WorldWideScience

Sample records for bottoming cycles

  1. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  2. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  3. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  4. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    incinerators is probably the option with the greatest efficiency improvement potential, within the reasonable cost and scale limits. Furthermore, a State-of-Art report is included in the study as a separate chapter. Descriptions of existing hybrid combined cycle installations with biofuel-fired bottoming cycle in Sweden and its surrounding countries are compiled in it. The presentation shows that hybrid combined cycles are a standard technology in many respects. These specific configurations have been chosen as the most rewarding ones out of various alternatives and have proved their advantages in commercial operation. The major research project following this literature study will focus on investigation of possible efficiency improvement of biomass energy utilization by application of hybrid configurations with natural gas fired gas turbine and internal combustion engines as topping cyclesof curve fitting procedures)

  5. Weight and power optimization of steam bottoming cycle for offshore oil and gas installations

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars O.; Martelli, Emanuele; Bolland, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas installations are mostly powered by simple cycle gas turbines. To increase the efficiency, a steam bottoming cycle could be added to the gas turbine. One of the keys to the implementation of combined cycles on offshore oil and gas installations is for the steam cycle to have a low weight-to-power ratio. In this work, a detailed combined cycle model and numerical optimization tools were used to develop designs with minimum weight-to-power ratio. Within the work, single-obj...

  6. Small Engines as Bottoming Cycle Steam Expanders for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Weerasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery bottoming cycles for internal combustion engines have opened new avenues for research into small steam expanders (Stobart and Weerasinghe, 2006. Dependable data for small steam expanders will allow us to predict their suitability as bottoming cycle engines and the fuel economy achieved by using them as bottoming cycles. Present paper is based on results of experiments carried out on small scale Wankel and two-stroke reciprocating engines as air expanders and as steam expanders. A test facility developed at Sussex used for measurements is comprised of a torque, power and speed measurements, electronic actuation of valves, synchronized data acquisition of pressure, and temperatures of steam and inside of the engines for steam and internal combustion cycles. Results are presented for four engine modes, namely, reciprocating engine in uniflow steam expansion mode and air expansion mode and rotary Wankel engine in steam expansion mode and air expansion mode. The air tests will provide base data for friction and motoring effects whereas steam tests will tell how effective the engines will be in this mode. Results for power, torque, and p-V diagrams are compared to determine the change in performance from air expansion mode to steam expansion mode.

  7. Performance of a Supercritical CO2 Bottoming Cycle for Aero Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jacob

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By 2050, the evolutionary approach to aero engine research may no longer provide meaningful returns on investment, whereas more radical approaches to improving thermal efficiency and reducing emissions might still prove cost effective. One such radical concept is the addition of a secondary power cycle that utilizes the otherwise largely wasted residual heat in the core engine’s exhaust gases. This could provide additional shaft power. Supercritical carbon dioxide closed-circuit power cycles are currently being investigated primarily for stationary power applications, but their high power density and efficiency, even for modest peak cycle temperatures, makes them credible bottoming cycle options for aero engine applications. Through individual geometric design and performance studies for each of the bottoming cycle’s major components, it was determined that a simple combined cycle aero engine could offer a 1.9% mission fuel burn benefit over a state-of-the-art geared turbofan for the year 2050. However, the even greater potential of more complex systems demands further investigation. For example, adding inter-turbine reheat (ITR to the combined cycle is predicted to significantly improve the fuel burn benefit.

  8. Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parson, E.L. Jr. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    We introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-EFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to greater than 70 percent.

  9. Oil and gas platforms with steam bottoming cycles: System integration and thermoenvironomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil and gas platforms is currently regarded as the most promising option for improving the performance of these energy-intensive systems. In this paper, a North Sea platform is taken as case study, and a systematic analysis of its energy requirements...... water from the processing plant reveals to be more profitable than using seawater, as the additional pumping power outweighs the benefit of using a cooling medium at a temperature of about 8 °C lower. This study highlights thereby the importance of analysing energy savings and recovery options...

  10. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...... scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental......, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation...

  11. CO{sub 2}-AC and Bottoming cycle. Reducing fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yang; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology; Platell, Peter [Ranotor AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The rapid growth of automobile industry has caused an increasing environmental and economic concern due to the high pollution of automobile exhaust gas and the low efficiency of the automotive engine system. Due to the well know environmental drawback of traditional working fluids in air conditioning systems such as Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP), Carbon Dioxide as a natural refrigerant has evoked a renewed interest nowadays. In this project, various so called Bottoming Cycle systems, using CO{sub 2} as working fluid are designed to utilize waste heat from car engine coolant and exhaust gasses. Several designs using CO{sub 2} as a working fluid have been identified that reduce fuel consumption and thus the environmental impact. The concept reduces fuel consumption by harnessing the waste heat from the internal combustion engine. The concept also cools the exhaust gas which means more efficient so called cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), suppressing NO{sub x} emissions. Furthermore, the concept offer also an environmental friendly so-called APU (Auxiliary Power Units), meaning that it is possible to generate electricity, cool and heat when the vehicle is standing still. All these features together with the use of CO{sub 2} offer more energy efficient as well as more environmental benign Air Conditioning system for automotive applications. Two scientific papers have been written and EES programs have been further modified to calculate the second law efficiency etc. A multi-functional vehicle's A/C system is proposed by the authors to convert this energy into useful power to power the compressor of A/C system or even to be added to the propulsion system. According to different design options, several cycles are presented and compared; the relative efficiencies are calculated in EES as well. At the end of the paper, there is a thorough discussion about the CO{sub 2}'s thermodynamic properties as a working fluid

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  13. Bottom-up processes influence the demography and life-cycle phenology of Hawaiian bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; C. John Ralph; Andrew Wiegardt

    2017-01-01

    Changes in climate can indirectly regulate populations at higher trophic levels by influencing the availability of food resources in the lower reaches of the food web. As such, species that rely on fruit and nectar food resources may be particularly sensitive to these bottom-up perturbations due to the strength of their trophic linkages with climatically-...

  14. The use of air-bottoming cycle as a heat source for the carbon dioxide capture installation of a coal-fired power unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian; Czaja, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    .... Gas-air systems, referred to as the air bottoming cycle (ABC), are composed of a gas turbine powered by natural gas, air compressor and air turbine coupled to the system by means of a heat exchanger...

  15. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    When the Norwegian government introduced the CO2 tax for hydrocarbon fuels, the challenge became to improve the performance of off-shore power systems. An oil and gas platform typically operates on an island (stand-alone system) and the power demand is covered by two or more gas turbines. In order...... and the air bottoming cycle turbogenerator includes dynamic equations for the combustion chamber, the shell-and-tube recuperator and the turbine shafts. Turbines are modelled by the Stodola equation and by a correlation between the isentropic efficiency and the non-dimensional flow coefficient. Compressors...

  16. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    . Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization....... The highest net present value (2.8 M$) is found for a volume of the recuperator of 128 m3. Thus, it can be concluded that the multi-objective optimization approach enables extending the theory of power maximization bridging the gap between a mere optimization of the thermodynamic cycle and the practical...

  17. Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, John [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Smutzer, Chad [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    The objective of this program was to develop a novel, scalable scroll expander for conversion of waste heat to power; this was accomplished and demonstrated in both a bench-scale system as well as a full-scale system. The expander is a key component in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery systems which are used to convert medium-grade waste heat to electric power in a wide range of industries. These types of waste heat recovery systems allow for the capture of energy that would otherwise just be exhausted to the atmosphere. A scroll expander has the benefit over other technologies of having high efficiency over a broad range of operating conditions. The speed range of the TIAX expander (1,200 to 3,600 RPM) enables the shaft power output to directly drive an electric generator and produce 60 Hz electric power without incurring the equipment costs or losses of electronic power conversion. This greatly simplifies integration with the plant electric infrastructure. The TIAX scroll expander will reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a small-scale waste heat recovery system, while increasing the system efficiency compared to the prevailing ORC technologies at similar scale. During this project, TIAX demonstrated the scroll expander in a bench-scale test setup to have isentropic efficiency of 70-75% and operated it successfully for ~200 hours with minimal wear. This same expander was then installed in a complete ORC system driven by a medium grade waste heat source to generate 5-7 kW of electrical power. Due to funding constraints, TIAX was unable to complete this phase of testing, although the initial results were promising and demonstrated the potential of the technology.

  18. A methodology to incorporate life cycle analysis and the triple bottom line mechanism for sustainable management of industrial enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2004-02-01

    Since 1970"s, the environmental protection movement has challenged industries to increase their investment in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) techniques and management tools. Social considerations for global citizens and their descendants also motivated the examination on the complex issues of sustainable development beyond the immediate economic impact. Consequently, industrial enterprises have started to understand sustainable development in considering the Triple Bottom Line (TBL): economic prosperity, environmental quality and social justice. For the management, however, a lack of systematic ECM methodologies hinders their effort in planning, evaluating, reporting and auditing of sustainability. To address this critical need, this research develops a framework of a sustainable management system by incorporating a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of industrial operations with the TBL mechanism. A TBL metric system with seven sets of indices for the TBL elements and their complex relations is identified for the comprehensive evaluation of a company"s sustainability performance. Utilities of the TBL indices are estimated to represent the views of various stakeholders, including the company, investors, employees and the society at large. Costs of these indices are also captured to reflect the company"s effort in meeting the utilities. An optimization model is formulated to maximize the economic, environmental and social benefits by the company"s effort in developing sustainable strategies. To promote environmental and social consciousness, the methodology can significantly facilitate management decisions by its capabilities of including "non-business" values and external costs that the company has not contemplated before.

  19. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 4: Open recuperated and bottomed gas turbine cycles. [performance prediction and energy conversion efficiency of gas turbines in electric power plants (thermodynamic cycles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Grube, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Open-cycle recuperated gas turbine plant with inlet temperatures of 1255 to 1644 K (1800 to 2500 F) and recuperators with effectiveness values of 0, 70, 80 and 90% are considered. A 1644 K (2500 F) gas turbine would have a 33.5% plant efficiency in a simple cycle, 37.6% in a recuperated cycle and 47.6% when combined with a sulfur dioxide bottomer. The distillate burning recuperated plant was calculated to produce electricity at a cost of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh). Due to their low capital cost $170 to 200 $/kW, the open cycle gas turbine plant should see duty for peaking and intermediate load duty.

  1. Experimental and thermodynamic analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José,; Ruiz Rosales, Santiago; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; ROYO PASCUAL, LUCÍA; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estim...

  2. Comparative 4-E analysis of a bottoming pure NH3 and NH3-H2O mixture based power cycle for condenser waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankari, Goutam; Karmakar, Sujit

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a comparative performance analysis based on 4-E (Energy, Exergy, Environment, and Economic) of a bottoming pure Ammonia (NH3) based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Ammonia-water (NH3-H2O) based Kalina Cycle System 11(KCS 11) for additional power generation through condenser waste heat recovery integrated with a conventional 500MWe Subcritical coal-fired thermal power plant. A typical high-ash Indian coal is used for the analysis. The flow-sheet computer programme `Cycle Tempo' is used to simulate both the cycles for thermodynamic performance analysis at different plant operating conditions. Thermodynamic analysis is done by varying different NH3 mass fraction in KCS11 and at different turbine inlet pressure in both ORC and KCS11. Results show that the optimum operating pressure of ORC and KCS11 with NH3 mass fraction of 0.90 are about 15 bar and 11.70 bar, respectively and more than 14 bar of operating pressure, the plant performance of ORC integrated power plant is higher than the KCS11 integrated power plant and the result is observed reverse below this pressure. The energy and exergy efficiencies of ORC cycle are higher than the KCS11 by about 0.903 % point and 16.605 % points, respectively under similar saturation vapour temperature at turbine inlet for both the cycles. Similarly, plant energy and exergy efficiencies of ORC based combined cycle power plant are increased by 0.460 % point and 0.420 % point, respectively over KCS11 based combined cycle power plant. Moreover, the reduction of CO2 emission in ORC based combined cycle is about 3.23 t/hr which is about 1.5 times higher than the KCS11 based combined cycle power plant. Exergy destruction of the evaporator in ORC decreases with increase in operating pressure due to decrease in temperature difference of heat exchanging fluids. Exergy destruction rate in the evaporator of ORC is higher than KCS11 when the operating pressure of ORC reduces below 14 bar. This happens due to variable

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  4. Waste heat recovery. Bottoming cycle alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paanu, T.; Niemi, S.; Rantanen, P.

    2012-07-01

    Based on its high efficiency, the diesel engine is the leading power source for several heavy-duty applications, such as marine installations, electricity production, on-road trucks and buses, and various off-road machines. Inherently, the high efficiency means low carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Still today, one of the global challenges over the whole energy field is to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change, including the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emissions. This can be achieved by increasing the energy efficiency and energy savings, and by finding renewable options instead of conventional fossil energy sources. In this respect, the diesel engine provides a good starting point with a potential to achieve substantial improvements both in energy efficiency and emissions reduction. (FCEP 2010) Within the ongoing large Finnish research program Future Combustion Engine Power Plant (FCEP), one of the work packages concentrates on the energy efficiency of internal combustion engines. Technologies related to the improvement of energy efficiency are developed. The engine itself, waste heat recovery (WHR) systems, or power conversion are investigated. This study was part of the FCEP research program and focused particularly on the waste heat recovery systems with a target to find feasible solutions to increase the electricity production of diesel and gas engine driven power plants. At the same time, energy efficiency is improved, decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions. Diesel engines, due to their high combustion temperature and pressure, provide an energy conversion technology that is more efficient than any other thermal power device. Especially within the medium-speed range, large diesel and gas engines can reach electrical efficiencies of more than 45%. Nevertheless, the environmental concerns and increasing fuel prices push for continuous improvement in the energy efficiency. The WHR systems are seen as one of the most promising technologies to improve the efficiency of current diesel and gas engine installations significantly. The aim of this study was to search for and find thermodynamic processes and power conversion methods which could be applied as a WHR system in combination with diesel and gas engines to produce additional electrical power from the excess heat. Below, these processes and methods are briefly described and their practical potential is discussed. The study is mainly based on literature data collected in the University of Vaasa. (orig.)

  5. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  6. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  7. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  8. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of hard...

  9. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  10. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...... hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative...

  11. Bottom hole blowout preventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, D.H.

    1991-04-24

    An automatically controlled ball-valve type bottom-hole blowout preventer is provided for use in drilling oil or gas wells. The blowout preventer of the invention operates under normal drilling conditions in a fully open position with an unrestricted bore. This condition is maintained by a combination of spring and mud flow pressure acting against the upper surfaces of the valve. In the event of a well kick or blowout, pressures from gas or fluid volumes acting against the lower surfaces of the valve force it into the fully closed position. A system of ports and check valves within the blowout preventer forces hydraulic fluid from one chamber to another. The metering effect of these ports determines the rate of closure of the valve, thereby allowing normal running and pulling of the drill string or tubing, without interference to pipe fill-up or drainage, from valve closure. The blowout preventer is placed in a subassembly that is an integral part of the drill string and can be incorporated in a string in any location. 3 figs.

  12. Nanoelectronics from the bottom up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-11-01

    Electronics obtained through the bottom-up approach of molecular-level control of material composition and structure may lead to devices and fabrication strategies not possible with top-down methods. This review presents a brief summary of bottom-up and hybrid bottom-up/top-down strategies for nanoelectronics with an emphasis on memories based on the crossbar motif. First, we will discuss representative electromechanical and resistance-change memory devices based on carbon nanotube and core-shell nanowire structures, respectively. These device structures show robust switching, promising performance metrics and the potential for terabit-scale density. Second, we will review architectures being developed for circuit-level integration, hybrid crossbar/CMOS circuits and array-based systems, including experimental demonstrations of key concepts such lithography-independent, chemically coded stochastic demultipluxers. Finally, bottom-up fabrication approaches, including the opportunity for assembly of three-dimensional, vertically integrated multifunctional circuits, will be critically discussed.

  13. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  14. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  15. Bottom Production, Spectroscopy and Lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, I give a brief overview of the latest results related to the production, spectroscopy and lifetimes of bottom and charm hadrons. Several interesting experimental results were presented in this field in 2012. The focus will be on the findings of experiments performed at hadron colliders, since the LHC is taking up most of the stage this year, with a brief mention about electron-proton collider results.

  16. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of binary cycle power plant (Development of system to detect well bottom information when geothermal hot water is excavated); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (chinetsusei kussakuji kotei joho kenchi system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on the MWD system to identify on the real time basis the information about well bottom when geothermal hot water is excavated (azimuth, inclination, pressure and temperature). This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the developmental research on the detection device, attempts were made in improving the zonde, and enhancing its heat resisting performance. In addition, data were acquired on electronics parts as a result of the heat resistance identifying test. For the on-the-ground devices, improvement was made to add the experiment analyzing program with a program to remove the downhole motor pressure noise. The pressure noise during excavation in the actual wells was collected. In the analyzing system, use of PC, improvement, and operation check were performed on the well trace projecting and indicating system. Operation of the well trace estimating system was checked by using the actual data in order to prepare the operation manual. With regard to the well evaluation supporting system, improvement, operation check and that by using the actual data were executed on the PC version temperature analyzing system. Performance of the zonde was verified by the actual geothermal well test. (NEDO)

  17. Development of Crashworthy Bottom and Side Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naar, H.; Kujala, P.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2002-01-01

    structures. The first structure is a conventional double bottom. In the second structure (presently protected through a patent) the bottom plating is stiffened with hat-profiles instead of bulb profiles. In the third structure the outer shell is an all-steel sandwich panel. In the fourth structure the bottom...

  18. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  19. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill......The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate......, as well as the migration of landfill gas, preventing contact between gas and groundwater. The bottom lining system is composed of a relatively impermeable liner or lining system. This very low hydraulic conductivity system controls the movement of the leachate out of the landfill. The bottom lining system...

  20. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  1. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  2. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  3. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breugel, K.; Muchova, L.

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  4. A ocean bottom vector magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei

    2017-04-01

    The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.

  5. Studies of cycles for liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic generation of power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Petrick, M.

    1969-01-01

    Studies of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles indicate that the overall efficiency of a binary cycle, employing a liquid-metal topping cycle and a bottoming steam cycle, may reach 60 percent. Details of analyses and data on cycles are presented, and the commercial potential of the binary cycle is discussed.

  6. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  7. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.

    2017-03-01

    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  9. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  10. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  11. The GITEWS ocean bottom sensor packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boebel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS aims at reducing the risks posed by events such as the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. To minimize the lead time for tsunami alerts, to avoid false alarms, and to accurately predict tsunami wave heights, real-time observations of ocean bottom pressure from the deep ocean are required. As part of the GITEWS infrastructure, the parallel development of two ocean bottom sensor packages, PACT (Pressure based Acoustically Coupled Tsunameter and OBU (Ocean Bottom Unit, was initiated. The sensor package requirements included bidirectional acoustic links between the bottom sensor packages and the hosting surface buoys, which are moored nearby. Furthermore, compatibility between these sensor systems and the overall GITEWS data-flow structure and command hierarchy was mandatory. While PACT aims at providing highly reliable, long term bottom pressure data only, OBU is based on ocean bottom seismometers to concurrently record sea-floor motion, necessitating highest data rates. This paper presents the technical design of PACT, OBU and the HydroAcoustic Modem (HAM.node which is used by both systems, along with first results from instrument deployments off Indonesia.

  12. New, national bottom-up estimate for tree-based biological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in many ecosystems, but is also a chief pollutant from human activity. Quantifying human impacts on the nitrogen cycle and investigating natural ecosystem nitrogen cycling both require an understanding of the magnitude of nitrogen inputs from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). A bottom-up approach to estimating BNF—scaling rates up from measurements to broader scales—is attractive because it is rooted in actual BNF measurements. However, bottom-up approaches have been hindered by scaling difficulties, and a recent top-down approach suggested that the previous bottom-up estimate was much too large. Here, we used a bottom-up approach for tree-based BNF, overcoming scaling difficulties with the systematic, immense (>70,000 N-fixing trees) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database. We employed two approaches to estimate species-specific BNF rates: published ecosystem-scale rates (kg N ha-1 yr-1) and published estimates of the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) combined with FIA-derived growth rates. Species-specific rates can vary for a variety of reasons, so for each approach we examined how different assumptions influenced our results. Specifically, we allowed BNF rates to vary with stand age, N-fixer density, and canopy position (since N-fixation is known to require substantial light).Our estimates from this bottom-up technique are several orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates indicating

  13. Coal Bottom Ash for Portland Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Argiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA have become an interesting alternative to disposal. For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more sustainable cement production by lowering energy consumption and raw material extracted from quarries. Coal fly and bottom ashes are formed together in the same boiler; however, the size and shape of these ashes are very different, and hence their effect on the chemical composition as well as on the mineralogical phases must be studied. Coal bottom ash was ground. Later, both ashes were compared from a physical, mechanical, and chemical point of view to evaluate the potential use of coal bottom ash as a new Portland cement constituent. Both ashes, produced by the same electrical power plant, generally present similar chemical composition and compressive strength and contribute to the refill of mortar capillary pores with the reaction products leading to a redistribution of the pore size.

  14. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine...... model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working...

  15. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm), silver (10 ppm), stainless steel (0.1%) and minerals that can be converted into building products such as aggregates utilized for concrete, asphalt, etc. Since the composition of BA varies from cou...

  16. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section 178.811... Testing of IBCs § 178.811 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being...

  17. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum...

  18. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  19. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of this volume, Police reform from the bottom up, is bound to create expectations amongst those concerned with the challenges confronting institutional change in public police agencies. It is an interest shared by police scholars and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police agencies today can ...

  20. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  1. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  2. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  3. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Richard P Feynman. Classics Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 890-905. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/09/0890-0905 ...

  4. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  5. A trawl-resistant ocean bottom seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, A. H.; Gassier, D.; Webb, S. C.; Koczynski, T.; Oletu, V.; Gaherty, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) deployments are difficult on continental shelves and other shallow regions because of the hazard from bottom trawling. Seafloor instruments can be damaged, destroyed, or prematurely released by a trawl net that is weighted with rollers and dragged across the seafloor. Bottom trawling is extensive in many areas and past instrument losses have led the U. S. OBS Instrument Pool (OBSIP) to avoid long-duration deployments in water depths shallower than 1000 m. This restriction is particularly limiting for passive-source seismic studies at active continental margins. We report on the development and testing of a new trawl-resistant OBS. The seismometer and datalogger are protected within a heavy (450 kg) eight-sided steel shield that has a low, smooth profile (2 m basal diameter and a central peak height of 50 cm) and is designed to resist and deflect bottom-trawling equipment. The sides of the shield are closed in order to protect the seismometer from seafloor currents that can cause tilt-related low-frequency seismic noise. Shield-generated noise (from mechanical resonance or from interaction with seafloor currents) is reduced by decoupling the sensor from the shield and by maximizing the distance between the seismometer and the shield’s bottom rim. The heavy weight and low profile of the instrument preclude the use of dropweights for deployment and recovery. The OBS is instead lowered to the seafloor and recovered by attaching a lifting line using a remotely-operated vehicle. Twenty trawl-resistant OBSs, equipped with Trillium Compact seismometers and absolute pressure gauges, are being constructed and will be deployed as a component of the NSF Cascadia Initiative in the summer of 2011.

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  7. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    conditions, since it minimizes working time, hence cuts the costs related to the expensive ship time. One of the major factors of success is the development of a reliable pop-up mechanism, which includes not only unfailing hydro-acoustic communication, but also a reliable disconnector, both electrochemical and mechanical that could be used in salt and sweet waters. The extensive operational experience helped us to determine the reasons for non-emersion of the stations. The main problem was a sucking of instruments by muddy bottom sediments, and a simple spring assembly can release the station from the anchor with high probability Secondly, the newly developed software provides the great opportunity to reduce considerably the processing and interpretation time cycle. The calculation of forward kinematic problems can be performed on the notebook in seconds. Visualization tools render color images of gathers with various processing parameters. All mentioned above are proved by real data acquired by GNS during active and passive seismic surveys in deep and shallow waters. GNS has the pool of 65 OBS for large scale crustal 2D/3D active or passive experiments in any part World Ocean.

  8. Bottom friction and wave-induced roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesqueur, J.; Ardhuin, F.; Bennis, A.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The parameterization of the interaction of waves with a sandy bottom including ripple generation and relict ripple roughness (Ardhuin et al. 2003) using the sub-grid roughness algorithm by Tolman (1995) has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and generalized to take into account the variability of the bottom nature, including rock and cohesive sediments. The model is applied with a triangle-based mesh to both the U.S. East-Coast and the French Atlantic to North Sea coasts. The hindcast wave heights over the North Carolina continental shelf during the SHOaling Waves EXperiment reproduce the results of Ardhuin et al. (2003). The new application in the English Channel and Southern North see shows a general better result that with the JONSWAP parameterization. In particular the use of realistic roughness is important with gravel in the central Channel and sand or sand/silt mixtures in the southern North Sea.

  9. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  10. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  11. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    important to have a backup unit with the same capabilities. • The heading sensor is essential for effective ROV operation. • The tending vessel can...debris/bottom type/weather effects 5. Logistics a. Equipment requirements b. Equipment availability c. Backup equipment/spares availability d...Southeast Florida Mystery Spill SE Florida HFO X 2001 T/V Baltic Carrier Baltic Sea, Denmark Intermediate fuel oil (IFO) 380 X 2002 T/V Prestige

  12. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Merve Kaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception towards a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global contrast is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes.

  13. Preliminary water quality assessment of Spunky Bottoms restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Eilts, Kristen; Kelley, Timothy R; Webb, James W

    2009-02-15

    The approximately 1200-acre "Spunky Bottoms" wetland in Southern Illinois has been undergoing restoration to conditions prior to levying of the Illinois River and draining of adjacent floodplain for intensive agriculture (circa 1900). As part of a long-term water quality impact assessment of this restoration project, baseline water quality monitoring was conducted soon after restoration began. During this baseline/preliminary assessment, water samples were taken every 2-4 weeks from 10 sampling wells and seven surface water sites throughout the wetlands area for a period of 18 months. Measured parameters include nutrients (nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4(3-)), cations and anions (SO4(2-), Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) commonly found in surface and well water, trace metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and trace organics (triazine herbicides and their metabolites). In general, highest concentrations of ions were found in the southwest and northeast perimeter of the wetland area for both surface and ground water samples. Primarily low concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds were found throughout the wetland sampling area. Distribution of NO3--N suggests that this restored wetland, even at its infant age, may still contribute to biogeochemical (particularly N) element cycling. Continued monitoring and further research is necessary to determine long-term specific contribution of restored wetland to biogeochemical cycles.

  14. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of this...

  15. Bottom Trawl Survey Protocol Development (HB0706, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise objectives include: 1) Investigate performance characteristics of new research bottom trawl; 2) Develop standard operating procedures for the NEFSC Bottom...

  16. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely

  17. Scaled blast loading simulations on different vehicle bottom geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Weerheijm, J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new bottom concepts for military vehicles against mine blast threats involves the consideration of two main aspects: the bottom geometry and the material used. In order to reduce costs, experimental testing of new vehicle bottom concepts often requires small-scale setups together

  18. Revisiting the round bottom flask rainbow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    A popular demonstration experiment in optics uses a round-bottom flask filled with water to project a circular rainbow on a screen with a hole through which the flask is illuminated. We show how the vessel's wall shifts the first- and second-order bows towards each other and consequently reduces the width of Alexander's dark band. We address the challenge this introduces in observing Alexander's dark band, and explain the importance of a sufficient distance between the flask and the screen. The wall-effect also introduces a splitting of the bows that can easily be misinterpreted.

  19. Heavy exotic molecules with charm and bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the (0+ ,1+) multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the (0- ,1-) multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets (0± ,1±) cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for J ≤ 1. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC =1++ bind, which we identify as the reported neutral X (3872). Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC =1+- binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics Zb+ (10610) and Zb+ (10650). The bound isosinglet with JPC =1++ is suggested as a possible neutral Xb (10532) not yet reported.

  20. Bottom morphology in the Song Hau distributary channel, Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Dallon Weathers, H.; Meselhe, Ehab A.

    2017-09-01

    Field studies in the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam conducted at high (Sept.-Oct 2014) and low (March 2015) Mekong River discharge are utilized to examine channel bottom morphology and links with sediment transport in the system. Multibeam bathymetric mapping surveys over the entire channel complex in the lower 80 km of the distributary channel, and over 12- to 24-h tidal periods at six transect locations in the reach are used to characterize bottom type and change on seasonal and tidal timescales, supplemented by bottom sampling. The results of this study indicate that the largest proportion of channel floor (up to 80% of the total area) is composed of substratum outcrops of relict sediment units deposited during the progradation of the delta in the last 3.5 ka. These take the form of outcrops that are either (1) steep-sided, tabular channel floor, (2) steep-sided sidewall, or (3) relatively flat channel floor. Flatter outcrops of channel floor substratum are identified by the presence of sedimentary furrows (<0.5 m deep) incised into the channel bottom that are exposed at high discharge and oriented along channel and laterally continuous for kilometers. These furrows are persistent in location and extent across tidal cycles and appear to be incised into relict units, sometimes with a thin surficial layer of modern sediment observable in bottom grabs. The extent of substratum exposure, greater than that observed previously in low tidal energy systems like the Mississippi River, may relate both to a relatively low sand supply from the catchment, and/or to an efficient transfer of both sand and mud through this tidally energetic channel. Sand bottom areas forming dunes, comprise about 19% of the channel floor over the study area and are generally less than a few meters thick except on bar extensions of mid-channel islands. Both sandy and substratum areas are mantled by soft muds 0.25-1 m thick during low discharge in the estuarine section of

  1. The benefits of bottom-up design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    An inconsistency is examined in generic top-down design methods and standards employed in the implementation of reliable software. Many design approaches adopt top-down ordering when defining the structure, interfaces, and processing of a system. However, strict adherence to a top-down sequencing does not permit accurate description of a system's error handling functions. The design of the system response to errors is becoming critical as the reliability requirements of systems increase. How top-down methods such as object oriented design and structured design do not adequately address the issues of error handling is described, and it is suggested using a bottom-up substep within these methods to eliminate the problem.

  2. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  3. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical decoupling...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...

  4. Diffusive overshooting in hot bottom burning AGB models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driebe, T.; Blocker, T.; Herwig, F.; Schonberner, D.

    The concept of diffusive overshooting based on hydrodynamical simulations of convection zones (Freytag et al. 1996) has already successfully been introduced to AGB models by Herwig et al. (1997). For a 3 M_odot AGB model sequence, Herwig et al. (1997) found with this prescription of additional slow mixing dredge up, i.e. the production of carbon stars of relatively low masses, as well as the formation of a 13C pocket to drive the s-process in these stars. In this study we investigate the influence of the exponential diffusive overshoot scheme on more massive AGB models which suffer from hot bottom burning (HBB). It is well known that HBB leads to the break-down of the core-mass luminosity relation and to the formation of Li-rich AGB stars. Additionally, it may prevent, at least temporarily, the carbon-star stage due to CN cycling of the enriched envelope matter. These important consequences of HBB depend considerably on the treatment of convection (and mass loss). Consequently, the efficiency of HBB and its competition with dredge-up episodes depend also on the aforementioned additional slow mixing processes which obviously successfully operate at and below the H/He interface.

  5. The "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are back at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The highly coveted "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are given to the winners of the “Bike to CERN” competition. There is only one way to secure your place in history: commute to work on your bike, no matter what the weather conditions are and how busy you may feel.   The president of the CERN cycling club, Henrik Nissen (left), with Tim Smith, one of the three winners of the “Bike to CERN” Challenge. At CERN, bikers have a dedicated club and can take part in two popular events designed to challenge them: Bike2Work, which has been going for 10 years and which, every June, mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland, and the “unofficial Bike to CERN” challenge, which runs throughout the year. In 2013, 125 people took part in this local competition, but many CERN personnel ride to work every day without registering their kilometres. The three winners, all correspond...

  6. Scaled CMOS Reliability and Considerations for Spacecraft Systems: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark

    2012-01-01

    New space missions will increasingly rely on more advanced technologies because of system requirements for higher performance, particularly in instruments and high-speed processing. Component-level reliability challenges with scaled CMOS in spacecraft systems from a bottom-up perspective have been presented. Fundamental Front-end and Back-end processing reliability issues with more aggressively scaled parts have been discussed. Effective thermal management from system-level to the componentlevel (top-down) is a key element in overall design of reliable systems. Thermal management in space systems must consider a wide range of issues, including thermal loading of many different components, and frequent temperature cycling of some systems. Both perspectives (top-down and bottom-up) play a large role in robust, reliable spacecraft system design.

  7. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  8. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely calculational, using theorems from lattice therory, the Bird-Meertens calculus, and laws for list-comprehensions. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence of a solution emerge as a byproduct o...

  9. Modelling air―water flows in bottom outlets of dams

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    If air is entrained in a bottom outlet of a dam in an uncontrolled way, the resulting air pockets may cause problems such as blowback, blowout and loss of discharge capacity. In order to provide guidance for bottom outlet design and operation, this study examines how governing parameters affect air entrainment, air-pocket transport and de-aeration and the surrounding flow structure in pipe flows. Both experimental and numerical approaches are used. Air can be entrained into the bottom outlet ...

  10. Stability of leadership in bottom-up hierarchical organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Galam, Serge

    2007-01-01

    The stability of a leadership against a growing internal opposition is studied in bottom-up hierarchical organizations. Using a very simple model with bottom-up majority rule voting, the dynamics of power distribution at the various hierarchical levels is calculated within a probabilistic framework. Given a leadership at the top, the opposition weight from the hierarchy bottom is shown to fall off quickly while climbing up the hierarchy. It reaches zero after only a few hierarchical levels. I...

  11. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed......We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...

  12. Drag-based 'hovering' in ducks: the hydrodynamics and energetic cost of bottom feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76+/-3.47 degrees below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26+/-1.9 degrees ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1+/-0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7+/-0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet.

  13. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J.P.; Chung, W.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Ciobanu, C.I.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; De Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H.C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M.J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J.E.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jha, M.K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, H.W.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R.L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, S.W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D.O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martinez, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M.S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Griso, S.Pagan; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A.A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D.E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Rao, K.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R.St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G.L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G.A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzman, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R.L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W.C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.S.; Yun, J.C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A_CP(BsKpi) = +0.39 +- 0.15 stat +- 0.08 syst, and bottom baryons, A_CP(Lb->ppi) = +0.03 +- 0.17 stat +- 0.05 syst and A_CP(Lb->pK) = +0.37 +- 0.17 +- 0.03 syst. In addition, we measure CP violation in Bd-->Kpi decays with 3.5sigma significance, A_CP(B->Kpi) = -0.086 +- 0.023 stat +- 0.009 syst, in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of Bs-->K+K- and B0-->pi+pi- decays are also updated.

  14. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    detected trends in global primary productivity are even smaller (33 Tg-C y -2 ). Yet residual carbon balance methods infer that the terrestrial biosphere is experiencing a significant and growing carbon sink. Possible explanations for this large and growing net land sink include roles of land use change and greening of the land, regional enhancement of photosynthesis, and down regulation of plant and soil respiration with warming temperatures. Longer time series of variables needed to provide top-down and bottom-up assessments of the carbon cycle are needed to resolve these pressing and unresolved issues regarding how, why, and at what rates gross and net carbon fluxes are changing.

  15. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  16. Menu Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  17. Simple cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Rivin, Igor

    1999-01-01

    We obtain sharp bounds for the number of n-cycles in a finite graph as a function of the number of edges, and prove that the complete graph is optimal in more ways than could be imagined. En route, we prove some sharp estimates on power sums.

  18. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  19. Dual Pressure versus Hybrid Recuperation in an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle – Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    steam in a HRSG (heat recovery steam generator). The bottoming steam cycle was modeled with two configurations: (1) a simple single pressure level and (2) a dual pressure level with both a reheat and a pre-heater. The SOFC stacks in the present SOFC-ST hybrid cycles were not pressurized. The dual......A SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) cycle running on natural gas was integrated with a ST (steam turbine) cycle. The fuel is desulfurized and pre-reformed before entering the SOFC. A burner was used to combust the remaining fuel after the SOFC stacks. The off-gases from the burner were used to produce...... pressure configuration steam cycle combined with SOFC cycle (SOFC-ST) was new and has not been studied previously. In each of the configuration, a hybrid recuperator was used to recovery the remaining energy of the off-gases after the HRSG. Thus, four different plants system setups were compared to each...

  20. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  1. Bottoms Up. [report on the Defense Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-11-01

    The [open quotes]Bottoms Up Review[close quotes] was the Pentagon's ongoing reevaluation of the dangers faced by the United States and the forces needed to deal with those dangers. Its purpose was [open quotes]to define the strategy, force structure, modernization programs, industrial base, and infrastucture needed to meet new dangers and seize new opportunities.[close quotes] The report was released in early September. Washington's reaction to the review (generally silence) and the review's major shortcomings are discussed is this article. The central shortfall of the review is the disconnection between the latest military plan and the security threats faced by the United States. As an example of the disconnection, the Pentagon's fiscal 1994 budget request allots less than one percent of the $263 billion budget request to destroy nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union, to fund peacekeeping operations, to support economic conversion, and to counter proliferation, although these problems are among those slated as among the most important when listed in the review.

  2. Internal wave-turbulence pressure above sloping sea bottoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate bottom pressure sensor has been moored at different sites varying from a shallow sea strait via open ocean guyots to a 1900 m deep Gulf of Mexico. All sites show more or less sloping bottom topography. Focusing on frequencies (sigma) higher than tidal, the pressure records are remarkably

  3. Monitoring of metals in Tilapia nilotica tissues, bottom sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), bottom sediments and water were collected from Nworie River and Oguta Lake. The muscle, liver and gills of the fish as well as the bottom sediments and water were analysed for Al, Cr, Cd, Pb, As, Zn, Mn, Co, Se, Cu, Ni and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer to highlight the importance ...

  4. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillioz, M.; Grober, R.; Kapuvari, A.

    2014-01-01

    of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element V-tb are fulfilled...

  5. Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/7160--17-9701 Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water January...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water Roger C. Gauss,1 Edward L. Kunz,1 Joseph M. Fialkowski...2 3 B2001 (SHALLOW WATER − NEW JERSEY SHELF) .............................. 4

  6. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... obtained from FUEL thermal power station and had a loss of ignition of 11%. Experiments were conducted by replacing fine aggregate with bottom ash by weight in varying percentages (20%, 30%, 40%, 60%, and 80% respectively). The results showed that an increase in bottom ash content causes workability and plastic ...

  7. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    This paper investigates the use of unprocessed coal bottom ash as fine aggregate replacement in structural concrete in an attempt to contribute to a sound management of coal ash on the island of Mauritius. The coal bottom ash was obtained from FUEL thermal power station and had a loss of ignition of 11%. Experiments ...

  8. Bottom-up attention orienting in young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether social stimuli and bottom-up scene properties were congruent or competing. This initial reliance on bottom-up strategies correlated with severity of social impairment as well as receptive language impairments. These data provide support for the idea that there is enhanced reliance on bottom-up attention strategies in ASDs, and that this may have a negative impact on social and language development.

  9. Trends in summer bottom-water temperatures on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from 1985 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Eugene; Rabalais, Nancy N; Justić, Dubravko

    2017-01-01

    We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0.051 oC y-1 between1963 and 2015. The bottom-water warming in summer for all stations was 1.9 times faster compared to the rise in local summer air temperatures, and 6.4 times faster than the concurrent increase in annual global ocean sea surface temperatures. The annual rise in average summer bottom-water temperatures on the subtropical nGOM continental shelf is comparable to the few published temperature trend estimates from colder environments. These recent changes in the heat storage on the nGOM continental shelf will affect oxygen and carbon cycling, spatial distribution of fish and shrimp, and overall species diversity.

  10. Trends in summer bottom-water temperatures on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from 1985 to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Eugene Turner

    Full Text Available We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0.051 oC y-1 between1963 and 2015. The bottom-water warming in summer for all stations was 1.9 times faster compared to the rise in local summer air temperatures, and 6.4 times faster than the concurrent increase in annual global ocean sea surface temperatures. The annual rise in average summer bottom-water temperatures on the subtropical nGOM continental shelf is comparable to the few published temperature trend estimates from colder environments. These recent changes in the heat storage on the nGOM continental shelf will affect oxygen and carbon cycling, spatial distribution of fish and shrimp, and overall species diversity.

  11. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling for Open Combined Regenerative Brayton and Inverse Brayton Cycles with Regeneration before the Inverse Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.

  13. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  14. Bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets for ultrafast lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Wei, Xian-Yong; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Jiang, Chen-Hui; Wu, Chao; Ma, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Xing; Zong, Zhi-Min; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-06-07

    A facile bottom-up strategy was developed to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGSs) from glucose using a sacrificial template synthesis method. Three main types of nitrogen dopants (pyridinic, pyrrolic and graphitic nitrogens) were introduced into the graphene lattice, and an inimitable microporous structure of NGS with a high specific surface area of 504 m(2) g(-1) was obtained. Particularly, with hybrid features of lithium ion batteries and Faradic capacitors at a low rate and features of Faradic capacitors at a high rate, the NGS presents a superior lithium storage performance. During electrochemical cycling, the NGS electrode afforded an enhanced reversible capacity of 832.4 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and an excellent cycling stability of 750.7 mA h g(-1) after 108 discharge-charge cycles. Furthermore, an astonishing rate capability of 333 mA h g(-1) at 10,000 mA g(-1) and a high rate cycle performance of 280.6 mA h g(-1) even after 1200 cycles were also achieved, highlighting the significance of nitrogen doping on the maximum utilization of graphene-based materials for advanced lithium storage.

  15. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  16. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  17. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  18. NEFSC 2002 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0204, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 1998 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9811, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. Monitoring changes in stream bottom sediments and benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the analysis of stream bottom sediments could be used to assess sediment pollution generated by highway construction. Most of the work completed to date has involved testing and refining methods for the co...

  1. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is operated...

  2. SIMULATION OF ANALYTICAL TRANSIENT WAVE DUE TO DOWNWARD BOTTOM THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugih Sudharma Tjandra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generation process is an important part of understanding waves, especially tsunami. Large earthquake under the sea is one major cause of tsunamis. The sea surface deforms as a response from the sea bottom motion caused by the earthquake. Analytical description of surface wave generated by bottom motion can be obtained from the linearized dispersive model. For a bottom motion in the form of a downward motion, the result is expressed in terms of improper integral. Here, we focus on analyzing the convergence of this integral, and then the improper integral is approximated into a finite integral so that the integral can be evaluated numerically. Further, we simulate free surface elevation for three different type of bottom motions, classified as impulsive, intermediate, and slow  movements. We demonstrate that the wave propagating to the right, with a depression as the leading wave, followed with subsequent wave crests. This phenomena is often observed in most tsunami events.

  3. NEFSC 2009 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0905, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  4. NEFSC 2009 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0901, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. NEFSC 2011 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1102, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  6. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  7. NEFSC 2003 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0305, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. NMFS Bottom Longline Analytical Dataset Provided to NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized bottom longline surveys in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic since...

  9. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0710, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  10. NEFSC 2014 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. NEFSC 1999 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9911, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. NEFSC 2001 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0110, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (Al0006, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. Bottom flange reinforcement in NU I-girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    "The 1996 edition of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges stated that nominal confinement reinforcement be placed to enclose prestressing steel in the bottom flange of bridge girders from girder ends to at least a distance eq changed th...

  15. NEFSC 2004 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0409, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0711, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2013 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1301, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2015 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0803, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 2010 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0007, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. NEFSC 2004 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0401, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. NEFSC 2012 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  4. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0807, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. NEFSC 2002 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0210, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  6. NEFSC 2013 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1304, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  7. NEFSC 2015 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1506, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. NEFSC 2012 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1201, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. NEFSC 2011 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1105, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  10. NEFSC 2002 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0203, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    , however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized....../aging, washing with and without additives, organic matter, sampling techniques, utilization options, and assessment tools. This paper provides an overview of these projects. The main results and experiences are discussed and evaluated with respect to bottom ash upgrading and utilization. Based on this discussion......Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  12. NEFSC 2005 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0502, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2004 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0403, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0508, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  15. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0509, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2014 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1401, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0801, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0802, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficien...

  20. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zelong; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficiency and other performances are analyzed by numerical calculations.

  1. A Stakeholder Approach to Triple Bottom Line Accounting: Nigerian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Okenwa Cy Ogbodo

    2015-01-01

    The broad objective of this study is to determine whether triple bottom line reports has been able to deliver stakeholders with the needed satisfaction when compared to conventional financial reports. To achieve the above objective three research questions were raised, to address the issue of triple bottom line report and stakeholder satisfaction. From these hypotheses were formulated. The descriptive method of research design was employed to generate the required data. The population of were...

  2. Chimeric types of chromosome X in bottom-fermenting yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T; Izumikawa, M; Tadami, H

    2009-10-01

    To determine the structure of the chimeric chromosome X of bottom-fermenting yeasts. Eight cosmid clones carrying DNA from chromosome X of bottom-fermenting yeasts were selected by end-sequencing. Four of the cosmid clones had Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC)-type and Saccharomyces bayanus (SB)-type chimeric ends, two had SC-type ends and two had SB-type ends. Sequencing revealed that the bottom-fermenting yeast strains in this study had four types of chromosome X: SC-SC, SC-SB, SB-SC and SB-SB. The translocation site in the chimeric chromosome is conserved among bottom-fermenting yeast strains, and was created by homologous recombination within a region of high sequence identity between the SC-type sequence and the SB-type sequence. Existing bottom-fermenting yeast strains share a common ancestor in which the chimeric chromosome X was generated. The knowledge gained in this study sheds light on the evolution of bottom-fermenting yeasts.

  3. Assessing benthic ecological impacts of bottom aquaculture using macrofaunal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Fan, Ying; Yan, Cunjun; Gao, Chunzi; Xu, Zhaodong; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2017-01-15

    Bottom aquaculture of bivalves is a high-yield culture method, which is increasingly adopted by shellfish farmers worldwide. However, the effects of bottom aquaculture on benthic ecosystems are not well-known. Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), is a widely distributed bottom aquaculture mollusk species. To assess the ecological impacts of Manila clam bottom aquaculture, clams and other macrofaunal assemblages were investigated during four cruises (July and November 2011, February and May 2012) at six sampling sites in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages had significant negative correlations with the abundance of Manila clams. However, according to the results of several biotic indices, a low disturbance was detected by Manila clam bottom aquaculture. In conclusion, AMBI (AZTI'S Marine Biotic Index) and M-AMBI (Multivariate AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices are more suitable for assessing ecological quality than polychaete/amphipod ratios when the disturbance is slight, such as at a bivalve bottom aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeated Maxima of Sunspot Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivodubskij, V.

    2015-12-01

    The explanation for the observed phenomenon of repeated maxima of sunspot cycles is proposed. Key roles in the proposed scenarioplay two tides of toroidal field from the lower base of the solar convection zone (SCZ) to the surface. Deep toroidal field is excited due to Ω-effectnear the bottom of the SCZ at the beginning of the cycle. Then this field is transported to the surface due to combined acting of magnetic buoyancy,magnetic ∇ρ-flow and turbulent diamagnetism in the equatorial domain. Over time the magnetic fragments can be seen as bipolar spots in themiddle latitudes in the "royal zone". This first wave of toroidal field, which is directed up, gives the main maximum activity spots. However, theunderlying toroidal field in the high-latitude polar domains at the beginning of the cycle is blocked by directed downward magnetic∇ρ-pumping and turbulent diamagnetism. Directed to the equator deep meridional flow replaces this field to the low latitudes (the equatorialdomain) during about 1 - 2 years. After that the turn of floating this "retarded" field to surface (second tide of toroidal field). Coming to the surfaceat low latitudes this second portion of toroidal field leads to second sunspot maximum.

  5. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  6. Moon phase effects and timing of emerging macrobenthic assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Aldo S.; Gómez, Gonzalo E.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Malebran, Maritza; Cortés, Cynthia; Riascos, José M.

    2014-02-01

    Several species of benthic macro and meio-invertebrates actively emerge from the seabed to the water column during the night. Such diel vertical migrations have important consequences for benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal, connectivity and recovery after disturbance of benthic assemblages. However, this process has never been studied in the coast of the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Herein we examined the relationship between the emerging assemblage and moon phases (and co-variables) and the timing of emergence during the day/night cycle, in a sublittoral soft-bottom habitat. Sampling using emergence traps was conducted at 7 m depth in the zone of Bolsico, a sheltered cove with low bottom hydrodynamics in northern Chile. Multivariable analysis showed that changes in the dissimilarity of the emerging assemblage were related to each moon phase. The percentage of moon illumination, bottom illumination and tide amplitude explained most of the variation of the emerging assemblage. Species showed differential responses to each moon phase; some were abundant at intermediate phases (e.g., harpacticoids), or peaked at full moon (e.g. ostracods) and others such as mysids emerged in equal abundances at all moon phases. The timing of assemblage emergence followed a consecutive sequence through the night/day period. Most of the studies dealing with the emergence processes have described species-specific responses. Our research shows that the examination at assemblage level may reveal new and distinct patterns of emergence in sublittoral soft-bottom habitats.

  7. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  8. Bottom friction. A practical approach to modelling coastal oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Jensen, Palle; Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Tornsfeldt Sørensen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Coastal processes imply the interaction of the atmosphere, the sea, the coastline and the bottom. The spatial gradients in this area are normally large, induced by orographic and bathymetric features. Although nowadays it is possible to obtain high-resolution bathymetry, the details of the seabed, e.g. sediment type, presence of biological material and living organisms are not available. Additionally, these properties as well as bathymetry can also be highly dynamic. These bottom characteristics are very important to describe the boundary layer of currents and waves and control to a large degree the dissipation of flows. The bottom friction is thus typically a calibration parameter in numerical modelling of coastal processes. In this work, we assess this process and put it into context of other physical processes uncertainties influencing wind-waves and currents in the coastal areas. A case study in the North Sea is used, particularly the west coast of Denmark, where water depth of less than 30 m cover a wide fringe along the coast, where several offshore wind farm developments are being carried out. We use the hydrodynamic model MIKE 21 HD and the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW to simulate atmosphere and tidal induced flows and the wind wave generation and propagation. Both models represent state of the art and have been developed for flexible meshes, ideal for coastal oceanography as they can better represent coastlines and allow a variable spatial resolution within the domain. Sensitivity tests to bottom friction formulations are carried out into context of other processes (e.g. model forcing uncertainties, wind and wave interactions, wind drag coefficient). Additionally, a map of varying bottom properties is generated based on a literature survey to explore the impact of the spatial variability. Assessment of different approaches is made in order to establish a best practice regarding bottom friction and coastal oceanographic modelling. Its contribution is also

  9. Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katrin; Hahn, Aljoscha M; Stark, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution of non-interacting particles with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases.

  10. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  11. Chemical speciation of vanadium in coal bottom Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Firat; Aydin, Isil; Hamamci, Candan [Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Saydut, Abdurrahman [Engineering Faculty, Mining Engineering Department, Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Gunduz, Beniz [Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    Chemical speciation of vanadium is important to understand the true nature of this element in the environment as well as its biochemical pathways. Sample pretreatment, preparation, and chemical speciation methods were applied for vanadium in coal bottom ash here. Two-stage microwave acid digestion was used to preparation of samples. Determination of vanadium was performed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Speciation of vanadium was carried out using a seven-step sequential extraction procedure of the coal bottom ash each releasing species of vanadium: Water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, oxidizable, sulfide, and residual fractions. Total vanadium concentration in the coal bottom ash is 701 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. The most abundant form of vanadium in coal bottom ash is residual fraction of vanadium (196 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.). Relative abundances of the remaining vanadium fractions in coal bottom ash are as follows: Reducible (176 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) > sulfide (176 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) > carbonate (85 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) > oxidizable (50 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) > water soluble (10.6 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) > exchangeable (9.0 mg kg{sup -1} d.w.). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  13. The influence of triple bottom line on international operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sperotto Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a triple bottom line perspective to analyze how the international operations literature integrates economic, social, and environmental issues. Additionally, it shows the main drivers of and barriers to the adoption of triple bottom line practices by companies in an international context. We conducted a literature review in English language journals which publish research of production and operations management and sustainability, resulting in a final sample of 29 papers. Results show that social and legal pressure for companies to adopt a responsible behavior prompts an isomorphic process that leads them to conduct their operations on behalf of triple bottom line goals. Behavioral differences between spin-offs in various countries caused institutions to create mechanisms that can press and change private standards through regulation and enforcement. There is room for progress in studies that seek to analyze the company’s relationships in its international experience and its multi-institutional relations.

  14. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  15. A plea for Global Health Action bottom-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece focuses on global health action by hands-on bottom-up practice: Initiation of an organizational framework and securing financial efficiency are – however - essential, both clearly a domain of well trained public health professionals. Examples of action are cited in the four main areas of global threats: planetary climate change, global divides and inequity, global insecurity and violent conflicts, global instability and financial crises. In conclusion a stable health systems policy framework would greatly enhance success. However, such organisational framework dries out if not linked to public debates channelling fresh thoughts and controversial proposals: the structural stabilisation is essential but has to serve not to dominate bottom-up activities. In other words a horizontal management is required, a balanced equilibrium between bottom-up initiative and top-down support. Last not least rewarding voluntary and charity work by public acknowledgement is essential.

  16. Perspectives on Geoacoustic Inversion of Ocean Bottom Reflectivity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ross Chapman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on acoustic reflectivity of the ocean bottom, and describes inversion of reflection data from an experiment designed to study the physical properties and structure of the ocean bottom. The formalism of Bayesian inference is reviewed briefly to establish an understanding of the approach for inversion that is in widespread use. A Bayesian inversion of ocean bottom reflection coefficient versus angle data to estimate geoacoustic model parameters of young oceanic crust is presented. The data were obtained in an experiment to study the variation of sound speed in crustal basalt with age of the crust at deep water sites in the Pacific Ocean where the sediment deposits overlying the basalt are very thin. The inversion results show that sound speed of both compressional and shear waves is increasing with crustal age over the track of the experiment where age increased from 40 to 70 million years.

  17. Bottom-linked innovation: Collaboration between middle managers and employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...... hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative...

  18. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM. We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜−mχ≲O(100 GeV in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  19. Application of solidified sea bottom sediments into environmental bioremediation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H.A. Dabwan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since dredged sea bottom sediments normally give off a horrible smell, the limitation of disposal places has become a serious problem in Japan. Hence, development of an alternative system to readily treat dredged sea bottom sediments is therefore needed. The development of “value-added” reused products from these sediments offers particular benefits both in terms of resource recovery and protection of the environment. We developed an in situ solidification system for the treatment of sea bottom sediments, the “Hi-Biah-System (HBS”. Firstly, this review deals with solidified sea bottom sediments for the construction of an artificial tidal flat in Ago Bay, Japan. The environmental conditions (pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP, acid volatile sulphide (AVS, loss on ignition (LOI, water content (WC, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (T-N, chlorophyll a and particle size were then monitored in the constructed tidal flat. The number of benthos individuals and growth of short-necked clams (Ruditapes philippinarum in the artificial tidal flat were also evaluated. The environmental conditions, number of benthos individuals and growth of short-necked clams in the artificial tidal flat were shown to be similar to those observed in a natural tidal flat. Next, the potential use of solidified sea bottom sediments as soil parent material in the germination/growth of seagrass is presented. The soil parent material consisting of solidified sediments obtained using HBS plus soil conditioner and hardener seems to be effective for the germination of Zostera marina. The best growth after six months was observed in plants grown in soil parent material consisting of a mixture of solidified sediments and the sand by weight ration 70:30. The present study may suggest the possible application of solidified sea bottom sediments into growth of other plants.

  20. Getting to the bottom of L2 listening instruction: Making a case for bottom-up activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Siegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the incorporation of bottom-up activities for English as a foreign language (EFL listening. It discusses theoretical concepts and pedagogic options for addressing bottom-up aural processing in the EFL classroom as well as how and why teachers may wish to include such activities in lessons. This discussion is augmented by a small-scale classroom-based research project that investigated six activities targeting learners’ bottom-up listening abilities. Learners studying at the lower-intermediate level of a compulsory EFL university course were divided into a treatment group (n = 21 and a contrast group (n = 32. Each group listened to the same audio material and completed listening activities from an assigned textbook. The treatment group also engaged in a set of six bottom-up listening activities using the same material. This quasi-experimental study used dictation and listening proficiency tests before and after the course. Between-group comparisons of t-test results of dictation and listening proficiency tests indicated that improvements for the treatment group were probably due to the BU intervention. In addition, results from a posttreatment survey suggested that learners value explicit bottom-up listening instruction.

  1. Thickness optimization of the flow plate of bottom end piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    High burnup fuel assembly has been the worldwide trends in nuclear fuel design. The burnup increase will result in more axial irradiation growth of fuel rod and consequently it requires more space between top and bottom nozzles to accommodate the increased axial growth of the fuel rod. In order to get more axial space between top and bottom nozzles, thickness optimization of the flow plate for the Korean fuel assembly (KOFA) as well as DRBEP-DG based on stress criterion was performed by way of finite element code `ANSYS`. 12 tabs., 92 figs., 9 refs. (Author) .new.

  2. Bottom-up synthetic biology: engineering in a tinkerer's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Petra

    2011-09-02

    How synthetic can "synthetic biology" be? A literal interpretation of the name of this new life science discipline invokes expectations of the systematic construction of biological systems with cells being built module by module--from the bottom up. But can this possibly be achieved, taking into account the enormous complexity and redundancy of living systems, which distinguish them quite remarkably from design features that characterize human inventions? There are several recent developments in biology, in tight conjunction with quantitative disciplines, that may bring this literal perspective into the realm of the possible. However, such bottom-up engineering requires tools that were originally designed by nature's greatest tinkerer: evolution.

  3. Modeling of melt-coolant mixing by bottom injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazachkov, I.V.; Paladino, D.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, the flow characteristics during the coolant injection, with submerged nozzles, at the bottom of a molten pool are studied. The flow pattern developed by the rising coolant is considered for the case of complete coolant vaporization, and the pool-coolant phase distributions are assessed by a modeling approach delivered from literature for a heterogeneous turbulent jet. To calculate the basic characteristics of such flow, integral relationships are proposed for the two-phase boundary layer. The results of numerical computations and approximate solution are compared with the experimental data obtained in the low temperature experiments, conducted in the DECOBI (debris coolability by bottom injection) facility. (authors)

  4. Bottom-up silicon nanowire-based thermoelectric microgenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, D.; Huber, R.; Hierold, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, bottom-up intrinsic crystalline Si nanowire arrays in combination with top-down microfabrication techniques and a vertical device architecture have been proposed to develop an all-silicon nanostructured thermoelectric generator. To fabricate this device, a suitable vertical integration of Si NWs on patterned microstructures, which define the thermoelectric legs of the generator, has been achieved by bonding top and bottom silicon structures through nanowires. The process has been proven to be a feasible approach that employs a regrowth process of the nanowires for bonding purposes.

  5. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  6. Dynamics of a Convex Bit Rolling Over Curvilinear Well Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyayev, V. I.; Lugovoi, P. Z.; Shevchuk, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of the dynamical bending of a drill string rotating in a deep borehole with self-excitation of whirling oscillations of the bit on the well bottom is stated. A mathematical model describing the rolling of a spherical bit over an ellipsoidal bottom is developed. The whirling modes of the bit in fixed and rotating frames of reference are plotted. It is shown that the calculated trajectories of the bit can be spirals that unwind (unstable mode) or wind (stable mode). They are characterized by high accelerations and, therefore, are dangerous for the system.

  7. Top-down network analysis to drive bottom-up modeling of physiological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Christopher L; Rodrigues, Richard R; Chen, Katherine C; Tyson, John J; Murali, T M

    2013-05-01

    Top-down analyses in systems biology can automatically find correlations among genes and proteins in large-scale datasets. However, it is often difficult to design experiments from these results. In contrast, bottom-up approaches painstakingly craft detailed models that can be simulated computationally to suggest wet lab experiments. However, developing the models is a manual process that can take many years. These approaches have largely been developed independently. We present LINKER, an efficient and automated data-driven method that can analyze molecular interactomes to propose extensions to models that can be simulated. LINKER combines teleporting random walks and k-shortest path computations to discover connections from a source protein to a set of proteins collectively involved in a particular cellular process. We evaluate the efficacy of LINKER by applying it to a well-known dynamic model of the cell division cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods, subnetworks computed by LINKER are heavily enriched in Gene Ontology (GO) terms relevant to the cell cycle. Finally, we highlight how networks computed by LINKER elucidate the role of a protein kinase (Cdc5) in the mitotic exit network of a dynamic model of the cell cycle.

  8. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  9. Pacific deep circulation and ventilation controlled by tidal mixing away from the sea bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akira; Niwa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Vertical mixing in the ocean is a key driver of the global ocean thermohaline circulation, one of the most important factors controlling past and future climate change. Prior observational and theoretical studies have focused on intense tidal mixing near the sea bottom (near-field mixing). However, ocean general circulation models that employ a parameterization of near-field mixing significantly underestimate the strength of the Pacific thermohaline circulation. Here we demonstrate that tidally induced mixing away from the sea bottom (far-field mixing) is essential in controlling the Pacific thermohaline circulation. Via the addition of far-field mixing to a widely used tidal parameterization, we successfully simulate the Pacific thermohaline circulation. We also propose that far-field mixing is indispensable for explaining the presence of the world ocean's oldest water in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Our findings suggest that far-field mixing controls ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean, a process important for ocean carbon and biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Sinking of less dense water in the bottom Ekman layer formed by a coastal downwelling current over a sloping bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, D. N.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Podymov, O. I.; Ostrovskii, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory experiments on the dynamics of a downwelling coastal current over a sloping bottom were conducted in a tank on a rotating platform. The current was generated by a source of stable water flow of the same density (barotropic case) or of lesser density (baroclinic case) compared with the surrounding water in the tank. It was found that even in the case of the baroclinic current, a less dense water downflow in the bottom Ekman layer was formed under certain conditions. At some moment, this downflow undergoes convective instability. Taking into account the results of the experiment, the parameters of the bottom Ekman layer on the continental shelf/slope of the Black Sea were preliminarily estimated and the possible sinking depth of less dense water was calculated.

  11. Bottom-Up Meets Top-Down: Patchy Hybrid Nonwovens as an Efficient Catalysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Judith; Burgard, Matthias; Hils, Christian; Dersch, Roland; Dulle, Martin; Volk, Kirsten; Karg, Matthias; Greiner, Andreas; Schmalz, Holger

    2017-01-02

    Heterogeneous catalysis with supported nanoparticles (NPs) is a highly active field of research. However, the efficient stabilization of NPs without deteriorating their catalytic activity is challenging. By combining top-down (coaxial electrospinning) and bottom-up (crystallization-driven self-assembly) approaches, we prepared patchy nonwovens with functional, nanometer-sized patches on the surface. These patches can selectively bind and efficiently stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The use of these AuNP-loaded patchy nonwovens in the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane led to full conversion under comparably mild conditions and in short reaction times. The absence of gold leaching or a slowing down of the reaction even after ten subsequent cycles manifests the excellent reusability of this catalyst system. The flexibility of the presented approach allows for easy transfer to other nonwoven supports and catalytically active NPs, which promises broad applicability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier has raised a lot of attention in the world of development. The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they ...

  13. Detection of Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, F.J.; Price, L.E.

    1986-11-01

    Several developments affecting the possibility of Higgs detection are discussed. These include the level of certainty about the t quark mass, Monte Carlo programs to generate both signal and background events, and separation and/or enhancement of heavy quark jets from jets due to light quarks or gluons, and the possibility that the neutral Higgs decay into bottom quarks might be the decay mode of choice for detecting the intermediate mass Higgs. Possible means of detection of an intermediate mass Higgs at the SSC, particularly if a prominent decay mode is to bottom quarks, are examined, using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo program to generate both signal and background events. For the signal, events were generated in which Higgs bosons are created in proton-proton collisions, with the Higgs decaying into bottom quarks. The presence of W or Z bosons, created in the same proton-proton collision, is used to enhance the likelihood of Higgs production and to reduce the potentially enormous background. It is found that the Higgs decay to bottom quarks, if important, would be more favorable for detection of the Higgs than decay to top quarks was found to be because of the smaller background. 3 refs., 4 figs. (LEW)

  14. Planning from the bottom up : Democratic decentralisation in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This research highlights the gap between the official rhetoric and the political reality of democratic decentralisation and bottom-up planning using an indepth study of the metropolitan planning process in Kolkata, India. The key question that I address here is: how do elected officials at different

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bottom of the tank or mounted on a pad or nozzle with a tongue and groove or male and female flange... tank or mounted with a tongue and groove or male and female flange attachment on a pad attached to the... and the valve body of exterior valves, must be of cast, fabricated, or forged metal. If welded to tank...

  16. Flowable Backfill Materials from Bottom Ash for Underground Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Joong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strength and strain in manufacturing controlled low strength materials to recycle incineration bottom ash. Laboratory tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. The optimum mixing ratios were 25%–45% of in-situ soil, 30% of bottom ash, 10%–20% of fly ash, 0%–3% of crumb rubber, 3% of cement, and 22% of water. Each mixture satisfied the standard specifications: a minimum 20 cm of flowability and 127 kPa of unconfined compressive strength. The average secant modulus (E50 was (0.07–0.08 qu. The ranges of the internal friction angle and cohesion for mixtures were 36.5°–46.6° and 49.1–180 kPa, respectively. The pH of all of the mixtures was over 12, which is strongly alkaline. Small-scale chamber tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. Vertical deflection of 0.88–2.41 mm and horizontal deflection of 0.83–3.72 mm were measured during backfilling. The vertical and horizontal deflections of controlled low strength materials were smaller than that of sand backfill.

  17. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...

  18. Microfinance for the Urban Bottom of the Pyramid Segment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although mainstream research on investing in the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) segment focus heavily on investors' expected returns, there is less focus on the fast increasing gaps on the role of financial training in academic literature. In addition, there is a lack of deliberate focus on the wellbeing and success of targeted ...

  19. The Bottom Line: Industry and the Environment in South Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All economic activity depends on the environment. This simple fact has spurred the international community into giving more and more attention to the environment in general and the environmental performance of industry in particular. The Bottom Line is a major new contribution to the debates on industry and the ...

  20. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-18 Bottom outlets. (a) The... or stem projection below the “V” groove or its equivalent. The valve and seat must be readily...

  1. MSWI Bottom Ash Characterization and Resource Recovery Potential Assessment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Krausová, Aneta; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 36 (2015), s. 79-84 ISSN 1640-4902 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * metal recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  2. The Bottom Line: Industry and the Environment in South Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It explores, for instance, the relationship between legislation and new investments, the environmental costs of electricity supply, the role of trade unions in environmental management, and the environmental management of small and medium-sized enterprises. The Bottom Line is a product of 3 years of research conducted ...

  3. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in a Nearshore Bottom Nepheloid Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    APPROACH The approach was to obtain measurements that permitted comparisons of temporal evolution of bottom stress, suspended particle size, and...observations of floe settiing velocities in Glacier Bay, Alaska, Marine Geology, 145: 85-94. Hill, P. S., D. G. Bowers and K. M. Braithwaite, 2013. The

  4. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the influence of the bottom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bottom friction modelling is an important step in river flow computation with 1D or 2D solvers. It is usually performed using energy slope based formulations established for uniform flow conditions, or using a turbulent regime based approach relying on turbulence analysis. However, these formulations are often applied under ...

  5. Fostering Rural Social Organizations: A Bottom-Up Paradigm In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore examines rural social organizations in bottom-up paradigm in sustainable rural transformation in Nigeria. In an attempt to justify the continued involvement of rural social organizations in rural transformation, the paper takes an overview on the short and long term strategies adopted so far by rural social ...

  6. PENGGUNAAN SANDWICH PLATE SYSTEM (SPS PADA KONSTRUKSI INNER BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baidowi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi yang semakin maju memberikan alternatif-alternatif dalam memperbaiki berbagai bentuk sistem, termasuk di dalamnya konstruksi struktur kapal. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini adalah pada permasalahan kebutuhan material ringan pada kapal, kecepatan proses produksi, penyederhanaan konstruksi dan biaya perawatan kapal yang rendah. Penggunaan material ringan Sandwich Plate System (SPS menjadi salah satu jawaban dari permasalahan-permasalahan tersebut, penggunaan SPS dapat menyederhanakan bentuk dari konstruksi kapal dengan menghilangkan penegar inner bottom longitudinal dan mampu mengurangi Light Weight Tonnase (LWT. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan pola distribusi tegangan dan deformasi pada konstruksi bottom yang menggunakan SPS dan baja AH36, selain dari itu juga mengetahui seberapa besar pengurangan LWT yang dihasilkan untuk meningkatkan Payload kapal. Analisa dilakukan dengan simulasi numerik berdasarkan FEM pada konstruksi inner bottom dengan pembebanan muatan. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan besar tegangan maksimal untuk material baja AH36 sebesar 226 Mpa dengan menggunakan penegar, sedangkan konstuksi dengan material SPS tegangan maksimal yang dihasilkan sebesar 221 Mpa tanpa penggunaan penegar, dengan deformasi maksimal untuk AH36 dan SPS yaitu 77 mm yang terjadi pada bagian tengah blok konstruksi inner bottom. Dengan hilangnya penegar berat konstruksi berkurang sebesar 13,05% dari penggunaan material baja AH36 sehingga memberikan peningkatan payload sebesar 13,05%. Simulasi penelitian dilakukan pada kapal Bulk Carrier (BC.

  7. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the influence of the bottom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Bottom friction modelling is an important step in river flow computation with 1D or 2D solvers. It is usually performed using energy slope based formulations established for uniform flow conditions, or using a turbulent regime based approach relying on turbulence analysis. However, these formulations are ...

  8. Nutrient loading and metabolism in hard-bottom littoral mesocosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, K.; Lindblad, C.

    2001-01-01

    In eight hard-bottom tidal littoral mesocosms oxygen concentrations and temperature were measured every 30 s and registered as 15 min-averages. The mesocosms were fed with water from the Oslofjord (residence time about 2 h) and the measurements were also performed in the inflow. In addition,

  9. Top-Down Beta Enhances Bottom-Up Gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Craig G; Thompson, William H; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal

    2017-07-12

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the bottom-up signaling of a visual stimulus is subserved by interareal gamma-band synchronization, whereas top-down influences are mediated by alpha-beta band synchronization. These processes may implement top-down control of stimulus processing if top-down and bottom-up mediating rhythms are coupled via cross-frequency interaction. To test this possibility, we investigated Granger-causal influences among awake macaque primary visual area V1, higher visual area V4, and parietal control area 7a during attentional task performance. Top-down 7a-to-V1 beta-band influences enhanced visually driven V1-to-V4 gamma-band influences. This enhancement was spatially specific and largest when beta-band activity preceded gamma-band activity by ∼0.1 s, suggesting a causal effect of top-down processes on bottom-up processes. We propose that this cross-frequency interaction mechanistically subserves the attentional control of stimulus selection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contemporary research indicates that the alpha-beta frequency band underlies top-down control, whereas the gamma-band mediates bottom-up stimulus processing. This arrangement inspires an attractive hypothesis, which posits that top-down beta-band influences directly modulate bottom-up gamma band influences via cross-frequency interaction. We evaluate this hypothesis determining that beta-band top-down influences from parietal area 7a to visual area V1 are correlated with bottom-up gamma frequency influences from V1 to area V4, in a spatially specific manner, and that this correlation is maximal when top-down activity precedes bottom-up activity. These results show that for top-down processes such as spatial attention, elevated top-down beta-band influences directly enhance feedforward stimulus-induced gamma-band processing, leading to enhancement of the selected stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Richter, Thompson et al.

  10. Advanced power cycles and configurations for solar towers: Modeling and optimization of the decoupled solar combined cycle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Olcoz, Asier; Sorbet, Fco. Javier

    2017-06-01

    CSP technologies are essential to allow large shares of renewables into the grid due to their unique ability to cope with the large variability of the energy resource by means of technically and economically feasible thermal energy storage (TES) systems. However, there is still the need and sought to achieve technological breakthroughs towards cost reductions and increased efficiencies. For this, research on advanced power cycles, like the Decoupled Solar Combined Cycle (DSCC) is, are regarded as a key objective. The DSCC concept is, basically, a Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle in which the bottoming cycle is decoupled from the operation of the topping cycle by means of an intermediate storage system. According to this concept, one or several solar towers driving a solar air receiver and a Gas Turbine (Brayton cycle) feed through their exhaust gasses a single storage system and bottoming cycle. This general concept benefits from a large flexibility in its design. On the one hand, different possible schemes related to number and configuration of solar towers, storage systems media and configuration, bottoming cycles, etc. are possible. On the other, within a specific scheme a large number of design parameters can be optimized, including the solar field size, the operating temperatures and pressures of the receiver, the power of the Brayton and Rankine cycles, the storage capacity and others. Heretofore, DSCC plants have been analyzed by means of simple steady-state models with pre-stablished operating parameters in the power cycles. In this work, a detailed transient simulation model for DSCC plants has been developed and is used to analyze different DSCC plant schemes. For each of the analyzed plant schemes, a sensitivity analysis and selection of the main design parameters is carried out. Results show that an increase in annual solar to electric efficiency of 30% (from 12.91 to 16.78) can be achieved by using two bottoming Rankine cycles at two different

  11. Reconciliation of top-down and bottom-up CO2 fluxes in Siberian larch forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kumiko; Patra, Prabir K.; Kotani, Ayumi; Mori, Junko; Belikov, Dmitry; Ichii, Kazuhito; Saeki, Tazu; Ohta, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Ueyama, Masahito; Ito, Akihiko; Maksyutov, Shamil; Miyazaki, Shin; Burke, Eleanor J.; Ganshin, Alexander; Iijima, Yoshihiro; Ise, Takeshi; Machiya, Hirokazu; Maximov, Trofim C.; Niwa, Yosuke; O’ishi, Ryo’ta; Park, Hotaek; Sasai, Takahiro; Sato, Hisashi; Tei, Shunsuke; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Machida, Toshinobu; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Aoki, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes by different methods vary largely at global, regional and local scales. The net CO2 fluxes by three bottom-up methods (tower observation (TWR), biogeochemical models (GTM), and a data-driven model (SVR)), and an ensemble of atmospheric inversions (top-down method, INV) are compared in Yakutsk, Siberia for 2004–2013. The region is characterized by highly homogeneous larch forest on a flat terrain. The ecosystem around Yakutsk shows a net sink of CO2 by all the methods (means during 2004–2007 were 10.9 g C m‑2 month‑1 by TWR, 4.28 g C m‑2 month‑1 by GTM, 5.62 g C m‑2 month‑1 and 0.863 g C m‑2 month‑1 by SVR at two different scales, and 4.89 g C m‑2 month‑1 by INV). Absorption in summer (June–August) was smaller by three bottom-up methods (ranged from 88.1 to 191.8 g C m‑2 month‑1) than the top-down method (223.6 g C m‑2 month‑1). Thus the peak-to-trough amplitude of the seasonal cycle is greater for the inverse models than bottom-up methods. The monthly-mean seasonal cycles agree among the four methods within the range of inter-model variations. The interannual variability estimated by an ensemble of inverse models and a site-scale data-driven model (the max-min range was 35.8 g C m‑2 month‑1and 34.2 g C m‑2 month‑1) is more similar to that of the tower observation (42.4 g C m‑2 month‑1) than those by the biogeochemical models and the large-scale data-driven model (9.5 g C m‑2 month‑1 and 1.45 g C m‑2 month‑1). The inverse models and tower observations captured a reduction in CO2 uptake after 2008 due to unusual waterlogging.

  12. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  13. Drag reduction of a miniature boat with superhydrophobic grille bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water strider can slide on water surface with a very small drag force using its long superhydrophobic legs. Inspired by the water strider legs, we report here a novel design of superhydrophobic grille structure for drag reduction. A miniature boat covered with a superhydrophobic grille at the bottom is fabricated and compared with a normal boat with flat bottom in the same size, and a significant drag reduction is obtained by the former. Experiments also reveal that the grille structure exhibits a remarkable loading capacity supplied by the water surface tension. It is found that the optimal design of such a miniature boat with a considerable loading capacity and a small drag can be realized through controlling the length and the spacing of the grilles. This study shows a new idea to reduce the fluid drag in microfluidics, micro electromechanical system and other engineering areas.

  14. Cochlear implant/Deaf World dispute: different bottom elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, T P

    2001-11-01

    To examine the controversy between the proponents of cochlear implantation in children and the Deaf World opponents with the hope of offering a method for decreasing the acrimony of opposing positions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING (METHODS): The opposing arguments will be presented from a review of pertinent literature. The systemic philosophic process of bottom elephant analysis will be elucidated. Contrasting models of power will be described. The application of the bottom elephant analysis of each group's position plus a paradigm shift in the utilization of power offers possibilities for the implementation of mutually respectful dialogue that does not undermine each group's stature. Philosophic analysis and paradigm shift could lead to improvement in the interaction of cochlear implant proponents and Deaf World opponents.

  15. Radiative transfer theory applied to ocean bottom modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M

    2009-10-01

    Research on the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean bottom sediment is of interest for active sonar applications such as target detection and remote sensing. The interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor sublayers is usually modeled with techniques based on the full solution of the wave equation, which sometimes leads to mathematically intractable problems. An alternative way to model wave propagation in layered media containing random scatterers is the radiative transfer (RT) formulation, which is a well established technique in the electromagnetics community and is based on the principle of conservation of energy. In this paper, the RT equation is used to model the backscattering of acoustic energy from a layered elastic bottom sediment containing distributions of independent scatterers due to a constant single frequency excitation in the water column. It is shown that the RT formulation provides insight into the physical phenomena of scattering and conversion of energy between waves of different polarizations.

  16. Measurement of bottom quark production in two photon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Saremi, Sepehr

    2001-01-01

    The cross section for bottom quark production in two-photon collisions, sigma( e+e- → e+e- bb¯X), is measured for the first time. The measurement is performed with the L3 detector at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at the European Center for Nuclear and Particle Physics (CERN). The data corresponds to 410 pb-1 taken at center-of-mass energies from 189 GeV to 202 GeV. Hadrons containing a bottom quark are identified by detecting electrons or muons from their semi-leptonic decays. The measured cross section is in excess of the Next to Leading Order QCD prediction by a factor of three.

  17. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: Quantification procedures and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2017-01-30

    Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control. The microplastics extraction efficiency using the proposed modifications is 92±7%. Distribution of microplastics in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Baltic Sea is presented. Microplastic particles were found in all of the samples with an average concentration of 34±10 items/kg DW and have the same order of magnitude as neighbor studies reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  19. Combining bottom-up and top-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We motivate the formulation of market equilibrium as a mixed complementarity problem which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementarity between decision variables and equilibrium conditions. The complementarity format permits an energy-economy model to combine technological detail of a bottom-up energy system with a second-best characterization of the over-all economy. Our primary objective is pedagogic. We first lay out the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and demonstrate how we can integrate bottom-up activity analysis into a top-down representation of the broader economy. We then provide a stylized numerical example of an integrated model - within both static and dynamic settings. Finally, we present illustrative applications to three themes figuring prominently on the energy policy agenda of many industrialized countries: nuclear phase-out, green quotas, and environmental tax reforms. (author)

  20. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  1. The Bottom Line : Industry and the Environment in South Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On y explore, par exemple, le lien entre la législation et les nouveaux investissements, les coûts environnementaux de l'approvisionnement en électricité, le rôle des syndicats dans la gestion de l'environnement, ainsi que la gestion environnementale des petites et moyennes entreprises. The Bottom Line est le fruit de trois ...

  2. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew W. M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano

    2017-02-01

    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (˜20-40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  3. CLASSICS There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    copy of every book in our library by striking off a copy from the master plate in a few hours and mailing it in an envelope no bigger or heavier than any other ordinary air mail letter. Now, the name of this talk is “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” – not just “There is Room at the Bottom.” What I have demonstrated is that ...

  4. Succeeding at the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Olsen, Mette

    initiative to build a social impact venture at the interface of a multi-national corporation and a hybrid organization that is operating on the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid market. Our study identifies how corporate social entrepreneurs dynamically use framing and organizational anchoring strategies to build...... internal support and external legitimacy for a radically new social venture initiative. Our findings point to the challenges, opportunities, and strategies associated with straddling global events and internal corporate priorities when engaging in corporate social entrepreneurship....

  5. The analysis of bottom forming process for hybrid heating device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Paweł; Świątoniowski, Andrzej; Kiełbasa, Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the authors present an unusual method for bottom forming applicable for various industrial purposes including the manufacture of water heaters or pressure equipment. This method allows for the fabrication of the bottom of a given piece of stainless steel into a pre-determined shape conforming to the DIN standard which determines the most advantageous dimensions for the bottom cross section in terms of working pressure loading. The authors checked the validity of the method in a numerical and experimental way generating a tool designed to produce bottoms of specified geometry. Many problems are encountered during the design and production of parts, especially excessive sheet wrinkling over a large area of the part. The experiment showed that a lack of experience and numerical analysis in the design of such elements would result in the production of highly wrinkled parts. This defect would render the parts impossible to assemble with the cylindrical part. Many tool shops employ a method for drawing elements with a spherical surface which involves additional spinning, stamping, and grading operations, which greatly increases the cost of parts production. The authors present and compare two forming methods for spherical and parabolic objects, and experimentally confirm the validity of the sheet reversing method with adequate pressure force. The applied method produces parts in one drawing operation and in a following operation that is based on laser or water cutting to obtain a round blank. This reduces the costs of tooling manufacturing by requiring just one tool which can be placed on any hydraulic press with a minimum force of 2 000 kN.

  6. Bottom Sediment Chemistry, Nutrient Balance, and Water Birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water bird characteristics, nutrient loadings, and the levels of bottom sediment silicon oxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) was studied in eight high altitude (2040-2640m) small shallow (0.065-0.249 km2; 0.9-3.1 m) ...

  7. QCD predictions for charm and bottom quark production at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Nason, Paolo; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-09-16

    We make up-to-date QCD predictions for open charm and bottom production at RHIC in nucleon-nucleon collisions at square root of S=200 GeV. We also calculate the electron spectrum resulting from heavy flavor decays to allow direct comparison to the data. A rigorous benchmark, including the theoretical uncertainties, is established against which nuclear collision data can be compared to obtain evidence for nuclear effects.

  8. QCD Predictions for Charm and Bottom Production at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Nason, Paolo; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-09-01

    We make up-to-date QCD predictions for open charm and bottom production at RHIC in nucleon-nucleon collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV. We also calculate the electron spectrum resulting from heavy flavor decays to allow direct comparison to the data. A rigorous benchmark, including the theoretical uncertainties, is established against which nuclear collision data can be compared to obtain evidence for nuclear effects.

  9. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano

    2017-01-01

    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (∼20–40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  10. Peat accumulation in kettle holes: bottom up or top down?

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gaudig; Couwenberg, J; Joosten, H.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid peat formation in kettle hole-shaped basins may take place either a) by peat forming downwards (top down) from a floating mat under stable water level conditions (terrestrialisation), or b) by peat forming upwards (bottom up) as humus colloids seal off the basin, causing the water level to rise progressively (“kettle hole mire mechanism”). The latter mechanism has hardly been considered in the international literature. The floating-mat mechanism must lead to concave peat isochrones thro...

  11. Ecological-geochemical characteristics of bottom sediments of Sophiivske reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Миколаївна Альохіна

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the investigation of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments Sophiivske reservoir located on the Ingul River was presented in this article. The most significant factor of differential sedimentation chemical compounds can be facies factor that reflects the impact of geomorphic parameters and hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. There are a change of environment sedimentogenesis from oxidative to reductive on sites near reservoir dam.

  12. Decision Support to Sustainable Management of Bottom Trawl Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bitunjac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A decision support concept (DSC for sustainable management of the bottom trawl fleet was created in line with ecosystem-based management. It is based on principles that integrate ecological, social and techno-economic aspects of trawl fisheries in a multicriteria analysis approach. For the sake of greater transparency and improved stakeholder participation, elements of the proposed multicriteria models were discussed, generated and evaluated in collaboration with designated experts from four stakeholder groups: fishers, environmentally focused non-governmental organizations, fisheries scientists and government representatives. The proposed DSC management could facilitate management and assist decision makers in adequately using data and scientific advice to shape management strategies and related policies for the bottom trawl fleet. It may also assist in finding compromise solutions based on deliverables from the multicriteria analysis, while taking stakeholder requirements into account by using the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE methods. The final decision is then based on a vast amount of knowledge and relevant information collected from different sources. The proposed DSC represents a novel approach to fishery fleet management and assists in systematizing management processes and instruments to make it operational at the strategic level. The method was applied to the Adriatic bottom trawl fishery, and the obtained results confirmed its managerial potential in the strategic decision-making process, aimed at improving conventional management, while considering the specific requirements of an ecosystem-based approach and ensuring stakeholder participation.

  13. Spectra of charmed and bottom baryons with hyperfine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yang; Qi, Jing-Juan; Guo, Xin-Heng; Wei, Ke-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, the excited charmed and bottom baryon states have still not been well studied experimentally or theoretically. In this paper, we predict the mass of , the only L = 0 baryon state which has not been observed, to be 6069.2 MeV. The spectra of charmed and bottom baryons with the orbital angular momentum L = 1 are studied in two popular constituent quark models, the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) model and the one gluon exchange (OGE) hyperfine interaction model. Inserting the latest experimental data from the “Review of Particle Physics", we find that in the GBE model, there exist some multiplets (Σc(b), and Ωc(b)) in which the total spin of the three quarks in their lowest energy states is 3/2, but in the OGE model there is no such phenomenon. This is the most important difference between the GBE and OGE models. These results can be tested in the near future. We suggest more efforts to study the excited charmed and bottom baryons both theoretically and experimentally, not only for the abundance of baryon spectra, but also for determining which hyperfine interaction model best describes nature. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175020, 11575023, U1204115)

  14. Bottom-type scattering layers and equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Jicamarca radar observations of bottom-type coherent scattering layers in the post-sunset bottomside F-region ionosphere are presented and analyzed. The morphology of the primary waves seen in radar images of the layers supports the hypothesis of kudeki+bhattacharyya-1999 that wind-driven gradient drift instabilities are operating. In one layer event when topside spread F did not occur, irregularities were distributed uniformly in space throughout the layers. In another event when topside spread F did eventually occur, the irregularities within the pre-existing bottom-type layers were horizontally clustered, with clusters separated by about 30km. The same horizontal periodicity was evident in the radar plumes and large-scale irregularities that emerged later in the event. We surmise that horizontal periodicity in bottom-type layer irregularity distribution is indicative of large-scale horizontal waves in the bottomside F-region that may serve as seed waves for large-scale Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularties; plasma waves and instabilities

  15. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  16. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  17. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  18. Formation of cement mortar with incineration municipal solid waste bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ng Hooi; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Jin, Tan Soo

    2017-04-01

    Product of incineration municipal solid waste bottom ash was substitute to Portland cement in construction industry. This study investigated the changes of bottom ash in Portland cement by chemical and mineralogical testing. Various substitution of bottom ash (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) to Portland cement was investigated. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the cement mortar with bottom ash particles. The result indicated that the chemical and mineralogical of the cement mortar incorporating bottom ash was not significantly changed with the substitution of 10-40% bottom ash. However, the use of bottom ash minimizes the main composition of cement mortar. Overall, it was found that there is significant potential to increase the utilization of bottom ash.

  19. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  20. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin

  1. Solving the Present Crisis and Managing the Leverage Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos

    2010-01-01

    The present crisis is the bottom of a recurring problem that I call the leverage cycle, in which leverage gradually rises too high then suddenly falls much too low. The government must manage the leverage cycle in normal times by monitoring and regulating leverage to keep it from getting too high. In the crisis stage the government must stem the scary bad news that brought on the crisis, which often will entail coordinated write downs of principal; it must restore sane leverage by going aroun...

  2. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  3. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Menstrual Cycle ProblemsFrom missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow ...

  4. 77 FR 17410 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom mount... external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate, at a... assembled external drawers designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that...

  5. 76 FR 55044 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ..., namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers... designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate, at a minimum: (a) an... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...

  6. 76 FR 23298 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for...; (2) any assembled external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...

  7. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  8. 40 CFR 63.170 - Standards: Surge control vessels and bottoms receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Surge control vessels and... Standards: Surge control vessels and bottoms receivers. Each surge control vessel or bottoms receiver that... surge control vessel or bottoms receiver back to the process or to a control device that complies with...

  9. Cycling To Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  10. EASEWASTE-life cycle modeling capabilities for waste management technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    and methods The EASEWASTE model supports a full life cycle assessment of any user defined residential, bulky waste or garden waste management system. The model focuses on the major components of the waste and reviews each component in terms of the available waste management options, including bio...... waste management systems applying a life-cycle perspective requires readily understandable tools for modelling the life cycle impacts of waste management systems. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the structure, functionalities and LCA modelling capabilities of the PC-based life cycle oriented......-gasification and composting, thermal treatment incineration, use-on-land, material sorting and recycling, bottom and fly ash handling, material and energy utilization and landfilling. In order to allow the use of the model in an early stage where local data may be limited, default data sets are provided for waste composition...

  11. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  12. Double Maxima of 11-year Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivodubskij, Valery N.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a scenario to explain the observed phenomenon of double sunspot cycle maximum, which is attended by five processes of magnetic reconstruction in the solar convection zone (SCZ): Omega effect, magnetic buoyancy, macroscopic turbulent diamagnetism, gradient-rho effect and meridional circulation. It was found that the reconstruction of magnetic fields in the high-latitude and equatorial domains of the SCZ occurs in different ways. Two tides of inner toroidal fields from the lower base of the SCZ to the solar surface in the equatorial domain play a key role in the developed mechanism of double maxima. Deep toroidal fields are excited due to Omega effect near the bottom of the SCZ at the beginning of the cycle. Then these fields are transported to the surface due to combined acting of magnetic buoyancy, macroscopic turbulent diamagnetism and magnetic gradient-rho flow in the equatorial domain. Over time the magnetic fragments can be seen as bipolar sunspot groups in the middle latitudes in the "royal zone". This first wave of toroidal fields, which is directed up, gives the main maximum of sunspot activity. However, the inner toroidal fields in the high-latitude polar domains at the beginning of the cycle are blocked near bottom of the SCZ by two antibuoyancy effects (turbulent diamagnetic transfer and magnetic gradient-rho pumping, which are directed downward). Deep meridional flow toward the equator transports these fields to low latitudes of the equatorial domain (with favorable conditions for magnetic buoyancy) during about 1 2 years. Then "belated" magnetic fields rise up to surface (second tide of toroidal field). This second delayed portion of toroidal fields, rising to the solar surface at low latitudes, leads to second (repeated) sunspot maximum.

  13. Higgs Searches with Bottom Quarks and Invisible Particles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2077110

    An essential search to answer the question of whether the newly discovered boson of mass 125 GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the standard model Higgs boson ($H$) is the search for decay of the boson into a pair of bottom quarks ($b {\\overline{b}}$), as this is theoretically the dominant decay channel of a low-mass Higgs boson. For best signal-to-background sensitivity, the associated production of the Higgs boson with a vector boson ($V$ = $W$ or $Z$) is used. The search is carried out in six channels based on the decay of the vector boson: $W(\\mu\

  14. Top down, bottom up structured programming and program structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1972-01-01

    New design and programming techniques for shuttle software. Based on previous Apollo experience, recommendations are made to apply top-down structured programming techniques to shuttle software. New software verification techniques for large software systems are recommended. HAL, the higher order language selected for the shuttle flight code, is discussed and found to be adequate for implementing these techniques. Recommendations are made to apply the workable combination of top-down, bottom-up methods in the management of shuttle software. Program structuring is discussed relevant to both programming and management techniques.

  15. Accurate ocean bottom seismometer positioning method inspired by multilateration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Omar; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Matias, Luis M. A.; Afilhado, Alexandra; Herold, Daniel; Haines, Seth S.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) is a key step in the processing flow of OBS data, especially in the case of self popup types of OBS instruments. The use of first arrivals from airgun shots, rather than relying on the acoustic transponders mounted in the OBS, is becoming a trend and generally leads to more accurate positioning due to the statistics from a large number of shots. In this paper, a linearization of the OBS positioning problem via the multilateration technique is discussed. The discussed linear solution solves jointly for the average water layer velocity and the OBS position using only shot locations and first arrival times as input data.

  16. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  17. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...... shapes are considered: a hemisphere and two conical shapes with deadrise angles of 30 and 45, with a waterline diameter of 5 m. The simulations indicate that the risk of rising out of the water is largely dependent on the buoy draft and sea state. Although associated with power losses, emergence...

  18. Bottom-up effects on attention capture and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    of different product categories. Surface size and visual saliency of a product label were manipulated to determine bottom-up effects on attention and choice. Results show a strong and significant increase in attention in terms of fixation likelihood towards product labels which are larger and more visually...... the information available to form a decision. Does changing one visual cue in the stimulus set affect attention towards this cue and what does that mean for the choice outcome? To address this, we conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment in a consumer choice setting with visual shelf simulations...

  19. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  20. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... integration configurations are completely novel and have not been studied elsewhere. Plant efficiencies of 56% were achieved under normal operation which was considerably higher than the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) in which a gasification plant is integrated with a gas turbine and a steam...

  1. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. We examine a number of other solar activity indicators including the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores that vary in association with the sunspots. We examine the characteristics of individual solar cycles including their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, and the nature of active latitudes, hemispheres, and longitudes. We examine long-term variability including the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle.

  2. Bottom-sediment chemistry in Devil's Lake, northeast North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Devils Lake is a 200 km2 terminal lake that contains sodium sulfate type water. Dissolved solids concentrations range from about 3,500 mg/L to 10,000 mg/L depending on location To investigate geochemical processes in the bottom sediments of Devils Lake, sediment cores were collected at two sites in the western half of the lake during a period of bottom water oxygen depletion. The upper 10 cm of the sediments consist of about 60 weight percent silicates (quartz, feldspar, and clays) 35 weight percent carbonates and 5 weight percent organic material. At depths between 1 and 3 cm in the sediments bacterial sulfate reduction and associated degradation of organic material cause minima in sulfate concentrations and δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon and maxima in alkalinity, ammonia, phosphate, and sulfide concentrations and δ34S values of dissolved sulfate. Downward increases of sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium concentrations result from upward diffusion of ions from saline pore water and dissolving sulfate minerals below 30 cm depth in the sediments.

  3. Search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    Searches for a scalar top quark and a scalar bottom quark have been performed using a data sample of 438 pb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 192 - 209 GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for a signal was found. The 95% confidence level lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 97.6 GeV if the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left- and right-handed states of the top quark is zero. When the scalar top quark decouples from the Z0 boson, the lower limit is 95.7 GeV. These limits were obtained assuming that the scalar top quark decays into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino, and that the mass difference between the scalar top quark and the lightest neutralino is larger than 10 GeV. The complementary decay mode of the scalar top quark decaying into a bottom quark, a charged lepton and a scalar neutrino has also been studied. The lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 93.0 GeV for this decay mode, if the mass difference between the scalar top quark a...

  4. Precise Comparisons of Bottom-Pressure and Altimetric Ocean Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A new set of pelagic tide determinations is constructed from seafloor pressure measurements obtained at 151 sites in the deep ocean. To maximize precision of estimated tides, only stations with long time series are used; median time series length is 567 days. Geographical coverage is considerably improved by use of the international tsunami network, but coverage in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific is still weak. As a tool for assessing global ocean tide models, the data set is considerably more reliable than older data sets : the root-mean-square difference with a recent altimetric tide model is approximately 5 mm for the M2 constituent. Precision is sufficiently high to allow secondary effects in altimetric and bottom-pressure tide differences to be studied. The atmospheric tide in bottom pressure is clearly detected at the S1, S2, and T2 frequencies. The altimetric tide model is improved if satellite altimetry is corrected for crustal loading by the atmospheric tide. Models of the solid body tide can also be constrained. The free corenutation effect in the K1 Love number is easily detected, but the overall estimates are not as accurate as a recent determination with very long baseline interferometry.

  5. "Triple-bottom-line" assessment of urban stormwater projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C; Fletcher, T D

    2006-01-01

    New guidelines have been developed and trialled in Australia to assist urban stormwater managers to assess options for projects that aim to improve urban waterway health. These guidelines help users to examine the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects (i.e., the so-called "triple-bottom-line"). Features of the assessment process described in the guidelines include use of multi criteria analysis, input from technical experts as well as non-technical stakeholders, and provision of three alternative levels of assessment to suit stormwater managers with differing needs and resources. This paper firstly provides a background to the new guidelines and triple-bottom-line assessment. The assessment methodology promoted in the new guidelines is then briefly summarised. This methodology is compared and contrasted with European guidelines from the "SWARD" project that have been primarily developed for assessing the relative sustainability of options involving urban water supply and sewerage assets. Finally, the paper discusses how assessment methodologies that evaluate the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects can, under some circumstances, be used to evaluate the relative progress of options for urban water management on a journey towards the widely pursued, but vaguely defined goal of "sustainable development".

  6. ICT-ENABLED BOTTOM-UP ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Pak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the potentials of bottom-up design practices in relation to the latest developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT by making an in-depth review of inaugural cases. The first part of the study involves a literature study and the elaboration of basic strategies from the case study. The second part reframes the existing ICT tools and strategies and elaborates on their potentials to support the modes of participation performed in these cases. As a result, by distilling the created knowledge, the study reveals the potentials of novel modes of ICT-enabled design participation which exploit a set of collective action tools to support sustainable ways of self-organization and bottom-up design. The final part explains the relevance of these with solid examples and presents a hypothetical case for future implementation. The paper concludes with a brief reflection on the implications of the findings for the future of architectural design education.

  7. Close-range sensors for small unmanned bottom vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles L.

    1999-07-01

    The Surf Zone Reconnaissance Project is developing sensor for small, autonomous, Underwater Bottom-crawling Vehicles (UBVs) for detection and classification of images and obstacles on the ocean bottom in depths between 0 and 20 feet. The challenge is to exploit many target features by using a suite of small, inexpensive, and low-power sensors. The goal is to enable the UBVs to detect and classify objects on the sea floor autonomously. A unique aspect of the project is that sensing can occur at very short ranges. The goal for detection range is two to four meters, and classification may involve direct contact between the sensor and the target. The techniques under development include mechanical impulse response, surface profiling, magnetic anomaly sensing, pulse-induction sensing, shape tracing, and imaging. Initial studies have confirmed the usefulness of several of these techniques. Specific behaviors, termed microbehaviors, are being developed to support each sensor by exploiting the vehicle's mobility. Project plans for FY99 and FY00 include construction of a prototype sensor suite and collection of a signature database. The database will be used to develop fusion, detection, and classification algorithms that will be demonstrated over the next four years for the Office of Naval Research.

  8. Close-range sensors for small unmanned bottom vehicles: update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles L.

    2000-07-01

    The Surf Zone Reconnaissance Project is developing sensors for small, autonomous, Underwater Bottom-crawling Vehicles. The objective is to enable small, crawling robots to autonomously detect and classify mines and obstacles on the ocean bottom in depths between 0 and 10 feet. We have identified a promising set of techniques that will exploit the electromagnetic, shape, texture, image, and vibratory- modal features of this images. During FY99 and FY00 we have worked toward refining these techniques. Signature data sets have been collected for a standard target set to facilitate the development of sensor fusion and target detection and classification algorithms. Specific behaviors, termed microbehaviors, are developed to utilize the robot's mobility to position and operate the sensors. A first generation, close-range sensor suite, composed of 5 sensors, will be completed and tested on a crawling platform in FY00, and will be further refined and demonstrated in FY01 as part of the Mine Countermeasures 6.3 core program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  9. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  10. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop a moment QCD sum rule method augmented by fundamental inequalities to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark–antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm ccc¯c¯ tetraquark currents with JPC=0++, 0−+, 0−−, 1++, 1+−, 1−+, 1−−, and 2++. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom bbb¯b¯ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the ϒ(1Sϒ(1S and ηb(1Sηb(1S, except one current of JPC=0++. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the J/ψJ/ψ and ηc(1Sηc(1S channels.

  11. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan E; Cusano, Dana A; Stimpert, Alison K; Weinrich, Mason T; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N

    2014-12-16

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a 'paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species.

  12. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  13. A small ocean bottom electromagnetometer and ocean bottom electrometer system with an arm-folding mechanism (Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaya, Takafumi; Goto, Tada-nori

    2009-02-01

    Natural magnetic fields are attenuated by electrically conductive water. For that reason, marine magnetotelluric surveys have collected data at long periods (1000-100 000s). The mantle structure has been the main target of seafloor magnetotelluric measurements. To ascertain crustal structure, however, electromagnetic data at shorter periods are important, e.g. in investigations of megathrust earthquake zones, or in natural resource surveys. To investigate of the former, for example, electromagnetic data for periods of less than 1000s are necessary. Because no suitable ocean bottom electromagnetometer (OBEM) has been available, we have developed a small OBEM and ocean bottom electrometer (OBE) system with a high sample rate, which has an arm-folding mechanism to facilitate assembly and recovering operations. For magnetic observation, we used a fluxgate sensor. Field observations were undertaken to evaluate the field performance of our instruments. All instruments were recovered and their electromagnetic data were obtained. Results of the first experiment show that our system functioned well throughout operations and observations. Results of other field experiments off Tottori support the claim that the electromagnetic data obtained using the new OBEM and OBE system are of sufficient quality for the survey target. These results suggest that this device removes all instrumental obstacles to measurement of electromagnetic fields on the seafloor.

  14. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  15. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  16. A Thermodynamic Analysis of Two Competing Mid-Sized Oxyfuel Combustion Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egill Thorbergsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of two mid-sized oxyfuel combustion combined cycles is performed. The two cycles are the semiclosed oxyfuel combustion combined cycle (SCOC-CC and the Graz cycle. In addition, a reference cycle was established as the basis for the analysis of the oxyfuel combustion cycles. A parametric study was conducted where the pressure ratio and the turbine entry temperature were varied. The layout and the design of the SCOC-CC are considerably simpler than the Graz cycle while it achieves the same net efficiency as the Graz cycle. The fact that the efficiencies for the two cycles are close to identical differs from previously reported work. Earlier studies have reported around a 3% points advantage in efficiency for the Graz cycle, which is attributed to the use of a second bottoming cycle. This additional feature is omitted to make the two cycles more comparable in terms of complexity. The Graz cycle has substantially lower pressure ratio at the optimum efficiency and has much higher power density for the gas turbine than both the reference cycle and the SCOC-CC.

  17. Vuilleumier Cycle Cryogenic Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    changing pressure to produce a cooling effect is similar to that of the cold section of the Stirling cycle refrigerator , since the method by which the...AFFDL-TR-76-17 VUILLEUMIER CYCLE CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL BRANCH 4 VEHICLE EQUIPMENT DIVISION APRIL 1976 TECHNICAL REPORT AFFDL...WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) Cryogenic Refrigerator Vuilleumier Cycle 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  18. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  19. The nitrogen cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    .... Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions...

  20. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Joseph [MIT Sloan School of Management, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-447, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Muehlegger, Erich [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Mailbox 25, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Samphantharak, Krislert [Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 1519, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  1. Excited state mass spectra and Regge trajectories of bottom baryons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kaushal; Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar; C. Vinodkumar, P.

    2017-09-01

    We present the mass spectra of radial and orbital excited states of singly heavy bottom baryons; Σb+, Σb-, Ξb-, Ξb0, Λb0 and Ωb-. The QCD motivated hypercentral quark model is employed for the three body description of baryons and the form of confinement potential is hyper Coulomb plus linear. The first order correction to the confinement potential is also incorporated in this work. The semi-electronic decay of Ωb and Ξb are calculated using the spectroscopic parameters of the baryons. The computed results are compared with other theoretical predictions as well as with the available experimental observations. The Regge trajectories are plotted in (n ,M2) plane.

  2. Distribution and transport of tritium in the Peach Bottom HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    This report completes the first phase of a two-phase effort to describe and understand tritium production and movement in an operating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) system. The principal objective of phase 1 is to report the findings on tritium concentrations in core components acquired during the Peach Bottom Surveillance Program, which dealt with fission product migration in general, and a follow-on task devoted specifically to tritium. Administrative procedures are being developed for the second phase of the work to be performed in the Federal Republic of Germany under the auspices of the international umbrella agreement on gas-cooled reactor (GCR) development. In this effort, computer model predictions of tritium transport in the reactor system will be compared with observed concentration levels.

  3. A bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Mork, James G; Van Lenten, Elizabeth; Fushman, Dina Demner; Aronson, Alan R

    2011-01-01

    MEDLINE indexing performed by the US National Library of Medicine staff describes the essence of a biomedical publication in about 14 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Since 2002, this task is assisted by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program. We present a bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing in which the abstract is searched for indicators for a specific MeSH recommendation in a two-step process. Supervised machine learning combined with triage rules improves sensitivity of recommendations while keeping the number of recommended terms relatively small. Improvement in recommendations observed in this work warrants further exploration of this approach to MTI recommendations on a larger set of MeSH headings.

  4. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  5. Top-bottom doublet in the sphaleron background

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano

    1995-01-01

    We consider the top-bottom doublet in the background of the sphaleron for the realistic case of large non-degeneracy of fermion masses, in particular m_b=5 GeV and m_t=175 GeV. We propose an axially symmetric (r,\\theta)-dependent ansatz for fermion fields and investigate the effects of the non-degeneracy on them. The exact solution is described, with an error less than 0.01\\%, by a set of ten radial functions. We also propose an approximate solution, in the m_b/m_t\\rightarrow 0 limit, with an error {\\cal O}(m_b/m_t). We have found that the effects of non-degeneracy provide a \\theta-dependence typically \\sim 10\\%.

  6. Planning from the bottom up. San Diego Regional Comprehensive Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las ciudades contemporáneas se extienden cada vez más lejos en el territorio, de hecho, son ciudades que tienen espacios diferenciados, especializados y separados, para la vivienda y para la actividad económica, para el ocio y para el comercio, que se conectan entre sí a través de redes de transporte rodado. Este artículo pretende contribuir al conocimiento de estas experiencias recientes de control de la dispersión a través del caso de la Región de San Diego. El caso de San Diego reviste especial interés porque se trata de una experiencia de planificación bottom-up, es decir, de abajo arriba, y, como tal, sirve para ilustrar los mínimos posibles.

  7. Exotic nuclei with charm and bottom flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of existence of exotic nuclei containing charm and bottom mesons. We study the interaction between $ar{D}$ (B mesons and nucleons from view of heavy quark symmetry, and derive the one pion exchange potentials. We apply these potentials to the two body system of $ar{D}$ (B meson and nucleon N , and find there are possible stable bound states with spin JP = 1/2− and isospin I = 0. We find that the tensor interaction mixing $ar{D}$N and $ar{D}$*N (BN and B*N plays an important role. We also qualitatively discuss the possible bound states of $ar{D}$ (B meson and two nucleons.

  8. Creation of collision data base through the “bottom-up” approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Alla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present epoch of knowledge economy, research and innovation poses unpredictable challenges for high-tech enterprises in aerospace industry. Knowledge and technology have mostly become the key source of creating competitive advantage. However production of successful aerospace products and service is impossible without collisions. The aim of the paper is to elaborate a bottom-up approach that allows reducing collisions by setting up a database of collisions (CDB that occurs in the life cycle process. The introduced definition of “collision” determines any breach in the implementation process, leading to a deviation in product quality. The classification of collision types is given and the stages of collision management system in aerospace enterprises are described. By means of Risk Priority Numbers (RPN method the authors have proposed to evaluate the significance of probable production collisions. According to conclusions of the analysis, collision database allows to accumulate, formalize and store invaluable experience of skilled practitioners, especially in unique production process. Other research outcome deals with the understanding that collision database allows detecting business processes where collision occurrence is not always obvious.

  9. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.

    1977-09-01

    Fuel test element FTE-6 was irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for 645 equivalent full power days. Four fuel varieties, contained in H-327 graphite bodies, were tested. A primary result of this test has been to demonstrate acceptable performance even with calculated high stresses in the graphite bodies. Heterogeneous fuel loadings in the element caused local power peaking and azimuthal power variations, deforming the graphite fuel bodies and thereby causing bowing nearly five times as large as the diametral clearance within the sleeve. The axial stresses resulting from interference between the fuel bodies and sleeve were estimated to have reached 45% of the ultimate material strength at the end of the irradiation. Residual stresses from differential contraction within the fuel body resulted in probable in-plane stress levels of 130% of the material strength at the end-of-life shutdown and of up to 150% of the strength at shutdown during the irradiation cycle. The high in-plane stresses are local peaks at the corners of a sharp notch in the element, which may account for the stresses failing to cause damage. The lack of observable damage, however, indicates that the methods and data used for stress analysis give results that are either fairly accurate or conservative.

  10. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M.A.; Bearce, B.C.; Cluskey, S.; Townsend, E. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  11. Long surface wave dynamics along a convex bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim; Soomere, Tarmo

    2009-07-01

    Long linear wave transformation in a basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile h(x) ˜ x4/3. This bottom geometry provides the "nonreflecting" wave propagation at least in the framework of the one-dimensional shallow water equation. In this case, shoaling effects are very strong and wave reflection occurs in the immediate vicinity of the shoreline. The existence of traveling wave solutions (which propagate without reflection) in this geometry is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1-D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two traveling waves propagating in opposite directions and allows a detailed description of the wavefield (vertical displacement and depth-averaged flow). It is found that generally a zone of weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long-wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for the sine pulse, Korteweg-de Vries soliton, and N wave. It is shown that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the border of a shallow coastal area of constant depth and a section with the convex profile shows that a transmitted wave always has a sign-variable shape. Results of the wave transformation above the convex beach and beaches following a general power law are compared. This simplified model demonstrates the potential importance of the tsunami wave transformation along convex beaches.

  12. Impacts of offshore wind energy turbines on marine bottom fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar- and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The foundations of offshore wind energy farms will cause alterations to the natural marine habitat of the North and Baltic Seas. The seabed in the proposed areas for offshore windfarms is mainly characterised by soft sediments ranging from medium sands to silt. The underwater structures themselves not only provide empty space for the settlement of hardbottom epifauna, which do not naturally occur in these areas, but they also alter the surrounding natural habitat. In the absence of actual wind farms in German waters, the research platform FINO 1 was used in the project BeoFINO to study biologic processes around the underwater structure leading to alterations of the natural bottom fauna. Shortly after installation, the surface was colonised by an epifauna consisting of few species, but reaching a high biomass. Mytilus edulis dominated in the upper depth zone, while lower reaches were dominated by the Amphipod Jassa spp. and Anthozoans (mainly Metridium senile). Changed current conditions around the structure lead to erosion and altered sediment composition with thick layers of empty shells on the surface. Natural soft bottom fauna is strongly reduced in the vicinity of the platform, while predators and scavengers profit from the additional food source provided by material falling from the platform. The export of lighter material like faeces is predicted to spread over larger areas. Dense aggregations of pelagic fish were observed around the platform, while some demersal species also live in niches of the structure. All results are combined in mathematical models in order to compare different locations and to calculate scenarios for wind farm effects in various habitats. (orig.)

  13. Erosion of a California Undercurrent eddy by bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector S.; Gomez-Valdes, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Subsurface eddies are ubiquitous features in eastern boundary current systems. These phenomena tend to modulate the across-shore distribution of heat and biogeochemical tracers. A California Undercurrent eddy was detected by shipboard observations in October 2009 off the northern Baja California continental slope. The spatiotemporal variation in the California Undercurrent eddy is investigated by using a mesoscale-resolving hindcast ocean simulation. A poleward coastal current that is driven by an upwelling-wind relaxation event and the coastline geometry instigated the separation of the California Undercurrent from the slope, forming a meander-like structure, which evolved as a mesoscale eddy-like structure. The latter structure evolved as a subsurface eddy with a warm anomaly core, a distinctive feature of eddies that form from the California Undercurrent. During the initial stage, the subsurface eddy presented a cone-shape form, with the maximum amplitude of the relative vorticity in the upper section. The inviscid effect of the irregular bottom topography altered both the initial direction of propagation and the initial eddy shape: the propagation direction of the eddy changed from north-south to southwest, and the shape changed from a cone shape to a subsurface lens shape. The strong eddy-topography interactions triggered a sign change in the heat flux direction from the environment toward the eddy and vice versa through the horizontally divergent component of the velocity field, which accelerated the eddy's decay. This study shows the relevance of the synoptic wind stress events and the irregularity of the bottom topography on the mesoscale eddy activity in the southern portion of the California Current.

  14. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t{yields} b+W{sup +}({yields}e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  15. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls

    KAUST Repository

    Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2017-04-19

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Gasol, Josep M; Pernice, Massimo C; Mangot, Jean-François; Massana, Ramon; Lara, Elena; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4,000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An experimental investigation on MEDAD hybrid desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-04-02

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle called "MEDAD" desalination which is a hybrid of the conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an adsorption cycle (AD). The combined cycles allow some of MED stages to operate below ambient temperature, as low as 5. °C in contrast to the conventional MED. The MEDAD cycle results in a quantum increase of distillate production at the same top-brine condition. Being lower than the ambient temperature for the bottom stages of hybrid cycle, ambient energy can now be scavenged by the MED processes whilst the AD cycle is powered by low temperature waste heat from exhaust or renewable sources. In this paper, we present the experiments of a 3-stage MED and MEDAD plants. These plants have been tested at assorted heat source temperatures from 15. °C to 70. °C and with portable water as a feed. All system states are monitored including the distillate production and power consumption and the measured results are expressed in terms of performance ratio (PR). It is observed that the synergetic matching of MEDAD cycle led to a quantum increase in distillate production, up to 2.5 to 3 folds vis-a-vis to a conventional MED of the same rating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  19. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  20. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Economic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of the economic

  1. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  2. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  3. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  4. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  5. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  6. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  7. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste.

  10. Measurements by Ocean Bottom Gravimeter at Harima-nada in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshima, Masato; Ishihara, Takemi; Koizumi, Kin-Ichiro; Seama, Nobukazu; Oshida, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    Gravity measurements on the sea bottom using an ocean bottom gravimeter(OBG) and a small survey vessel of 8.5 tons were performed at Harima-nada, in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Measurements at one bottom station were completed in about 30 minutes including 2 mile transit from the previous station, and 23 new data were obtained during 4 days. The measurement noise on the shallow sea-bottom was reduced considerably by attaching an anchor to the rope between the deployed ocean bottom gravimeter and the ship, and by keeping the ship almost fixed to the deployed anchor. The measurement accuracy is better than 0.005 mgal at the base station and is better than 0.05 mgal for the sea bottom measurements with the anchor. The new measurements combined with old data revealed the presence of high gravity anomaly zone running in Harima-nada sub-parallel to the Median Tectonic Line.

  11. Potassium topping cycles for stationary power. [conceptual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A design study was made of the potassium topping cycle powerplant for central station use. Initially, powerplant performance and economics were studied parametrically by using an existing steam plant as the bottom part of the cycle. Two distinct powerplants were identified which had good thermodynamic and economic performance. Conceptual designs were made of these two powerplants in the 1200 MWe size, and capital and operating costs were estimated for these powerplants. A technical evaluation of these plants was made including conservation of fuel resources, environmental impact, technology status, and degree of development risk. It is concluded that the potassium topping cycle could have a significant impact on national goals such as air and water pollution control and conservation of natural resources because of its higher energy conversion efficiency.

  12. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  13. A Comprehensive Review on the Properties of Coal Bottom Ash in Concrete as Sound Absorption Material

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Hannan Nurul Izzati Raihan; Shahidan Shahiron; Ali Noorwirdawati; Maarof Mohamad Zulkhairi

    2017-01-01

    The government is currently implementing policies to increase the usage of coal as fuel for electricity generation. At the same time, the dependency on gas will be reduced. In addition, coal power plants in Malaysia produce large amounts of industrial waste such as bottom ash which is collected in impoundment ponds (ash pond). However, millions of tons of coal ash (bottom ash) waste are collected in ponds near power plant stations. Since bottom ash has been classified as hazardous material th...

  14. Characterisation of MSWI bottom ash for potential use as subbase in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of infrastructure due to increased oil and mineral exploitation. Thus, in this study MSWI bottom ash from a Greenlandic incinerator was tested for possible reuse as subbase in road construction. The mechanical properties (grain size distribution, wear resistance and bearing capacity) showed that the bottom ash...... grain sizes and could be reduced by removing some of these smaller grain sizes to obtain the stability requirement of the bottom ash. All in all, this study showed that the Greenlandic bottom ash has potential for being reused in road construction....

  15. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and bottom water evolution off the Portuguese margin since the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qimei; Li, Baohua; Kim, Jin-Kyoung

    2017-03-01

    The upper 250 meter-long sediment core of Site U1391 (1085 m water depth) retrieved from the Portuguese margin in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was adopted for the benthic foraminiferal analyses to disclose the variations in Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) intensity over the last 0.9 Ma. Benthic foraminifera are abundant at this site and mainly composed of the hyaline forms (80%, such as Cibicidoides/Cibicides spp., Globobulimina spp., Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., Melonis spp., Sphaeroidina bulloides, Hoeglundina elegans, Gyroidinoides spp., Lenticulina spp. and Planulina ariminensis), while the agglutinated and porcelaneous forms have only 5% and 14.1% on average, respectively. Down-core variations of the benthic foraminifera show glacial-interglacial contrasts, especially those of Lenticulina spp. and Planulina ariminensis, which is also supported by the benthic foraminiferal cluster analysis. During the interglacial periods, the fauna are dominated by Sphaeroidina bulloides, Lenticulina spp., Planulina ariminensis, Dentalina spp., Cibicidoides robertsonianus and the agglutinated forms, while by Cibicidoides pachyderma, Praeglobobulimina ovata, Praeglobobulimina pupoides, Bulimina mexicana, Uvigerina mediterranea, Bolivinita quadrilatera and mililoids during the glacial periods. Benthic foraminiferal faunal data at Site U1391 was detailed analyzed to disclose the bottom water property over the last 0.9 Ma. Variations of the character species or assemblages, such as Planulina ariminensis, and the ;elevated epibenthos; group suggest that the MOW intensity has typical glacial-interglacial cycles, strengthening during the interglacial periods and weakening during the glacial periods, and reaches its peak at MIS 11. The strongest MOW intensity during MIS 11 confirms the climatic influence of waving sea level on the MOW current by its + 20 m high-stand above the present sea level. The agglutinated benthic foraminifera have a significantly positive correlation with

  16. Semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures: Nanoscience from the bottom up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaohui

    2005-07-01

    Nanoscale science and technology involves interdisciplinary research at the interface of chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering sciences. By developing and following a unique intellectual path---the bottom-up paradigm of nanoscale science and technology---it is possible to assemble integrated nanoscale systems with novel functionalities beyond the conventional lithography limit. In this thesis, I present research efforts focused on fundamental aspects of this bottom-up paradigm using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) and nanowire heterostructures as nanoscale building blocks. We first present studies conducted on one of the most important semiconductor materials, silicon nanowires (SiNWs). SiNWs are rationally synthesized via a metal cluster-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Room temperature electrical transport studies carried out on SiNW field effect transistors (FETs) show exceptional device performance; estimated hole mobilities in p-SiNWs are significantly higher than bulk silicon at similar doping levels. Furthermore, low temperature transport studies on molecular scale SiNWs reveal phase coherent single charge transport through discrete single particle quantum levels with length scales up to several hundred nanometers. Finally, we show that SiNWs can be assembled into functional nanoelectronic devices. We then discuss two types of nanowire heterostructures: modulation doped silicon nanowires, and branched and hyper-branched nanowire structures. All key properties of modulation doped nanowires can be controlled during the synthesis, including the number, size and periodicity of the differentially doped regions. Their potential applications are also discussed. Moreover, branched and hyper-branched nanowire structures are synthesized via a multi-step nanocluster-catalyzed VLS approach, with branch density controlled by the nanocluster catalyst concentration. Lastly, we describe the realization of complementary doping in gallium nitride

  17. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  18. Application of unscented Kalman filter for condition monitoring of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Schlanbusch, Rune; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    emphasis on compactness and reliability. In such context, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology. The implementation of an organic Rankine cycle unit is thus considered for the power system of the Draugen offshore platform in the northern sea, which is the case study......This work relates to a project focusing on energy optimization on offshore facilities. On oil and gas platforms it is common practice to employ gas turbines for power production. So as to increase the system performance and reduce emissions, a bottoming cycle unit can be designed with particular...... for this project. Considering the plant dynamics, it is of paramount importance to monitor the peak temperatures within the once-through boiler serving the bottoming unit to prevent the decomposition of the working fluid. This paper accordingly aims at applying the unscented Kalman filter to estimate...

  19. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision......-making processes. The chapter shows that LCA can play a key role in LCM since LCA provides quantitative performance measurements. It also explains, which stakeholders need to be considered, how LCA and LCM relate, how LCA can be used to develop Key Performance Indicators, and addresses how LCM can be integrated...

  20. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances......—and in the reporting of public finances—is beginning to emerge....

  1. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Thermo-economic assessment of the integration of steam cycles on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    thermodynamic and economic performance indicators. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbines into a combined cycle. Using seawater results in smaller power generation and greater CO2-emissions than using process water, as the additional power generation in the combined cycle......The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil platforms is often seen as a possible route to mitigate the CO2-emissions offshore. In this paper, a North Sea platform and its energy requirements are systematically analysed. The site-scale integration of steam networks is assessed by using...

  3. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  4. Development of Ocean-Bottom Seismograph in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Jang, J. P.; Chen, P.; Lin, C. R.; Kuo, B. Y.; Wang, C. C.; Kim, K. H.; Lin, P. P.

    2016-12-01

    Yardbird-20s, one type of Ocean-Bottom Seismograph (OBS), is fabricated by Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI), the Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica and the Institute of Undersea Technology of the National Sun Yat-Sen University in Taiwan. Yardbirds can be deployed up to 5000m deep for up to 15 months. The total weight with anchor in the air is about 170Kg. The rising and sinking rate is about 0.8 m/s. We utilized ultra-low power micro control unit (MCU) and SD card to design a data logger. The sensors are three of 4.5Hz geophones that were extended the lower frequency response to 20 sec. The sensor module also includes the leveling system, which is design by dual-axis DC motor-driven module to level the vertical component to be less than 0.1 degree with respect to the gravity. Yardbirds have been successfully deployed and recovered in several research cruises in Taiwan and Korea. In this study, we'll also display the data quality and power spectral density (PSD) calculations, probability density function (PDF) plots and from the Yardbirds that deployed and recovered in the East Sea near sough-east of Korea.

  5. Search for signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Favareto; Luigi Longo

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discov- ery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still several open questions that the Standard Model doesnâ??t address, like the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the matter-antimatter asym- metry, the neutrino oscillations, the inconsistency with the general relativity and the hierarchy problem. Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Supersymmetry, Little and Com- posite Higgs, Extra-Dimensions, Extended Gauge models, Technicolor, Left-Right symmetric models, and many other BSM scenarios are trying to answer these questions. In these proceed- ings we present the most recent results for searches Beyond the Standard Model at the LHC by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, focusing on signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The non-observation of a signal permits to set limits at the 95pct confidence level on the production cross sect...

  6. Biology by Design: From Top to Bottom and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a nascent technical discipline that seeks to enable the design and construction of novel biological systems to meet pressing societal needs. However, engineering biology still requires much trial and error because we lack effective approaches for connecting basic “parts” into higher-order networks that behave as predicted. Developing strategies for improving the performance and sophistication of our designs is informed by two overarching perspectives: “bottom-up” and “top-down” considerations. Using this framework, we describe a conceptual model for developing novel biological systems that function and interact with existing biological components in a predictable fashion. We discuss this model in the context of three topical areas: biochemical transformations, cellular devices and therapeutics, and approaches that expand the chemistry of life. Ten years after the construction of synthetic biology's first devices, the drive to look beyond what does exist to what can exist is ushering in an era of biology by design.

  7. Bottom-up discrete symmetries for Cabibbo mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Rasmussen, Rasmus W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Talbert, Jim [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics

    2016-05-15

    We perform a bottom-up search for discrete non-Abelian symmetries capable of quantizing the Cabibbo angle that parameterizes CKM mixing. Given a particular Abelian symmetry structure in the up and down sectors, we construct representations of the associated residual generators which explicitly depend on the degrees of freedom present in our effective mixing matrix. We then discretize those degrees of freedom and utilize the Groups, Algorithms, Programming (GAP) package to close the associated finite groups. This short study is performed in the context of recent results indicating that, without resorting to special model-dependent corrections, no small-order finite group can simultaneously predict all four parameters of the three-generation CKM matrix and that only groups of O(10{sup 2}) can predict the analogous parameters of the leptonic PMNS matrix, regardless of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. Therefore a natural model of flavour might instead incorporate small(er) finite groups whose predictions for fermionic mixing are corrected via other mechanisms.

  8. Bottom-up nanotechnology: the human nephron filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenson, Allen R

    2009-01-01

    Over one million patients worldwide have end-stage renal disease and require dialysis or kidney transplantation. Despite the availability of these forms of renal replacement therapy for nearly four decades, mortality and morbidity are high and patients often have a poor quality of life. We have developed a human nephron filter (HNF) utilizing bottom-up nanotechnology that would eventually make feasible a continuously functioning, wearable or implantable artificial kidney. The device consists of two membranes operating in series within one device cartridge. The first membrane mimics the function of the glomerulus, using convective transport to generate a plasma ultra filtrate, which contains all solutes approaching the molecular weight of albumin. The second membrane mimics the function of the renal tubules, selectively reclaiming designated solutes to maintain body homeostasis. No dialysis solution is used in this device. The HNF has been computer modeled, and operating 12 hour per day, 7 days per week the HNF provides the equivalent of 30 ml/min glomerular filtration rate (compared to half that amount for conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis). The HNF system, by eliminating dialysate and utilizing a novel membrane system created through applied nanotechnology, represents a breakthrough in renal replacement therapy based on the functioning of native kidneys. The enhanced solute removal and wearable design should substantially improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

  9. Bottom-Up Synthesis and Sensor Applications of Biomimetic Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanotechnology, biology, and bioengineering greatly improved the developments of nanomaterials with unique functions and properties. Biomolecules as the nanoscale building blocks play very important roles for the final formation of functional nanostructures. Many kinds of novel nanostructures have been created by using the bioinspired self-assembly and subsequent binding with various nanoparticles. In this review, we summarized the studies on the fabrications and sensor applications of biomimetic nanostructures. The strategies for creating different bottom-up nanostructures by using biomolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and virus, as well as microorganisms like bacteria and plant leaf are introduced. In addition, the potential applications of the synthesized biomimetic nanostructures for colorimetry, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrical resistance, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are presented. This review will promote the understanding of relationships between biomolecules/microorganisms and functional nanomaterials in one way, and in another way it will guide the design and synthesis of biomimetic nanomaterials with unique properties in the future.

  10. Preliminary results for oil on the bottom detection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.A. [United States Coast Guard, Groton, CT (United States). Research and Development Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper addressed the challenge of finding and recovering spills of submerged oil using current methods that often prove to be inadequate. The United States Coast Guard has launched a multi-year project to develop a complete approach for spills of submerged oils. This paper described the preliminary assessment of using sonar, laser fluorometry, real-time mass spectrometry and in-situ fluorometry to locate submerged oil. Specifications for the various techniques were also described. The authors noted that the sensors should provide enough information so that decision-makers could determine if an amount of oil sufficient to merit recovering could be identified. The systems chosen for testing for this paper were the RESON multi-beam sonar system; the Science Laser Line Scan System (LLSS) adapted for fluorescence and developed by Applications International Corporation (SAIC); fluorescence polarization developed by EIC Laboratories; and in-situ mass spectrometry and in-situ fluorometry developed by Wood Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Each of these technologies represented an improvement over the existing ad-hoc methods. Although they have not been tested in harsh environments, they may be useful immediately in some situations to increase reliability of oil detection at the bottom of, or in the water column. 16 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.

  11. Organizing a Global Labor Movement from Top and Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the prospects for a global labor movement are ripe, working people and their supporters may fail to take full advantage of this historical opening. A potential barrier is the existence of a strategic myopia when it comes to the role of preexisting labor organizations at the national and international levels. Specifically, these higher-tier institutions are often viewed by labor activists and the rank-and-file as inherently autocratic and imperialistic, and are thus deemed to have little value for efforts at fostering global labor solidarity. A consequence is that many in the labor movement concentrate their energies solely at a local or community level, with the idea that it is only here that true progressive change can result. In terms of broader solidarity and resistance, it is felt that cross-regional and cross-national linkages will eventually develop to expand the struggle to a truly global level. In effect, it is presumed by many that a global labor movement will, and in fact must, be built strictly from the "bottom-up" ( e.g. Brecher and Costello, 1994.

  12. Inference of the bottom properties in shallow ice approximation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J.; des Boscs, P.-E.

    2017-11-01

    This study proposes a new inverse method to infer the bottom topography and the friction coefficient in the shallow ice approximation (SIA) model (lubrication type models for generalized Newtonian fluid flows). The method is based on the definition of three sub-regimes and an a priori slip ratio law. Next, explicit calculations provide a first depth estimation for each sub-regime, and this first estimation can be improved by solving an elliptic linear-quadratic optimal control problem (variational assimilation of the surface measurements e.g. by satellite). The friction field is a by-product of the depth inverse method—it can be explicitly deduced. Numerical results considering multi-regime numerical flows demonstrate the robustness of the method even in the presence of uncertain surface measurements, and independently of the depth measurement locations (the contrary is found, if inverting the regularized depth-averaged mass equation only). Moreover, the few derived depth estimations make it possible to determine the adequate slope scale in the SIA models.

  13. Molluscan diversity along a Mediterranean soft bottom sublittoral ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayota Koulouri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan diversity associated with sublittoral soft-bottoms was studied in Heraklion Bay as part of a long-term multidisciplinary research programme in the coastal environment of northern Crete (eastern Mediterranean. Quantitative benthic samples were collected in a pilot survey from a grid of 28 stations, followed by a seasonal sampling carried out over a seven- station transect located from 10 to 40 m depth. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated the presence of a clear zonation along the depth gradient for the molluscan fauna and three main associations were identified in bathymetric zones parallel to the coastline. The structure of the local molluscan communities revealed the existence of an extended transition zone (ecotone between a shallow sandy association and a deeper muddy one and a functional pattern, based on the feeding guilds, was evident along the environmental gradient. Application of graphical techniques, by using molluscan taxocoenosis, indicated a rather naturally disturbed habitat. Beta-diversity measures indicated different seasonal community adaptations to the prevailing environmental conditions. Results derived from this study revealed that beta-diversity may be a good descriptor for the assessment of the strength and breadth of sublittoral transition zones along environmental gradients.

  14. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  15. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111 substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W/silicon dioxide (SiO2 forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33 for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF2 etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.

  17. Bottom-Up Synthesis and Sensor Applications of Biomimetic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yujing; Li, Zhuang; Wu, Aiguo; Wei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The combination of nanotechnology, biology, and bioengineering greatly improved the developments of nanomaterials with unique functions and properties. Biomolecules as the nanoscale building blocks play very important roles for the final formation of functional nanostructures. Many kinds of novel nanostructures have been created by using the bioinspired self-assembly and subsequent binding with various nanoparticles. In this review, we summarized the studies on the fabrications and sensor applications of biomimetic nanostructures. The strategies for creating different bottom-up nanostructures by using biomolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and virus, as well as microorganisms like bacteria and plant leaf are introduced. In addition, the potential applications of the synthesized biomimetic nanostructures for colorimetry, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrical resistance, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are presented. This review will promote the understanding of relationships between biomolecules/microorganisms and functional nanomaterials in one way, and in another way it will guide the design and synthesis of biomimetic nanomaterials with unique properties in the future. PMID:28787853

  18. Peat accumulation in kettle holes: bottom up or top down?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudig

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid peat formation in kettle hole-shaped basins may take place either a by peat forming downwards (top down from a floating mat under stable water level conditions (terrestrialisation, or b by peat forming upwards (bottom up as humus colloids seal off the basin, causing the water level to rise progressively (“kettle hole mire mechanism”. The latter mechanism has hardly been considered in the international literature. The floating-mat mechanism must lead to concave peat isochrones throughout the basin, whereas the kettle hole mire mechanism will yield surface-parallel isochrones. Peat isochrones were studied in three mires occupying kettle hole-shaped basins in north-eastern Germany by comparing pollen samples from the mineral soil–peat interface at different distances from the centre of each mire with the pollen assemblage profile of a central peat core. All three mires appeared to have largely surface-parallel isochrones and must have developed by the kettle hole mire mechanism. In one mire, this mechanism alternated and took place in combination with terrestrialisation following karst subsidence. The fact that evidence of the kettle hole mire mechanism was found at all of the sites investigated indicates that it may be a common peat forming mechanism in kettle hole-shaped basins worldwide.

  19. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang-Wook [School of Electrical Engineering 50, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hee-Sun [School of Electrical Engineering 50, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong-Hyun [School of Electrical Engineering 50, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min-Koo [School of Electrical Engineering 50, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Hee-Suk [LG.PHILIPS LCD R and D Center 533 Anyang-shi, Gyongki-do 431-080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Yong [LG.PHILIPS LCD R and D Center 533 Anyang-shi, Gyongki-do 431-080 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, In-Jae [LG.PHILIPS LCD R and D Center 533 Anyang-shi, Gyongki-do 431-080 (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Sang-Woo [Department of Electrical Information and Control Engineering, Hongik University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyun [Department of Information Display Engineering, Hongik University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kwan [Department of Information Display Engineering, Hongik University (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 {mu}mx6 {mu}m. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05{approx}0.09 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10{sup 5} in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 {mu}m, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown.

  20. Product Life Cycle Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walaszek, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... This phase of work was undertaken to: (1) provide guidelines, technical support, and planning approaches for researchers that result in realistic life cycle plans for products emerging from the RSM...

  1. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  2. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  3. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  4. Life Cycle Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  5. Solar Cycle Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristóf Petrovay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24. The review focuses on those aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of the given cycle. Prediction methods form three main groups. Precursor methods rely on the value of some measure of solar activity or magnetism at a specified time to predict the amplitude of the following solar maximum. Their implicit assumption is that each numbered solar cycle is a consistent unit in itself, while solar activity seems to consist of a series of much less tightly intercorrelated individual cycles. Extrapolation methods, in contrast, are based on the premise that the physical process giving rise to the sunspot number record is statistically homogeneous, i.e., the mathematical regularities underlying its variations are the same at any point of time and, therefore, it lends itself to analysis and forecasting by time series methods. Finally, instead of an analysis of observational data alone, model based predictions use physically (more or less consistent dynamo models in their attempts to predict solar activity. In their overall performance during the course of the last few solar cycles, precursor methods have clearly been superior to extrapolation methods. Nevertheless, most precursor methods overpredicted cycle 23, while some extrapolation methods may still be worth further study. Model based forecasts have not yet had a chance to prove their skills. One method that has yielded predictions consistently in the right range during the past few solar cycles is that of K. Schatten et al., whose approach is mainly based on the polar field precursor. The incipient cycle 24 will probably mark the end of the Modern Maximum, with the Sun

  6. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  7. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  8. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  9. Charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarenko, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained from experiments designed for a consistent study of charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures. New unconventional ways to build elements of electrical circuits (like dielectrophoresis, wedging transfer and bottom-up

  10. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels...

  11. Bottom-pressure observations of deep-sea internal hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the ocean, sloping bottom topography is important for the generation and dissipation of internal waves. Here, the transition of such waves to turbulence is demonstrated using an accurate bottom-pressure sensor that was moored with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and high-resolution

  12. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  13. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  14. Spatial bottom-up controls on fire likelihood vary across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Marc-Andre Parisien; Carol Miller

    2012-01-01

    The unique nature of landscapes has challenged our ability to make generalizations about the effects of bottom-up controls on fire regimes. For four geographically distinct fire-prone landscapes in western North America, we used a consistent simulation approach to quantify the influence of three key bottom-up factors, ignitions, fuels, and topography, on spatial...

  15. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. 111.83-5 Section 111.83-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The box...

  16. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis...

  17. 40 CFR 61.242-9 - Standards: Surge control vessels and bottoms receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Surge control vessels and... Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-9 Standards: Surge control vessels and bottoms receivers. Each surge control vessel or bottoms receiver that is not routed back to...

  18. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  19. Influence of bottom ash of palm oil on compressive strength of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Andika Ade Indra; Basyaruddin, Laksono, Muhamad Hasby; Muntaha, Mohamad

    2017-11-01

    The technological development of concrete demands innovation regarding the alternative material as a part of the effort in improving quality and minimizing reliance on currently used raw materials such as bottom ash of palm oil. Bottom ash known as domestic waste stemming from palm oil cultivation in East Kalimantan contains silica. Like cement in texture and size, bottom ash can be mixed with concrete in which the silica in concrete could help increase the compressive strength of concrete. This research was conducted by comparing between normal concrete and concrete containing bottom ash as which the materials were apart of cement replacement. The bottom ash used in this research had to pass sieve size (#200). The composition tested in this research involved ratio between cement and bottom ash with the following percentages: 100%: 0%, 90%: 10%, 85%: 15% and 80%: 20%. Planned to be within the same amount of compressive strength (fc 25 MPa), the compressive strength of concrete was tested at the age of 7, 14, and 28 days. Research result shows that the addition of bottom ash to concrete influenced workability in concrete, but it did not significantly influence the compressive strength of concrete. Based on the result of compressive strength test, the optimal compressive strength was obtained from the mixture of 100% cement and 0% bottom ash.

  20. Indirect effects of bottom fishing on the productivity of marine fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collie, Jeremy; Hiddink, Jan Geert; Kooten, van Tobias; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Kaiser, Michel J.; Jennings, Simon; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-01

    One quarter of marine fish production is caught with bottom trawls and dredges on continental shelves around the world. Towed bottom-fishing gears typically kill 20-50 per cent of the benthic invertebrates in their path, depending on gear type, substrate and vulnerability of particular taxa.

  1. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  2. Distribution of Polychaeta in soft-bottoms of a Galician Ria (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cacabelos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic polychaete distributions were studied along the soft-bottoms of the Ensenada de San Simón (Galicia, NW Spain. Results suggest that the distribution and abundance of polychaetes in the inlet were highly dependent on depth, sediment characteristics (grain size, organic matter and calcium carbonate content and bottom water temperature. In the inner area of the inlet, intertidal bottoms colonised by the seagrasses Zostera marina and Z. noltii were dominated by spionids and capitellids, and showed low species number and diversity. Shallow muddy bottoms of central areas were mostly dominated by ampharetids, terebellids and cirratullids. These families along with paraonids, maldanids and syllids were the most abundant families in the deeper subtidal muddy bottoms at the mouth of the inlet. These sediments also showed the highest number of species, diversity and density of individuals.

  3. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  4. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  5. The Effect of Cycling Intensity on Cycling Economy During Seated and Standing Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Jobson, Simon; Hopker, James; Passfield, Louis

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% of maximal aerobic power at a gradient of 4% or 8% and in the seated or standing cycling position. Cycling economy and muscle activation level of 8 leg muscles were recorded. There was an interaction between cycling intensity and position for cycling economy (P = .03), the overall activation of the leg muscles (P = .02), and the activation of the lower leg muscles (P = .05). The interaction showed decreased cycling economy when standing compared with seated cycling, but the difference was reduced at higher intensity. The overall activation of the leg muscles and the lower leg muscles, respectively, increased and decreased, but the differences between standing and seated cycling were reduced at higher intensity. Cycling economy was lower during standing cycling than seated cycling, but the difference in economy diminishes when cycling intensity increases. Activation of the lower leg muscles did not explain the lower cycling economy while standing. The increased overall activation, therefore, suggests that increased activation of the upper leg muscles explains part of the lower cycling economy while standing.

  6. Biochemistry-directed hollow porous microspheres: bottom-up self-assembled polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Li, Qiufeng; Liu, Baodong; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of biological systems to guide molecule self-assembling facilitates the construction of distinctive architectures with desirable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report a biochemistry-directed ``bottom-up'' approach to construct hollow porous microspheres of polyanion materials for sodium ion batteries. Two kinds of polyanions, i.e. Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2, are employed as cases in this study. The microalgae cell realizes the formation of a spherical ``bottom'' bio-precursor. Its tiny core is subjected to destruction and its tough shell tends to carbonize upon calcination, resulting in the hollow porous microspheres for the ``top'' product. The nanoscale crystals of the polyanion materials are tightly enwrapped by the highly-conductive framework in the hollow microsphere, resulting in the hierarchical nano-microstructure. The whole formation process is disclosed as a ``bottom-up'' mechanism. Moreover, the biochemistry-directed self-assembly process is confirmed to play a crucial role in the construction of the final architecture. Taking advantage of the well-defined hollow-microsphere architecture, the abundant interior voids and the highly-conductive framework, polyanion materials show favourable sodium-intercalation kinetics. Both materials are capable of high-rate long-term cycling. After five hundred cycles at 20 C and 10 C, Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2 retain 96.2% and 93.1% of the initial capacity, respectively. Therefore, the biochemistry-directed technique provides a low-cost, highly-efficient and widely applicable strategy to produce high-performance polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries.Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of

  7. Synthesis of Bottom Hole Temperatures and Heat Flow Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Crowell, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a National Geothermal Data System (http://www.geothermaldata.org/) promises to provide industry, governmental agencies and researchers with a wealth of data on United States geothermal resources. Two of the larger data sets in the NDGS effort are the bottom-hole temperature data set from oil and gas drilling and the heat flow data set. The BHT data are being compiled by state geological surveys in a Bore Hole Observation Template that can include up to 76 different attributes for each well. The heat flow data are being compiled by a consortium led by the SMU Geothermal Laboratory in a Heat Flow Template that can include up to 63 different atrributes for each heat flow site. The key data for geothermal resource development are temperature, depth and the reservoir properties that control production capacity. The UND geothermal laboratory has assembled the BHT and heat flow data sets for North Dakota, Nebraska and Minnesota and we have compared how accurately the key geothermal data may be independently determined from each data set and by synthesis of both data sets. The BHT data provide temperature at depth, but it is well-documented that BHT data were recorded at non-equilibrium conditions and generally underestimate actual formation temperatures. Heat flow data include a measured temperature gradient, although the gradient may apply to only a short segment of the borehole temperature measurement. Synthesis of these two data sets provides checks that can prevent errors in data interpretation. We compared BHT data from the Denver Basin and Williston Basin to equilibrium temperature vs. depth profiles measured in deep boreholes and developed a thermal stratigraphy approach that permits correction of the BHT data for each basin.

  8. Top down and bottom up engineering of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2011-01-11

    The goal of this retrospective article is to place the body of my lab's multiscale mechanobiology work in context of top-down and bottom-up engineering of bone. We have used biosystems engineering, computational modeling and novel experimental approaches to understand bone physiology, in health and disease, and across time (in utero, postnatal growth, maturity, aging and death, as well as evolution) and length scales (a single bone like a femur, m; a sample of bone tissue, mm-cm; a cell and its local environment, μm; down to the length scale of the cell's own skeleton, the cytoskeleton, nm). First we introduce the concept of flow in bone and the three calibers of porosity through which fluid flows. Then we describe, in the context of organ-tissue, tissue-cell and cell-molecule length scales, both multiscale computational models and experimental methods to predict flow in bone and to understand the flow of fluid as a means to deliver chemical and mechanical cues in bone. Addressing a number of studies in the context of multiple length and time scales, the importance of appropriate boundary conditions, site specific material parameters, permeability measures and even micro-nanoanatomically correct geometries are discussed in context of model predictions and their value for understanding multiscale mechanobiology of bone. Insights from these multiscale computational modeling and experimental methods are providing us with a means to predict, engineer and manufacture bone tissue in the laboratory and in the human body. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BARC (bottom anti-reflective coating) for immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Yoshiomi; Kishioka, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Rikimaru; Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohashi, Takuya; Ishida, Tomohisa; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaida, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hisayuki

    2007-03-01

    193nm immersion Lithography will be installed at 45nm and beyond. For severe CD control, BARC (Bottom Antireflective Coating) has been used and this material must be used for immersion lithography. So far, we have developed several BARCs with various advantages (fast etch rate, broad resist compatibility, high adhesion, conformal...etc). Especially in an immersion process, development of BARC has to satisfy for the optical control and defectivity. The reflectivity control at Hyper NA is not same as the lower NA, because optical pass length in the BARC is not the same between low NA and High NA. In order to achieve enough etch selectivity to the substrate, hard mask materials are necessary. These under layers have absorption at 193nm. As a result of simulation, target optical parameters of next BARC should be low k value (k = ~0.25) for multi BARC stack. On the other hand, the defect issue must be decreased in the immersion process. However, the generation of many kinds of defects is suspected in the immersion process (water mark, blob defect, sublimation defect...etc). Regarding the BARC, there are also several specific defects in this process. Especially, after edge bead rinse, film peeling at edge area is one of the concerns. We researched the root cause of edge peeling and a solution for this defect. In this paper, we will discuss the detail of our BARC approach for litho performance, optical parameter, leaching, sublimation, edge peel defects and etch selectivity, and introduce new BARC for 193nm immersion lithography.

  10. Condensation and deposition of seed in the MHD bottoming plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. H.; Patten, J.; Johnson, T. R.; Tempelmeyer, K.

    1979-01-01

    The computer models of slag vapor nucleation and particle deposition have been extended to predict the growth and deposition of seed particles in the steam and air heater sections of the MHD bottoming plant. The model represents a hot combustion gas stream, which contains vaporized seed and entrained slag particles of a selected initial size distribution, flowing through a bank of cooled tubes. The energy balance includes convective and radiant heat transfer to the cool surfaces. The material balance for the condensible species considers convective mass transport of seed vapor to cool surfaces, and the deposition of particles on cooled surfaces by thermophoresis. The analyses provide the bases for design trade-off studies of steam tube size and spacing, gas velocity, and system configuration to optimize the effectiveness and cost of the steam plant. In the absence of entrained slag particles, sample calculations indicated that, as the gas is cooled in passing through a tube bank, the bulk of the seed vapor condenses in the gas stream to form particles with diameters in the range of 0.02 to 0.2 ..mu..m. In the presence of the submicron slag particles formed upstream in the MHD diffuser, the largest fraction of the seed vapor condenses on the existing entrained particles, causing them to grow to a size in the range of approximately one micron. In both cases, these particles are deposited on heat exchange surfaces throughout the heat recovery system and a large fraction is present in the cool combustion gas entering the exhaust gas clean-up system.

  11. Bottom-Up Syntheses and Characterization of One Dimensional Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yao-Wen

    Nanomaterials, materials having at least one dimension below 100 nm, have been creating exciting opportunities for fundamental quantum confinement studies and applications in electronic devices and energy technologies. One obvious and important aspect of nanomaterials is their production. Although nanostructures can be obtained by top-down reductive e-beam lithography and focused ion beam processes, further development of these processes is needed before these techniques can become practical routes to large scale production. On the other hand, bottom-up syntheses, with advantages in material diversity, throughput, and the potential for large volume production, may provide an alternative strategy for creating nanostructures. In this work, we explore syntheses of one dimensional nanostructures based on hydrothermal and arc discharge methods. The first project presented in this thesis involves syntheses of technologically important nanomaterials and their potential application in energy harvesting. In particular, it was demonstrated that single crystal ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PMN-PT) nanowires can be synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The chemical composition of the synthesized nanowires is near the rhombohedral-monoclinic boundary of PMN-PT, which leads to a high piezoelectric coefficient of 381 pm/V. Finally, the potential use of PMN-PT nanowires in energy harvesting applications was also demonstrated. The second part of this thesis involves the synthesis of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes by dc arc discharges. In particular, we investigated how local plasma related properties affected the synthesis of carbon nanostructures. Finally, we investigated the anodic nature of the arc and how a dc arc discharge can be applied to synthesize boron nitride nanotubes.

  12. Bottom and charm mass determinations with a convergence test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnadi, Bahman [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoang, André H. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics,University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 9, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mateu, Vicent [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-31

    We present new determinations of the (MS)-bar charm quark mass using relativistic QCD sum rules at O(α{sub s}{sup 3}) from the moments of the vector and the pseudoscalar current correlators. We use available experimental measurements from e{sup +} e{sup −} collisions and lattice simulation results, respectively. Our analysis of the theoretical uncertainties is based on different implementations of the perturbative series and on independent variations of the renormalization scales for the mass and the strong coupling. Taking into account the resulting set of series to estimate perturbative uncertainties is crucial, since some ways to treat the perturbative expansion can exhibit extraordinarily small scale dependence when the two scales are set equal. As an additional refinement, we address the issue that double scale variation could overestimate the perturbative uncertainties. We supplement the analysis with a test that quantifies the convergence rate of each perturbative series by a single number. We find that this convergence test allows to determine an overall and average convergence rate that is characteristic for the series expansions of each moment, and to discard those series for which the convergence rate is significantly worse. We obtain m̄{sub c}(m̄{sub c})= 1.288 ±0.020 GeV from the vector correlator. The method is also applied to the extraction of the (MS)-bar bottom quark mass from the vector correlator. We compute the experimental moments including a modeling uncertainty associated to the continuum region where no data is available. We obtain m̄{sub b}(m̄{sub b})= 4.176 ±0.023 GeV.

  13. Comparative metagenomics of bathypelagic plankton and bottom sediment from the Sea of Marmara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaiser, Achim; Zivanovic, Yvan; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2011-02-01

    To extend comparative metagenomic analyses of the deep-sea, we produced metagenomic data by direct 454 pyrosequencing from bathypelagic plankton (1000  m depth) and bottom sediment of the Sea of Marmara, the gateway between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Seas. Data from small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene libraries and direct pyrosequencing of the same samples indicated that Gamma- and Alpha-proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, dominated the bacterial fraction in Marmara deep-sea plankton, whereas Planctomycetes, Delta- and Gamma-proteobacteria were the most abundant groups in high bacterial-diversity sediment. Group I Crenarchaeota/Thaumarchaeota dominated the archaeal plankton fraction, although group II and III Euryarchaeota were also present. Eukaryotes were highly diverse in SSU rRNA gene libraries, with group I (Duboscquellida) and II (Syndiniales) alveolates and Radiozoa dominating plankton, and Opisthokonta and Alveolates, sediment. However, eukaryotic sequences were scarce in pyrosequence data. Archaeal amo genes were abundant in plankton, suggesting that Marmara planktonic Thaumarchaeota are ammonia oxidizers. Genes involved in sulfate reduction, carbon monoxide oxidation, anammox and sulfatases were over-represented in sediment. Genome recruitment analyses showed that Alteromonas macleodii 'surface ecotype', Pelagibacter ubique and Nitrosopumilus maritimus were highly represented in 1000  m-deep plankton. A comparative analysis of Marmara metagenomes with ALOHA deep-sea and surface plankton, whale carcasses, Peru subsurface sediment and soil metagenomes clustered deep-sea Marmara plankton with deep-ALOHA plankton and whale carcasses, likely because of the suboxic conditions in the deep Marmara water column. The Marmara sediment clustered with the soil metagenome, highlighting the common ecological role of both types of microbial communities in the degradation of organic matter and the completion of biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  15. The global sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  16. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  17. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Status report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    A baseline description of the benthos was carried out in spring and autumn 2001 prior to the construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, situated approximately 15 km off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. The surveys have been conducted as part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines set up by the Danish Energy Agency for offshore wind farms. Because no environmental criteria existed for benthic communities in connection with the construction activities, no power analysis was made prior to the design of the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna is thus somewhat limited and only major changes in the community structure are expected to be detectable. The baseline description for the benthic infauna can also be used for comparison of the stomach contents of fish in a comparative programme. A newly defined reference area may be introduced for the fish programme why sampling in this area was carried out in the autumn 2001. Samples were recovered at a total of 18 stations at 6 wind turbine locations in the wind farm area in June 2001 and at a total of 9 stations at 3 wind turbine locations in September 2001. In September additional sampling was carried out at 5 stations in a designated reference area. At the wind turbine locations sampling was carried out at 3 stations located 5, 25 and 100 m from the edge of the planned scour protection. Samples were analysed for sediment characteristics and for benthic infauna. Only the benthos relating to the macrofauna was investigated during the surveys. (au)

  18. Revenue cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ray; Satiani, Bhagwan

    2009-11-01

    With the widening gap between overhead expenses and reimbursement, management of the revenue cycle is a critical part of a successful vascular surgery practice. It is important to review the data on all the components of the revenue cycle: payer contracting, appointment scheduling, preregistration, registration process, coding and capturing charges, proper billing of patients and insurers, follow-up of accounts receivable, and finally using appropriate benchmarking. The industry benchmarks used should be those of peers in identical groups. Warning signs of poor performance are discussed enabling the practice to formulate a performance improvement plan.

  19. Where to start? Bottom-up attention improves working memory by determining encoding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the mechanism by which working memory is enhanced for items that capture attention because of their novelty or saliency-that is, via bottom-up attention. The first experiment replicated previous research by corroborating that bottom-up attention directed to an item is sufficient for enhancing working memory and, moreover, generalized the effect to the domain of verbal working memory. The subsequent 3 experiments sought to determine how bottom-up attention affects working memory. We considered 2 hypotheses: (1) Bottom-up attention enhances the encoded representation of the stimulus, similar to how voluntary attention functions, or (2) It affects the order of encoding by shifting priority onto the attended stimulus. By manipulating how stimuli were presented (simultaneous/sequential display) and whether the cue predicted the tested items, we found evidence that bottom-up attention improves working memory performance via the order of encoding hypothesis. This finding was observed across change detection and free recall paradigms. In contrast, voluntary attention improved working memory regardless of encoding order and showed greater effects on working memory. We conclude that when multiple information sources compete, bottom-up attention prioritizes the location at which encoding should begin. When encoding order is set, bottom-up attention has little or no benefit to working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Interactions of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Stephanie; Kastner, Sabine

    2011-01-12

    Multiple stimuli present in the visual field at the same time compete for neural representation by mutually suppressing their evoked activity throughout visual cortex, providing a neural correlate for the limited processing capacity of the visual system. Competitive interactions among stimuli can be counteracted by top-down, goal-directed mechanisms such as attention, and by bottom-up, stimulus-driven mechanisms. Because these two processes cooperate in everyday life to bias processing toward behaviorally relevant or particularly salient stimuli, it has proven difficult to study interactions between top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. Here, we used an experimental paradigm in which we first isolated the effects of a bottom-up influence on neural competition by parametrically varying the degree of perceptual grouping in displays that were not attended. Second, we probed the effects of directed attention on the competitive interactions induced with the parametric design. We found that the amount of attentional modulation varied linearly with the degree of competition left unresolved by bottom-up processes, such that attentional modulation was greatest when neural competition was little influenced by bottom-up mechanisms and smallest when competition was strongly influenced by bottom-up mechanisms. These findings suggest that the strength of attentional modulation in the visual system is constrained by the degree to which competitive interactions have been resolved by bottom-up processes related to the segmentation of scenes into candidate objects.

  1. Bottom Reflectance in Ocean Color Satellite Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Reichstetter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most ocean color algorithms are designed for optically deep waters, where the seafloor has little or no effect on remote sensing reflectance. This can lead to inaccurate retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs in optically shallow water environments. Here, we investigate in situ hyperspectral bottom reflectance signatures and their separability for coral reef waters, when observed at the spectral resolutions of MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors. We use radiative transfer modeling to calculate the effects of bottom reflectance on the remote sensing reflectance signal, and assess detectability and discrimination of common coral reef bottom classes by clustering modeled remote sensing reflectance signals. We assess 8280 scenarios, including four IOPs, 23 depths and 45 bottom classes at MODIS and SeaWiFS bands. Our results show: (i no significant contamination (Rrscorr < 0.0005 of bottom reflectance on the spectrally-averaged remote sensing reflectance signal at depths >17 m for MODIS and >19 m for SeaWiFS for the brightest spectral reflectance substrate (light sand in clear reef waters; and (ii bottom cover classes can be combined into two distinct groups, “light” and “dark”, based on the modeled surface reflectance signals. This study establishes that it is possible to efficiently improve parameterization of bottom reflectance and water-column IOP retrievals in shallow water ocean color models for coral reef environments.

  2. Developing the new method measuring thickness and quality of bottom sediments in using ultrasonic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomonari; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Naohiro

    2017-07-01

    Measuring the quality and thickness of bottom sediment that it causes some environmental problem, the shortage of water storage volume and anaerobic zone in the bottom of reservoirs, takes huge costs and long time. The purpose of our research is to develop a new method to measure the thickness and size characteristics of bottom sediment using ultrasonic waves that allow obtaining the quality of it indirectly. This new method applies the echo characteristic of bottom sediment in each particle size using the higher frequency than another method, which uses for measuring geological layer at seabed survey. In this research, we attempted to estimate the particle size of bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves irradiating from two different directions such as horizontal and vertical direction, and compare these experiments. We use sediment that we sampled from the lake bottom classified by particle size. At first, we acquired the results that show a relation between particle size and intensity; the obtained echo intensities, which were observed with oscilloscope, were changed depending on the particle sizes. In addition, peaks, which were obtained by power spectrum analysis, appeared on the same frequency band even though the different particle size. However the relation between the experiments of horizontal and vertical direction is not clear. This research indicated the possibility of estimating the characteristics of each particle size in bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves.

  3. A Comprehensive Review on the Properties of Coal Bottom Ash in Concrete as Sound Absorption Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Hannan Nurul Izzati Raihan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government is currently implementing policies to increase the usage of coal as fuel for electricity generation. At the same time, the dependency on gas will be reduced. In addition, coal power plants in Malaysia produce large amounts of industrial waste such as bottom ash which is collected in impoundment ponds (ash pond. However, millions of tons of coal ash (bottom ash waste are collected in ponds near power plant stations. Since bottom ash has been classified as hazardous material that threatens the health and safety of human life, an innovative and sustainable solution has been introduced to reuse or recycle industrial waste such as coal bottom ash in concrete mixtures to create a greener and more sustainable world. Bottom ash has the potential to be used as concrete material to replace fine aggregates, coarse aggregates or both. Hence, this paper provides an overview of previous research which used bottom ash as fine aggregate replacement in conventional concrete. The workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, and sound absorption of bottom ash in concrete are reviewed.

  4. Unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok from seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filina, I.; Lukin, V.; Masolov, V.; Blankenship, D.

    2007-01-01

    Seismic soundings of Lake Vostok have been performed by the Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition in collaboration with the Russian Antarctic Expedition since the early 1990s. The seismograms recorded show at least two relatively closely spaced reflections associated with the lake bottom. These were initially interpreted as boundaries of a layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. A more recent interpretation suggests that the observed reflections are side echoes from the rough lake bottom, and that there are no unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. The major goal of this paper is to reveal the nature of those reflections by testing three hypotheses of their origin. The results show that some of the reflections, but not all of them, are consistent with the hypothesis of a non-flat lake bottom along the source-receiver line (2D case). The reflections were also evaluated as side echoes from an adjacent sloping interface, but these tests implied unreasonably steep slopes (at least 8 degrees) at the lake bottom. The hypothesis that is the most compatible with seismic data is the presence of a widespread layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok. The modeling suggests the presence of a two hundred meter thick sedimentary layer with a seismic velocity of 1700 -1900 m/sec in the southern and middle parts of the lake. The sedimentary layer thickens in the northern basin to ~350 m

  5. Nanowire nanoelectronics assembled from the bottom-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiangfeng

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, a new paradigm for "bottom-up" assembly of nanoelectronics using nanowires (NWs) as building blocks has been defined. Three critical problems at the heart of device fabrication and integration will be addressed. First, we describe a general catalytic growth approach for the synthesis of a broad range of single crystal NWs of group III--V, II--VI and IV--IV binary and ternary alloy semiconductors with precisely controlled chemical composition, physical dimension, electronic and optical properties. In this approach, nanoclusters serve as catalytic sites confining and directing the growth of crystalline NWs through a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. A key feature of this method is that the catalyst material and synthetic conditions can be rationally determined from phase diagram data and/or knowledge of chemical reactivity, and thus enables rational design and predictable syntheses. Moreover, catalytic nanocluster size and growth time can be used to precisely define the diameter and length of the NWs, and dopants can be flexibly introduced into the reactant to control the electronic properties. Second, we have performed a series of studies to characterize the physical properties of this new class of NW materials and utilized them for novel device fabrication. Photoluminescence studies show individual NWs exhibit strong quantum confined emission. Electrical transport studies demonstrate that these NWs can be doped as either n- or p-type material with carrier mobility comparable or larger than the bulk materials. The unique optical and electronic properties suggest that the NWs are of high quality and readily enable us to construct a variety of conceptually or fundamentally new types of nanoscale devices, including single NW field-effect transistors (FETs), crossed NW p-n junctions, crossed NW FETs, molecule-gated NW switching/memory devices, crossed NW light emitting diodes (LEDs), NW optical waveguide and optical cavity, highly polarization

  6. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  7. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  8. Thermodynamic Study of Multi Pressure HRSG in Gas/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meeta; Singh, Onkar

    2018-01-01

    Combined cycle power plants have a combination of gas based topping cycle and steam based bottoming cycle through the use of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). These HRSG may be either of single pressure (SP) or dual pressure (DP) or multiple pressure type. Here in this study thermodynamic analysis is carried out for optimal performance of HRSG using different types of HRSG layout for combined cycle efficiency improvement. Performance of single pressure HRSG and dual pressure HRSG, utilized in gas/steam combined cycle is analyzed and presented here. In comparison to single pressure, dual pressure HRSG offers 10 to 15% higher reduction in stack temperature due to greater heat recovery and thus improved plant efficiency.

  9. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  10. Learning affects top down and bottom up modulation of eye movements in decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bagger, Martin; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    it in a broader framework of top down and bottom up processes and derive the predictions that repeated decisions increase top down control of attention capture which in turn leads to a reduction in bottom up attention capture. To test our hypotheses we conducted a repeated discrete choice experiment with three...... different information presentation formats. We thereby operationalized top down and bottom up control as the effect of individual utility levels and presentation formats on attention capture on a trial-by-trial basis. The experiment revealed an increase in top down control of eye movements over time...

  11. Nitrogen starvation induces expression of Lg-FLO1 and flocculation in bottom-fermenting yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoo

    2012-11-01

    When exponentially growing cells of bottom-fermenting yeast were starved for nitrogen or were grown on proline (a non-preferred nitrogen source), flocculation was induced. This flocculation was not induced by starvation for either carbon or amino acids. Expression of Lg-FLO1, which is required for flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast, was also found to be induced by starvation for nitrogen. This suggests that the flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast is under the control of a nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-like mechanism. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    The influence of suspended bottom material (0-25 mg/l) and algal cells (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) (0-500 .mu.g dry org wt[organic weight]/l) on clearance, growth and energetics in S. subtruncata (da Costa) was studied. Clearance and respiration rate were independent of concentrations of algae...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  13. Effect of anaerobic conditions in bottom waters on the occurrence of red tides at omura bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Iizuka, S

    1975-01-01

    The field observation that the occurrence of red tides at Omura Bay may have a close connection with the development of anoxic conditions in bottom waters was tested by bioassays of seawater collected during summer 1971. The stimulating effect of anaerobically-decomposed products of bottom mud on the growth of Gymnodinium type-'65 was examined. The results suggest that the development of oxygen deficiency in the bottom waters of Omura Bay makes the environment favourable for the growth of red tide organisms, both by the supply of inorganic nutrients and of some unidentified stimulants.

  14. The Effects of Bottom Ash on Setting Time and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandhie, B. A.; Kurniasari, P. T.; Darmawan, M. S.; Subekti, S.; Wibowo, B.; Husin, N. A.; Bayuaji, R.; Irawan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This research is to find out the contribution of waste energy utilization of fly ash and bottom ash coal as binding agent of geopolymer concrete. This research methodology uses experimental approach in laboratory by making cylinder paste test object with dimension diameter of 2.5 cm x height 5 cm with some combination of fly ash and bottom ash mix with time setting test (ASTM C 191-04a) and compressive strength (ASTM C 39-04a). The research concludes that the effect of bottom ash on fly ash-based geopolymer paste shows good results in setting time and compressive strength.

  15. Wave-structure interaction for long wave models with a freely moving bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Benyo, Krisztian

    2017-01-01

    43 pages; In this paper we address a particular fluid-solid interaction problem in which the solid object is lying at the bottom of a layer of fluid and moves under the forces created by waves travelling on the surface of this layer. More precisely, we consider the water waves problem in a fluid of fixed depth with a flat bottom topography and with an object lying on the bottom, allowed to move horizontally under the pressure forces created by the waves. After establishing the physical settin...

  16. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...

  17. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  18. Reasoning with Causal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…

  19. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  20. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The grammaticalization of the demonstratives this, that and thus are investigated with respect to their functions as degree adverbs using empirical data from dictionaries and historical and modern corpora. It is first argued that thus participates in the CP cycle. With respect to this and that...

  1. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...

  2. Econometric Business Cycle Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1940-01-01

    textabstractAlso published in: G. Haberler (Ed.), Readings in Business Cycles Theory, Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1944, pp. 61-86, in: Adrian C. Darnell (Ed.), The History of Econometrics, Vol. 2, Edward Elgar, Aldershot, 1994, pp. 230-247 and in: David F. Hendry and Mary S. Morgan (Eds), The

  3. Assisted Cycling Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  4. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  5. Big Data and Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanillos, Gustavo; Zaltz Austwick, Martin; Ettema, Dick; De Kruijf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Big Data has begun to create significant impacts in urban and transport planning. This paper covers the explosion in data-driven research on cycling, most of which has occurred in the last ten years. We review the techniques, objectives and findings of a growing number of studies we have classified

  6. The Pneumocystis life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile-Marie Aliouat-Denis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available First recognised as "schizonts" of Trypanosoma cruzi, Pneumocystis organisms are now considered as part of an early-diverging lineage of Ascomycetes. As no robust long-term culture model is available, most data on the Pneumocystis cell cycle have stemmed from ultrastructural images of infected mammalian lungs. Although most fungi developing in animals do not complete a sexual cycle in vivo, Pneumocystis species constitute one of a few exceptions. Recently, the molecular identification of several key players in the fungal mating pathway has provided further evidence for the existence of conjugation and meiosis in Pneumocystisorganisms. Dynamic follow-up of stage-to-stage transition as well as studies of stage-specific proteins and/or genes would provide a better understanding of the still hypothetical Pneumocystislife cycle. Although difficult to achieve, stage purification seems a reasonable way forward in the absence of efficient culture systems. This mini-review provides a comprehensive overview of the historical milestones leading to the current knowledge available on the Pneumocystis life cycle.

  7. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  8. Apoptosis and cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is used to eliminate individual cells surrounded by normal cell population. It is a controlled way of cell death in which the cell actively participates by conducting precise, gene-regulated program of self-destruction, that is, cell 'suicide.' Active synthesis of macromolecules is necessary during this process. Death of individual cells is necessary to maintain a balance in living systems, so the process of apoptosis is continuously present in the body, which allows normal development, tissue homeostasis, and many other physiological processes. The molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptosis are functionally linked to other cellular mechanisms, such as control of the cell cycle, cell proliferation and differentiation, genomic stability and cellular metabolism. Damage to the DNA molecule, caused both spontaneously and under the influence of various chemical and physical agents, leads to the cell cycle arrest and activation of mechanisms that repair the damage. Depending on the type and extent of the damage, the cell either continues progression through the cell cycle, or activates the mechanisms that lead to apoptosis. Disturbances in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle present the molecular and biological basis of many diseases. Because of the importance of these processes during the development and progression of tumors, their use as biological markers is one of the main strategies in the formation of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer.

  9. Privatization and nationalization cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Roberto; Hevia, Constantino; Loayza, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the cycles of nationalization and privatization in resource-rich economies as a prime instance of unstable institutional reform. The authors discuss the available evidence on the drivers and consequences of privatization and nationalization, review the existing literature, and present illustrative case studies. This leads to the main contribution of the paper: a static a...

  10. Re-Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-01-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version…

  11. The Science of Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Zoe; Daniels, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Children are engaged by finding out about science in the real world (Harlen, 2010). Many children will be cyclists or will have seen or heard about the success of British cyclists in the Olympics and the Tour de France. This makes cycling a good hook to draw children into learning science. It is also a good cross-curricular topic, with strong…

  12. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  13. Adiposity and sex hormones across the menstrual cycle: the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E H; Zhang, C; Albert, P S; Mumford, S L; Ye, A; Perkins, N J; Wactawski-Wende, J; Schisterman, E F

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the influence of adiposity on patterns of sex hormones across the menstrual cycle among regularly menstruating women. The BioCycle Study followed 239 healthy women for 1-2 menstrual cycles, with up to eight visits per cycle timed using fertility monitors. Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at each visit. Adiposity was measured by anthropometry and by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Differences in hormonal patterns by adiposity measures were estimated using nonlinear mixed models, which allow for comparisons in overall mean levels, amplitude (i.e., lowest to highest level within each cycle) and shifts in timing of peaks while adjusting for age, race, energy intake and physical activity. Compared with normal weight women (n=154), obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30 kg m(-2), n=25) averaged lower levels of progesterone (-15%, P=0.003), LH (-17%, P=0.01), FSH (-23%, P=0.001) and higher free E2 (+22%, P=0.0001) across the cycle. To lesser magnitudes, overweight women (BMI: 25-30, n=60) also exhibited differences in the same directions for mean levels of free E2, FSH and LH. Obese women experienced greater changes in amplitude of LH (9%, P=0.002) and FSH (8%, P=0.004), but no differences were observed among overweight women. Higher central adiposity by top compared to bottom tertile of trunk-to-leg fat ratio by DXA was associated with lower total E2 (-14%, P=0.005), and FSH (-15%, P=0.001). Peaks in FSH and LH occurred later (∼0.5 day) in the cycle among women with greater central adiposity. Greater total and central adiposity were associated with changes in mean hormone levels. The greater amplitudes observed among obese women suggest compensatory mechanisms at work to maintain hormonal homeostasis. Central adiposity may be more important in influencing timing of hormonal peaks than total adiposity.

  14. Contrasting fates of organic matter in locations having different organic matter inputs and bottom water O2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Thi, Ngoc-Nu; St-Onge, Guillaume; Tremblay, Luc

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this work were to study sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition and transformation since the end of the last deglaciation and to evaluate the influence of contrasting depositional conditions on these parameters. One station was located in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) where the current bottom waters are hypoxic and receive terrigenous and marine OM. The other station, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL), has more oxygenated bottom waters and almost only marine OM inputs. Analyses included enantiomers of amino acids (L and D-AA) and muramic acid that provide different markers of OM alteration state and reactivity and of bacterial contribution to OM composition and diagenesis. The markers clearly indicated the increase in OM alteration state with depth in the sediments of the LSLE and the GSL. The steady decrease in AA yields with depth confirmed the preferential degradation of AA compared to the rest of the OM. The OM in the surface sediment of the LSLE was less altered than that of the GSL and was enriched in bacterial biomass as indicated by much higher muramic acid yields. Results indicated that an important degradation of particulate organic matter occurs in the water column in the GSL, while it takes place mostly in the sediments in the LSLE. The presence of heterogeneous OM and hypoxic conditions in the LSLE likely reduce OM degradation rate in its deep water layer. However, the zone near the water-sediment interface is responsible for large variations in AA composition at both locations. A relatively new redox index, based on AA composition, was tested and appeared robust. This study highlights the importance of ambient conditions in determining the fate of OM and in the biogeochemical cycles of vital elements.

  15. Impressions of the turbulence variability in a weakly stratified, flat-bottom deep-sea ‘boundary layer’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the

  16. 76 FR 72440 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... mount combination refrigerator-freezers, namely: (1) Any assembled cabinets designed for use in bottom... assembled external doors designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that incorporate...) any assembled external drawers designed for use in bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers that...

  17. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2009-01-01

    were substantially higher on gravel or stone bottom and at ship wrecks than on sand bottom. The difference in the catch rates between the two bottom categories at paired stations within a short distance was highly significant for all the three fishing methods. Similarly, average CPUE for most surveys...

  18. Bottom-up capacity building for data providers in RITMARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Monica; Basoni, Anna; Bastianini, Mauro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Menegon, Stefano; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pavesi, Fabio; Sarretta, Alessandro; Carrara, Paola

    2014-05-01

    RITMARE is a Flagship Project by the Italian Ministry of Research, coordinated by the National Research Council (CNR). It aims at the interdisciplinary integration of Italian marine research. Sub-project 7 shall create an interoperable infrastructure for the project, capable of interconnecting the whole community of researchers involved. It will allow coordinating and sharing of data, processes, and information produced by the other sub-projects [1]. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) allow for interoperable sharing among heterogeneous, distributed spatial content providers. The INSPIRE Directive [2] regulates the development of a pan-european SDI despite the great variety of national approaches in managing spatial data. However, six years after its adoption, its growth is still hampered by technological, cultural, and methodological gaps. In particular, in the research sector, actors may not be prone to comply with INSPIRE (or feel not compelled to) because they are too concentrated on domain-specific activities or hindered by technological issues. Indeed, the available technologies and tools for enabling standard-based discovery and access services are far from being user-friendly and requires time-consuming activities, such as metadata creation. Moreover, the INSPIRE implementation guidelines do not accommodate an essential component in environmental research, that is, in situ observations. In order to overcome most of the aforementioned issues and to enable researchers to actively give their contribution in the creation of the project infrastructure, a bottom-up approach has been adopted: a software suite has been developed, called Starter Kit, which is offered to research data production units, so that they can become autonomous, independent nodes of data provision. The Starter Kit enables the provision of geospatial resources, either geodata (e.g., maps and layers) or observations pulled from sensors, which are made accessible according to the OGC standards

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Near-Bottom Sediments to Determine Geoacoustic and Geotechnical Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoll, R

    1998-01-01

    .... These tools include a motorized penetrometer designed to measure quasi static cone penetration resistance up to depths of two meters into the bottom, a Love wave source and linear receiving array...

  20. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  1. Ecological Dynamics of Wetlands at Lisbon Bottom, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study documented the interaction between hydrology and the biological dynamics within a single spring season at Lisbon Bottom in 1999. The study goal was to...

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of geopolymers from fluidised bed gasifier bottom ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is a clean coal technology suitable for power and fuel generation from low grade coals. However, the resulting bottom ash presents some disposal challenges to the power plants and the environment. The production...

  3. BOEM Seismic Water Bottom Anomalies - Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, geoscientists at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have identified and mapped over 31,000 water bottom (seafloor) acoustic amplitude anomalies...

  4. NODC Standard Format Sea Bottom Pressure Gauge (F017) Data (1976-1989) (NODC Accession 0014149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series measurements of seawater pressure from anchored or bottom-mounted sensors. Measurements of variations at depth of seawater...

  5. Measurement from the Bottom of the World to the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coester, Lee Anne

    2004-01-01

    A classroom activity analyzes the mathematics found in Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World, the true story of Ernest Shackleton and the 27-man crew who all survived a shipwreck at the South Pole. (Contains 3 figures.)

  6. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    a case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  7. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey - Site Specific Calibration (HB0803, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. Naval Force Sizing: Zero-Based or ’Bottoms-Up’ Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    25 III "BOTTOMS-UP" - WHAT IS IT? .......... . 25 Caveats ...... ................ 28 IV RISK ....... ................... . 29...acterized by a "count the bodies" philosophy. They argue that, 30 through quantitative methods to reduce measurement uncertainty, a strong clase can

  9. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  10. A Comprehensive Review on the Properties of Coal Bottom Ash in Concrete as Sound Absorption Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan; Shahiron Shahidan; Noorwirdawati Ali; Mohamad Zulkhairi Maarof

    2017-01-01

    .... At the same time, the dependency on gas will be reduced. In addition, coal power plants in Malaysia produce large amounts of industrial waste such as bottom ash which is collected in impoundment ponds (ash pond...

  11. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  12. Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. И. Васильев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM with two degrees of freedom.

  13. Fluvial Processes and Passive Rehabilitation of the Lisbon Bottom Side-Channel Chute, Lower Missouri River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses ecological benefits that can be achieved through alteration of riverine geomorphology using passive approaches. The future of the Lisbon Bottom...

  14. From exclusion to inclusion in public innovation support?: Innovative practices in bottom-up networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    ... – such as women, services industries and service innovations – could be acknowledged by the use of a bottom-up approach in innovation research in a way that helps make public innovation support more inclusive...

  15. Theoretical Solution and Applications of Ocean Bottom Pressure Induced by Seismic Seafloor Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao; Cai, Chen; Zheng, Yong; Meng, Lingsen; Liu, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Seismic signals captured by ocean bottom pressure sensors, which are designed to record tsunami waves, are largely ignored. In this paper, we derive a simple theoretical solution of the ocean bottom pressure as a function of prescribed seafloor motion. All the assumptions are clearly stated and analyzed. The solution is checked by comparing the seafloor displacement and pressure from three M7+ earthquakes, recorded by ocean bottom seismometers and pressure gauges located off the Japanese coast. We then show two applications. First, using the seafloor displacement data recorded by an ocean bottom seismometer, the pressure amplitude recorded by the associated pressure gauge is corrected, and vice versa. Second, pressure recordings from Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake are converted to seafloor displacements, which are then utilized to estimate the earthquake focal mechanism. Thus, we demonstrate that seismic signals recorded by pressure sensors have great potential for fast estimate of earthquake source parameters.

  16. Charm and bottom production in two-photon collisions with OPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Csilling, Akos

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary update of the previous OPAL measurement of the inclusive production of D* mesons in anti-tagged photon-photon collisions is presented together with the first preliminary OPAL measurement of bottom production in photon-photon collisions.

  17. Performance Analysis of a Double-effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with a Silica Gel/Water Working Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle is examined in this manuscript. The proposed cycle is based on the cascading adsorption cycle, where condensation heat that is produced in the top cycle is utilized as the driving heat source for the bottom cycle. The results show that the double-effect cycle produces a higher coefficient of performance (COP as compared to that of the conventional single-stage cycle for driving temperatures between 100 °C and 150 °C in which the average cycle chilled water temperature is fixed at 9 °C. Moreover, the COP of the double-effect cycle is more than twice that of the single-stage cycle when the temperature reaches 130 °C. It is also observed that the adsorbent mass ratio of the high temperature cycle (HTC to the low temperature cycle (LTC affects the performance of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle.

  18. Grain characteristics of crops grown on power plant ash and bottom slag deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzeletovic, Zeljko S.; Filipovic, Radoslav [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy INEP, Zemun (Yugoslavia)

    1995-05-01

    Our objective was to study mature grains of crops grown on various areas of power plant ash and bottom slag deposits. It was found that good grain quality with the application of usual agricultural techniques and intensified fertilization on various parts of ash and bottom slag deposits may be achieved with: autumn rye (Secale cereale L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barley (Hordeum sativum Jessen) and, to a lesser extent, winter raps (Brassica napus L.)

  19. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    water and sediments at the ocean bottom. The attenuation in near-bottom ocean sediments may be very high. It may be high enough that perturbation...for oceanic T-wave generation," Frank et al., has been published. This article documents the incorporation of seismic -like sources into the PE...contribution to this were supported by this grant. Finally the paper “Traveling wave modal attenuation and interaction with a transversely isotropic

  20. Evaluation of Top-down and Bottom-up Leadership Development Programs in a Finnish Company

    OpenAIRE

    Kati Skarp; Keijo Varis; Juha Kettunen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the top-down and bottom-up leadership development programs focused on human capital that improve the performance of a company. This study reports on the external top-down leadership development program supported by a consulting company and the internal participatory action research of the bottom-up program. The sickness rate and the lost time incident failure rate decreased and the ideas produced for cost savings improved, leading to increa...

  1. What is Bottom-Up and What is Top-Down in Predictive Coding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauss, Karsten; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Everyone knows what bottom-up is, and how it is different from top-down. At least one is tempted to think so, given that both terms are ubiquitously used, but only rarely defined in the psychology and neuroscience literature. In this review, we highlight the problems and limitations of our current understanding of bottom-up and top-down processes, and we propose a reformulation of this distinction in terms of predictive coding. PMID:23730295

  2. Numerical analyses of soft bottom macroinvertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    NUMERICAL ANALYSESOF SOFT BOTTOM MACROINVERTEBRATESTO DIAGNOSE THE POLLUTIONIN TROPICAL COASTALWATERS SADANAND N. HARKANTRA ∗ and NIMI R. RODRIGUES Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India ( ∗ author... wastes, numerical analyses, pollution 1. Introduction Soft bottom macro-invertebrates are widely used in monitoring the effects of mar- ine pollution, as they are mostly sessile, relatively larger in size, have a longer life span, and also due...

  3. Supporting Frequent Updates in R-Trees: A Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Mong Li; Hsu, Wynne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    to improve update performance. It has different levels of reorganization - ranging from global to local - during updates, avoiding expensive top-down updates. A compact main-memory summary structure that allows direct access to the R-tree index nodes is used together with efficient bottom-up algorithms....... Empirical studies indicate that the bottom-up strategy outperforms the traditional top-down technique, leads to indices with better query performance, achieves higher throughput, and is scalable....

  4. Deep-Ocean Bottom Pressure and Temperature Sensors Report: Methods and Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    N , T., and N used for conversion of’ :" temperatura a b ...... > temperature counts, N to emperature in c .......... 37 Table 8.2 Pressure sensor ...7 -A19 911 DEEP-OCEAN BOTTOM PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE SENSORS 1/2REPORT! METHODS AIND DA, (U) RHODE ISLAND UNIV NARRAGANSETT GRADUAT SCHOOL OF...11 ..,: 1 ., DIE FILE COPY -> DEEP-OCEAN BOTTOM PRESSURE Cn AND TEMPERATURE SENSORS REPORT: METHODS AND DATA by D. R. WATTS and H. KONTOYIANNIS ckis

  5. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in t...

  6. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. Bottom-up synthetic biology: modular design for making artificial platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sagardip; Liu, Allen P.

    2018-01-01

    Engineering artificial cells to mimic one or multiple fundamental cell biological functions is an emerging area of synthetic biology. Reconstituting functional modules from biological components in vitro is a challenging yet an important essence of bottom-up synthetic biology. Here we describe the concept of building artificial platelets using bottom-up synthetic biology and the four functional modules that together could enable such an ambitious effort.

  8. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt

    2011-01-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate...... the thermal treatment. Overall, rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended to reduce the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl and DOC; however, increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected....

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  10. Archaea in biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offre, Pierre; Spang, Anja; Schleper, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the microbial biomass on Earth. Like Bacteria they have evolved a variety of energy metabolisms using organic and/or inorganic electron donors and acceptors, and many of them are able to fix carbon from inorganic sources. Archaea thus play crucial roles in the Earth's global geochemical cycles and influence greenhouse gas emissions. Methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation are important steps in the carbon cycle; both are performed exclusively by anaerobic archaea. Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite is performed by Thaumarchaeota. They represent the only archaeal group that resides in large numbers in the global aerobic terrestrial and marine environments on Earth. Sulfur-dependent archaea are confined mostly to hot environments, but metal leaching by acidophiles and reduction of sulfate by anaerobic, nonthermophilic methane oxidizers have a potential impact on the environment. The metabolisms of a large number of archaea, in particular those dominating the subsurface, remain to be explored.

  11. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... or to support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved...... in decision-making processes, the necessity for a straightforward but comprehensive presentation of LCSA results is becoming strategically important. The implementation of the dashboard of sustainability proposed in this article offers a possible solution. An outstanding characteristic of the dashboard...

  12. Characteristics of track cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, N P; Norton, K I

    2001-01-01

    Track cycling events range from a 200 m flying sprint (lasting 10 to 11 seconds) to the 50 km points race (lasting approximately 1 hour). Unlike road cycling competitions where most racing is undertaken at submaximal power outputs, the shorter track events require the cyclist to tax maximally both the aerobic and anaerobic (oxygen independent) metabolic pathways. Elite track cyclists possess key physical and physiological attributes which are matched to the specific requirements of their events: these cyclists must have the appropriate genetic predisposition which is then maximised through effective training interventions. With advances in technology it is now possible to accurately measure both power supply and demand variables under competitive conditions. This information provides better resolution of factors that are important for training programme design and skill development.

  13. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    In 1845, the French chemist and mining engineer Jacques-Joseph Ebelman figured out why Earth's atmosphere contains oxygen (1). Oxygen is produced by plants during photosynthesis, but almost all of this oxygen is used again in respiration. Ebelman reasoned that small amounts of organic matter rema...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....... remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...

  14. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  15. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  16. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  17. Unemployment and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Christiano; Martin Eichenbaum; Mathias Trabandt

    2013-01-01

    We develop and estimate a general equilibrium search and matching model that accounts for key business cycle properties of macroeconomic aggregates, including labor market variables. In sharp contrast to leading New Keynesian models, we do not impose wage inertia. Instead we derive wage inertia from our specification of how firms and workers negotiate wages. Our model outperforms a variant of the standard New Keynesian Calvo sticky wage model. According to our estimated model, there is a crit...

  18. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring...... upward sloping labordemand schedules. Its distinctive characteristic is that the skillcomposition of aggregate labor demand drives expansionary i.i.d.demand shocks. Next, the model explains the labor market dynamicsfrom the supply side, while endogenizing the capital productivityresponse to changes...

  19. Injuries in Competitive Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J T

    1981-05-01

    In brief: There are relatively few injuries in competitive cycling, and abrasions are the most common. In this study most injuries occurred to the left side of the cyclist, and most common causes were flat tires and colliding with other cyclists. The number of injuries decreased as the cyclist gained more experience. Preventive measures include keeping the bicycle in top mechanical condition, wearing strong, durable clothing and a helmet, and knowing how to fall.

  20. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  1. Bottom-up vs. top-down effects on terrestrial insect herbivores: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mayra C; Murphy, Shannon M

    2018-01-01

    Primary consumers are under strong selection from resource ('bottom-up') and consumer ('top-down') controls, but the relative importance of these selective forces is unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the strength of top-down and bottom-up forces on consumer fitness, considering multiple predictors that can modulate these effects: diet breadth, feeding guild, habitat/environment, type of bottom-up effects, type of top-down effects and how consumer fitness effects are measured. We focused our analyses on the most diverse group of primary consumers, herbivorous insects, and found that in general top-down forces were stronger than bottom-up forces. Notably, chewing, sucking and gall-making herbivores were more affected by top-down than bottom-up forces, top-down forces were stronger than bottom-up in both natural and controlled (cultivated) environments, and parasitoids and predators had equally strong top-down effects on insect herbivores. Future studies should broaden the scope of focal consumers, particularly in understudied terrestrial systems, guilds, taxonomic groups and top-down controls (e.g. pathogens), and test for more complex indirect community interactions. Our results demonstrate the surprising strength of forces exerted by natural enemies on herbivorous insects, and thus the necessity of using a tri-trophic approach when studying insect-plant interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  3. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  4. Production of thermal insulation blocks from bottom ash of fluidized bed combustion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A K; Sinha, O P

    2017-08-01

    The issues of disposal and environmental problems are increased by the generation of bottom ash from the thermal power plants day by day; hence, its recycling is required. The present study aimed to make thermal insulation blocks using as raw material bottom ash and iron ore slime as a binder and to characterize their engineering properties. Two different fineness values of bottom ash were considered with varying amounts of iron ore slime (0-10%) to make the blocks. Blocks were dried followed by firing at 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. Cold crushing strength, density and thermal conductivity of these fired blocks showed increasing behaviour with firing temperature, fineness of bottom ash and iron ore slime content. In contrast, a reverse trend was observed in the case of porosity. With increasing firing temperature, the formation of lower melting phases like iron silicate followed by iron aluminium silicate was observed, which imparts the strength inside the blocks. The coarser particles of bottom ash increase the interparticle spaces, which enhances the apparent porosity, resulting in higher thermal insulation property in the blocks. Blocks having better thermal insulation property could be possible to make effectively from coarse bottom ash by adding iron ore slime as a binder.

  5. Creation of a digital elevation model of the bottom according to echosounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Regular echosounding bottom topography allows to monitoring changes in elevation of the reservoirs bottom and the position of coastline, allows to track the migration of the longshore underwater bars, allows to find many morphometric parameters for hand-made and naturals lakes. In this connection, there is a question of creating a correct and accurate digital elevation models bottom of the reservoirs according to the echosounding data. The article discusses the complex method includes, field and office works. Field works include - bottom topography surveying; shoreline position survey; if necessary, coastal profiles survey, etc. Cameral works include - reduction of all field data into a single system, echosounding data processing, building digital elevation models of bottom, comparing multi-temporal digital elevation models, preparation of various reservoirs parameters using DEM, etc. The article gives examples of different scale digital elevation models of the bottom. The article deals with the problem of comparing multi-temporal data, the problem of using the minimum amount of echosounding data for the optimal DEM and other.

  6. Precision bottom physics program at sPHENIX with inner vertex detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Sphenix Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The planned sPHENIX experiment at RHIC aims to study the microscopic nature of strongly interacting matter ranging from nucleons to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with high precision measurements of jets and heavy flavor observables for a wide selection of nuclear collision systems. In particular, the bottom quark is expected to be produced in a hard scattering before the QGP creation in heavy ion collisions and experience the medium throughout its evolution. The observables of bottom quark tagged jets (b-jets), bottom hadrons and their correlations at sPHENIX cover a wide kinematic range of the bottom probes. The sPHENIX measurements are complementary to the studies at the LHC, experiencing less fraction of bottom production via gluon splitting and probing QGP of different properties. Such measurements are essential for our understanding of the bottom quark energy loss mechanisms and transport properties of the QGP medium. To achieve these goals, the sPHENIX collaboration proposed to utilize a state of the art silicon vertex detector based on the Monolithic-Active-Pixel-Sensor (MAPS) technology. The detector design, physics reach and the status of detector R&D will be presented.

  7. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  8. Centrifugal Gas Compression Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultun, Roy

    2002-11-01

    A centrifuged gas of kinetic, elastic hard spheres compresses isothermally and without flow of heat in a process that reverses free expansion. This theorem follows from stated assumptions via a collection of thought experiments, theorems and other supporting results, and it excludes application of the reversible mechanical adiabatic power law in this context. The existence of an isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression process makes a three-process cycle possible using a fixed sample of the working gas. The three processes are: adiabatic mechanical expansion and cooling against a piston, isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression back to the original volume, and isochoric temperature rise back to the original temperature due to an influx of heat. This cycle forms the basis for a Thomson perpetuum mobile that induces a loop of energy flow in an isolated system consisting of a heat bath connectable by a thermal path to the working gas, a mechanical extractor of the gas's internal energy, and a device that uses that mechanical energy and dissipates it as heat back into the heat bath. We present a simple experimental procedure to test the assertion that adiabatic centrifugal compression is isothermal. An energy budget for the cycle provides a criterion for breakeven in the conversion of heat to mechanical energy.

  9. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  10. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit

  11. Babcock Redux: An Amendment of Babcock's Schematic of the Sun's Magnetic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2017-08-01

    We amend Babcock's original scenario for the global dynamo process that sustains the Sun's 22-year magnetic cycle. The amended scenario fits post-Babcock observed features of the magnetic activity cycle and convection zone, and is based on ideas of Spruit & Roberts (1983, Nature, 304, 401) about magnetic flux tubes in the convection zone. A sequence of four schematic cartoons lays out the proposed evolution of the global configuration of the magnetic field above, in, and at the bottom of the convection zone through sunspot Cycle 23 and into Cycle 24. Three key elements of the amended scenario are: (1) as the net following-polarity magnetic field from the sunspot-region Ω-loop fields of an ongoing sunspot cycle is swept poleward to cancel and replace the opposite-polarity polar-cap field from the previous sunspot cycle, it remains connected to the ongoing sunspot cycle's toroidal source-field band at the bottom of the convection zone; (2) topological pumping by the convection zone's free convection keeps the horizontal extent of the poleward-migrating following-polarity field pushed to the bottom, forcing it to gradually cancel and replace old horizontal field below it that connects the ongoing-cycle source-field band to the previous-cycle polar-cap field; (3) in each polar hemisphere, by continually shearing the poloidal component of the settling new horizontal field, the latitudinal differential rotation low in the convection zone generates the next-cycle source-field band poleward of the ongoing-cycle band. The amended scenario is a more-plausible version of Babcock's scenario, and its viability can be explored by appropriate kinematic flux-transport solar-dynamo simulations. A paper giving a full description of our dynamo scenario is posted on arXiv (http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05371).This work was funded by the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program and the Hinode

  12. Babcock Redux: An Amendment of Babcock's Schematic of the Sun's Magnetic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2016-10-01

    We amend Babcock's original scenario for the global dynamo process that sustains the Sun's 22-year magnetic cycle. The amended scenario fits post-Babcock observed features of the magnetic activity cycle and convection zone, and is based on ideas of Spruit & Roberts (1983) about magnetic flux tubes in the convection zone. A sequence of four schematic cartoons lays out the proposed evolution of the global configuration of the magnetic field above, in, and at the bottom of the convection zone through sunspot Cycle 23 and into Cycle 24. Three key elements of the amended scenario are: (1) as the net following-polarity magnetic field from the sunspot-region -loop fields of an ongoing sunspot cycle is swept poleward to cancel and replace the opposite-polarity polar-cap field from the previous sunspot cycle, it remains connected to the ongoing sunspot cycle's toroidal source-field band at the bottom of the convection zone; (2) topological pumping by the convection zone's free convection keeps the horizontal extent of the poleward-migrating following-polarity field pushed to the bottom, forcing it to gradually cancel and replace old horizontal field below it that connects the ongoing-cycle source-field band to the previous-cycle polar-cap field; (3) in each polar hemisphere, by continually shearing the poloidal component of the settling new horizontal field, the latitudinal differential rotation low in the convection zone generates the next-cycle source-field band poleward of the ongoing-cycle band. The amended scenario is a more-plausible version of Babcock's scenario, and its viability can be explored by appropriate kinematic flux-transport solar-dynamo simulations. A paper of the above title and authors, giving a full description of the solar dynamo scenario of this abstract, is available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05371. This work was funded by the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the Living With a Star Targeted Research and

  13. Degree-2 in the Transition Zone and Near the CMB: Bottom up Tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Lekic, V.; Tsai, V. C.; Dziewonski, A. M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Matas, J.; Panero, W. R.; Romanowicz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Cooperative Institute for Deep Earth Research (CIDER) program facilitated collaboration between researchers from seismology, geodynamics, mineral physics, and geochemistry to study, model and better understand the interior of the Earth. Through this multidisciplinary approach, we have developed a self- consistent paradigm of mantle structure and dynamics. Geochemical studies necessitate multiple mantle components, a requirement that can be met by a layered mantle structure with the 660-km discontinuity serving as a boundary between a depleted upper mantle and undepleted lower mantle. Seismological studies show strong evidence for reorganization of flow at the 660 km discontinuity, but some tomographic models also suggest a significant mass flux across this depth. We investigate the possibility that the large low-velocity seismic anomalies beneath south Africa and the central Pacific are thermochemical reservoirs that may serve as the undepleted, undegassed mantle end-member commonly seen in intraplate volcanics. These superplumes may represent an extension of the degree-2 heterogeneity dominating the deepest 500-1000 km of the lower mantle, and may comprise >20% of the mantle by volume. A comparison of S-velocity anomalies in the mantle with the slab reconstruction model of Lithgow-Bertelloni and Richards (1998) reveals a high degree-2 correlation between these models; in general, the slab model has much more power in higher harmonics. However, for degree-2, the slab density anomaly integrated over the upper mantle has the same pattern as the velocity anomalies at the bottom of the transition zone, but not at other depths in the upper mantle, suggesting that the transition zone acts as a low-pass filter, preferentially removing shorter wavelengths of mantle flow. The degree-2 velocity anomaly just above the core-mantle boundary (CMB) parallels the last 120 Ma of slab signal integrated over the entire mantle, indicating a long-lived origin of this boundary

  14. A bottom-up approach to urban metabolism: the perspective of BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, N.; Borrego, C.; San Josè, R.; Grimmond, S. B.; Jones, M. B.; Magliulo, V.; Klostermann, J.; Santamouris, M.

    2011-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. "Metabolic" studies are usually top-down approaches that assess the inputs and outputs of food, water, energy, and pollutants from a city, or that compare the changing metabolic process of several cities. In contrast, bottom-up approaches are based on quantitative estimates of urban metabolism components at local to regional scales. Such approaches consider the urban metabolism as the 3D exchange and transformation of energy and matter between a city and its environment. The city is considered as a system and the physical flows between this system and its environment are quantitatively estimated. The transformation of landscapes from primarily agricultural and forest uses to urbanized landscapes can greatly modify energy and material exchanges and it is, therefore, an important aspect of an urban area. Here we focus on the exchanges and transformation of energy, water, carbon and pollutants. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate local scale energy, water, carbon and pollutant fluxes. However, there is often poor communication of new knowledge and its implications to end-users, such as planners, architects and engineers. The FP7 Project BRIDGE (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) aims at bridging this gap and at illustrating the advantages of considering environmental issues in urban planning. BRIDGE does not perform a complete life cycle analysis or calculate whole system urban metabolism, but rather focuses on specific metabolism components (energy, water, carbon and pollutants). Its main goal is the development of a Decision Suport System (DSS) with the potential to select planning actions which better fit the goal of changing the metabolism of urban systems towards sustainability. BRIDGE evaluates how planning alternatives can modify the physical

  15. Separating steric sea level and ocean bottom pressure in the Tropical Asian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinherenbrink, M.; Riva, R.; Frederikse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Direct observations of Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) in the Tropical Asian Seas (TAS) are normally avoided due to a cut-off of typically 300 km in GRACE gravity fields from the coast to limit hydrological leakage.The limited number of temperature and salinity observations lead to interpolation problems and make it difficult to infer steric changes in the region.To close the sea level budget in the tropical ocean using Argo, GRACE and altimetry, the TAS area is therefore omitted (Von Schuckmann et al., 2014).However, due to its large sea level trends, the omission of the TAS in global sea level budgets leads to an underestimation of 0.5 mm/yr between 2005-2011 (Von Schuckmann et al., 2014).Furthermore, no studies exist to date that separate total sea level into the steric and OBP components, which in combination with large bathymetry fluctuations, hampers the understanding of the dynamics causing interannual variability in sea level in the area. We separate the steric and OBP components in the TAS, using altimetry, optimally filtered ITSG-Grace2016 gravity fields and temperature and salinity grids from various ocean reanalyses.By combining the observations from the three sources in a statistically optimal way, we aim to get the best separation of OBP and steric sea level.The sum of the OBP and steric sea level trends is statistically equal to trend differences caused by omitting the TAS, which makes it possible to correct global sea level budgets.Secondly, the interannual variability is mostly captured by regression with the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 3.4 index.In the deeper regions of the TAS this is primarily a steric signal, however in the shallow areas the interannual signal is of OBP origin.Finally, a large fraction of the OBP trends in the TAS region is explained by trends derived from fingerprints of Greenland, Anarctic, and glacier melt as well as dam retention and land hydrology plus a contribution of the nodal cycle.However, especially in the

  16. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  17. Thermoeconomic Evaluation of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three alternatives for integrating a solar field with the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle plant are modeled: parabolic troughs with oil at intermediate and low cycle pressures and Fresnel linear collectors at low cycle pressure. It is assumed that the plant will always operate at nominal conditions, using post-combustion during the hours of no solar resource. A thermoeconomic study of the operation of the plant throughout a year has been carried out. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant working in fuel only and hybrid modes are compared. The energy efficiencies obtained are very similar; slightly better for the fuel only mode. The exergy efficiencies are slightly better for hybrid operation than for fuel-only mode, due to the high exergy destruction associated with post-combustion. The values for solar electric efficiency are in line with those of similar studies. The economic study shows that the Fresnel hybridization alternative offers similar performance to the others at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  19. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark...

  20. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... INGESTING HIGH-PROTEIN FOODS AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS FOR BODYBUILDING : Symptoms of urea cycle disorder went unrecognized as young mother, Meegan Hefford, prepared for a bodybuilding competition. Undiagnosed urea cycle disorders can be triggered ...

  1. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  2. Evaluation of Sloped Bottom Tuned Liquid Damper for Reduction of Seismic Response of Tall Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, G. R.; Singh, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Due to migration of people to urban area, high land costs and use of light weight materials modern buildings tend to be taller, lighter and flexible. These buildings possess low damping. This increases the possibility of failure during earthquake ground motion and also affect the serviceability during wind vibrations. Out of many available techniques today, to reduce the response of structure under dynamic loading, Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) is a recent technique to mitigate seismic response. However TLD has been used to mitigate the wind induced structural vibrations. Flat bottom TLD gives energy back to the structure after event of dynamic loading and it is termed as beating. Beating affects the performance of TLD. Study attempts to analyze the effectiveness of sloped bottom TLD for reducing seismic vibrations of structure. Concept of equivalent flat bottom LD has been used to analyze sloped bottom TLD. Finite element method (EM) is used to model the structure and the liquid in the TLD. MATLAB code is developed to study the response of structure, the liquid sloshing in the tank and the coupled fluid-structure interaction. A ten storey two bay RC frame is analyzed for few inputs of ground motion. A sinusoidal ground motion corresponding to resonance condition with fundamental frequency of frame is analyzed. In the analysis the inherent damping of structure is not considered. Observations from the study shows that sloped bottom TLD uses less amount of liquid than flat bottom TLD. Also observed that efficiency of sloped bottom TLD can be improved if it is properly tuned.

  3. Probing magnetic bottom and crustal temperature variations along the Red Sea margin of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Salem, A.; Abdelaziz, A.M.S.; Elawadi, E.; Morgan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 magnetic bottom depths derived from spectra of magnetic anomalies in Eastern Egypt along the Red Sea margin show variable magnetic bottoms ranging from 10 to 34. km. The deep magnetic bottoms correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the region, and not the depth of 580??C, which lies significantly deeper on the steady state geotherms. These results support the idea of Wasilewski and coworkers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary in continental regions. Reduced-to-pole magnetic highs correspond to areas of Younger Granites that were emplaced toward the end of the Precambrian. Other crystalline Precambrian units formed earlier during the closure of ocean basins are not strongly magnetic. In the north, magnetic bottoms are shallow (10-15. km) in regions with a high proportion of these Younger Granites. In the south, the shoaling of the magnetic bottom associated with the Younger Granites appears to be restricted to the Aswan and Ras Banas regions. Complexity in the variation of magnetic bottom depths may arise due to a combination of factors: i) regions of Younger (Precambrian) Granites with high magnetite content in the upper crust, leaving behind low Curie temperature titanomagnetite components in the middle and lower crust, ii) rise in the depth of 580??C isotherm where the crust may have been heated due to initiation of intense magmatism at the time of the Red Sea rifting (~. 20. Ma), and iii) the contrast of the above two factors with respect to the neighboring regions where the Moho and/or Curie temperature truncates lithospheric ferromagnetism. Estimates of fractal and centroid magnetic bottoms in the oceanic regions of the Red Sea are significantly below the Moho in places suggesting that oceanic uppermost mantle may be serpentinized to the depth of 15-30 km in those regions. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. On the near-bottom variability in the northwestern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, M.; Hellmer, H. H.; Absy, J. M.

    The thermohaline data from the first Brazilian hydrographic cruise to the northwestern Weddell Sea (AR XVIII) revealed significant near-bottom changes in water-column properties over seasonal and interannual time scales. Favorable ice conditions in 2000 allowed a dense station coverage of the area including the main pathways for Weddell Sea deep and bottom waters. The new results are compared with the data from the 1998 German cruise ANT XV/4 and other historical data. A warming of the bottom layer was discovered that was more attributable to short-term seasonal or interannual fluctuations in the formation of cold bottom water than to a long-term trend. There was both consistency and variation between and within seasons. Invariant bottom-water characteristics were observed in different seasons (summer/winter), and variable bottom-water characteristics were observed in the same season (summer) at the same locations. This reduces the possibility of a dominant seasonal effect. Instead, we propose that the intermittent behavior of small cold-water sources along the Weddell Sea's periphery causes the variability measured in the deep northwestern Weddell Sea. The observed variability has consequences for the water-mass export across the South Scotia Ridge, as the absence of the fresher/lighter Weddell Sea Bottom Water south of South Orkney Plateau during AR XVIII might be linked to a reduced ventilation of the deep Scotia Sea. The results of this study show the need for ongoing efforts for establishing a long-term monitoring of this region with global importance.

  5. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning......The inventory analysis is the third and often most time-consuming part of an LCA. The analysis is guided by the goal and scope definition, and its core activity is the collection and compilation of data on elementary flows from all processes in the studied product system(s) drawing on a combination...

  6. Elementary cycles of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolce Donatello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

  7. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  8. Geomicrobiological cycling of antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, T. R.; Terry, L.; Dovick, M. A.; Braiotta, F.

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically catalyzed oxidation and reduction of toxic metalloids (e.g., As, Se, and Te) generally proceeds much faster than corresponding abiotic reactions. These microbial transformations constitute biogeochemical cycles that control chemical speciation and environmental behavior of metalloids in aqueous environments. Particular progress has been made over the past two decades in documenting microbiological biotransformations of As, which include anaerobic respiratory reduction of As(V) to As(III), oxidation of As(III) to As(V) linked to chemoautotrophy or photoautotrophy, and cellular detoxification pathways. By contrast, microbial interactions with Sb, As's group 15 neighbor and a toxic element of emerging global concern, are poorly understood. Our work with sediment microcosms, enrichment cultures, and bacterial isolates suggests that prokaryotic metabolisms may be similarly important to environmental Sb cycling. Enrichment cultures and isolates from a Sb-contaminated mine site in Idaho exhibited Sb(V)-dependent heterotrophic respiration under anaerobic conditions and Sb(III)-dependent autotrophic growth in the presence of air. Live, anoxic cultures reduced 2 mM Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 5 d, while no activity occurred in killed controls. Sb(V) reduction was stimulated by lactate or acetate and was quantitatively coupled to the oxidation of lactate. The oxidation of radiolabeled 14C-acetate (monitored by GC-GPC) demonstrated Sb(V)-dependent oxidation to 14CO2, suggesting a dissimilatory process. Sb(V) dependent growth in cultures was demonstrated by direct counting. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) also occurred in anerobic sediment microcosms from an uncontaminated suburban lake, but did not appear to be linked to growth and is interpreted as a mechanism of biological detoxification. Aerobic microcosms and cultures from the Idaho mine oxidized 2 mM Sb(III) to Sb(V) within 7 d and coupled this reaction to cell growth quantified by direct counting. An

  9. Kondratieff's Long-Wave Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Craig S.

    1985-01-01

    The legendary Soviet economist's classic work, "Long-Wave Cycle," has been republished. Admirers believe that it explains how the world's economy works. According to Kondratieff, the world economy follows cycles lasting from 48 to 55 years. His cycle theory is discussed. (Author/RM)

  10. Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972-2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment

  11. Revenue cycle management: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Matt

    2006-01-01

    The revenue cycle starts long before a patient is seen and continues until a claim is completely resolved. Each step in the revenue cycle must be clearly defined and easy to follow. Use of various tools such as templates, forms, reports, spreadsheets, and components of your practice management system will help to provide the consistency you need for profitable revenue cycle management.

  12. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  13. Political Business Cycles through Lobbying

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bonomo; Cristina Terra

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we build a framework where the interplay between the lobby power of special interest groups and the voting power of the majority of the population leads to political business cycles. We apply our set up to explain electoral cycles in government expenditure composition as well as to cycles in aggregate expenditures and in real exchange rates.

  14. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  15. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat

    2017-05-01

    Recuperated Brayton Cycle (RBC) has attracted the attention of research scientists not only as a possible replacement for the steam cycle at nuclear power plants but also as an efficient bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery and for concentrated solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows that it is possible to achieve higher efficiencies using methane under some operating conditions. However, as it turns out, the performance of Recuperated Brayton Cycle should be evaluated based on net output work. When the performance is assessed on the net output work criteria carbon dioxide still proves to be superior to other gases. This work also suggests that piston engines as compressors and expanders may be used instead of rotating turbines since reciprocating pistons have higher isentropic efficiencies.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels. More information related to radioactive waste and to the transport and storage of spent fuel is included in the current awareness publication, Radioactive Waste Management. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NFC on nuclear fuel back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  17. Coming Full Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Lindsey; Carll-White, Allison; Harrell, James

    2017-04-01

    This article illustrates a collaborative, full cycle diagnostic postoccupancy evaluation (POE) conducted in an emergency department (ED) to demonstrate methods of planning a POE, conducting research to capture meaningful data, and applying outcomes through the use of a design charrette. POEs often end with the reporting of findings rather than suggesting how this knowledge feeds forward. A design charrette presents an opportunity to engage with POE evidence and integrate research into practice. Planning for the POE resulted in a multiphased, multimethodological study. Data collection and analysis utilized objective and subjective measures yielding both qualitative and quantitative data. The design charrette then served as an interactive method to assist design practitioners in both understanding and applying the research findings in the redesign of the entry/triage sequence of the ED. POE findings revealed four key issues impacting the ED experience. These include workflow, communication, privacy and confidentiality, and safety and security. In analyzing the use of the charrette to link POE findings to design application, it was determined that the charrette should include an all-inclusive, collaborative process, easily interpreted evidence, active participant engagement, and feasible outcomes grounded in research. Taking the POE process full cycle is a critical component in bridging the gap between research and its application to design. The charrette process offers a positive mark of completion to the POE and helps participants gain sensitivity to the importance of evidence-based decision-making.

  18. Muscle coordination during an outdoor cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Ollie M; Wakeling, James M

    2012-05-01

    Muscle activity in cycling has primarily been studied in the laboratory; however, conclusions are limited by the ability to recreate realistic environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine muscle coordination patterns in an outdoor time trial and investigate their relationships to power output (PO), total muscle activity (Itot), overall mechanical efficiency (ηO), cadence, and gradient. Surface EMG, gradient, and cycling parameters were measured while cycling 18.8 km outdoors. A principal component analysis was used to establish coordination patterns that were compared with Itot, ηO, PO, cadence, and gradient. PO was positively correlated with Itot, and high PO was associated with elevated rectus femoris and vastus lateralis activity and synchronization of muscles crossing the same joint. PO and cadence demonstrated positive and negative relationships, respectively, with gradient. Relationships between muscle coordination, PO, ηO, Itot, and gradient showed that muscle coordination, PO, and ηO fluctuate during an outdoor time trial as a result of pacing and gradient. A trade-off existed between ηO and PO, and ηO was dependent on muscle activation around the top and bottom of the pedal cycle and activity in more than the knee extensor muscles. Fluctuations in muscle activity due to the changing PO, from pacing and terrain, seemed to mitigate fatigue indices seen in indoor cycling studies. This study provides evidence that muscle activity is dependent on the terrain aspects of the cycle course as muscle coordination changes with the altered locomotor demands. The coordination patterns significantly covaried with PO, Itot, ηO, cadence, and gradient, which highlights the importance of recording these parameters under field conditions and/or careful reproduction of outdoor environments in indoor studies.

  19. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

  20. Tsunami Simulation Method Assimilating Ocean Bottom Pressure Data Near a Tsunami Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-10-01

    A new method was developed to reproduce the tsunami height distribution in and around the source area, at a certain time, from a large number of ocean bottom pressure sensors, without information on an earthquake source. A dense cabled observation network called S-NET, which consists of 150 ocean bottom pressure sensors, was installed recently along a wide portion of the seafloor off Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido in Japan. However, in the source area, the ocean bottom pressure sensors cannot observe directly an initial ocean surface displacement. Therefore, we developed the new method. The method was tested and functioned well for a synthetic tsunami from a simple rectangular fault with an ocean bottom pressure sensor network using 10 arc-min, or 20 km, intervals. For a test case that is more realistic, ocean bottom pressure sensors with 15 arc-min intervals along the north-south direction and sensors with 30 arc-min intervals along the east-west direction were used. In the test case, the method also functioned well enough to reproduce the tsunami height field in general. These results indicated that the method could be used for tsunami early warning by estimating the tsunami height field just after a great earthquake without the need for earthquake source information.