change in forest structure, might cause a decline in plant biodiversity when forests remain unburned. We report here a test of the interactions among fire, litter accumulation, forest floor development, and midstory canopy density on understory plant diversity. Structural equation modeling showed that within xeric sites, forest floor development was the primary factor explaining decreased biodiversity. The only effects of midstory development on biodiversity were those mediated through forest floor development. Boundary line analysis of functional guilds of understory plants showed sensitivity to even minor development of the forest floor in the absence of fire. These results challenge the prevailing management paradigm and suggest that within xeric longleaf pine communities, the primary focus of managed fire regime should be directed toward the

  6. [Soil nitrous oxide emission in four temperate forests in northeastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Chuan-Kuan; Fu, Min-Jie; Liu, Shi; Wang, Xing-Chang

    2009-05-01

    Seasonal dynamics of N2O flux and its controlling factors for four representative temperate forests in northeastern China were examined with a static closed chamber-gas chromatograph technique. These forests were Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) plantation, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) plantation, Mongolian oak ( Quercus mongolica) forest and hardwood broadleaved forest (dominated by Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense). The results showed that all ecosystems were overall atmospheric N2O source during the growing season. The N2O flux (microg x m(-2) x h(-1)) decreased in order of the hardwood broadleaved forest (21.0 +/- 4.9) > the pine plantation (17.6 +/- 4. 6) > the larch plantation (9.8 +/- 5.9) > the oak forest (1.6 +/- 12.6). Overall, there was no consistent seasonal pattern in N2O flux for the four ecosystems. The N2O flux was significantly positively correlated to soil gravimetric water content (0-10 cm depth) consistently for all ecosystems, but significantly negatively correlated to NO3(-)-N content for each ecosystem. However, the responses of N2O flux to soil temperature and NH4(+)-N differed among the ecosystems. The N2O fluxes for the coniferous plantations were positively correlated to NH4(+)-N, but not correlated to the soil temperature at 5 cm depth; while those for the broadleaved forests displayed an opposite trend. The soil water content was the dominator of soil N2O emission for the forests in 2007 perhaps resulting from relative drought in the year. Interactions of vegetation type, environmental factor, and nitrogen availability to soil N2O emission should be further studied in the future. PMID:19803152

  7. Influence of Forest-type and Organic Matter Maturity on Pb-speciation and Mobility in Forest Soils of the Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, A. W.; Bostick, B. C.; Kaste, J. M.; Friedland, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that forest-type plays an important role in the deposition and mobility of atmospherically derived anthropogenic lead within forest soils, but a specific forest-type effect remains elusive because of confounding and complimentary variables associated lead mobility within natural systems. Here we examine the amount and speciation of lead in forest floor (O) and mineral (A) horizons collected from soils under different forest-types (northern hardwood, Norway spruce, red pine, white pine) at sites where variables that could influence lead deposition or migration aside from overstory species are controlled (elevation, aspect, soil type, parent material composition). We find significant (pforest floors and surface mineral soils, where conifer forests had more lead in forest floors, while surface mineral soils under northern hardwood forests had higher amounts of lead than comparative conifer soils. These differences in Pb concentration and distribution reflect the increased interception of aerosol-derived Pb by conifers, and the quality of litter produced by each species (hardwood>conifer) that influences the organic matter's susceptibility to microbial attack and associated decomposition. To examine on a mechanistic scale the influence of decomposition on Pb mobility, we conducted long-term litter decay experiments with lead additions and examined lead speciation through a decomposition continuum using synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy, micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, and selective extractions. This experiment allows us to understand the dynamic nature of lead speciation as humification progresses and assess its influence on lead mobility over time. Lead is initially bound primarily to the surface of organic material, but as these molecules breakdown during decomposition, increasing fractions of anthropogenic lead are bound to colloidal mineral phases, primarily amorphous iron oxides. Such insoluble mineral phases

  8. ON THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CELLULOSE AND XYLAN, A BIOMIMETIC SIMULATION OF THE HARDWOOD CELL WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Dammström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant cell wall exhibits a hierarchical structure, in which the organization of the constituents on different levels strongly affects the mechanical properties and the performance of the material. In this work, the interactions between cellulose and xylan in a model system consisting of a bacterial cellulose/glucuronoxylan (extracted from aspen, Populus tremula have been studied and compared to that of a delignified aspen fiber material. The properties of the materials were analyzed using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA with moisture scans together with dynamic Infra Red -spectroscopy at dry and humid conditions. The results showed that strong interactions existed between the cellulose and the xylan in the aspen holocellulose. The same kinds of interactions were seen in a water-extracted bacterial cellulose/xylan composite, while unextracted material showed the presence of xylan not interacting with the cellulose. Based on these findings for the model system, it was suggested that there is in hardwood one fraction of xylan that is strongly associated with the cellulose, taking a similar role as glucomannan in softwood.

  9. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH4 and CO2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4mLCH4g(-1) dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39gcarbonstoredg(-1) dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. PMID:27016683

  10. Results of a community-university partnership to reduce deadly hazards in hardwood floor finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaroff, Lenore S; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Do, Tuan; Gore, Rebecca; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy

    2011-08-01

    A community-university partnership used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to design, implement, and evaluate a multi-cultural public health campaign to eliminate flammable products and reduce use of products high in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in hardwood floor finishing in Massachusetts. Leading participants were Vietnamese-American organizations and businesses. Following the public health campaign, a multi-lingual survey of self-reported experiences with fires, product use, exposure to outreach activities, and changes made, was conducted with floor finishers. One hundred nine floor finishers responded. Over 40% reported fires at their companies' jobs, mostly caused by lacquer sealers. Over one third had heard radio or TV shows about health and safety in floor finishing, and over half reported making changes as a result of outreach. Exposure to various outreach activities was associated with reducing use of flammable products, increasing use of low-VOC products, and greater knowledge about product flammability. However, most respondents still reported using flammable products. Outreach led by community partners reached large proportions of floor finishers, was associated with use of safer products, and adds to recent work on CBPR with immigrant workers. Continued use of flammable products supports the belief that an enforceable ban was ultimately necessary to eradicate them. PMID:21267640

  11. Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi-juan; GEJian-ping

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status were carried out in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing'an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind of forest were analyzed according to the survey results. The average depth of charcoal in the soil was related to the timing of the fire. According to the characteristic of fire-scarred trees, the dynamic map of the fire behavior was drawn onto the topographic map. It showed that the dimension and extent of the fire disturbance was closely related with site conditions. Fire disturbance only led to a significant difference in stand composition and diameter class structurefor the stands at different locations, rather than completely destroying the forest. After fire disturbance, the horizontal community structure was a mosaic of different patches, which were made up of different deciduous species or different sizes of Korean pines, and the succession trend of each patch was also different. In the sites with the heavy fire disturbance, the intolerant hardwood species were dominant, and there were a large number of regenerative Korean pine saplings under the canopy. In the moderate -disturbed sites, the tolerant hardwood species were dominant, and a small number of large size Korean pines still survived. In the light-disturbed sites, large size Korean pines were dominant.

  12. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-6038 (United States); Coleman, Mark D. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 241 Gateway Dr., Aiken, SC 29803 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. (author)

  13. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast.

  14. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S190A, S190B, and S192 photographs and imagery were studied, using standard air-photo interpretation techniques supplemented by color additive viewing and density slicing. The EREP data were found to have potential usefulness for natural resource inventory work, water quality monitoring, and land use mapping for specific problems at scales up to 1:30,000. Distinctions between forest types in North Carolina are limited to conifers, mixed conifer-hardwoods, and hardwoods. Geologic interpretation was limited to detection of lineaments; lithologic differentiation and soil group mapping have proved infeasible in North Carolina except for differentiation of wetland soils in the coastal plain. Imagery from the S192 multispectral scanner has proved to be capable of useful discriminations for vegetation and crop analysis.

  15. Changes in forest biomass carbon stock in Northern Turkey between 1973 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misir, Mehmet

    2013-10-01

    New forest management and planning approaches are designed to optimize forest structure. Optimal forest structure was determined using newly established growth models while considering primary timber production objectives as well as non-timber objectives for inaccessible areas and social and political pressures on land management. With currently planned management the forests of the Ormanüstü Planning Unit (OPU) in the Black Sea region of northern Turkey are likely to become an important C sink. To quantify this potential C sink and understand its implication to the regional carbon budget and future forest management, we estimated the changes in the OPU between 1973 and 2006. Based on four periods of data for the OPU forests obtained from the Forest Management and Planning Office of Turkey, we used allometric biomass and C regression equations along with biomass expansion factors to estimate the forest biomass carbon pool for each of four inventory years 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2006. Since 1973, OPU forests have accumulated 110.2 × 10(3) tons of C as a result of forest expansion and the growth of extant forests, increasing by 50.8 % from 217 × 10(3) tons in 1973 to 327.2 × 10(3) tons C in 2006. Hardwood and softwood forests accounted for 44 and 56 % of carbon accumulation during this period, respectively. From 1973 through 2006, forest C accumulated at a rate of 3.3 × 10(3) tons C year(-1). Carbon density of the OPU forests in the Black Sea region increased by 48.2 % from 5,679 to 8,419 tons/ha. PMID:23564412

  16. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated. PMID:26009473

  17. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  18. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous. PMID:19880302

  19. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  20. Elm Fork of the Trinity River Floodplain Management Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Greg; Clary, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    Wendy Lopez and Associates, Inc. (WLA) was asked to provide a conservation and ecological restoration overview for the City of Dallas as part of an Elm Fork Floodplain Management Study. This study encompasses a unique portion of the main stem of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Dallas County, Dallas, Texas. The project area includes approximately 8.5 square miles, half of which lie within a 100-year floodplain. Approximately 15% of the project area is mature bottomland hardwood forest and s...

  1. Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Forest Soils and Extracted Bacteria at Different pH Values

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, John A.; Ren, Tie; Knowles, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pH on atmospheric methane (CH4) consumption was studied with slurries of forest soils and with bacteria extracted from the same soils. Soil samples were collected from a mixed hardwood stand in New Hampshire, from jackpine and aspen stands at the BOREAS (Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study) site near Thompson, northern Manitoba, from sites in southern Québec, including a beech stand and a meadow, and from a site in Ontario (cultivated humisol). Consumption of atmospheric CH4 (conc...

  2. Late-Quaternary Dynamics of Temperate Forests: Applications of Paleoecology to Issues of Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.

    Paleoecological evidence recently summarized from 162 fossil-pollen sites in eastern North America provides new insights concerning the nature and rate of response of temperate forest ecosystems to late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental changes. Across this subcontinental region (25°N to 60°N; 50°W to 100°W), temperate forests have changed in composition, location and area occupied in adjustment to major episodes of climatic cooling and warming during glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary. Forest taxa have migrated differentially, reflecting their individualistic life-history characteristics, dispersal and competitive abilities, and tolerance thresholds to environmental changes, as well as the geographic distribution of corridors and barriers to plant migration. Gradient analysis and ecological ordination of paleovegetational data illustrate that: (1) both positions and breadth of major vegetational ecotones have shifted latitudinally over the past 20 ka; (2) good modern analogues exist for certain full-glacial warm-temperate and boreal forests; (3) during the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene conditions, mixed conifer-northern hardwoods forests, spreading across newly deglaciated terrain, lacked good analogues within the modern vegetation; and (4) most cool-temperate deciduous forest communities north of 35°N developed in the Holocene. Forest clearance and cultivation by Native Americans along principal riverways resulted in a transformation from natural to cultural landscapes during the mid- and late Holocene intervals. Fragmentation of temperate forests accelerated with the onset of EuroAmerican settlement and technologic developments after the Industrial Revolution.

  3. Optimal regeneration planning for old-growth forest: addressing scientific uncertainty in endangered species recovery through adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic and structural uncertainties about forest dynamics present challenges in the management of ephemeral habitat conditions for endangered forest species. Maintaining critical foraging and breeding habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) requires an uninterrupted supply of old-growth forest. We constructed and optimized a dynamic forest growth model for the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (Georgia, USA) with the objective of perpetuating a maximum stream of old-growth forest habitat. Our model accommodates stochastic disturbances and hardwood succession rates, and uncertainty about model structure. We produced a regeneration policy that was indexed by current forest state and by current weight of evidence among alternative model forms. We used adaptive stochastic dynamic programming, which anticipates that model probabilities, as well as forest states, may change through time, with consequent evolution of the optimal decision for any given forest state. In light of considerable uncertainty about forest dynamics, we analyzed a set of competing models incorporating extreme, but plausible, parameter values. Under any of these models, forest silviculture practices currently recommended for the creation of woodpecker habitat are suboptimal. We endorse fully adaptive approaches to the management of endangered species habitats in which predictive modeling, monitoring, and assessment are tightly linked.

  4. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  5. Spatial patterns of forest characteristics in the western United States derived from inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A; Jenkins, Jennifer C; Ojima, Dennis S; Ducey, Mark

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of forcing mechanisms that drive dynamics, including climate change, land-use/land-cover change, atmospheric pollution, and disturbance. To understand the impacts of these stressors, it is crucial to develop assessments of forest properties to establish baselines, determine the extent of changes, and provide information to ecosystem modeling activities. Here we report on spatial patterns of characteristics of forest ecosystems in the western United States, including area, stand age, forest type, and carbon stocks, and comparisons of these patterns with those from satellite imagery and simulation models. The USDA Forest Service collected ground-based measurements of tree and plot information in recent decades as part of nationwide forest inventories. Using these measurements together with a methodology for estimating carbon stocks for each tree measured, we mapped county-level patterns across the western United States. Because forest ecosystem properties are often significantly different between hardwood and softwood species, we describe patterns of each. The stand age distribution peaked at 60-100 years across the region, with hardwoods typically younger than softwoods. Forest carbon density was highest along the coast region of northern California, Oregon, and Washington and lowest in the arid regions of the Southwest and along the edge of the Great Plains. These results quantify the spatial variability of forest characteristics important for understanding large-scale ecosystem processes and their controlling mechanisms. To illustrate other uses of the inventory-derived forest characteristics, we compared them against examples of independently derived estimates. Forest cover compared well with satellite-derived values when only productive stands were included in the inventory estimates. Forest types derived from satellite observations were similar to our inventory results, though the

  6. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks) occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as old-growth, while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open under stories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open under story.

  7. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Ross

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as “old-growth,” while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open understories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open understory.

  8. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ADSORBED BIRCH XYLAN AND ITS EFFECT ON PAPER PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejung Youn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of xylan on pulp fibers improves the strength properties of paper. However, the optical properties are decreased significantly. The objective of our research was to bleach hardwood kraft pulp with adsorbed birch xylan by hydrogen peroxide and study the effect of bleaching parameters on paper properties. The bleaching parameters studied included bleaching temperature, time, initial pH as well as MgSO4 dosage. The optical properties (whiteness, brightness, opacity and physical properties (tensile index, tearing index, bulk of handsheets made from the pulp bleached with different process variables were measured. The results showed that better optical properties were obtained with higher bleaching temperature, longer bleaching time, and more MgSO4 dosage. Bleaching from an initial pH of 11 provided the highest brightness value. On the other hand, strength properties were improved with decreasing of the bleaching temperature, and increasing the initial pH and MgSO4 dosage. The relationship between strength properties and bleaching time varied depending on bleaching temperature. According to the results, both good mechanical properties and optical properties could be achieved when the operating parameters were controlled properly. Therefore hydrogen peroxide bleaching was proved to be a suitable method for bleaching hardwood kraft pulp with adsorption of birch xylan.

  9. Propagation of Some Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Hardwood Cuttings under the Field Conditions in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljane, Fateh; Nahdi, Sabrine

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in Southeast of Tunisia in 2009 and 2010, in order to study the propagation of six (Ficus carica L.) cultivars by using hardwood cuttings under the field conditions. The effect of the cultivars and the type of buds, shoots age, shoots length, and shoots diameter were recorded. Ten cuttings per cultivar and/or cutting types with three replications were planted in rooting unit. Percentage of root emergence and six morphological parameters of young fig plants were measured. Results showed that the responses of cuttings as fig nursery plants presented a high variability among the five cultivars. The most widely varied characters were % root emergence (RE) and cumulative growth of young plant (CG). The first one ranged from 10% to 90%, the second varied within 32 and 112 cm. Concerning the ''BITHER" cultivar, 6 cutting types with different age, length, and diameter were evaluated. Results showed a great variation in % of root emergence (0-90%), length of nursery plant (3-77 cm), and number of roots/nursery plant (0-29 roots). The present research showed that the hardwood cutting of local fig cultivars can be propagated under field conditions in Southeast of Tunisia.

  10. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  11. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  13. Information Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.

  14. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change...

  15. Alteration of forest succession and carbon cycling under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam D; Dietze, Michael C; DeLucia, Evan H; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2016-01-01

    Regenerating forests influence the global carbon (C) cycle, and understanding how climate change will affect patterns of regeneration and C storage is necessary to predict the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) increase in future decades. While experimental elevation of CO2 has revealed that young forests respond with increased productivity, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how the long-term dynamics of forest regrowth are shaped by elevated CO2 (eCO2 ). Here, we use the mechanistic size- and age- structured Ecosystem Demography model to investigate the effects of CO2 enrichment on forest regeneration, using data from the Duke Forest Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment, a forest chronosequence, and an eddy-covariance tower for model parameterization and evaluation. We find that the dynamics of forest regeneration are accelerated, and stands consistently hit a variety of developmental benchmarks earlier under eCO2 . Because responses to eCO2 varied by plant functional type, successional pathways, and mature forest composition differed under eCO2 , with mid- and late-successional hardwood functional types experiencing greater increases in biomass compared to early-successional functional types and the pine canopy. Over the simulation period, eCO2 led to an increase in total ecosystem C storage of 9.7 Mg C ha(-1) . Model predictions of mature forest biomass and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and H2 O were sensitive to assumptions about nitrogen limitation; both the magnitude and persistence of the ecosystem response to eCO2 were reduced under N limitation. In summary, our simulations demonstrate that eCO2 can result in a general acceleration of forest regeneration while altering the course of successional change and having a lasting impact on forest ecosystems.

  16. Contaminant survey of Cache River National Wildlife Refuge including Radcliffe Farms, Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has identified the bottomland hardwoods of the Lower Mississippi River Delta as one of the highest Service priorities for...

  17. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  18. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability (e.

  19. Development of economic and environmental metrics for forest-based biomass harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. L.; Wang, J. J.; Liu, S. H.; Zhang, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of the economic, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission dimensions of forest-based biomass harvest stage in the state of Michigan, U.S. through gathering data from literature, database, and other relevant sources, was performed. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems (cut-to-length harvesting, whole tree harvesting, and motor-manual harvesting), harvest types (30%, 70%, and 100% cut) and forest types (hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations) that characterize Michigan's logging industry. Machine rate methods were employed to determine unit harvesting cost. A life cycle inventory was applied to calculating energy demand and GHG emissions of different harvesting scenarios, considering energy and material inputs (diesel, machinery, etc.) and outputs (emissions) for each process (cutting, forwarding/skidding, etc.). A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operation in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations.

  20. Chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass treated using high-temperature saturated steam: comparison of softwood and hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Hirano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of high-temperature saturated steam treatments on the chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of softwood and hardwood. The weight loss and chemical modification of cedar and beech wood pieces treated at 25, 35, and 45 atm for 5 min were determined. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that solubilization and removal of hemicellulose and lignin occurred by the steam treatment. The milling treatment of steam-treated wood enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Maximum enzymatic saccharification (i.e., 94% saccharification rate of cellulose) was obtained using steam-treated beech at 35 atm for 5 min followed by milling treatment for 1 min. However, the necessity of the milling treatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification is dependent on the wood species.

  1. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2) ≥ 0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract.

  2. Home Range and Habitat Use of Male Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Menzel, J.M.; Ford, W.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Carter, T.C.; Churchill, J.B.; Kilgo, J.C.

    2000-03-13

    We examined home range size and habitat use of four reproductively active male Rafinesque Big-eared bats in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September of 1999. Most foraging activity occurred during the first 4 hours after sunset and the first two hours before sunrise. Mean home range size was 93.1 hectares. Most foraging activity occurred in young pines even though large tracks of bottomland hardwood were available. Only 9% of foraging occurred in bottomland hardwoods.

  3. Science-based Forest Management in an Era of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Brandt, L.; Butler, P.; Handler, S.; Shannon, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the need to provide climate adaptation information, training, and tools to forest managers, the Forest Service joined with partners in 2009 to launch a comprehensive effort called the Climate Change Response Framework (www.forestadaptation.org). The Framework provides a structured approach to help managers integrate climate considerations into forest management plans and then implement adaptation actions on the ground. A planning tool, the Adaptation Workbook, is used in conjunction with vulnerability assessments and a diverse "menu" of adaptation approaches to generate site-specific adaptation actions that meet explicit management objectives. Additionally, a training course, designed around the Adaptation Workbook, leads management organizations through this process of designing on-the-ground adaptation tactics for their management projects. The Framework is now being actively pursued in 20 states in the Northwoods, Central Hardwoods, Central Appalachians, Mid-Atlantic, and New England. The Framework community includes over 100 science and management groups, dozens of whom have worked together to complete six ecoregional vulnerability assessments covering nearly 135 million acres. More than 75 forest and urban forest adaptation strategies and approaches were synthesized from peer-reviewed and gray literature, expert solicitation, and on-the-ground adaptation projects. These are being linked through the Adaptation Workbook process to on-the-ground adaptation tactics being planned and employed in more than 50 adaptation "demonstrations". This presentation will touch on the scientific and professional basis of the vulnerability assessments, and showcase efforts where adaptation actions are currently being implemented in forests.

  4. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin M; Sullivan, Timothy J; Lawrence, Gregory B

    2016-09-15

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification - and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits - have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production - although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred - may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern hardwood

  5. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  6. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  7. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  8. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.;

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  9. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  10. Forest productivity and commercial value of pre-law reclaimed mined land in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigue, J.A.; Burger, J.A.; Oderwald, R.G.

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of mining practices used prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) on forest productivity and commercial value of reclaimed forest sites. Forest productivity and value of 14 mined and 8 nonmined sites throughout the eastern and midwestern coalfield regions were compared. Forest productivity of pre-SMCRA mined sites was equal to or greater than that of nonmined forests, ranging between 3.3 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1} and 12.1 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1}. Management activities such as planting pine and valuable hardwood species increased the stumpage value of forests on reclaimed mine sites. Rotation-age stumpage values on mined study sites ranged between 3,064 ha{sup -1} US dollars and 19,528 ha{sup -1} US dollars and were commonly greater than stumpage values on nonmined reference sites. Current law requires that mined land be restored to capability levels found prior to mining. These results should provide a benchmark for reforestation success, potential forest productivity, and timber value for current reclamation activities.

  11. Importance of Forest Composition on Mercury Deposition through Litterfall and Accumulation in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillerat, J. I.; Ross, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Upland forests receive greater atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) than non-forested areas. In addition to wet deposition of Hg, forests are subjected to Hg deposition in throughfall and litterfall: dry deposition to leaves may be subsequently leached in throughfall; elemental Hg may enter leaves and be later deposited in the leaf litter (litterfall). This research evaluated the importance of forest type on the Total Hg (THg) flux in litterfall and on THg accumulation in organic soil horizons. Eighteen research sites were sampled throughout Vermont, USA. Mercury concentration was measured in senescing leaves of dominant tree species (16 species in total) in three forest types (low-elevation coniferous, mixed, and deciduous/Northern Hardwood forest). Leaf traps were used to measure the litterfall flux. Upper soil horizons were sampled and analyzed for mercury and carbon. Mercury concentration in senescing leaves varied significantly between tree species. Some hardwood species had higher THg concentration in leaves than coniferous species. Striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum) had significantly higher THg concentration than any other species. Total Hg concentration was negatively correlated with leaf height on the tree. Leaf surface-to-weight ratio was positively correlated with THg. The calculated THg flux in litterfall varied from 12 to 28 ug/m2/yr; there was no significant difference between forest types. Results showed an unexpectedly high THg concentration in understory trees. The assumption that needles have greater THg concentration than leaves needs to be revisited; forest structure needs to be taken into account. Total Hg concentration and THg to carbon ratio were consistent within soil horizons but differed among horizons. Similar to other studies, THg concentration was lower in the Oi horizon (litter layer) and peaked in the Oe horizon (fermentation layer) before declining in the humified Oa and/or A horizons. Mineral soil (A horizons) tended to have

  12. Carbon density and distribution of six Chinese temperate forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon(C) storage and distribution is important for forest C cycling studies and terrestrial ecosystem modeling.Forest inventory and allometric approaches were used to measure C density and allocation in six representative temperate forests of similar stand age(42-59 years old) and growing under the same climate in northeastern China.The forests were an aspen-birch forest,a hardwood forest,a Korean pine plantation,a Dahurian larch plantation,a mixed deciduous forest,and a Mongolian oak forest.There were no significant differences in the C densities of ecosystem components(except for detritus) although the six forests had varying vegetation compositions and site conditions.However,the differences were significant when the C pools were normalized against stand basal area.The total ecosystem C density varied from 186.9 tC hm-2 to 349.2 tC hm-2 across the forests.The C densities of vegetation,detritus,and soil ranged from 86.3-122.7 tC hm-2,6.5-10.5 tC hm-2,and 93.7-220.1 tC hm-2,respectively,which accounted for 39.7% ± 7.1%(mean ± SD),3.3% ± 1.1%,and 57.0% ± 7.9% of the total C densities,respectively.The overstory C pool accounted for > 99% of the total vegetation C pool.The foliage biomass,small root(diameter < 5mm) biomass,root-shoot ratio,and small root to foliage biomass ratio varied from 2.08-4.72 tC hm-2,0.95-3.24 tC hm-2,22.0%-28.3%,and 34.5%-122.2%,respectively.The Korean pine plantation had the lowest foliage production efficiency(total biomass/foliage biomass:22.6 g g-1) among the six forests,while the Dahurian larch plantation had the highest small root production efficiency(total biomass/small root biomass:124.7 g g-1).The small root C density decreased with soil depth for all forests except for the Mongolian oak forest,in which the small roots tended to be vertically distributed downwards.The C density of coarse woody debris was significantly less in the two plantations than in the four naturally regenerated forests.The variability

  13. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    L P RAMOS DE; S. T. Carpes; F. T. Silva; J. L. M. Ganter

    2000-01-01

    Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v) as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga). This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses) recovered as water-solu...

  14. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  15. Forest Opening in Multipurpose Private Forest - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Boštjan; Potočnik, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, forest opening with forest roads was planned on the basis of forest wood production. By discovering the importance of other forest roles, gradual integration of individual role into planning processes of forest opening started. The modern approach to the planning of forest opening of multipurpose forests requires a simultaneous consideration of all forest roles. Economic justification for enlarging the existing forest road network is based on the density of forest roads, where th...

  16. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  17. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  18. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  19. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  20. Harvesting Carbon from Eastern US Forests: Opportunities and Impacts of an Expanding Bioenergy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern forests of the US are valued both as a carbon sink and a wood resource. The amount of biomass that can be harvested sustainably from this biome for bioenergy without compromising the carbon sink is uncertain. Using past literature and previously validated models, we assessed four scenarios of biomass harvest in the eastern US: partial harvests of mixed hardwood forests, pine plantation management, short-rotation woody cropping systems, and forest residue removal. We also estimated the amount and location of abandoned agricultural lands in the eastern US that could be used for biomass production. Greater carbon storage was estimated to result from partial harvests and residue removals than from plantation management and short-rotation cropping. If woody feedstocks were cultivated with a combination of intensive management on abandoned lands and partial harvests of standing forest, we estimate that roughly 176 Tg biomass y−1 (~330,000 GWh or ~16 billion gallons of ethanol could be produced sustainably from the temperate forest biome of the eastern US. This biomass could offset up to ~63 Tg C y−1 that are emitted from fossil fuels used for heat and power generation while maintaining a terrestrial C sink of ~8 Tg C y−1.

  1. A bird community on the edge: habitat use of forest songbirds In eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Vincent S.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of forest songbirds reach a western limit of their respective distributions in eastern Oklahoma. The relative infl uence of various habitat variables on patterns of occurrence in this region may differ from those same infl uences in the core of species’ ranges. We examined the infl uence of 16 habitat variables on the occurrence and density of a suite of forest songbirds. We sampled breeding birds with four, fi xed-radius point counts along 1-km transects at 75 forested sites in eastern Oklahoma in 2006. Forest cover at fi ne scales varied by numerous structural characteristics (e.g., canopy cover) as well as species composition (e.g., pines vs. hardwoods). We performed both Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) ordinations using 16 environmental variables and 37 bird species to examine bird habitat relationships. Forward Selection in CCA indicated that the most important environmental variables affecting bird habitat relationships were the amount of forest cover in the surrounding landscape matrix, and at a local scale, canopy height and elevation.

  2. Raccoon spatial requirements and multi-scale habitat selection within an intensively managed central Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    We studied a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population within a managed central Appalachian hardwood forest in West Virginia to investigate the effects of intensive forest management on raccoon spatial requirements and habitat selection. Raccoon home-range (95% utilization distribution) and core-area (50% utilization distribution) size differed between sexes with males maintaining larger (2×) home ranges and core areas than females. Home-range and core-area size did not differ between seasons for either sex. We used compositional analysis to quantify raccoon selection of six different habitat types at multiple spatial scales. Raccoons selected riparian corridors (riparian management zones [RMZ]) and intact forests (> 70 y old) at the core-area spatial scale. RMZs likely were used by raccoons because they provided abundant denning resources (i.e., large-diameter trees) as well as access to water. Habitat composition associated with raccoon foraging locations indicated selection for intact forests, riparian areas, and regenerating harvest (stands managed forests in the central Appalachians.

  3. Consequences of climate change for biogeochemical cycling in forests of northeastern North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the effects of climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of elements in forest ecosystems. The effects of climatic change on plant physiology, forest productivity and soil physical, chemical, and biological processes were evaluated. A case study used the quantitative biogeochemical PneT-BGC model to evaluate assumptions about the impacts of climatic change on a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. The study demonstrated an increase in net primary production as a result of a longer growing season, increases in nitrate leaching caused by increases in net mineralization and nitrification, and declines in mineral weathering as a result of soil moisture reductions. Changes in species composition, hydrology, and the length of the growing season will have have an impact on biogeochemical cycling. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of multiple simultaneous stressors; long-term carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on vegetation; and changes in forest species composition. It was concluded that the impacts of extreme climatic events and other disturbances on forest ecosystems must also be evaluated. 174 refs., 2 figs

  4. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. PMID:27035476

  5. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of an Endogenous Root-promoting Factor Obtained from Basal Sections of Pear Hardwood Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, M S; Hartmann, H T

    1967-04-01

    Basal segments taken from Old Home and Bartlett pear hardwood cuttings collected at intervals during the rooting period in September were extracted with ethanol and fractionated by paper chromatography in different solvent systems. Different zones on the chromatograms were bioassayed by the mung bean rooting test, which showed high levels of promotion in Old Home basal extracts when the cuttings were obtained during the period of maximum rooting. Extracts from Bartlett cuttings, however, showed considerably less promotion activity in the bioassay but did show high levels of inhibitory activity.After the easily-rooted Old Home cuttings had been in the rooting medium for 10 days, a highly active endogenous root-promoting material was found in extracts from basal segments of cuttings having buds and which had been treated with indolebutyric acid. Similar extracts obtained from disbudded cuttings, or from cuttings with buds but not treated with indolebutyric acid, lacked this rooting-factor. Extracts obtained from all types of the difficult-to-root Bartlett cuttings also lacked this rooting-factor. The latter is believed to be produced by physiologically active Old Home buds, and is very effective in the mung bean bioassay, even at extremely low concentrations.From paper chromatographic studies, tests with spray reagents, solubility determinations, biological tests, UV spectrum analysis, and infrared spectroscopy, it is believed that this rooting factor could be a condensation product between exogenous auxin (indolebutyric acid) and a phenolic compound produced by physiologically active Old Home pear buds. PMID:16656535

  6. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  7. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  8. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  9. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  10. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  11. Artificial cavities enhance breeding bird densities in managed cottonwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paucity of natural cavities within short-rotation hardwood agroforests restricts occupancy by cavity-nesting birds. However, providing 1.6 artificial nesting cavities (nest boxes)/ha within 3- to 10-year-old managed cottonwood forests in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley increased territory density of cavity-nesting birds. Differences in territory densities between forests with and without nest boxes increased as stands aged. Seven bird species initiated 38 nests in 173 boxes during 1997 and 39 nests in 172 boxes during 1998. Prothonotary warblers (Protonotaria citrea) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) accounted for 67% of nests; nearly all warbler nests were in 1.8-L, plastic-coated cardboard (paper) boxes, whereas bluebird nests were divided between paper boxes and 3.5-L wooden boxes. Larger-volume (16.5-L) wooden nest boxes were used by eastern screech owls (Otus asio) and great crested flycatchers (Myiarchus crinitus), but this box type often was usurped by honey bees (Apis mellifera). To enhance territory densities of cavity-nesting birds in cottonwood agroforests, we recommend placement of plastic-coated paper nest boxes, at a density of 0.5/ha, after trees are >4 years old but at least 2 years before anticipated timber harvest.

  12. Long-term nitrogen dynamics of Coweeta Forested Watersheds in the southeastern United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Wayne T.; Vose, James M.

    1997-12-01

    We analyzed long-term (23 years) data of inorganic N deposition and loss for an extensive network of mature mixed hardwood covered watersheds in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina to assess trends and dynamics of N in baseline ecosystems. We also assessed watershed N saturation in the context of altered N cycles and stream inorganic N responses associated with management practices (cutting prescriptions, species replacement, and prescribed burning) and with natural disturbances (drought and wet years, insect infestations, hurricane damage, and ozone events) on reference watersheds. Reference watersheds were characterized as highly conservative of inorganic N with deposition forest maturation. Levels and annual patterns of stream NO3- concentrations and intra-annual seasonal patterns characteristic of latter phases of stages 1 and 2 of watershed N saturation were found for low-elevation and high-elevation clear-cut watersheds, respectively, and were related to the dynamics of microbial transformations of N and vegetation uptake. Evidence for stage 3 of N saturation, where the watershed is a net source of N rather than an N sink, was found for the most distributed watershed at Coweeta (hardwood converted to grass, fertilized, limed, treated with herbicide, and subsequently characterized by successional vegetation). Compared to other intensive management practices, prescribed burning had little effect on stream water NO3- concentrations, and stream NO3- losses associated with natural disturbances are small and short-lived.

  13. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination

  14. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-06-27

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination.

  15. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Olsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  16. Identifying Minimum Detectable Change in US Forest Soil Carbon under the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) Sampling Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A. M.; Nater, E. A.; Perry, C. H.; Dalzell, B. J.; Wilson, B.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of carbon stocks and stock changes in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program are reported as the official United States submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Soil, as a critical component of the forest carbon stocks, has been sampled in about 10-year intervals in FIA with the re-measurement underway. However, the magnitude of detectable change in soil organic carbon (SOC) with the current sampling scheme is unknown. We aim to identify SOC variability and to best determine minimum detectable changes in SOC under the current sampling scheme. The project seeks to: identify statistical relationships between SOC and environmental covariates; normalize SOC data for main forest-type groups (FTGs) using identified covariates; and determine the minimum detectable change in the normalized SOC using power analysis. We investigated SOC variability for 8 FTGs: Oak-Hickory, Maple-Beech-Birch, Pinyon-Juniper, Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine, Aspen-Birch, Douglas-Fir, Fir-Spruce-Mountain Hemlock and Woodland Hardwoods. Relationships between SOC and environmental covariates (biomass/soil properties in FIA, PRISM climate data, and DEM-derived terrain attributes) are determined by multiple linear regression and are used to normalize SOC variability. The results showed that terrain attributes were not significant in explaining SOC in the FIA dataset and climate data were only significant in certain FTGs locations. Except for Oak-Hickory, Maple-Beech-Birch and Pinyon-Juniper groups, sample numbers are insufficient to detect a change in SOC less than 10 percent (%) of the mean. To guide future sampling efforts, we will continue our study on detecting minimal change in SOC and to explore sample number and sampling frequency scenarios to inform future soil sampling protocols.

  17. Tree-Roost Characteristics of Subadult and Female Adult Bats (Nyctieius humeralis) in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.

    2000-02-07

    Tree-roost of evening bats were identified by radio tracking of 14 individuals at the SRS. Bats roosted in longleaf pine cavities under exfoliating bark in snags near beaver ponds. The roosting occurred in open park like stands. No evening bats roosted in the more dense bottomland hardwood stands or mixed pine hardwood stands. None were observed in loblolly stands.

  18. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  19. Root tip morphology, anatomy, chemistry and potential hydraulic conductivity vary with soil depth in three temperate hardwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan; Gu, Jiacun

    2016-01-01

    Root traits in morphology, chemistry and anatomy are important to root physiological functions, but the differences between shallow and deep roots have rarely been studied in woody plants. Here, we selected three temperate hardwood species, Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr. and Phellodendron amurense Rupr., in plantations in northeastern China and measured morphological, anatomical and chemical traits of root tips (i.e., the first-order roots) at surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soil layers. The objectives of this study were to identify how those traits changed with soil depth and to reveal potential functional differences. The results showed that root diameters in deep root tips were greater in J. mandshurica and F. mandschurica, but smaller in P. amurense. However, root stele diameter and the ratio of stele to root diameter in the subsurface layer were consistently greater in all three species, which may enhance their abilities to penetrate into soil. All deep roots exhibited lower tissue nitrogen concentration and respiration rate, which were possibly caused by lower nutrient availability in the subsurface soil layer. Significant differences between shallow and deep roots were observed in xylem structure, with deep roots having thicker stele, wider maximum conduit and greater number of conduits per stele. Compared with shallow roots, the theoretical hydraulic conductivities in deep roots were enhanced by 133% (J. mandshurica), 78% (F. mandschurica) and 217% (P. amurense), respectively, indicating higher efficiency of transportation. Our results suggest that trees' root tip anatomical structure and physiological activity vary substantially with soil environment.

  20. The likely impact of climate change on the biodiversity of Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on literature results and our expert evaluation, we report some likely impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of forest communities in Italy by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region and on the Apennines: at low altitudes, vulnerability of Pinus sp. and Quercus ilex forests, with loss of intraspecific genetic variability; transition from Mediterranean closed-canopy macchia to scattered shrublands; risk of local extinction for coastal populations of mesic/relic hardwood species (e.g., Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Zelkova sicula, Fraxinus sp.; ’eastern’ relic species like Quercus troiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus aegilops, and Q. gussonei in Sicily, and the peripheral low-altitude Fagus sylvatica populations, will be highly vulnerable; in the mid-altitude forest, vulnerability of most demanding species like Quercus cerris and Castanea sativa, possible immigration of Mediterranean species like Quercus ilex; in the montane forest, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba will be less competitive with respect to more continental and drought-resistant tree species, and could loose genetic variability; relic species like Taxus baccata and Betula aetnensis may be at risk. In the alpine region: upward movement of timberline and changes in timberline communities, for instance Picea abies may be more competitive over Larix decidua, and fragmented species like Pinus cembra might become vulnerable. In general, we recognize the difficulty in separating the effects of climatic variables from those of other processes, like fires and land-use change.

  1. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest...

  2. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  3. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  4. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  5. Montane forest ecotones moved downslope in northeastern USA in spite of warming between 1984 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R; D'Amato, Anthony W

    2015-12-01

    Ecotones are transition zones that form, in forests, where distinct forest types meet across a climatic gradient. In mountains, ecotones are compressed and act as potential harbingers of species shifts that accompany climate change. As the climate warms in New England, USA, high-elevation boreal forests are expected to recede upslope, with northern hardwood species moving up behind. Yet recent empirical studies present conflicting findings on this dynamic, reporting both rapid upward ecotonal shifts and concurrent increases in boreal species within the region. These discrepancies may result from the limited spatial extent of observations. We developed a method to model and map the montane forest ecotone using Landsat imagery to observe change at scales not possible for plot-based studies, covering mountain peaks over 39 000 km(2) . Our results show that ecotones shifted downward or stayed stable on most mountains between 1991 and 2010, but also shifted upward in some cases (13-15% slopes). On average, upper ecotone boundaries moved down -1.5 m yr(-1) in the Green Mountains, VT, and -1.3 m yr(-1) in the White Mountains, NH. These changes agree with remeasured forest inventory data from Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, and suggest that processes of boreal forest recovery from prior red spruce decline, or human land use and disturbance, may swamp out any signal of climate-mediated migration in this ecosystem. This approach represents a powerful framework for evaluating similar ecotonal dynamics in other mountainous regions of the globe. PMID:26238565

  6. Controls and forecasts of nitrate yields in forested watersheds: A view over mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, F A L; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V

    2015-12-15

    A study on nitrate yields was conducted in forested watersheds of mainland Portugal. The prime goal was to rank parameters in descending order of their contribution to the export of nitrate towards streams and lakes. To attain the goal, variables like soil loss, rainfall intensity, topography, soil type, forest composition and environmental disturbances such as hardwood harvesting or wildfires were organized in a conceptual yield model. Because some parameters were potentially collinear, a robust multivariate statistical technique was selected to execute the conceptual model and perform the aforementioned ranking, namely Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. This technique was tested with a sample of 60 forested watersheds (>70% of forest occupation), being subject to a double-validation process to ensure prediction capability. According to final regression coefficients, soil erosion seems to regulate nitrate distribution across the basins, because soil loss and type, rainfall intensity and topography explained around 60% of nitrate yield variance. The major importance of erosion is followed by a moderate role of biochemical processes such as nitrification or nutrient uptake, which accounted for approximately 15% of nitrate yield variance. In this case, deciduous forests and scrubland seem to behave as net sinks of nitrate while coniferous and mixed forests seem to act dually, as net sources or sinks. The least important parameters are the environmental disturbances, explaining no more than 5% of nitrate yield variance. The results of PLS regression were coupled in a scenario analysis with measures designed to protect soil from erosion and surface water from eutrophication. These interventions are to be implemented until 2045, according to regional plans of forest management. Considering the key role of erosion in explaining nitrate dynamics across the catchments, it was not surprising to verify that soil protection measures may reduce nitrate yields by some 35

  7. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  8. Uncertainty in forest simulators and forest planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    MÀkinen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The forest simulator is a computerized model for predicting forest growth and future development as well as effects of forest harvests and treatments. The forest planning system is a decision support tool, usually including a forest simulator and an optimisation model, for finding the optimal forest management actions. The information produced by forest simulators and forest planning systems is used for various analytical purposes and in support of decision making. However, the quality a...

  9. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  10. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  11. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  12. Preliminary studies of bobcat activity patterns. [In mountainous forests of eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Home range and activity patterns were determined for two radio-collared bobcats, one male and one female, in an eastern Tennessee hardwood forest. Home range of the male was calculated to be approximately 3076 ha while the female utilized 1416 ha. Both bobcats' ranges were larger than previously reported values for the southeast. Measurements of both average net distance traveled per day showed the male moved a statistically significant greater distance than the female. The larger home ranges may be primarily the result of relatively low prey populations in the mountainous terrain of East Tennessee as compared to upper coastal plains areas where most of the previous research on southeastern bobcats has been carried out.

  13. Selective logging and damage to unharvested trees in a hyrcanian forest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Keivan Behjou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective logging in mature hardwood stands of Caspian forests often causes physical damage to residual trees through felling and skidding operations, resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study evaluated the logging damage to residual trees following logging operations. A total density of 5.1 trees/ha and 17.3 m3/ha of wood were harvested. On average, 9.8 trees were damaged for every tree extracted, including 8 trees destroyed or severely damaged. The most common types of damage included uprooted stems, stem wounds to the cambial layer, and bark scrapes. Damage to trees sustained along skid trails was found to be significantly more than the damage that incurred within logging gaps and winching areas. The results of this study suggest that logging practices also need to be accompanied by close supervision of field personnel and post-logging site inspections to be implemented properly.

  14. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10-12 to 10-6 Ci/g of 90Sr or 137Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of 90Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed

  15. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  16. Scaling gross ecosystem production at Harvard Forest with remote sensing: a comparison of estimates from a constrained quantum-use efficiency model and eddy correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two independent methods of estimating gross ecosystem production (GEP) were compared over a period of 2 years at monthly integrals for a mixed forest of conifers and deciduous hardwoods at Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts. Continuous eddy flux measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) provided one estimate of GEP by taking day to night temperature differences into account to estimate autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. GEP was also estimated with a quantum efficiency model based on measurements of maximum quantum efficiency (Qmax), seasonal variation in canopy phenology and chlorophyll content, incident PAR, and the constraints of freezing temperatures and vapour pressure deficits on stomatal conductance. Quantum efficiency model estimates of GEP and those derived from eddy flux measurements compared well at monthly integrals over two consecutive years (R2 = 0–98). Remotely sensed data were acquired seasonally with an ultralight aircraft to provide a means of scaling the leaf area and leaf pigmentation changes that affected the light absorption of photosynthetically active radiation to larger areas. A linear correlation between chlorophyll concentrations in the upper canopy leaves of four hardwood species and their quantum efficiencies (R2 = 0–99) suggested that seasonal changes in quantum efficiency for the entire canopy can be quantified with remotely sensed indices of chlorophyll. Analysis of video data collected from the ultralight aircraft indicated that the fraction of conifer cover varied from < 7% near the instrument tower to about 25% for a larger sized area. At 25% conifer cover, the quantum efficiency model predicted an increase in the estimate of annual GEP of < 5% because unfavourable environmental conditions limited conifer photosynthesis in much of the non-growing season when hardwoods lacked leaves

  17. Vital forest graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the global trends in forest cover. It looks specifically at the four largest forest ecosystems and analyzes the trends and challenges in their conservation and management. It examines some of the key drivers behind forest loss, including the increasing demand for commodities and energy. Finally, it reviews some of the best practices for sustainable management of forest, including regulatory regimes, participatory management and economic incentives.--Pu...

  18. Biochar and Forest Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is a common component temperate forest soils. It results from wildfire events that frequently disturb the structure and function of vegetation and soils. Recent interest in applying biochar (artificially produced charcoal) to forest ecosystems raises both opportunities and concerns. The greatest opportunity for biochar application to forest soils is through the utilization of continuously produced and overabundant forest biomass for the production of bioenergy. Biochar is a co...

  19. Forest edge development

    OpenAIRE

    Wiström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates design guidelines and management systems for the development of stationary forest edges with a graded profile in infrastructure and urban environments. The spatial restriction for the edge to move forward caused by human land use counteracts the natural dynamics and development patterns of graded forest edges. However graded forest edges with successively increasing height from the periphery to the interior of the forest edge are often seen as ideal as they supports ...

  20. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material and Met...

  1. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  2. Continuous and event-based time series analysis of observed floodplain groundwater flow under contrasting land-use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-10-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve quantitative understanding of land-use impacts on floodplain groundwater flow regimes. A study was implemented in Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA, including equidistant grids of nine piezometers, equipped with pressure transducers, which were installed at two floodplain study sites: a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historical agricultural field (Ag). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 water years (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2014). Results show significant (pwater use by woody vegetation and preferential subsurface flow at the BHF site. Collectively, results suggest greater flood attenuation capacity and streamwater buffering potential by the BHF floodplain, relative to the Ag, and highlight the value of floodplain forests as a land and water resource management tool. PMID:27232970

  3. Continuous and event-based time series analysis of observed floodplain groundwater flow under contrasting land-use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-10-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve quantitative understanding of land-use impacts on floodplain groundwater flow regimes. A study was implemented in Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA, including equidistant grids of nine piezometers, equipped with pressure transducers, which were installed at two floodplain study sites: a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historical agricultural field (Ag). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 water years (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2014). Results show significant (pflood attenuation capacity and streamwater buffering potential by the BHF floodplain, relative to the Ag, and highlight the value of floodplain forests as a land and water resource management tool.

  4. P Limitation and Microbial Biogeochemistry in Acidic Forest Soils of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Burke, D. J.; Elliot, H. L.; Kluber, L. A.; Carrino-Kyker, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    In forest ecosystems with acidic soils, such as many hardwood forests of the Northeastern United States, net primary productivity should be limited by phosphorus (P) because P is biologically less available at pH temperate forests that have naturally acidic soil or are exposed to chronic acid deposition; such findings are contrary to biogeochemical expectations. We hypothesize that many eastern forests possess an underlying P limitation not realized at the ecosystem level. Instead, shifts in the composition, structure and function of soil microbial communities compensate by acquiring more P from organic sources and P limitation is therefore not manifested at the aboveground (plant) level. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated soil pH and P availability in 72 20 x 40 m mature hardwood forest plots across northeastern (glaciated) and southeastern (unglaciated) Ohio beginning in late summer 2009. Ten months after treatment initiation, soil pH has increased from 4.5 to 5.5 and soil P has increased from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg soil on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg soil on unglaciated soils. To quantify treatment responses, we measured the activity of soil extracellular enzymes associated with liberation of P, N, and C from organic matter, as well as pools of N and N cycling processes. We saw no significant effects of our treatments on pools of available ammonium or nitrate, nor did we see effects on net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. However, glaciated soils had significantly greater nitrate pools and higher N cycling rates than older unglaciated soils. Nitrogen and C cycling enzymes in treatment plots were not significantly different than control plots, but N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (N acquisition) was significantly greater in the unglaciated soils and β-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities (C cycling) were greatest in the glaciated soils. In only the unglaciated soils was the activity of P acquisition enzymes (phosphomonoesterase

  5. Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Orwig

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50–100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD, including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%–70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3–4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate

  6. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  7. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.;

    2014-01-01

    valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using......Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...

  8. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic......The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed......, in addition to economic, ecological and social functions, and lead towards a sustainable relationship between forests and society....

  9. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  10. The empty forest revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  11. Combined Use of Airborne Lidar and DBInSAR Data to Estimate LAI in Temperate Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross F. Nelson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether leaf area index (LAI in temperate mixed forests is best estimated using multiple-return airborne laser scanning (lidar data or dual-band, single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (from GeoSAR alone, or both in combination. In situ measurements of LAI were made using the LiCor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer on 61 plots (21 hardwood, 36 pine, 4 mixed pine hardwood; stand age ranging from 12-164 years; mean height ranging from 0.4 to 41.2 m in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Virginia, USA. Lidar distributional metrics were calculated for all returns and for ten one meter deep crown density slices (a new metric, five above and five below the mode of the vegetation returns for each plot. GeoSAR metrics were calculated from the X-band backscatter coefficients (four looks as well as both X- and P-band interferometric heights and magnitudes for each plot. Lidar metrics alone explained 69% of the variability in LAI, while GeoSAR metrics alone explained 52%. However, combining the lidar and GeoSAR metrics increased the R2 to 0.77 with a CV-RMSE of 0.42. This study indicates the clear potential for X-band backscatter and interferometric height (both now available from spaceborne sensors, when combined with small-footprint lidar data, to improve LAI estimation in temperate mixed forests.

  12. Natural Forest Landscape Pattern Characteristics of Tengchong County%腾冲县天然林景观格局特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒相才; 王天灿; 黄维金; 龚成朝

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey of forest resources planning and design , use ArcMap 10, Fragstats 4.1, DPS 14.1, Excelland other software , select commonly used landscape indices , landscape pattern features of natural forest was analyzed , the results showed that:①Landscape pattern characteristics of natural for-est in Tengchong County was more complicated with high heterogeneity , complex shape , high degree of aggregation , a more balanced distribution of plaque;②Area ratio of each forest type was in descending order of oak forest>Other broadleaf forest>Yunnan pine>conifer>Alnus forest>hardwood forest>Bamboo>fir forest>soft broadleaf forest >Huashan pine>hemlock , forest area of oak forest and other broad-leaved accounted for 61.51%, was the main component of natural landscapes;forest area of Yun-nan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus accounted for 32.04%, was an important part of natural landscape;forest area of hardwood forest , bamboo forest, fir forest, softwood forest, Huashan pine, hemlock accoun-ted for only 6.45%, the area was mall , but played a special role in the natural landscape;③Factor a-nalysis results showed that comprehensive evaluation from the aspects of stability , complexity , high heter-ogeneity , low fragmentation , strong anti-interference ability and others , scores from high to low followed by oak forest >broadleaf forest >Yunnan pine >hardwood forest >mixed conifer >Alnus forest >Bamboo>fir forest>hemlock>Huashan pine>softwood forest;④Cluster analysis results showed that the natural forests could be divided into four categories , the first category was oak forest and other broad-leaved forest with a low degree of fragmentation , complex shape , high heterogeneity , strong anti-interfer-ence ability;the second category was Yunnan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus forest with high heterogene-ous, broken and complex shape , high anti-interference ability; the third category is hardwood forest , bamboo , hemlock and fir forests with the average

  13. Forest Resources of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Renee A; Pope, Reese

    1997-01-01

    This summary of the forest resources of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest is based on a comprehensive inventory of all forested lands in Utah. The inventory was conducted in 1995 by the Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, as part of its National Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties.

  14. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....

  15. The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2013-09-01

    Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

  16. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  17. Bistability of mangrove forests and competition with freshwater plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Fuller, Douglas O; Teh, Su Yean; Zhai, Lu; Koh, Hock Lye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Sternberg, L.D.S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytic communities such as mangrove forests and buttonwood hammocks tend to border freshwater plant communities as sharp ecotones. Most studies attribute this purely to underlying physical templates, such as groundwater salinity gradients caused by tidal flux and topography. However, a few recent studies hypothesize that self-reinforcing feedback between vegetation and vadose zone salinity are also involved and create a bistable situation in which either halophytic dominated habitat or freshwater plant communities may dominate as alternative stable states. Here, we revisit the bistability hypothesis and demonstrate the mechanisms that result in bistability. We demonstrate with remote sensing imagery the sharp boundaries between freshwater hardwood hammock communities in southern Florida and halophytic communities such as buttonwood hammocks and mangroves. We further document from the literature how transpiration of mangroves and freshwater plants respond differently to vadose zone salinity, thus altering the salinity through feedback. Using mathematical models, we show how the self-reinforcing feedback, together with physical template, controls the ecotones between halophytic and freshwater communities. Regions of bistability along environmental gradients of salinity have the potential for large-scale vegetation shifts following pulse disturbances such as hurricane tidal surges in Florida, or tsunamis in other regions. The size of the region of bistability can be large for low-lying coastal habitat due to the saline water table, which extends inland due to salinity intrusion. We suggest coupling ecological and hydrologic processes as a framework for future studies.

  18. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation......, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)...

  19. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  20. Communicating forest sector sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...

  1. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1

  2. US Forest Service Original Proclaimed National Forests and National Grasslands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  3. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  4. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  5. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania......Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non...

  6. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  7. Effects of Cutting Intensity on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in a Mixed Natural Forest in Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinnian Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook., Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb., and hardwood forest is a major forest type in China and of national and international importance in terms of its provision of both timber and ecosystem services. However, over-harvesting has threatened its long-term productivity and sustainability. We examined the impacts of timber harvesting intensity on soil physical and chemical properties 10 and 15 years after cutting using the research plots established with a randomized block design. We considered five treatments, including clear cutting and low (13.0% removal of growing stock volume, medium (29.1%, high (45.8%, and extra-high (67.1 intensities of selective cutting with non-cutting as the control. The impact on overall soil properties derived from principal component analysis showed increasing with a rise in cutting intensity, and the most critical impact was on soil nutrients, P and K in particular. Soil nutrient loss associated with timber harvesting even at a low cutting intensity could lead to nutrient deficits in this forest although most of the soil physical properties could be recovered under the low and medium intensities of cutting. These results indicate that clear cutting and the selective cutting of extra-high and high intensities should be avoided in this type of forest in the region.

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  10. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of calcium depletion in a northern forest during the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Bérangère A; Likens, Gene E; Johnson, Chris E; Craine, Joseph M; Lacroix, Brice; McLauchlan, Kendra K

    2016-06-21

    The pace and degree of nutrient limitation are among the most critical uncertainties in predicting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. In the northeastern United States, forest growth has recently declined along with decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability, suggesting that acid rain has depleted soil Ca to the point where it may be a limiting nutrient. However, it is unknown whether the past 60 y of changes in Ca availability are strictly anthropogenic or partly a natural consequence of long-term ecosystem development. Here, we report a high-resolution millennial-scale record of Ca and 16 other elements from the sediments of Mirror Lake, a 15-ha lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire surrounded by northern hardwood forest. We found that sedimentary Ca concentrations had been declining steadily for 900 y before regional Euro-American settlement. This Ca decline was not a result of serial episodic disturbances but instead the gradual weathering of soils and soil Ca availability. As Ca availability was declining, nitrogen availability concurrently was increasing. These data indicate that nutrient availability on base-poor, parent materials is sensitive to acidifying processes on millennial timescales. Forest harvesting and acid rain in the postsettlement period mobilized significant amounts of Ca from watershed soils, but these effects were exacerbated by the long-term pattern. Shifting nutrient limitation can potentially occur within 10,000 y of ecosystem development, which alters our assessments of the speed and trajectory of nutrient limitation in forests, and could require reformulation of global models of forest productivity. PMID:27298361

  11. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of calcium depletion in a northern forest during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Bérangère A.; Likens, Gene E.; Craine, Joseph M.; Lacroix, Brice; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    The pace and degree of nutrient limitation are among the most critical uncertainties in predicting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. In the northeastern United States, forest growth has recently declined along with decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability, suggesting that acid rain has depleted soil Ca to the point where it may be a limiting nutrient. However, it is unknown whether the past 60 y of changes in Ca availability are strictly anthropogenic or partly a natural consequence of long-term ecosystem development. Here, we report a high-resolution millennial-scale record of Ca and 16 other elements from the sediments of Mirror Lake, a 15-ha lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire surrounded by northern hardwood forest. We found that sedimentary Ca concentrations had been declining steadily for 900 y before regional Euro-American settlement. This Ca decline was not a result of serial episodic disturbances but instead the gradual weathering of soils and soil Ca availability. As Ca availability was declining, nitrogen availability concurrently was increasing. These data indicate that nutrient availability on base-poor, parent materials is sensitive to acidifying processes on millennial timescales. Forest harvesting and acid rain in the postsettlement period mobilized significant amounts of Ca from watershed soils, but these effects were exacerbated by the long-term pattern. Shifting nutrient limitation can potentially occur within 10,000 y of ecosystem development, which alters our assessments of the speed and trajectory of nutrient limitation in forests, and could require reformulation of global models of forest productivity. PMID:27298361

  12. The Influence of forest certification on forest product trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Forest certification is considered to be complementary to forest management policies and takes a significant effect on forest product trade. In recent decade, it has been followed with interest and approved by governments and for estry departments in the world. This paper analyzes the influence of forest cert ification on forest product trade in the world, including the interest in certif ication in exporting countries and importing countries, trade flow and business competition, and the demands for Certified Forest Products (CFPs) and also discu sses the influence of forest certification on forest product trade in China.

  13. Forest report 2014; Waldzustandsbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This forest report of Hesse (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, and water quality of forest streams.

  14. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi TAJBAKHSH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  15. 宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺调查%A Study on Inlay and Lacquer Decoration Technique of Bone and Hardwood in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    长北

    2014-01-01

    According to the ifeld investigation in the workshop in Ningbo, the author systematical y introduces the history and technique of bone-hardwood inlay, which is national non-material cultural heritage. Also, the essay analyzes its value by comparison with similar exquisite technique in Southeast, even East Asia and South Asia.%作者通过对宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺作坊的实地调查,系统介绍了作为国家级非物质文化遗产的宁波骨木镶嵌历史与工艺,并与东南亚乃至东亚、南亚同类工艺比照分析其价值。

  16. A remotely-sensed disturbance history and decrease in basal area of coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurcak, D. E.; Ross, M. S.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change and ensuing sea level rise are predicted to have serious impacts on the severity of disturbance from tropical storms experienced by coastal forest communities worldwide, resulting in changes in terrestrial carbon dynamics. In the lower Florida Keys, with elevations averaging 1 meter and where an increase in sea level rise of 23 cm has been documented over the past century (Key West, NOAA 2001), these impacts are already evident. While freshwater requiring coastal forests of the Florida Keys, specifically hardwood hammock and pine rockland communities, have co-existed with hurricanes and fires over the past several thousand years, recent decades have seen the extent of these forests seriously diminished. Using an approach that combines remote sensing techniques and ground-based measurements of tree basal area, this study quantifies changes to coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys over the last three decades (1983-2012) in reference to known disturbances and looks at recovery from Hurricane Wilma (2005), which flooded the islands with up to 8 feet of salt water. Yearly vegetation indices were derived from a 30-year catalog of Landsat TM 4-5 satellite imagery, with cloud-free images available for most years. Images were acquired mostly in the months of January through March (mid-dry season). Whenever possible, cloud-free images acquired in other months were used to track how indices changed seasonally. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) was used to document changes in vegetation drought stress and TM band 5 was used to approximate changes in tree basal area. Areas of hardwood hammock and pine rockland occurring on eight islands were extracted for the analysis from a landcover map digitized from a combination of elevation, canopy height, and high resolution aerial imagery. Additionally, seven 60 m by 10 m permanent plots, established and first sampled in 1990 on 2 of the islands, were resampled for tree basal area and shrub

  17. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  18. Forests Hold the Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Mr. Allen Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of Sino-Forest Corp. of Canada A lien Tak Yuen Chan,Managing Director and CEO of the Sino-Forest Corp.,is an acclaimed academic and a columnist.

  19. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazo

  20. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah;

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted to i...

  1. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  2. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...... fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...

  3. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities...... to the total income accounting of the poor and the non-poor were estimated. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second important livelihood activity to both poor and non-poor households next to crop production - contributing about 22.46 and 24.14 percent to the poor and non...

  4. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  5. Forest soil nutrient status after 10 years of experimental acidification and base cation depletion : results from 2 long-term soil productivity sites in the central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.B. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Tech University, Blacks Burg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that soil based cation depletion is an effect of acidic deposition in forests located in the central Appalachians. The effects of experimentally induced base cation depletion were evaluated in relation to long-term soil productivity and the sustainability of forest stands. Whole-tree harvesting was conducted along with the removal of dead wood litter in order to remove all aboveground nutrients. Ammonium sulfate fertilizer was added at annual rates of 40.6 kg S/ha and 35.4 kg N/h in order to increase the leaching of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) from the soil. A randomized complete block design was used in 4 or 5 treatment applications in a mixed hardwood experimental forest located in West Virginia and in a cherry-maple forest located in a national forest in West Virginia. Soils were sampled over a 10-year period. The study showed that significant changes in soil Mg, N and some other nutrients occurred over time. However, biomass did not differ significantly among the different treatment options used.

  6. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  7. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  8. Shorebird Use of Coastal Wetland and Barrier Island Habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Withers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf Coast contains some of the most important shorebird habitats in North America. This area encompasses a diverse mixture of estuarine and barrier island habitats with varying amounts of freshwater swamps and marshes, bottomland hardwood forests, and coastal prairie that has been largely altered for rice and crawfish production, temporary ponds, and river floodplain habitat. For the purposes of this review, discussion is confined to general patterns of shorebird abundance, distribution, and macro- and microhabitat use in natural coastal, estuarine, and barrier island habitats on the Gulf of Mexico Coast. The following geographic regions are considered: Northwestern Gulf (Rio Grande to Louisiana-Mississippi border, Northeastern Gulf (Mississippi to Florida Keys, and Mexico (Rio Grande to Cabo Catoche [Yucatan Strait].

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures

  10. Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    surface area (presumably due to the crystalline iron oxides) in the heavily invaded soils. Water chemistry of lysimeter samples show a similar trend: the heavily invaded soils show a lower solute concentration of Ca but higher concentrations of Fe. These data indicate that exotic earthworms, while significantly affecting chemical weathering processes in the soils, are seriously altering (1) the budgets of inorganic nutrient in these hardwood forests and (2) the minerals' potential capacity to complex carbon on their surface area. Our ongoing work includes the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating which may complement the 137-Cs and 210-Pb data in constraining soil mixing. Additionally, we will incorporate leaf litter chemistry and continue water and earthworm sampling to understand the degree that exotic earthworms contribute to chemical weathering in the Great Lakes hardwood ecosystems.

  11. Selecting Focal Songbird Species for Biodiversity Conservation Assessment: Response to Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Rempel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of biodiversity is now a firmly entrenched objective of sustainable forest management, and emulating natural disturbance has been widely adopted as a conservation strategy. Yet the foundation for this approach is still very much a hypothesis based on first principles, and there has been little rigorous testing of the approach. In addition, practical constraints mean that the full range and character of natural patterns can never be implemented, so decisions must still be made in setting forest management targets and levels. An alternative, but complementary approach is to select a focal group of species and use their habitat requirements to define the range of conditions that should be maintained on the landscape. In this study, I used a balanced factorial sample design to test the effect of landscape vs. local scale factors for explaining relative abundance of 30 forest songbird species in boreal Ontario, and then examined components of variance, and used multivariate analysis and logistic regression to describe these relationships in more detail. Based on statistically defendable inferences and habitat model coefficients, 13 species were selected, with habitat associations ranging from high to low edge density, homogeneous to heterogeneous forest matrix, hardwood to softwood dominated overstory, young to old stands, and open to closed canopy. I found that variations in amount and configuration of mature forest cover had relatively little influence on the overall boreal forest songbird community, but that individual species differ in their response to these variables. To be successful, biodiversity conservation strategies must emulate the patterns created through natural disturbance by maintaining the full range of forest cover homogeneity and heterogeneity on the landscape. The habitat requirements for Alder Flycatcher, Black-and-white Warbler, Bay-breasted Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Brown Creeper, Common Yellowthroat

  12. Saving the Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Under a trial program, some forestry workers can acquire the operating rights to the forest in which they work Jiang Yongbin, 34, an employee of the Wumahe Forestry Administration of Yichun City, Heilongjiang Province, became famous overnight when he paid 62,901 yuan to buy 9.3 hectares of state-owned forest on April 29, making him the first person to participate in the country's forest tenure reform. Authorized by the State Council. China's cabinet, the State Forestry Administration approved a

  13. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only

  14. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January.... Correction In the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-02091, on page 6806, in the...

  15. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  16. Surficial gains and subsoil losses of soil carbon and nitrogen during secondary forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Megan L; Lajtha, Kate; Kramer, Marc G; Bacon, Allan R; Heine, Paul R; Richter, Daniel Deb

    2015-02-01

    Reforestation of formerly cultivated land is widely understood to accumulate above- and belowground detrital organic matter pools, including soil organic matter. However, during 40 years of study of reforestation in the subtropical southeastern USA, repeated observations of above- and belowground carbon documented that significant gains in soil organic matter (SOM) in surface soils (0-7.5 cm) were offset by significant SOM losses in subsoils (35-60 cm). Here, we extended the observation period in this long-term experiment by an additional decade, and used soil fractionation and stable isotopes and radioisotopes to explore changes in soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen that accompanied nearly 50 years of loblolly pine secondary forest development. We observed that accumulations of mineral soil C and N from 0 to 7.5 cm were almost entirely due to accumulations of light-fraction SOM. Meanwhile, losses of soil C and N from mineral soils at 35 to 60 cm were from SOM associated with silt and clay-sized particles. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and little to no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We argue that the land use change from old field to secondary forest drove biogeochemical and hydrological changes throughout the soil profile that enhanced microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. However, when the pine stands aged and began to transition to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth eased due to pine mortality, and subsoil organic matter levels stabilized. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep measurements when characterizing soil C and N responses to land use change and the remarkable paucity of such long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm. PMID:25155991

  17. Flying Under the LiDAR: Relating Forest Structure to Bat Community Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A. C.; Weishampel, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Bats are important to many ecological processes such as pollination, insect (and by proxy, disease) control, and seed dispersal and can be used to monitor ecosystem health. However, they are facing unprecedented extinction risks from habitat degradation as well as pressures from pathogens (e.g., white-nose syndrome) and wind turbines. LiDAR allows ecologists to measure structural variables of forested landscapes with increased precision and accuracy at broader spatial scales than previously possible. This study used airborne LiDAR to classify forest habitat/canopy structure at the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in north central Florida. LiDAR data were acquired by the NEON airborne observation platform in summer 2014. OSBS consists of open-canopy pine savannas, closed-canopy hardwood hammocks, and seasonally wet prairies. Multiple forest structural parameters (e.g., mean, maximum, and standard deviation of height returns) were derived from LiDAR point clouds using the USDA software program FUSION. K-means clustering was used to segregate each 5x5 m raster across the ~3765 ha OSBS area into six different clusters based on the derived canopy metrics. Cluster averages for maximum, mean, and standard deviation of return heights ranged from 0 to 19.4 m, 0 to 15.3 m, and 0 to 3.0 m, respectively. To determine the relationships among these landscape-canopy features and bat species diversity and abundances, AnaBat II bat detectors were deployed from May to September in 2015 stratified by these distinct clusters. Bat calls were recorded from sunset to sunrise during each sampling period. Species were identified using AnalookW. A statistical regression model selection approach was performed in order to evaluate how forest attributes such as understory clutter, open regions, open and closed canopy, etc. influence bat communities. This knowledge provides a deeper understanding of habitat-species interactions to better manage survival of these species.

  18. Surficial gains and subsoil losses of soil carbon and nitrogen during secondary forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Megan L; Lajtha, Kate; Kramer, Marc G; Bacon, Allan R; Heine, Paul R; Richter, Daniel Deb

    2015-02-01

    Reforestation of formerly cultivated land is widely understood to accumulate above- and belowground detrital organic matter pools, including soil organic matter. However, during 40 years of study of reforestation in the subtropical southeastern USA, repeated observations of above- and belowground carbon documented that significant gains in soil organic matter (SOM) in surface soils (0-7.5 cm) were offset by significant SOM losses in subsoils (35-60 cm). Here, we extended the observation period in this long-term experiment by an additional decade, and used soil fractionation and stable isotopes and radioisotopes to explore changes in soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen that accompanied nearly 50 years of loblolly pine secondary forest development. We observed that accumulations of mineral soil C and N from 0 to 7.5 cm were almost entirely due to accumulations of light-fraction SOM. Meanwhile, losses of soil C and N from mineral soils at 35 to 60 cm were from SOM associated with silt and clay-sized particles. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and little to no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We argue that the land use change from old field to secondary forest drove biogeochemical and hydrological changes throughout the soil profile that enhanced microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. However, when the pine stands aged and began to transition to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth eased due to pine mortality, and subsoil organic matter levels stabilized. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep measurements when characterizing soil C and N responses to land use change and the remarkable paucity of such long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm.

  19. Hydrologic Impacts of Municipal Wastewater Irrigation to a Temperate Forest Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Andrew L; Emanuel, Ryan E; James, April L; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-07-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater to managed forests is an important treatment and water reuse technology used globally, but the hydrological processes of these systems are not well characterized for temperate areas with annual rainfall of 1200 mm or greater. This study evaluated the impact of municipal wastewater irrigation to the local water balance at a 3000-ha land application facility where secondary-treated wastewater is land applied to a mixed hardwood-pine forest over 900 ha. Stable isotopes of hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), chloride concentrations, and specific conductance were used in combination with hydrometric measurements to estimate the wastewater composition in groundwater, surface water, and at the watershed outlet during dry and wet seasonal periods and during one large rainfall event. Wastewater and water bodies receiving irrigation were found to have significantly higher δH, δO, specific conductance, and chloride concentrations. Using these tracers, a two-component, three-end member geochemical mixing model estimated mean wastewater compositions in the surficial aquifer receiving irrigation from 47 to 73%. Surface water onsite was found to reflect the high wastewater composition in groundwater. Land-applied wastewater contributed an estimated 24% of total streamflow, with the highest wastewater compositions in surface water observed during major storm events and at low-flow conditions. Groundwater and surface water within the watershed were found to have proportionally higher wastewater compositions than expected based on the proportion of irrigation to rainfall received by these areas. PMID:27380079

  20. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  1. Hydrologic Impacts of Municipal Wastewater Irrigation to a Temperate Forest Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Andrew L; Emanuel, Ryan E; James, April L; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-07-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater to managed forests is an important treatment and water reuse technology used globally, but the hydrological processes of these systems are not well characterized for temperate areas with annual rainfall of 1200 mm or greater. This study evaluated the impact of municipal wastewater irrigation to the local water balance at a 3000-ha land application facility where secondary-treated wastewater is land applied to a mixed hardwood-pine forest over 900 ha. Stable isotopes of hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), chloride concentrations, and specific conductance were used in combination with hydrometric measurements to estimate the wastewater composition in groundwater, surface water, and at the watershed outlet during dry and wet seasonal periods and during one large rainfall event. Wastewater and water bodies receiving irrigation were found to have significantly higher δH, δO, specific conductance, and chloride concentrations. Using these tracers, a two-component, three-end member geochemical mixing model estimated mean wastewater compositions in the surficial aquifer receiving irrigation from 47 to 73%. Surface water onsite was found to reflect the high wastewater composition in groundwater. Land-applied wastewater contributed an estimated 24% of total streamflow, with the highest wastewater compositions in surface water observed during major storm events and at low-flow conditions. Groundwater and surface water within the watershed were found to have proportionally higher wastewater compositions than expected based on the proportion of irrigation to rainfall received by these areas.

  2. Utilization and transfer of forest genetic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskela, Jarkko; Vinceti, Barbara; Dvorak, William;

    2014-01-01

    to complement new research approaches. Currently, seed of boreal and temperate trees for reforestation purposes are largely obtained from improved sources. The situation is similar for fast growing tropical and subtropical trees grown in plantations, but in the case of tropical hardwoods and many agroforestry...

  3. Applicator Training Manual for: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jim

    Described in this manual is the use of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides in forestry. Both diseases and insects found in hardwoods and conifers are covered. Detailed information is given on methods of herbicide application. Finally, five important environmental considerations are given. (BB)

  4. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  5. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  6. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place......The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  7. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  8. Acidification of Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, P.; Kaemaeri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1986-01-01

    Acidification is considered to be an unfavourable process in forest soil. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are known sources of acidification. Acidification causes a risk of damage to plant roots and subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In 1-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as a function of the acid stress and the buff...

  9. On factorisation forests

    OpenAIRE

    Colcombet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    27 pages The theorem of factorisation forests shows the existence of nested factorisations --- a la Ramsey --- for finite words. This theorem has important applications in semigroup theory, and beyond. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance of this approach in the context of automata over infinite words and trees. We extend the theorem of factorisation forest in two directions: we show that it is still valid for any word indexed by a linear ordering; and we show that it ...

  10. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  11. Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Avian use of even-aged timber harvests is likely affected by stand attributes such as size, amount of edge, and retained basal area, all characteristics that can easily be manipulated in timber harvesting plans. However, few studies have examined their effects during the post-breeding period. We studied the impacts of clearcut, low-leave two-age, and high-leave two-age harvesting on post-breeding birds using transect sampling and mist-netting in north-central West Virginia. In our approach, we studied the effects of these harvest types as well as stand size and edge on species characteristic of both early-successional and mature forest habitats. In 2005-2006, 13 stands ranging from 4 to 10. years post-harvest and 4-21. ha in size were sampled from late June through mid-August. Capture rates and relative abundance were similar among treatments for generalist birds. Early-successional birds had the lowest capture rates and fewer species (~30% lower), and late-successional birds reached their highest abundance and species totals (double the other treatments) in high-leave two-age stands. Area sensitivity was evident for all breeding habitat groups. Both generalist and late-successional bird captures were negatively related to stand size, but these groups showed no clear edge effects. Mean relative abundance decreased to nearly zero for the latter group in the largest stands. In contrast, early-successional species tended to use stand interiors more often and responded positively to stand size. Capture rates for this group tripled as stand size increased from 4 to 21. ha. Few birds in the forest periphery responded to harvest edge types despite within-stand edge effects evident for several species. To create suitable habitat for early-successional birds, large, non-linear openings with a low retained basal area are ideal, while smaller harvests and increased residual tree retention would provide habitat for more late-successional birds post-breeding. Although our study

  12. 黑龙江省森工林区核桃楸资源现状与发展对策%The Resource Current Situation and Development Strategy of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. in the Forest Industry Region of Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝贵

    2012-01-01

    核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica Maxim.)是东北著名的三大硬阔叶树种之一,核桃是中国产量第四大干果。探讨了核桃楸在森工林区资源现状,以及作为森林坚果在未来发展与对策,为今后的坚果生产提供指导。%Juglans mandshurica Maxim. is one of the three well-known hardwood species in the northeast and walnut is the fourth largest dried fruit on production in China. This paper discussed the resources current situation of Juglans mandshurica in the forest industry region of Heilongjiang, as well as the fu- ture development and countermeasures of walnut as forest nuts in order to provide guidance for future nut production.

  13. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    review) Madagascar FORMIX3 Model (see Huth and Ditzer, 2000) by incorporating rice economy, selective logging and political stability modules into the model to control certain species groups (i.e. selective harvest) and fire frequency (encroachment). The improved FORMIX3 model was then used to investigate and project forest growth response to a variety of impact scenarios ranging from an increase in overall deforestation to a decrease in deforestation and increase in protection enforcement. Our findings showed a significant positive correlation between increasing deforestation rates and higher local rice prices due to political regime and international market factors. This research resulted in the first quantitative analysis of the relationship between the international rice market and local land-use in terms of slash and burn agriculture, illegal logging of precious hardwood in Madagascar.

  14. Chances and challenges of forest scale CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    , given the sheer size such test systems would require. I rather suggest combining the best choice technology at different scales, which is not necessarily the most costly FACE approach. FACE emerged from overestimating potential bias from atmospheric conditions and greatly unerestimating the key role of soil conditions and biodiversity. Reference: Körner C (2006) Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. New Phytol 172:393-411. Bader MKF, et al. (2013) Central European hardwood trees in a high-CO2 future: synthesis of an 8-year forest canopy CO2 enrichment project. J Ecol 101:1509-1519.

  15. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only

  16. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  17. Forest climate stations in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrology division of the Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt of Bavaria is the responsible operator of forest climate stations, with which it fulfills the following basic tasks: - securing of climate data relevant to growth and vitality which are representative of all major Bavarian forest areas, - measurement of soil humidity in region-typical forest sites as a parameter of forest site prospection and for the application of forest-hydrological models, - establishment of the deposition of pollutants and nutrients to forest ecosystems, - verification of the quality of soil leachates under forest sites, - preparing of budgets of substance cycles in forest ecosystems, - monitoring of biological processes in forest ecosystems as an instrument of precautionary environmental care. Furthermore, these basic data are prepared for use in ecosystemal research approachers in cooperation with other scientific disciplines. (orig.)

  18. Soil Organic Matter Responses to Chronic Nitrogen Additions in a Temperate Forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Bowden, R.; Brzostek, E. R.; Caldwell, B. A.; Crow, S. E.; Finzi, A. C.; Goodale, C. L.; Grandy, S.; Lajtha, K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Plante, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Chronic Nitrogen Addition Experiment at Harvard Forest in central Massacusetts, USA was established in 1988 to investigate the effects of increasing anthropogenic atmospheric N deposition on forests in the eastern United States. Located in an old red pine plantation and a mixed hardwood forest, the treated plots have received 50 and 150 kg N/ha/yr, as ammonium sulfate, in six equal monthly applications during the growing season each year since the start of the experiment. Additionally, the control and low N treatments were given a single pulse label of 15N-nitrate or 15N-ammonium in 1991 and 1992. Regular measurements have been made over the past 20 years to assess woody biomass production and mortality, foliar chemistry, litter fall, and soil N dynamics. Less frequent measurements of soil C pools, soil respiration, fine root dynamics, and microbial biomass and community structure have been made. For the 20th anniversary, an intensive sampling campaign was carried out in fall 2008 with a focus on evaluating how the long-term N additions have impacted ecosystem C storage and N dynamics. Our primary objective was to assess the amount of C and N stored in wood, foliage, litter, roots, and soil (to a depth of ~50 cm). We also wanted to examine the fate of N by comparing patterns of 15N recovery to those observed previously. An additional objective was to further examine how chronic N additions impact microbial biomass, activity and community structure. Results indicate that chronic N additions over the past 20 years have increased forest floor mass and soil organic matter across the soil profile; decreased microbial biomass, especially the fungal component; and altered microbial community composition (i.e., significantly lower fungal:bacterial biomass ratios in the N amended plots). N15 tracer recoveries in soils and forest floors were much higher than in tree biomass, ranging from 49 to 101% of additions across forest types and N addition rates. Stoichiometric

  19. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m-2) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  20. SUBSTITUTION OF HIGH-YIELD-PULP FOR HARDWOOD BLEACHED KRAFT PULP IN PAPER PRODUCTION AND ITS EFFECT ON ALKENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE SIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  1. Variation in Vegetation Structure and Soil Properties, and the Relation Between Understory Plants and Environmental Variables Under Different Phyllostachys pubescens Forests in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Fan, Shaohui; Zhen, Lin

    2010-04-01

    Biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are key sustainable forestry objectives. Research on the effects of bamboo forest management on plant diversity and soil properties are therefore necessary in bamboo-growing regions, such as southeastern China’s Shunchang County, that have not been studied from this perspective. We analyzed the effects of different Phyllostachys pubescens proportions in managed forests on vegetation structure and soil properties using pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forests as a contrast, and analyzed the relation between understory plants and environmental variables (i.e., topography, stand and soil characteristics) by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The forest with 80% P. pubescens and 20% hardwoods (such as Phoebe bournei, Jatropha curcas, Schima superba) maintained the highest plant diversity and best soil properties, with significantly higher plant diversity than the C. lanceolata forest, and better soil physicochemical and biological properties. The distribution of understory plants is highly related to environmental factors. Silvicultural disturbance strongly influenced the ability of different bamboo forests to maintain biodiversity and soil quality under extensive management, and the forest responses to management were consistent with the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis (i.e., diversity and soil properties were best at intermediate disturbance levels). Our results suggest that biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are important management goals for sustainable bamboo management. To achieve those objectives, managers should balance the inputs and outputs of nutrients and protect understory plants by using appropriate fertilizer (e.g., organic fertilizer), adjusting stand structure, modifying utilization model and the harvest time, and controlling the intensity of culms and shoots harvests.

  2. Effects of IAA and ABT 6 on Hardwood Cuttage of Lycium barbarum Mengqi 1%IAA・ ABT 6号对蒙杞1号枸杞新品种硬枝插穗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To screen the optimal soaking concentration for hardwood cuttage of Lycium barbarum Mengqi 1.[ Method] We re-searched the effects of IAA and ABT 6 on the survival rate of hardwood cuttage, and the root, stem and leaves of Mengqi 1.[Result] IAA and ABT 6 soaking treatment could both enhance the survival rate of hardwood cottage.Interaction of IAA and ABT 6significantly promoted the growth of new branch and stem, as well as the stem, leaf and root dry weight of hardwood cottage of Mengqi 1.[Conclusion] When the soaking liquid concentrations of the two reagents or the interactive soaking concentration are 100 mg /L, the promotion effects were the optimal on the sur -vival rate,the morphological index and the biomass of hardwood cuttage of Mengqi 1.%[目的]筛选对蒙杞1号硬枝插穗促进效果最佳的浸泡溶液浓度。[方法]研究 IAA、ABT 6号对蒙杞1号硬枝插穗成活率及根、茎和叶的影响。[结果]IAA 和 ABT 6号浸泡处理均能提高枸杞硬枝插穗成活率;IAA 和 ABT 6号互作,对枸杞硬枝扦插苗新枝生长、茎生长具有明显的促进作用;IAA 和 ABT 6号互作,对枸杞硬枝扦插苗茎、叶和根干重具有明显的促进作用。[结论]当2种药剂分别浸泡或互作浸泡的浸泡液浓度在100 mg /L 时,对枸杞硬枝插穗成活率、形态指标和生物量的促进效果最佳。

  3. Discriminating Canopy Structural Types from Optical Properties using AVIRIS Data in the Sierra National Forest in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca Martinez, M.; Garcia, M.; Roth, K. L.; Casas, A.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a well-established need within the remote sensing community for improved estimation of canopy structure and understanding of its influence on the retrieval of leaf biochemical properties. The aim of this project was to evaluate the estimation of structural properties directly from hyperspectral data, with the broader goal that these might be used to constrain retrievals of canopy chemistry. We used NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to discriminate different canopy structural types, defined in terms of biomass, canopy height and vegetation complexity, and compared them to estimates of these properties measured by LiDAR data. We tested a large number of optical metrics, including single narrow band reflectance and 1st derivative, sub-pixel cover fractions, narrow-band indices, spectral absorption features, and Principal Component Analysis components. Canopy structural types were identified and classified from different forest types by integrating structural traits measured by optical metrics using the Random Forest (RF) classifier. The classification accuracy was above 70% in most of the vegetation scenarios. The best overall accuracy was achieved for hardwood forest (>80% accuracy) and the lowest accuracy was found in mixed forest (~70% accuracy). Furthermore, similarly high accuracy was found when the RF classifier was applied to a spatially independent dataset, showing significant portability for the method used. Results show that all spectral regions played a role in canopy structure assessment, thus the whole spectrum is required. Furthermore, optical metrics derived from AVIRIS proved to be a powerful technique for structural attribute mapping. This research illustrates the potential for using optical properties to distinguish several canopy structural types in different forest types, and these may be used to constrain quantitative measurements of absorbing properties in future research.

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach &apos

  5. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus in a New England forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Siddig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]. The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus

  6. Forest Values and Forest Management Attitudes among Private Forest Owners in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Westin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on how forests will be managed in the future in light of the increased emphasis being put by the public on the ecological and recreational values of forests, the trend towards an increased share of non-resident forest owners, and the increased female forest ownership. The value and belief basis of forest management attitudes was explored using a questionnaire sent to a sample of private forest owners ‘residing on’ (n = 995, return rate = 51.3% and ‘not residing on’ the forest property (n = 997, return rate = 50%. The results showed that a share of private forest owners strongly value both the view that the forest should predominately be used for timber production and the view that preservation is most important. The proposed hierarchical structure of influence, in which the forest management attitude was influenced by values and beliefs, was supported in the study. The ecological, recreational, and production forest values primarily influenced the most closely related forest management attitude, even if some cross-sectional effects and some effects of socio-demographics were found, showing that the view a private forest owner has on different forms of management styles is shaped by the perceived multiple values of the forest.

  7. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  8. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  9. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  10. National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories are the most complete source of information on forests, and are also a potential important tool for assess and monitoring status and trends in forest biodiversity, Nevertheless, according to Chirici et al., the current inventories have some limitations and should be improved mainly to increase the harmonisation of the field protocols and to enhance the collection of non-tree forest information that are important for the biodiversity assessment.

  11. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki Tomasz; Brzeziecki Bogdan; Stępień Edward; Wójcik Roman

    2015-01-01

    The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the p...

  12. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  13. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  14. Forests as carbon sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.

  15. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  16. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  17. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed…

  18. Joint Forest Management or Community Based Forest Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzanian government

    2007-01-01

    This project is being implemented as a way for local villagers to obtain rights of use and benefits from forests. This is done in one either as a Joint Forest Management or a Community Based Forest Management program. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  19. Review on Forest Policy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forest policy evolution was presented firstly in order to understand the background of forest policy development in China. The recent changes of forest policy were introduced in details, including forest policies on improving biodiversity conservation and securing national ecological safety, restoring key ecosystems, promoting sustainable forest management (SFM), clarifying forest land tenure and protecting farmer’s right on forest and forest land management, promoting healthy forestry industry development ...

  20. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  1. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  2. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  3. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  4. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  5. Active microorganisms in forest soils differ from the total community yet are shaped by the same environmental factors: the influence of pH and soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Karl J; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Argiroff, William A; Zak, Donald R

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impact of environmental change on soil microbial functions requires an understanding of how environmental factors shape microbial composition. Here, we investigated the influence of environmental factors on bacterial and fungal communities across an expanse of northern hardwood forest in Michigan, USA, which spans a 500-km regional climate gradient. We quantified soil microbial community composition using high-throughput DNA sequencing on coextracted rDNA (i.e. total community) and rRNA (i.e. active community). Within both bacteria and fungi, total and active communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the regional gradient (bacteria P = 0.01; fungi P soil moisture, pH, SOM carboxyl content, as well as C and N concentration. Our study highlights the importance of distinguishing between metabolically active microorganisms and the total community, and emphasizes that the same environmental factors shape the total and active communities of bacteria and fungi in this ecosystem. PMID:27387909

  6. Communities and Participatory Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kanowski, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Forest management which is more inclusive of the interests of local people has been one of the central foci of forestry globally for the past 25 years. Countries in which there is a strong dependency between people and forests, such as Nepal, have been at the forefront of this more participatory forest management, which is closely associated with devolution of State authority over forests. The participatory management paradigm recognises both the potential of local people and the limits of ce...

  7. Forest commons in boreal Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the influences of Swedish forest commons on forest condition, management and the local economy. The approach is rationalistic, i.e. outcomes of forestry activities are assessed in relation to aims. According to the stated objectives, forest commons should serve as exemplars for improved forest management, focusing on increased and sustained timber production. They should provide sustainable economic support for farmers and the local economy, providing a sound basis for ta...

  8. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Ordóñez; Peter N. Duinker

    2010-01-01

    Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable deve...

  9. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  10. The forest biodiversity artery: towards forest management for saproxylic conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of forest conservation is the set aside of unharvested areas. However, the fragmentation and lack of connectivity of protected areas make the integration of conservation measures in productive forests essential. Strategies to integrate conservation of saproxylic biodiversity in forest management have been developed, but often considering only specific aspects or remaining preliminary otherwise. As the impact of climate change and anthropogenic stresses increases, the development and the synthesis of this approach is crucial. We reviewed the key literature on forest management for biodiversity conservation, integrating forest science perspective to provide a practical management framework. Our goal is to present a management framework that could contribute to the effective preservation of forest insect biodiversity at the landscape scale, without high economic efforts, and addressing the conflicts that still jeopardize sustainable forest management. The results of our review support the creation of micro-reserves inside productive forests, to support large reserves in landscape conservation strategies. Micro-reserves increase the resilience of forest ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbances, through the development of a heterogeneous structure, maximizing microhabitat availability. Modeling forest management and harvest on local natural disturbance would extend the benefits of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in productive forests. Variable retention harvest systems, applied at the landscape scale, are a feasible and adaptable strategy to preserve and increase biodiversity, safeguarding structural legacies such as senescent trees and deadwood inside the productive matrix. The operational shift, from the stand to the forest landscape, is fundamental to extend the benefits of conservation measures. The Forest Biodiversity Artery, composed by several micro-reserves or îlots de senescence, connected by corridors of habitat trees

  11. Forest inventories for carbon change assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Hasenauer, H.; Köhl, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We give a general overview of forest inventory developments and their potential to estimate forest carbon budgets and GHG emissions. Forest inventories mostly focus on timber resources, but can be extended to cover other forest characteristics, such as forest biomass. From forest biomass, ecosystem

  12. Mycorrhizal Influences On Soil Biogeochemistry In Forests: Are There Biosphere Consequences Of Rhizosphere Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Rosling, A.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate forests have experienced dramatic changes in forest composition over the last several decades owing land use change, insect outbreaks, nitrogen deposition and climate change. Understanding the consequences of such changes for carbon (C) and nutrient retention is vital to accurately predict terrestrial feedbacks to global climate change. We sought to test the hypothesis that tree species that form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi influence soil biogeochemistry in ways that are fundamentally different from tree species that form associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We examined tree-mycorrhizal interactions in the central hardwood forests of southern Indiana where a rich assemblage of AM (e.g. maples, ashes, tulip poplar, black cherry) and ECM (e.g. oaks, hickories, beech, pine) tree species co-occur on soils developed from similar parent materials. Across 35 plots along a "mycorrhizal gradient" (plots varying in the relative abundance of AM vs. ECM trees), we found striking differences in soil pH, carbon, (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in upper surface soils. Soil pH varied by three pH units across the gradient, and was positively correlated with the relative abundance of tree species within each mycorrhizal type (r2 = 0.65; p < 0.0001). Similarly, indices of C, N, and P availability were strongly correlated with the abundance of trees within a mycorrhizal association (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.0001; r2 = 0.55, p < 0.0001; r2 = 0.16, p = 0.019; respectively). Collectively, our results suggest that AM- and ECM-dominated stands may differ in their effects on chemical weathering and denudation, with important consequences for C and nutrient retention, and feedbacks to global change.

  13. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  14. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  15. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The... call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00...

  16. A model to predict CWD residence times in tropical forests along an altitudinal gradient in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torello-Raventos, Mireia; Ford, Andrew; Saiz, Gus; Bloomfield, Keith; Lloyd, Jon; Bird, Michael

    2014-05-01

    More reliable knowledge on the complex responses of vegetation to climate change is one of the most urgent needs for tropical forest preservation and recent data models indicate an increase of tree mortality in tropical forests as a consequence of climate change1. Coarse woody debris dynamics in tropical forests remain poorly understood2. Tropical forests are known for possessing a wide range of wood densities- with different wood traits and secondary wood chemical components-, adding complexity to the accurate estimations of coarse woody debris residence times (τ). Quantifying τ in these ecosystems along an altitudinal gradient provides a way to improve our understanding of carbon dynamics in the face of climate change. This study examines τ from different tree tropical forest species -ranging from soft to hardwoods- and under different decay status, to understand the effects of climate on the chemical and physical decay of CWD on an elevation gradient from 102 m above sea level (MAT = 23.7° C) to 1500 m above sea level (MAT = 16.7° C) in Australia. Wood density together with Carbon:Nitrogen ratio enabled prediction of the variation in τ between decay classes within tree species, between tree species and along the elevation gradient. τ increased with decreasing the decay status, increasing wood density and temperature also played an important role as τ increased with increasing site elevation. The study also highlighted the importance of including seasonal variation of climate in short term field studies, as a single wet season reduced the τ of the CWD compared to τ after a year of exposure. Intraspecific variation of plant traits and secondary wood chemicals explained the observed range in τ for species with similar wood densities, decreasing with increasing decayed status of the samples. This study will aid in the development of predictive relationships between wood density and environmental variables to infer carbon dynamics at local and global scale

  17. Effects of long-term nitrogen fertilization on the uptake kinetics of atmospheric methane in temperate forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Jay; Hrywna, Yarek; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Steudler, Paul A

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether repeated, long-term NH(4) (+) fertilization alters the enzymatic function of the atmospheric CH(4) oxidizer community in soil, we examined CH(4) uptake kinetics in temperate pine and hardwood forest soils amended with 150 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) as NH(4)NO(3) for more than a decade. The highest rates of atmospheric CH(4) consumption occurred in the upper 5 cm mineral soil of the control plots. In contrast to the results of several previous studies, surface organic soils in the control plots also exhibited high consumption rates. Fertilization decreased in situ CH(4) consumption in the pine and hardwood sites relative to the control plots by 86% and 49%, respectively. Fertilization increased net N mineralization and relative nitrification rates and decreased CH(4) uptake most dramatically in the organic horizon, which contributed substantially to the overall decrease in field flux rates. In all cases, CH(4) oxidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with apparent K(m) (K(m(app))) values typical of high-affinity soil CH(4) oxidizers. Both K(m(app)) and V(max(app)) were significantly lower in fertilized soils than in unfertilized soils. The physiology of the methane consumer community in the fertilized soils was distinct from short-term responses to NH(4) (+) addition. Whereas the immediate response to NH(4) (+) was an increase in K(m(app)), resulting from apparent enzymatic substrate competition, the long-term response to fertilization was a community-level shift to a lower K(m(app)), a possible adaptation to diminish the competitiveness of NH(4) (+) for enzyme active sites. PMID:19712289

  18. Effects of long-term nitrogen fertilization on the uptake kinetics of atmospheric methane in temperate forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Jay; Hrywna, Yarek; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Steudler, Paul A

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether repeated, long-term NH(4) (+) fertilization alters the enzymatic function of the atmospheric CH(4) oxidizer community in soil, we examined CH(4) uptake kinetics in temperate pine and hardwood forest soils amended with 150 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) as NH(4)NO(3) for more than a decade. The highest rates of atmospheric CH(4) consumption occurred in the upper 5 cm mineral soil of the control plots. In contrast to the results of several previous studies, surface organic soils in the control plots also exhibited high consumption rates. Fertilization decreased in situ CH(4) consumption in the pine and hardwood sites relative to the control plots by 86% and 49%, respectively. Fertilization increased net N mineralization and relative nitrification rates and decreased CH(4) uptake most dramatically in the organic horizon, which contributed substantially to the overall decrease in field flux rates. In all cases, CH(4) oxidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with apparent K(m) (K(m(app))) values typical of high-affinity soil CH(4) oxidizers. Both K(m(app)) and V(max(app)) were significantly lower in fertilized soils than in unfertilized soils. The physiology of the methane consumer community in the fertilized soils was distinct from short-term responses to NH(4) (+) addition. Whereas the immediate response to NH(4) (+) was an increase in K(m(app)), resulting from apparent enzymatic substrate competition, the long-term response to fertilization was a community-level shift to a lower K(m(app)), a possible adaptation to diminish the competitiveness of NH(4) (+) for enzyme active sites.

  19. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  20. The Happy Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏颖

    2005-01-01

    角色:A—All animals B—BirdC—Cat D—DeerF—Fox G—TigerM—Monkey R—RabbitS—Storyteller T—Tortoise场景:树、花草、蘑菇等S:Hello,friends.You know there are manyanimals in the forest.They are singingand dancing.They are very happy.Look,they are coming.

  1. Agriculture, forest, and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  2. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the priva...

  3. ENVISAT forest monitoring Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, D. H.; Vissers, M.A.M.; Sugardiman, R.A.; Vargas, J.

    2002-01-01

    To support the introduction of operational radar forest monitoring systems in Indonesian a demonstration is executed at the Tropenbos study area in East-Kalimantan. Interest focuses on fulfilling information needs relating to land cover change, fire risk and fire damage monitoring, with main emphasis on early detection.

  4. The Forest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on plant and animal relationships in forest communities; (2) four activities dealing with these relationships; and (3) five ready-to-copy pages for students. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  5. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and con

  6. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  7. 昌化江流域天然林直径结构研究%Research on diameter structure of natural forest in Changhua River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 佘济云; 胡焕香; 沈金明; 毛旭鹏

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution structure of natural forest of Changhua River Basin and adjust stand structure reasonably, based on the survey aiming to the typical sample totally 20 in Hainan Province Changhua River Basin, comprehensive consideration of the different forest stands and geographical location, the natural forest diameter structure of Changhua River Basin was analyzed and fitted by using histogram, Weibull distribution function and Gamma distribution function, combining with x2 checking method. The results show that the tree diameter distribution form of the natural forest of distribution shape in Changhua River Basin presented a reverse J-form, the concrete scheduling of shape parameters were as fallowings: source(0.94) > hardwood mixed forest(0.93) > the whole basin(0.90) > broadleaved mixed forest(0.89) > upstream(0.85); The span of diameter class ranked 6 ~ 74 cm, which mainly were small diameter class (6~18 cm), the accumulating percentage all were above 70%. The fitting effects of the Weibull function and the Gamma function to the natural forest was similar, without remarkable difference. Viewed from the division of different forest stand type and the different geographical location, were as followings: the diameter class fluctuation of the broadleaved mixed forest was larger than that of the hardwood mixed forest, the diameter class fluctuation of the natural forest in the headstream area' s was larger man that of the natural forest in the upstream area.%为了探明昌化江流域天然林结构分布规律,合理调整林分结构,在对海南省昌化江流域典型样地共20块调查基础上,综合考虑不同林分类型和不同地理位置,利用直方图法、威布尔分布函数(Weibull)和伽玛分布函数(Gamma),结合卡方(x2)检验,对昌化江流域天然林直径结构进行分析及拟合.结果表明:昌化江流域天然林直径分布形状均呈现倒“J”形,形状参数具体排序为:源头(0.94)

  8. Vegetation-zonation patterns across a temperate mountain cloud forest ecotone are not explained by variation in hydraulic functioning or water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Johnson, Daniel M; Reinhardt, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated linkages between the occurrence of fog and ecophysiological functioning in cloud forests, but few have investigated hydraulic functioning as a determining factor that explains sharp changes in vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the plant water status during cloud-immersed and non-immersed conditions and hydraulic vulnerability in branches and roots of species across a temperate, mountain fog ecotone. Because cloud forests are often dark, cool and very moist, we expected cloud forest species to have less drought-tolerant characteristics (i.e., lower Pe and P50-the pressures required to induce a 12 and 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, respectively) relative to non-cloud forest species in adjacent (lower elevation) forests. Additionally, due to the ability of cloud forest species to absorb cloud-fog water, we predicted greater improvements in hydraulic functioning during fog in cloud forest species relative to non-cloud forest species. Across the cloud forest ecotone, most species measured were very resistant to losses in conductivity with branch P50 values from -4.5 to -6.0 MPa, hydraulic safety margins (Ψmin - P50) >1.5 MPa and low calculated hydraulic conductivity losses. Roots had greater vulnerabilities, with P50 values ranging from -1.4 to -2.5 MPa, leading to greater predicted losses in conductivity (∼20%). Calculated values suggested strong losses of midday leaf hydraulic conductance in three of the four species, supporting the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. In both cloud forest and hardwood species, Ψs were greater on foggy days than sunny days, demonstrating the importance of fog periods to plant water balance across fog regimes. Thus, frequent fog did not result in systemic changes in hydraulic functioning or vulnerability to embolism across our temperate cloud forest ecotone. Finally, roots functioned with lower hydraulic conductivity than branches, suggesting that they may serve as more

  9. Vegetation-zonation patterns across a temperate mountain cloud forest ecotone are not explained by variation in hydraulic functioning or water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Johnson, Daniel M; Reinhardt, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated linkages between the occurrence of fog and ecophysiological functioning in cloud forests, but few have investigated hydraulic functioning as a determining factor that explains sharp changes in vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the plant water status during cloud-immersed and non-immersed conditions and hydraulic vulnerability in branches and roots of species across a temperate, mountain fog ecotone. Because cloud forests are often dark, cool and very moist, we expected cloud forest species to have less drought-tolerant characteristics (i.e., lower Pe and P50-the pressures required to induce a 12 and 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, respectively) relative to non-cloud forest species in adjacent (lower elevation) forests. Additionally, due to the ability of cloud forest species to absorb cloud-fog water, we predicted greater improvements in hydraulic functioning during fog in cloud forest species relative to non-cloud forest species. Across the cloud forest ecotone, most species measured were very resistant to losses in conductivity with branch P50 values from -4.5 to -6.0 MPa, hydraulic safety margins (Ψmin - P50) >1.5 MPa and low calculated hydraulic conductivity losses. Roots had greater vulnerabilities, with P50 values ranging from -1.4 to -2.5 MPa, leading to greater predicted losses in conductivity (∼20%). Calculated values suggested strong losses of midday leaf hydraulic conductance in three of the four species, supporting the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. In both cloud forest and hardwood species, Ψs were greater on foggy days than sunny days, demonstrating the importance of fog periods to plant water balance across fog regimes. Thus, frequent fog did not result in systemic changes in hydraulic functioning or vulnerability to embolism across our temperate cloud forest ecotone. Finally, roots functioned with lower hydraulic conductivity than branches, suggesting that they may serve as more

  10. Design of the combination cutter for tenoning grooves on hardwood%硬质木材榫槽组合铣刀的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炳天; 权富成

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the difficult problem of tenoning grooves on hardwood using small desktop multi-purpose wood working machine tool, a combination cutter was designed. In which, the wide blade is replaced with the narrow blade tool combination of circular saw blades, and the dual-blades with multi-blades. The serrated cutting edge was arranged in spiral structure as certain angle in each straight edge segment. Large cutting edge inclination angle is used to improve cutting performance. The tooth profile is optimized zigzag to improve durability and service life of the sawtooth. The cutter has a block cutting blade, and the use results shows that cutting performance is excellent and the feed speed can be increased by three times compared to the other grooving cutting tools.%为解决小型台式多用木工机床对硬质木材榫槽困难的问题,设计了一款组合铣刀.以数块窄刀刃刀具圆锯片组合代替宽刀刃,多刀刃代替双刀刃,组合时锯齿刀刃错位排列成各段直刃呈螺旋状改革刀具结构,采用大前角改善切削性能,齿廓优化成刨削锯齿状提高锯齿的耐用度和使用寿命.该铣刀具有分块式切削刀刃,使用结果表明切削性能优良,对硬、软质木材榫槽进料速度相比可提高3倍.

  11. Analysis on Influencing Factors for Hardwood Cuttage of Lonicera tatarica var. micrantha%小花忍冬硬枝扦插影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 季蒙; 王美珍; 乔福成

    2011-01-01

    Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha is a fine tree species with good ornament and strong stress resistance.In order to solve the great variation for differentiation of filial generation with seed breeding,combined with the characteristics of Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha,the hardwood cuttage experiment has been done with the treatments of different matrix,hormones and concentrations.The results show that matrix type,hormone type and the concentrations of hormone can directly influence the survival rate of cuttage,and the hormone types directly influence the growth of underground root.The average survival rate of cuttage can reach 70% by use of the combination of pearl salt ︰ sand = 1 ︰ 2,NAA,100 mg/L.Hormone ABT 2 of 100 mg/L can promote the growth of underground root system.%小花忍冬是观赏性和抗逆性兼具的优良树种之一。为了解决其种子繁殖子代分化变异大的问题,结合小花忍冬特性,通过不同基质、激素及不同浓度的处理,对其进行了硬枝扦插试验。结果表明:基质种类、激素种类、激素浓度都直接影响其扦插成活率,激素种类直接影响地下根系的生长量。其中,使用珍珠岩︰沙子=1︰2、NAA、100 mg/L组合,其扦插成活率均值达70%,效果最佳;使用激素ABT2号100 mg/L能较好地促进地下根系的生长。

  12. Copper and zinc adsorption by softwood and hardwood biochars under elevated sulphate-induced salinity and acidic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shasha; Huang, Longbin; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Ok, Yong Sik; Rudolph, Victor; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-01-01

    Biochar adsorption may lower concentrations of soluble metals in pore water of sulphidic Cu/Pb-Zn mine tailings. Unlike soil, high levels of salinity and soluble cations are present in tailing pore water, which may affect biochar adsorption of metals from solution. In the present study, removal of soluble copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) ions by soft- (pine) and hard-wood (jarrah) biochars pyrolysed at high temperature (about 700 °C) was evaluated under typical ranges of pH and salinity conditions resembling those in pore water of sulphidic tailings, prior to their direct application into the tailings. Surface alkalinity, cation exchange capacity, and negative surface charge of biochars affected Cu and Zn adsorption capacities. Quantitative comparisons were provided by fitting the adsorption equilibrium data with either the homogeneous or heterogeneous surface adsorption models (i.e. Langmuir and Freundlich, respectively). Accordingly, the jarrah biochar showed higher Cu and Zn adsorption capacity (Qmax=4.39 and 2.31 mg/g, respectively) than the softwood pine biochar (Qmax=1.47 and 1.00 mg/g). Copper and Zn adsorption by the biochars was favoured by high pH conditions under which they carried more negative charges and Cu and Zn ions were predicted undergoing hydrolysis and polymerization. Within the tested range, salinity had relatively weak effects on the adsorption, which perhaps influenced the surface charge and induced competition for negative charged sites between Na(+) and exchangeable Ca(2+) and/or heavy metal ions. Large amounts of waste wood/timber at many mine sites present a cost-effective opportunity to produce biochars for remediation of sulphidic tailings and seepage water. PMID:26206747

  13. When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Laestadius, Lars; Bennett-Curry, Aoife; Buckingham, Kathleen; Kumar, Chetan; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Wilson, Sarah Jane

    2016-09-01

    We present a historical overview of forest concepts and definitions, linking these changes with distinct perspectives and management objectives. Policies dealing with a broad range of forest issues are often based on definitions created for the purpose of assessing global forest stocks, which do not distinguish between natural and planted forests or reforests, and which have not proved useful in assessing national and global rates of forest regrowth and restoration. Implementing and monitoring forest and landscape restoration requires additional approaches to defining and assessing forests that reveal the qualities and trajectories of forest patches in a spatially and temporally dynamic landscape matrix. New technologies and participatory assessment of forest states and trajectories offer the potential to operationalize such definitions. Purpose-built and contextualized definitions are needed to support policies that successfully protect, sustain, and regrow forests at national and global scales. We provide a framework to illustrate how different management objectives drive the relative importance of different aspects of forest state, dynamics, and landscape context.

  14. Forest owners' timber sales satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TTS Institute has carried out a study concerning forest owners' timber sales. The material was collected in 2002 via a mail inquiry that targeted forest owners who sold timber during the years 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. Three quarters of the forest owners sold timber to the same timber buying company during both periods of 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. The most important reasons for selling to the same buyer were that they purchased all timber assortments, reliability and good timber price. Mainly the same reasons also applied when changing the timber buying company. The most sensitive groups to changing timber buyer were 60-69 year old, entrepreneurs, men, and owners of forest holdings between 20-29 hectares, owners of inherited forests and joint forest ownerships. The forest owners assessed the timber buying company's operations and its staff on the basis of the last timber sale. The forest owners gave best values for the timber buyer's reliability, the purchase of all timber assortments and the timber buyers' reputation. The worst values were given for cross-cutting and response to complaints. No less than 95 percent of forest owners were prepared to recommend their timber trade partner to acquaintances, friends or other forest owners. Yet only half of the forest owners recognized that their last timber sale experience would not affect which company will be selected for the nest timber sale process

  15. Assessing Actual and Potential Organic Carbon Pools in Southern Taiga and Forest-Steppe Ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, Olga; Ryzhova, Irina; Podvezennaya, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Recent debates on climate changes showed the importance of maintaining natural cycles of nutrients and preserving extensive areas of natural ecosystems to ensure sustainability of the biosphere. The size and distribution of nutrient pools within ecosystems are the key characteristics of the biological cycle reflecting changes in the functioning of natural systems. Carbon pools assessed in similar land-use types by different researchers are often poorly comparable due to various calculation algorithms, sampling techniques and sets of field data used. Model-based assessments often yield results that significantly depart from calculations based on actual field data. We estimated the actual and potential natural carbon pools using potential natural vegetation maps, soil maps, up-to-date statistics and results of regional studies. Organic carbon pools in biomass, forest litter, peat and soil were calculated for most typical natural (ecosystems, which experienced the least effect of historic land use) and modern ecosystems for two administrative regions of Russia: 1. Kursk region characterized by high productive natural steppe vegetation with predominance of chernozems - the country's most fertile soils, which were extensively transformed by agricultural activity; 2. Kostroma region, sparsely populated area with still abundant southern taiga forests. The average characteristics of vegetation productivity for natural and some human-modified ecosystems such as coniferous (pine, spruce) and noble broadleaf (oak, linden) forests, swamps, bogs, steppes, bottomland meadows, secondary forests, hayfields, pastures were calculated using the Database on the Productivity of Ecosystems in North Eurasia. The biological productivity of present-day forests and carbon pools in biomass were calculated using the program for assessing forest carbon budget (ROBUL model). Similar characteristics were used for agricultural areas. They were averaged according to crop rotations and recalculated

  16. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  17. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  18. Analysis of Forest Biodiversity Changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By reference of the evaluative data of forest biodiversity changes in China from 1973 to 1998, the variation analysis models of the pressure index of forest biodiversity, forest ecosystem diversity and forest species diversity, as well as the general index of forest biodiversity are developed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Furthermore established is the relevant model of mutation of forest diversity potential functions. This paper points out that changes of forest biodiversity...

  19. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    uses. Management for the production of high-value timber species like oaks and management to conserve biodiversity, or for cultural services can be in conflict with each other. This study evaluates the capacity of three contrasting management regimes to provide societies with economic revenue from......Identification of the ecosystem services provided by oak-dominated forests in southern Sweden is a prerequisite for ensuring their conservation and sustainable management. These forests seem well-suited for multiple-use forestry, but knowledge is limited regarding how to manage them for multiple...... timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...

  20. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the private...... exporting states as well as importers who place timber on the EU market, and the assumption that civil society involvement in exporting states will sufficiently ensure consideration of such concerns. Next we consider potential adverse impact on the usage of broader sustainability schemes, such as FSC, which...... Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) criteria as an example of a broader sustainability scheme, in the analysis we identify concerns of a human rights or labour rights character that risk becoming institutionalised in an adverse fashion as a result of the FLEGT’s scheme’s legality orientation with regard to...

  1. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  2. Dynamics of secondary forests

    OpenAIRE

    Breugel, van, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and conditions that affect the course of succession (shortly reviewed in chapter 1). Successional dynamics, however, are inferred rather than directly monitored in such studies; i.e. direction and rates o...

  3. Integration of forest mapping and inventory to support forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Corona P

    2010-01-01

    Forest inventory and forest mapping can be considered as monitoring and assessment applications that respond to different demands. However, the integration of mapping and inventory provides an effective framework for the support of forest management from multiple perspectives: (i) use of thematic maps for stratifying the inventory sample for the purpose of improving the precision of inventory estimates; (ii) coupling remotely sensed and sample inventory data for the purpose of constructing ma...

  4. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Sloan

    2016-01-01

    The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis o...

  5. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  6. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Bhiravarasa, Premsai S; Tisa, Louis S; Thomas, William K; Minocha, Subhash C

    2013-02-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from untreated (control), low N-amended (50 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N-amended (150 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) plots. A total of 1.3 million sequences were processed using qiime. Although Acidobacteria represented the most abundant phylum based on the number of sequences, Proteobacteria were the most diverse in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UniFrac analyses revealed that the bacterial communities differed significantly among soil horizons and treatments. Microsite variability among the five subplots was also evident. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of normalized OTU data followed by permutational manova further confirmed these observations. Richness indicators and indicator species analyses revealed higher bacterial diversity associated with N amendment. Differences in bacterial diversity and community composition associated with the N treatments were also observed at lower phylogenetic levels. Only 28-35% of the 6 936 total OTUs identified were common to three treatments, while the rest were specific to one treatment or common to two. PMID:22974374

  7. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Aiken, George R.

    1985-08-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 μeq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon.

  8. Sulfur transformations in forest litter and soil: Results of laboratory and field incubations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field incubations of litter and A horizon soil utilizing 35S-labeled inorganic sulfate were conducted during July 1985 in an eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and a hardwood forest. Samples were assayed for the capacity to form 35S-labeled organic S, and in most cases these capacities were very similar to those determined in corresponding laboratory incubations. The A horizon soils from both watersheds formed approximately 3.0 nmol of organic S g-1 dry weight of sample during 2-d field or laboratory incubations. No substantial increase in this amount was observed after 7-d field incubations. Intrinsic S fractions of samples were quantified prior to and following field incubations, and organic S represented the majority of the total S in all cases. Total S ranged from 260 to 1180 and from 150 to 270 mg kg-1 in the litter layers and the a horizon, respectively. Sulfonate S (13-74% of total S) and nonphosphate extractable ester sulfate (16-82% of total S) were the largest organic S pools. Water soluble and phosphate extractable S pools were comprised of both inorganic sulfate and ester sulfate, and the latter was found to represent up to 8.1% of total S. The distribution of 35S following field incubations was determined, and organic 35S fractions in a variety of linkage groups were again found to predominate. Total C, moisture content, and throughfall sulfate concentrations during the field incubations were also determined

  9. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  10. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  11. On the likelihood of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2016-08-01

    How complex a network is crucially impacts its function and performance. In many modern applications, the networks involved have a growth property and sparse structures, which pose challenges to physicists and applied mathematicians. In this paper, we introduce the forest likelihood as a plausible measure to gauge how difficult it is to construct a forest in a non-preferential attachment way. Based on the notions of admittable labeling and path construction, we propose algorithms for computing the forest likelihood of a given forest. Concrete examples as well as the distributions of forest likelihoods for all forests with some fixed numbers of nodes are presented. Moreover, we illustrate the ideas on real-life networks, including a benzenoid tree, a mathematical family tree, and a peer-to-peer network.

  12. Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. L; Gentry, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950's, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend in forest dynamics may have profound effects on biological diversity.

  13. Analysis on Impact Factors for Forest Management Income of Forest Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation in Anji County of Zhejiang Province and Ba'nan District of Chongqing, this paper analyzed the characteristics of forest management behaviors of forest farmers in China and the impact factors for forest management income, and then came up with some policy recommendations to increase the forest management income of forest farmers. It argued that the factors to impact on forest management income of forest farmers in China include the choice of forest products type, the elements in fo...

  14. FOREST BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. BORLEA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity conservation strategy should include forest protected areas as important objectives. Important legislative and administrative measures should be taken in order to integrate the forestry better in the sustainable development of the natural capital of Romania. A list of the most valuable virgin and natural forests is included. The definitions given to forest indicators must be revived and adapted to the actual situation.

  15. 76 FR 51936 - Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four-Forest Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... increased forest resiliency and function. Resiliency increases the ability of the ponderosa pine forest to... function. Most pine forests in the Southwest are at much higher risk of high intensity and severe fire than... Forest Service Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four-Forest Restoration Initiative...

  16. Aboveground litterfall in Eurasian forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUChun-jiang; Hannullvesniemi; BjomBerg; WemerKutsch; YANGYu-sheng; MAXiang-qing; CarlJ.Westman

    2003-01-01

    With a data set of Eurasian forest litter fall based on 471 stands,annual litterfall was estimated to be 6.53Pg dm·a-1 (1Pg=1015g;dm,dry matter)in Eurasian forests,of which more than half occurred in tropical and subtropical forests,and a third in the boreal area.With litterfall,around 2.94Pg C per year is transferred from the forest vegetation to the soil on this continent.

  17. The influence of chemistry, production and community composition on leaf litter decompositon under elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 in a northern hardwood ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone have the potential to alter leaf litter production and chemistry. In turn, these changes may alter the decomposition of labile and recalcitrant carbon compounds, as well as forest productivity and sequestration of soil carbon...

  18. 三倍体毛白杨硬枝扦插容器育苗基质的筛选%Selection of Media for Hardwood Cuttings Container Seedling-raising of Triploid Clones of Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平冬; 王红静; 宋金利; 康向阳; 朱之悌

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment was aimed to select effective and economical media for container seedling of triploid clones of Populus tomentosa that was carried out. [Method] The sandy loam, peat, perlite, vermiculite, riversand, sludge were taken as media of hardwood cutting and survival rate, seedling height were taken as indexes to select media for container seedling of triploid clones of Populus tomentosa. [Result] Different mixedmedia had great influence on survival rates of container seedlings. Taking peat and vermiculite with the proportion of 5:2 (M10) or peat ,vermiculite with the proportion of 7:2 (M11) or sandy loam (M1) as media would generate higher cutting survival rate that was higher than 90.0%. There were significant differece in height increments of container seedlings. Taking sandy loam, peat and vermiculite with the proportion of 6:2:2(M5)or sandy loam (M1), seedling height of 60-days the seedling was over 37.0 cm. [Conclusion] According to cost analysis of nursery medium, the optimum medium for hardwood cuttings container seedling-raising of triploid clones of Populus tomentosa was sandy loam.

  19. Identification of Biodiversity and Other Forest Attributes for Sustainable Forest Management: Siberian Forest Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, S; M. Flinkman; Michalowski, W.; Nilsson, S.; Slowinski, R.; R. Susmaga

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify characteristics of biodiversity and other (forest) ecosystem conditions that are considered essential for a description of ecosystem functioning and development of sustainable forest management practices in the Siberian forests. This is accomplished through an analysis of net primary production of phytomass (NPP) which acts as a proxy for ecosystem functioning. Rough Sets (RS) analysis is applied to study the Siberian ecoregions classified into compact and cohe...

  20. US Forest Service Special Interest Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by the Forest Service. Examples include:...

  1. Forest Management Plan : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  2. Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  3. Forest Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Muscatatuck NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  4. Forest Management Plan Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  5. Forest Management Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mingo NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  6. Forest Management Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the refuge management objectives, forest description, forest...

  7. Coupling aquaculture with forest plantations for food, energy, and water resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Shawn Dayson; Culbreth, Allison; Hazel, Dennis; Daniels, Harry; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater aquaculture and forest bioenergy markets are expanding globally in areas concurrently experiencing human population growth, urbanization and water shortages. Coupling these agroecosystems can improve food, energy, and water resiliency by enhancing ecosystem services through fertilization, water-reuse, carbon storage, and bioenergy via biomass production. This study evaluated how a model aquaculture-managed forest plantation could (1) provision fish and woody biomass; (2) regulate carbon, groundwater infiltration, and groundwater quality; and (3) support nutrient cycling over a two-year period. A 0.5-hectare hardwood bioenergy plantation was established with 12 Populus spp. genotypes adjacent to a 0.6-hectare freshwater aquaculture operation (hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops×M. saxatilis); pond waters were land-applied on the plantation for two years. The aquaculture operation produced ~3.5Mg of fish and trees yielded 5.9Mgha(-1)yr(-1) of oven-dry biomass, sequestered 2.9Mg carbon (C) ha(-1)yr(-1) and stored 0.028Mg nitrogen (N) ha(-1)yr(-1). Biomass productivity, carbon storage, and nitrogen storage differed significantly among the evaluated Populus genotypes. Land application of pond water increased groundwater infiltration by 60% relative to the previous year. The integrated system regulated chlorophyll a, total organic carbon, and nitrogen in groundwater at concentrations below regulatory limits. This study demonstrated that coupled agroecosystems could deliver productive yields of food and bioenergy as well as support water re-use while meeting water quality regulations. More research is needed to evaluated long-term sustainability and economic viability of this coupled system and other land management practices that seek to improve food, energy, and water resiliency. PMID:27481452

  8. A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.S.; Wemple, B.C.; Jamison, A.E.; Fredriksen, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Campbell, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated N deposition is continuing on many forested landscapes around the world and our understanding of ecosystem response is incomplete. Soil processes, especially nitrification, are critical. Many studies of soil N transformations have focused on identifying relationships within a single watershed but these results are often not transferable. We studied 10 small forested research watersheds in the northeastern USA to determine if there were common factors related to soil ammonification and nitrification. Vegetation varied between mixed northern hardwoods and mixed conifers. Watershed surface soils (Oa or A horizons) were sampled at grid or transect points and analyzed for a suite of chemical characteristics. At each sampling point, vegetation and topographic metrics (field and GIS-based) were also obtained. Results were examined by watershed averages (n = 10), seasonal/watershed averages (n = 28), and individual sampling points (n = 608). Using both linear and tree regression techniques, the proportion of conifer species was the single best predictor of nitrification rates, with lower rates at higher conifer dominance. Similar to other studies, the soil C/N ratio was also a good predictor and was well correlated with conifer dominance. Unlike other studies, the presence of Acer saccharum was not by itself a strong predictor, but was when combined with the presence of Betula alleghaniensis. Topographic metrics (slope, aspect, relative elevation, and the topographic index) were not related to N transformation rates across the watersheds. Although found to be significant in other studies, neither soil pH, Ca nor Al was related to nitrification. Results showed a strong relationship between dominant vegetation, soil C, and soil C/N. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Methane Emissions from Upland Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Global budgets ascribe 4-10% of atmospheric methane sinks to upland soils and assume that soils are the sole surface for methane exchange between upland forests and the atmosphere. The dogma that upland forests are uniformly atmospheric methane sinks was challenged a decade ago by the discovery of abiotic methane production from plant tissue. Subsequently a variety of relatively cryptic microbial and non-microbial methane sources have been proposed that have the potential to emit methane in upland forests. Despite the accumulating evidence of potential methane sources, there are few data demonstrating actual emissions of methane from a plant surface in an upland forest. We report direct observations of methane emissions from upland tree stems in two temperate forests. Stem methane emissions were observed from several tree species that dominate a forest located on the mid-Atlantic coast of North America (Maryland, USA). Stem emissions occurred throughout the growing season while soils adjacent to the trees simultaneously consumed methane. Scaling fluxes by stem surface area suggested the forest was a net methane source during a wet period in June, and that stem emissions offset 5% of the soil methane sink on an annual basis. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycles in stem methane emission rates, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for gas transport. Similar observations were made in an upland forest in Beijing, China. However, in this case the evidence suggested the methane was not produced in soils, but in the heartwood by microbial or non-microbial processes. These data challenge the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane, and suggest that upland forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Tree emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration.

  10. Sustainable Forest Management and Cadastre in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güler Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey the forest is one of the most important natural resources. It both affects the rural development processes and is affected from these. Nevertheless “deforestation” is the main forest problem in Turkey. Sustainable forest management is required for the forests meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the next generation. “To protect and to secure the forest areas” is the initial studies to be done for sustainable forest management. To prevent deforestati...

  11. Sustainable forest management planning in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Medarević Milan; Šljukić Biljana; Obradović Snežana

    2014-01-01

    The forest cover of Serbia occupies around 29% of its territory, which puts it among fairly well wooded countries in Europe. The forests of Serbia are characterized by both state and private forests, medium preservation status, i.e. 27% of area that is covered by insufficiently stocked stands. Coppice forests cover about 50% of the area, and private forests are additionally burdened by fragmented plots. Forest management planning in Serbia is older than 200...

  12. Study on Forest Fire Occurrence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China is not rich in natural forest sources. Owing to natural and historical factors, forest fires have long been frequenting China. Forest fire prevention is the most important of all. Forest fire prevention and controlling have long been held as a very important factor in our ecological plans. Taking china 's special geographical location, topography, climate and the distribution of forest sources into consideration, we have every reason to believe that forest fires in China have their own special env...

  13. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  14. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  15. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  16. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  17. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... express mail or overnight courier service: Maya Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Cooperative Forestry Staff.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  18. Accomplishments of Forest Disaster Reduction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    State Forest Administration

    2001-01-01

    @@ Forest disasters mainly refer to insect pest, rodent damage, forest fire and frost damage. Snow damage, windstorm, drought, flooding, landslide, mud-rock flow, environmental pollution and so on all cause damages to forest resources. The greatest damage is caused by forest disease,insect pests, rodents and fire. With the large-scale exploiture and serious denudation of primitive secondary forests, the appearance of artificial pure forests on a massive scale and the deterioration of the national forest eco-environment, forest damages caused by diseases, insect pests and rats have been on the increase, with the afflicted area doubling every ten years on the average for the period 1949~1989.

  19. Forest products—Non-timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2011-01-01

    The commercial exploitation of non-timber forest products—such as fibers, nuts, spices, medicinal plants, rubber, and rattan—was proposed in the 1990s as a strategy to reconcile conservation and development in tropical forests. Its economic benefits generally have been limited, however, due to sever

  20. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring, weather and climate, spring drought, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, trends in soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and root penetration in deeper layers of soil, climate change and sustainable land management in Northern German Plain.