WorldWideScience

Sample records for bottom particles

  1. Higgs Searches with Bottom Quarks and Invisible Particles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2077110

    An essential search to answer the question of whether the newly discovered boson of mass 125 GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the standard model Higgs boson ($H$) is the search for decay of the boson into a pair of bottom quarks ($b {\\overline{b}}$), as this is theoretically the dominant decay channel of a low-mass Higgs boson. For best signal-to-background sensitivity, the associated production of the Higgs boson with a vector boson ($V$ = $W$ or $Z$) is used. The search is carried out in six channels based on the decay of the vector boson: $W(\\mu\

  2. Mechanism of Off—Bottom Suspension of Solid Particles in a Mechanical Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOYuyun; HUANGXiongbin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The minimum fluid velocity to maintain particles just suspended was deduced,and the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum velocity is influenced by the properties of the solid and liquid,not by the operational conditions. For justification,the local minimum velocity at the bottom of the tank was measured by a bi-electrode conductivity probe,in a square-sectioned stirred tank (0.75m×0.75m×1.0m) with the glass beads-water system. The experiments showed that the fluid velocities for the same suspension state were identical despite that the power dissipated per unit mass was not the same under different configuration and operation.Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the off-bottom suspension is controlled by the local fluid flow over the bottom of the stirred tank.

  3. Scaling up self-assembly: bottom-up approaches to macroscopic particle organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, M H; Fedorchak, M V; McCarthy, J J; Little, S R

    2015-07-28

    This review presents an overview of recent work in the field of non-Brownian particle self-assembly. Compared to nanoparticles that naturally self-assemble due to Brownian motion, larger, non-Brownian particles (d > 6 μm) are less prone to autonomously organize into crystalline arrays. The tendency for particle systems to experience immobilization and kinetic arrest grows with particle radius. In order to overcome this kinetic limitation, some type of external driver must be applied to act as an artificial "thermalizing force" upon non-Brownian particles, inducing particle motion and subsequent crystallization. Many groups have explored the use of various agitation methods to overcome the natural barriers preventing self-assembly to which non-Brownian particles are susceptible. The ability to create materials from a bottom-up approach with these characteristics would allow for precise control over their pore structure (size and distribution) and surface properties (topography, functionalization and area), resulting in improved regulation of key characteristics such as mechanical strength, diffusive properties, and possibly even photonic properties. This review will highlight these approaches, as well as discuss the potential impact of bottom-up macroscale particle assembly. The applications of such technology range from customizable and autonomously self-assembled niche microenvironments for drug delivery and tissue engineering to new acoustic dampening, battery, and filtration materials, among others. Additionally, crystals made from non-Brownian particles resemble naturally derived materials such as opals, zeolites, and biological tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage and lung), due to their high surface area, pore distribution, and tunable (multilevel) hierarchy. PMID:25947543

  4. Study of Charm and Bottom Particle Production Using a Holographic Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experimental arrangement consists mainly of a small, rapid cycling, heavy liquid bubble chamber, HOBC, equipped for holography and a muon detector. The high spatial resolution which can be obtained in a small holographic bubble chamber (5-10 @mm) allows a good efficiency for the detection of shortlived particles like charm and bottom particles. With the one muon trigger the proportion of these particles is greatly enhanced. For the first phase of the experiment the emphasis is on the determination of charm cross-sections. The aim is to determine the production cross-sections at 100, 200 and 300 GeV/c for different incident particles, and consequently determine the energy dependence of the charm cross-sections.

  5. Template-Free Bottom-Up Method for Fabricating Diblock Copolymer Patchy Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianggui; Li, Zhan-Wei; Sun, Zhao-Yan; Khomami, Bamin

    2016-05-24

    Patchy particles are one of most important building blocks for hierarchical structures because of the discrete patches on their surface. We have demonstrated a convenient, simple, and scalable bottom-up method for fabricating diblock copolymer patchy particles through both experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The experimental method simply involves reducing the solvent quality of the diblock copolymer solution by the slow addition of a nonsolvent. Specifically, the fabrication of diblock copolymer patchy particles begins with a crew-cut soft-core micelle, where the micelle core is significantly swelled by the solvent. With water addition at an extremely slow rate, the crew-cut soft-core micelles first form a larger crew-cut micelle. With further water addition, the corona-forming blocks of the crew-cut micelles begin to aggregate and eventually form well-defined patches. Both experiments and DPD simulations indicate that the number of patches has a very strong dependence on the diblock copolymer composition-the particle has more patches on the surface with a lower volume fraction of patch-forming blocks. Furthermore, particles with more patches have a greater ability to assemble, and particles with fewer patches have a greater ability to merge once assembled. PMID:27109249

  6. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  7. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  8. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  9. Near-bottom suspended matter concentration on the Continental Shelf during storms: estimates based on in situ observations of light transmission and a particle size dependent transmissometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Butman, B.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory calibration of Sea Tech and Montedoro-Whitney beam transmissometers shows a linear relation between light attenuation coefficient (cp) and suspended matter concentration (SMC) for natural sediments and for glass beads. However the proportionality constant between cp and SMC depends on the particle diameter and particle type. Thus, to measure SMC, observations of light attenuation must be used with a time-variable calibration when suspended particle characteristics change with time. Because of this variable calibration, time series of light attenuation alone may not directly reflect SMC and must be interpreted with care. The near-bottom concentration of suspended matter during winter storms on the U.S. East Coast Continental Shelf is estimated from light transmission measurements made 2 m above the bottom and from the size distribution of suspended material collected simultaneously in sediment traps 3 m above the bottom. The average concentrations during six storms between December 1979 and February 1980 in the Middle Atlantic Bight ranged from 2 to 4 mg l1 (maximum concentration of 7 mg l1) and 8 to 12 mg l1 (maximum concentration of 22 mg l1) on the south flank of Georges Bank. ?? 1987.

  10. Missing particle associated with two bottom quarks at the LHC: Mono-$b$ versus 2$b$ with razor variables

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning; Kang, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinmian

    2016-01-01

    The extended Higgs sector such as by a second Higgs doublet of type-II provides portals to dark sector which contains missing particles at the LHC, e.g., dark matter (DM) particle. In this paper, working in the simplified model and taking into consideration the vital wide width effect of the mediator, we analyze the characteristic signatures of mono-$b$+MET and 2$b$+MET at the LHC. The latter signature was believed to be ineffective, but we found that, with the aid of razor shape analysis, it...

  11. Missing particle associated with two bottom quarks at the LHC: Mono-$b$ versus 2$b$ with razor variables

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ning; Li, Jinmian

    2016-01-01

    The extended Higgs sector such as by a second Higgs doublet of type-II provides portals to dark sector which contains missing particles at the LHC, e.g., dark matter (DM) particle. In this paper, working in the simplified model and taking into consideration the vital wide width effect of the mediator, we analyze the characteristic signatures of mono-$b$+MET and 2$b$+MET at the LHC. The latter signature was believed to be ineffective, but we found that, with the aid of razor shape analysis, it should be as important as the mono-$b$ signature. In the region of relatively low mediator mass (below a few hundred GeV), the 2$b$-tagged razor analysis has comparable sensitivity with the mono-$b$ search when the systematic uncertainty is at percent level; it is even better for mediator lighter than $\\sim 200$ GeV.

  12. Evidence for a particle produced in association with weak bosons and decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair in higgs boson searches at the tevatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alvarez González, B; Alverson, G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Bose, T; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Bu, X B; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chevalier-Théry, S; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, D K; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cihangir, S; Ciocci, M A; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; 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Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hewamanage, S; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kasper, P A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; 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    2012-08-17

    We combine searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a W or Z boson and subsequent decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. The data, originating from Fermilab Tevatron pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, correspond to integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb(-1). The searches are conducted for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 100-150 GeV/c(2). We observe an excess of events in the data compared with the background predictions, which is most significant in the mass range between 120 and 135 GeV/c(2). The largest local significance is 3.3 standard deviations, corresponding to a global significance of 3.1 standard deviations. We interpret this as evidence for the presence of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson, which is produced in association with a weak vector boson and decays to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. PMID:23006359

  13. Wave bottom boundary layer processes below irregular surfzone breaking waves with light-weight sheet flow particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagneux, François Xavier; Hurther, David

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigates the structure of the near-bed flow below irregular surfzone breaking waves inducing light-weight sheet flow particle transport. The experiments are carried out in the LEGI flume under steady equilibrium conditions between the wave forcing and the underlying bed morphology. Synchronized ACVP and video images provide detailed information about the mean wave and current characteristics and the coupled flow regimes across the entire wave breaking region including the outer and the inner surfzones. An analysis of the impact of breaking eddies in the Wave Boundary Layer (WBL) is undertaken at the beginning of the inner surfzone. Subsequently, the intrawave variation of several contributions of the total shearing force per unit area and the net values of the Reynolds stress related to phase-averaged velocities are analyzed. It is found that -ρu˜w˜ is the dominant term. The turbulent Reynolds stress, the low frequency, and the mean terms are at least 1 order of magnitude lower. Due to the irregular wave forcing, the net values are separated into the net wave-by-wave Reynolds stress and the wave Reynolds stress averaged over the entire irregular wave sequence. All these measured bed shear stress terms are then compared to estimations obtained with two different parameterized models in order to evaluate their prediction performances. The values of the model parameters are discussed in comparison to those found in the literature. Finally, the vertical profile of net Reynolds shear stress exhibits a nearly constant value across the sheet-flow layer.

  14. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  15. 搅拌槽中固体颗粒离底悬浮机理的研究%Mechanism of Off-Bottom Suspension of Solid Particles in a Mechanical Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包雨云; 黄雄斌; 施力田; 王英琛

    2002-01-01

    The minimum fluid velocity to maintain particles just suspended was deduced, and the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum velocity is influenced by the properties of the solid and liquid, not by the operational conditions. For justification, the local minimum velocity at the bottom of the tank was measured by a bi- electrode conductivity probe, in a square-sectioned stirred tank (0.75m×0.75m×1.0m) with the glass beads-water system.The experiments showed that the fluid velocities for the same suspension state were identical despite that the power dissipated per unit mass was not the same under different configuration and operation. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the off-bottom suspension is controlled by the local fluid flow over the bottom of the stirred tank.

  16. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  17. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  18. Radioactive contamination in the upper part of the Techa river: stirring-up of bottom sediments and precipitation of suspended particles. Analysis of the data obtained in 1949-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrov, Yury G

    2004-02-01

    A hydrodynamic model of the upper part of the Techa river was developed on the basis of the river valley geometry as well as data of hydrological conditions and of the granulometric composition of bottom sediments. The model describes the transport of radioactivity by suspended sediments with different granulometric compositions (clay, silt) in the early 1950s. It includes the stirring-up of bottom sediments and the precipitation of suspended sediments as a function of water discharge rate and water level in the investigated part of the river. The results allow to specify the development of the river system contamination as a result of inflow of suspended sediments contaminated with radionuclides. In the period of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) discharges, the water of the Techa river contained a large fraction of finely dispersed particles of less than 5 micro m diameter. At the site of LRW discharge 80% of the discharged activity was adsorbed to these particles. Depending on the water flow, 40-80% of the suspensions precipitated at the bottom of subsequent sedimentation reservoirs. A total of about 1.6 MCi adsorbed to the suspended particles entered the open hydrographic system of the Techa river. The conclusion that the largest part of the activity was adsorbed on the suspended particles contradicts the assumption in the Techa river dosimetry system, TRDS-2000, that most of the released activity entered the Techa river in soluble form. For a correct reconstruction of the doses received by the Techa river population it is, therefore, essential to consider hydrodynamic models that take into account the transport of radionuclides adsorbed on the suspended particles. PMID:14714191

  19. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  20. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  1. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  2. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of...

  3. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  4. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  5. Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake was investigated with XRF and Mossbauer techniques. The lake of about 120 Km2, is a shallow one, medium deep of about 1.8m. In addition to its use for recreation, its basin has a wide area of influence and of economical significance. Bottom sediments play an important role in the overall distribution of trace elements in the aquatic system and act as a sink for metals. Bottom samples were taken from 5 different sampling stations, selected according to the morphology and population sites in the shore. The concentration of toxic metals was found to be low and no negative ecological impact should be expected. The main metallic ion component is iron (1.69%). Mossbauer studies showed this element appears as Fe+3 and no Fe+2 was detected. It is here suggested that Fe+3 acts as the limiting element which controls eutrophication process

  6. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  7. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  8. Bottom Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Böhrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Results on inclusive and exclusive bottom production in gammagamma collisions are presented. The total cross section of inclusive bottom production is investigated through its leptonic decays at LEP II energies by the experiments L3 and OPAL. The average cross section, after correction for acceptances and efficiencies, is sigma_tot = 13.3 +- 1.5 +- 2.3 pb. The next-to-leading order calculations are lower than the data by a factor three, which corresponds to a difference of more than three standard deviations. ALEPH studied the exclusive bottom production. Searching for the eta_b one candidate is found. Limits on Gamma_gammagamma(eta_b)*BR for 4 and 6 charged particles are extracted. The candidate has a mass of 9.30 +- 0.04 GeV.

  9. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many other models, Composite Higgs Models feature the existence of heavy vector-like quarks. Mixing effects between the Standard Model fields and the heavy states, which can be quite large in case of the top quark, imply deviations from the SM. In this work we investigate the possibility of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element Vtb are fulfilled, and we test the compatibility with the electroweak precision observables. In particular we evaluate the constraint from the Z coupling to left-handed bottom quarks. General formulae have been derived which include the effects of new bottom partners in the loop corrections to this coupling and which can be applied to other models with similar particle content. Furthermore, the constraints from direct searches for heavy states at the LHC and from the Higgs search results have been included in our analysis. The best agreement with all the considered constraints is achieved for medium to large compositeness of the left-handed top and bottom quarks

  10. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed. PMID:27079853

  11. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  12. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  13. Precious Metals in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchova, Lenka; Bakker, Erwin; Rem, Peter [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Materials and Environment, TU Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: P.C.REM@TUDELFT.NL

    2009-04-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains economically significant levels of silver and gold. Bottom ashes from incinerators at Amsterdam and Ludwigshafen were sampled, processed, and analyzed to determine the composition, size, and mass distribution of the precious metals. In order to establish accurate statistics of the gold particles, a sample of heavy non-ferrous metals produced from 15 tons of wet processed Amsterdam ash was analyzed by a new technology called magnetic density separation (MDS). Amsterdam's bottom ash contains approximately 10 ppm of silver and 0.4 ppm of gold, which was found in particulate form in all size fractions below 20 mm. The sample from Ludwigshafen was too small to give accurate values on the gold content, but the silver content was found to be identical to the value measured for the Amsterdam ash. Precious metal value in particles smaller than 2 mm seems to derive mainly from waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), whereas larger precious metal particles are from jewelry and constitute the major part of the economic value. Economical analysis shows that separation of precious metals from the ash may be viable with the presently high prices of non-ferrous metals. In order to recover the precious metals, bottom ash must first be classified into different size fractions. Then, the heavy non-ferrous (HNF) metals should be concentrated by physical separation (eddy current separation, density separation, etc.). Finally, MDS can separate gold from the other HNF metals (copper, zinc). Gold-enriched concentrates can be sold to the precious metal smelter and the copper-zinc fraction to a brass or copper smelter.

  14. Magnetic properties of bottom sediments from Meromectic Shira Lake (Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, D. Yu.; Balaev, D. A.; Semenov, S. V.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.; Bayukov, O. A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties were studied in bottom sediments of saline meromictic Shira Lake by the methods of static magnetometry and resonance Mössbauer spectroscopy for the first time. All layers of bottom sediments contain nanosized single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria. The concentration of magnetite in bottom sediments decreased with depth, reaching a local minimum in the layer corresponding to the minimal level of the lake observed in 1910-1930. It is demonstrated that biogenic magnetite may indicate climate-related changes in the level of Shira Lake, in addition to the other biological and geochemical characteristics.

  15. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceika, Evaldas; Filistovic, Vitold; Luksiene, Bena; Tarasiuk, Nikolay; Buivydas, Sarunas; Konstantinova, Marina; Puzas, Andrius [State research institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-2300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  16. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of 137Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  17. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students.

  18. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  19. Development of Castables for Gass Tank Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANLin; CHENShengling

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of zircon corundum refractory castables were analyzed.The superior properties and applied effect of castables for glass tank bottom were demonstrated.The results show that those castables have excellent molten glass corrosion resistance (MGCR) and enable glass tank bot-tom to form a seal mass.

  20. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  1. In search of the Higgs boson: H -> bottom bottom

    CERN Multimedia

    Cortada, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In Geneva, FIU artist Xavier Cortada and physicist Pete Markowitz delivered an Art-Science talk during the CERN CMS Week Conference, created a site-specific installation at the CMS experiment venue and engaged 300 scientists from around the world in a performance art piece that transformed them into the very subatomic particles they research. In the piece, they invite scientists to participate by wearing a cap with LED lights, showing one of the 6 colors which represent the flavors of the quarks. The physicists themselves then take the role of the quarks inside a proton with the building serving as the confining (proton) walls. Through their social interactions each scientist will mimic the natural interactions studied in the experiment below. Working together, Cortada and Markowitz developed a permanent art installation to be unveiled at the vernissage. The installation's five banners give the different strategies to sift through the voluminous collisions recorded by the CMS experiment in the search for the...

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Breaking Wave on Sloping Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kuei-Sen; CHEN Yang-Yih; LI Meng-Syue; HSU Hung-Chu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the continuous evolution of breaking wave for the surface water waves propagating on a sloping beach. A Lagrangian asymptotic solution is derived. According to the solution coupled with the wave breaking criteria and the equations of water particles motion, the wave deformation and the continuous wave breaking processes for the progressive water waves propagating on a sloping bottom can be derived. A series of experiments are also conducted to compare with the theoretical solution. The results show that the present solution can reasonably describe the plunging or spilling wave breaking phenomenon.

  3. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  5. Particle physics builds potential

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano

    2004-01-01

    Surveys of the career prospects of particle physicists in Europe, such as that one carried out in 2000 at DELPHI, reveal that particle phycisists are much in demand. The findings are fairly independent of a student's nationality, despite the big differences in the education systems of different countries across the continent. According to the DELPHI survey, half of all physics students remain in an academic environment after graduation. For those particle physicists who leave academia, the DELPHI survey showed that about half find jobs in hi- tech industry. The bottom line is that a degree in physics offers very good job prospects and career opportunities. (Edited abstract).

  6. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions for the desired purpose, while treating the bottom degrees of freedom to be frozen in the medium. Hence, all medium effects are due to the in-medium interaction of the light quark content of these open-bottom mesons. Both $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons are found to experience net attractive interactions in the medium, leading to lowering of their masses in the medium. The mass degeneracy of particles and antiparticles, ($B^+$, $B^-$) as well as ($B^0$, ${\\bar B}^0$), is observed to be broken in the medium, due to equal and opposite ...

  7. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  8. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  9. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of t...

  10. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate...... from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... works together with the overlying leachate management system, also referred to as the leachate collection and removal system (LCRS), which consists of a drainage layer that provides easy horizontal drainage of the leachate to a point of gravitational collection or pumping. Although individual liners...

  11. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  12. Time stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  13. A novel bottom-up process to produce drug nanocrystals : Controlled crystallization during freeze-drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, H; Hinrichs, W L J; Frijlink, H W

    2008-01-01

    To improve the dissolution behavior of lipophilic drugs, a novel bottom-up process based upon freeze drying which allows for the production of nanocrystalline particles was developed: "controlled crystallization during freeze drying". This novel process could strongly increase the dissolution behavi

  14. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  15. 24 CFR 3285.804 - Bottom board repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottom board repair. 3285.804....804 Bottom board repair. (a) The bottom board covering must be inspected for any loosening or areas... to be replaced prior to closure and repair of the bottom board. (b) Any splits or tears in the...

  16. The generation of myricetin-nicotinamide nanococrystals by top down and bottom up technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyu; Hong, Chao; Li, Guowen; Ma, Ping; Xie, Yan

    2016-09-30

    Myricetin-nicotinamide (MYR-NIC) nanococrystal preparation methods were developed and optimized using both top down and bottom up approaches. The grinding (top down) method successfully achieved nanococrystals, but there were some micrometer range particles and aggregation. The key consideration of the grinding technology was to control the milling time to determine a balance between the particle size and distribution. In contrast, a modified bottom up approach based on a solution method in conjunction with sonochemistry resulted in a uniform MYR-NIC nanococrystal that was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and differential scanning calorimeter, and the particle dissolution rate and amount were significantly greater than that of MYR-NIC cocrystal. Notably, this was a simple method without the addition of any non-solvent. We anticipate our findings will provide some guidance for future nanococrystal preparation as well as its application in both chemical and pharmaceutical area. PMID:27535365

  17. The generation of myricetin-nicotinamide nanococrystals by top down and bottom up technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyu; Hong, Chao; Li, Guowen; Ma, Ping; Xie, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Myricetin-nicotinamide (MYR-NIC) nanococrystal preparation methods were developed and optimized using both top down and bottom up approaches. The grinding (top down) method successfully achieved nanococrystals, but there were some micrometer range particles and aggregation. The key consideration of the grinding technology was to control the milling time to determine a balance between the particle size and distribution. In contrast, a modified bottom up approach based on a solution method in conjunction with sonochemistry resulted in a uniform MYR-NIC nanococrystal that was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and differential scanning calorimeter, and the particle dissolution rate and amount were significantly greater than that of MYR-NIC cocrystal. Notably, this was a simple method without the addition of any non-solvent. We anticipate our findings will provide some guidance for future nanococrystal preparation as well as its application in both chemical and pharmaceutical area.

  18. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  19. Bottom-up approach to silicon nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumita, Hiroshi; Oda, S

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience This paper presents a brief review of our recent work investigating a novel bottom-up approach to realize silicon based nanoelectronics. We discuss fabrication technique, electronic properties and device applications of silicon nanodots as a building block for nanoscale silicon devices.

  20. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  1. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  2. Bottom-up organic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Edsger C. P.; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; van Hal, Paul A.; Setayesh, Sepas; Geuns, Thomas C. T.; Mutsaers, Kees A. H. A.; Cantatore, Eugenio; Wondergem, Harry J.; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Kemerink, Martijn; Kirchmeyer, Stephan; Muzafarov, Aziz M.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2008-01-01

    Self- assembly - the autonomous organization of components into patterns and structures(1) - is a promising technology for the mass production of organic electronics. Making integrated circuits using a bottom- up approach involving self- assembling molecules was proposed(2) in the 1970s. The basic b

  3. Sensor-based control in eddy current separation of incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Abdur; Bakker, M C M

    2013-06-01

    A sensor unit was placed online in the particle stream produced by an eddy current separator (ECS) to investigate its functionality in non-ferrous metals recovery. The targeted feed was the 1-6mm size fraction bottom ash from a municipal waste incinerator. The sensor unit was attached to the ECS splitter, where it counted in real-time metal and mineral particles and accurately measured the grade of the stream in the metals product. Influence of segregation (e.g. due to particle size or density) on the metals concentrate were detected and studied using the sensor data collected at different splitter distances. Tests were performed in the laboratory and in a bottom ash processing plant with two different types of ECS and two sources of bottom ash with different moisture content. The measured metal grades matched the manual analyses with errors 0%, 1.5% and 3.1% for moist, dry and very wet feed, respectively. For very wet feed the ECS metals recovery dropped, which was observed from the strongly reduced particle counts and the large changes in cumulative particle properties. The measured sample proved representative for the whole metals concentrate if it is collected at a representative position within the metals particle trajectory fan produced by the ECS. ECS-performance proved sensitively dependent on splitter distance, since a 10mm shift may result in 10% change in metal recovery and 18% change in grade. The main functionalities of the sensor unit are determined as online quality control and facilitation of automatic control over the ECS splitter distance. These functionalities translate in significant improvements in ECS metals recovery which in turn is linked to economic benefits, increased recycling rate of scrap metals and a further reduction of the ecological drawbacks of incinerator bottom ash. PMID:23490354

  4. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  5. TOTAL PHOSPHORUS RELEASE FROM BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN FLOWING WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun; CHENG Peng-da; ZHONG Bao-chang; WANG Dao-zeng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the bottom of the Dianshan Lake was selected as a test sample.The dynamic release of contaminated sediments into the overlying water column was experimentally investigated in an open water channel under different hydrodynamic conditions.The experimental results indicate that the Total Phosphorus (TP) release process can be divided into three stages:rapid release,slow release and equilibration release.In the initial release stage the measured TP concentration changes along the depth.The TP concentration near the sediment-water interface is higher than that near the water surface,but the TP concentration becomes uniform along the depth after 3 h.The dynamic release of re-suspension sediment pollutants is about 6 times higher than the static release of sediment-water interface.There are three main types of release mechanism:diffusion release,re-suspended pore water mixing release and re-suspended particles desorbing release.

  6. Bottom-Up Discrete Symmetries for Cabibbo Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Talbert, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We perform a bottom-up search for discrete non-Abelian symmetries capable of quantizing the Cabibbo angle that parameterizes CKM mixing. Given a particular Abelian symmetry structure in the up and down sectors, we construct representations of the associated residual generators which explicitly depend on the degrees of freedom present in our effective mixing matrix. We then discretize those degrees of freedom and utilize the Groups, Algorithms, Programming (GAP) package to close the associated finite groups. This short study is performed in the context of recent results indicating that, without resorting to special model-dependent corrections, no small-order finite group can simultaneously predict all four parameters of the three-generation CKM matrix and that only groups of $\\mathcal{O}(10^{2})$ can predict the analogous parameters of the leptonic PMNS matrix, regardless of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. Therefore a natural model of flavour might instead incorporate small(er) finite groups...

  7. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  8. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Pan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the possible q q ¯ quark-model assignments of the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) can be identified as the B (2 1S0) and B (1 3D3) , respectively, and the B (5970 ) reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as the B (2 3S1) or B (1 3D3) . Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the B (5970 ) are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  9. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the possible $q\\bar{q}$ quark-model assignments of the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ can be identified as $B(2^1S_0)$ and $B(1^3D_3)$, respectively, and the $B(5970)$ reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as $B(2^3S_1)$ or $B(1^3D_3)$. Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the $B(5970)$ are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  10. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  11. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  12. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  13. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  14. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Legrand; Rob LaJoie

    2013-01-01

    In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting consider...

  15. Bottoming out-Sign of Stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K. Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Production Rose from its Nadir Apart from individual data report.CNTAC was a lot more focused on an overall review of textile industry as a whole to illustrate economic behavior for the first five months."sign of stabilization,bottoming out"are the key words emphatically voiced as a token of encou ragement,for the important economic indexes are indeed encouraging as compa red with this fi rst quarter.

  16. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of their medium mass on baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. Certain aspects of these in-medium interactions are similar to those observed for the strange-charmed mesons in a preceding investigation, such as the lifting of mass-degeneracy of $B_S^0$ and ${\\bar B}_S^0$ mesons in hyperonic matter, while the same is respected in vacuum as well as in nuclear matter. In general, however, there is a remarkable distinction between the two species, even though the formalism predicts a completely analogous in-medium...

  17. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  18. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillioz, M.; Grober, R.; Kapuvari, A.;

    2014-01-01

    , and we test the compatibility with the electroweak precision observables. In particular we evaluate the constraint from the Z coupling to left-handed bottom quarks. General formulae have been derived which include the effects of new bottom partners in the loop corrections to this coupling and which can...... of the left-handed top and bottom quarks....

  19. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 109 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 109 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  20. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...... on states and control signals should be considered....

  1. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  2. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t{yields} b+W{sup +}({yields}e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  3. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t→ b+W+(→e++νe)). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  4. Particle Distribution in a Fixed Bed Down Draft Wood Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Char particle samples were collected from six distances above the grate in a fixed bed of a down draft biomass gasifier. Each sample was separated into twelve size fractions by screening through standard sieves in order to determine the local particle size distribution. The ash contents of each...... particle fraction was determined. The measured ash content in the larger particles was nearly constant throughout the bed, while ash accumulated in particle sizes around 1 mm near the bottom....

  5. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Zachary S; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with $J^P = \\frac12^+$ and $J^P = \\frac32^+$. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using $SU(4|2)$ heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including $1/m_Q$ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  6. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Long Wave Dynamics along a Convex Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira; Soomere, Tarmo

    2008-01-01

    Long linear wave transformation in the basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile in the framework of one-dimensional shallow water equation. The existence of travelling wave solutions in this geometry and the uniqueness of this wave class is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two travelling waves propagating in opposite directions. It is found that generally a zone of a weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for sine pulse, KdV soliton and N-wave. Shown is that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the bottom containing a s...

  8. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model

  9. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S. S. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  10. Heavy Exotic Molecules with Charm and Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the $(0^+, 1^+)$ multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the $(0^-,1^-)$ multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets $(0^\\pm, 1^\\pm)$ cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for $J\\leq 1$. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound isosinglet with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is suggested as a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ not yet reported.

  11. Multibaryons with strangeness, charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, V.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The spectra of baryonic systems with strangeness, charm and bottom are considered within a ''rigid oscillator'' version of the bound state soliton model. The static properties of multiskyrmions, of baryon number up to B=8, are calculated using the recently suggested rational map ansaetze as starting field configurations. The property of binding of flavoured mesons by an SU(2) skyrmion is proved rigorously within this model. Binding energy estimates are made of the states with largest isospin which can appear as negatively charged nuclear fragments and for states with zero isospin - fragments of ''flavoured'' nuclear matter. It is shown that for all types of flavour and for vertical stroke F vertical stroke {<=}2 the isoscalar baryonic systems have a better chance to be stable against strong and electromagnetic interactions than those with nonzero isospin. Baryonic systems with charm or bottom quantum numbers are found to be bound more than strange baryonic systems. (orig.)

  12. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  13. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements

  14. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation...... and control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  15. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  16. Accumulation and potential dissolution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river bottom sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa E-mail: sanada@tokai.jnc.go.jp; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagao, Seiya; Amano, Hikaru; Takada, Hideshige; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2002-05-01

    Areas contaminated with radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident have been identified in Pripyat River near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The river bottom sediment cores contained {sup 137}Cs (10{sup 5}- 10{sup 6} Bq/m{sup 2}) within 0-30 cm depth, whose concentration is comparable to that in the ground soil in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant (the Exclusion Zone). The sediment cores also accumulated {sup 90}Sr (10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 2}), {sup 239,240}Pu (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) and {sup 241}Am (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) derived from the accident. Several nuclear fuel particles have been preserved at 20-25 cm depth that is the peak area of the concentrations of the radionuclides. Th ese inventories in the bottom sediments were compared with those of the released radionuclides during the accident. An analysis using a selective sequential extraction technique was applied for the radionuclides in the sediments. Results suggest that the possibility of release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from the bottom sediment was low compared with {sup 90}Sr. The potential dissolution and subsequent transport of {sup 90}Sr from the river bottom sediment should be taken into account with respect to the long-term radiological influence on the aquatic environment.

  17. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially

  18. Copper speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates; Kopparformer i lakvatten fraan energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Schaik, Joris van; Berggren Kleja, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Hees, Patrick van [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    identified as being of particular importance for the release of Cu from MSWI bottom ash: the long-term weathering of Cu from primary mineral phases in the ash, the binding of Cu to ash particle surfaces, and the complexation of Cu{sup 2+} to dissolved organic matter. Efforts to reduce Cu leaching from ashes should therefore be concentrated on measures that addresses the Cu release that results from these three processes.

  19. Search for signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Favareto; Luigi Longo

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discov- ery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still several open questions that the Standard Model doesnâ??t address, like the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the matter-antimatter asym- metry, the neutrino oscillations, the inconsistency with the general relativity and the hierarchy problem. Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Supersymmetry, Little and Com- posite Higgs, Extra-Dimensions, Extended Gauge models, Technicolor, Left-Right symmetric models, and many other BSM scenarios are trying to answer these questions. In these proceed- ings we present the most recent results for searches Beyond the Standard Model at the LHC by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, focusing on signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The non-observation of a signal permits to set limits at the 95pct confidence level on the production cross sect...

  20. The effect of different aspect ratio and bottom heat flux towards contaminant removal using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic Interpolated Pseudo-particle (CIP) numerical simulation scheme has been anticipated to predict the interaction involving fluids and solid particles in an open channel with rectangular shaped cavity flow. The rectangular shaped cavity is looking by different aspect ratio in modelling the real pipeline joints that are in a range of sizes. Various inlet velocities are also being applied in predicting various fluid flow characteristics. In this paper, the constant heat flux is introduced at the bottom wall, showing the buoyancy effects towards the contaminant's removal rate. In order to characterize the fluid flow, the numerical scheme alone is initially tested and validated in a lid driven cavity with a single particle. The study of buoyancy effects and different aspect ratio of rectangular geometry were carried out using a MATLAB govern by Navier-Stokes equation. CIP is used as a model for a numerical scheme solver for fluid solid particles interaction. The result shows that the higher aspect ratio coupled with heated bottom wall give higher percentage of contaminant's removal rate. Comparing with the benchmark results has demonstrated the applicability of the method to reproduce fluid structure which is complex in the system. Despite a slight deviation of the formations of vortices from some of the literature results, the general pattern is considered to be in close agreement with those published in the literature

  1. Pressure drop evaluation in fuel assembly bottom nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Sydney da Silva; Brittes, Luiz Henrique A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sydney@inb.gov.br; brittes@inb.gov.br; Navarro, Moyses A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Energia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: navarro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in order to assess the pressure drop through an anti-debris bottom nozzle relatively to a standard bottom nozzle of a nuclear fuel assembly. Two kinds of experiments have been performed: one using bottom nozzles connected with the lower part of a Fuel Assembly (containing two spacer grids) and another one using the bottom nozzle alone. Reynolds numbers ranging from 10500 . 95000 have been employed, temperatures ranging from 40 . 55 deg C and pressures up to 4 bar. Results have shown that the pressure drop coefficients of the anti-debris nozzle referring to the whole lower region of the Fuel Assembly were {approx} 13% (for Re {approx_equal} 95000) till {approx} 17% (for Re {approx_equal} 10500) higher than the coefficients for standard bottom nozzle. This difference increases up to 118% when the pressure drop coefficients of the bottom nozzle alone are considered. (author)

  2. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  3. Method of coupled mode for long-range bottom reverberation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The theory of coupled mode is used for modeling the long-range bottom reverberation in shallow water caused by bottom roughness. The distant bottom reverberation level and spatial coherence of impulsive source are both derived. The results agree with those from the classical reverberation model, and are compared with the experimental data. The influence of source bandwidth and the distance between sources and receivers on the intensity of bottom reverberation are particularly discussed. The method is shown to be available for both the monoand the bi-static cases.

  4. Batch and Column Operations for the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution Using Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Ramesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people rely on drinking water that contains excess fluoride. In fluoride endemic areas, especially small communities with staggered habitat, defluoridation of potable water supply is still a problem. In this study, adsorption potential of bottom ash was investigated for defluoridation of drinking water using batch and continuous fixed bed column studies. Batch sorptive defluoridation conducted under experimental conditions such as pH, temperature, particle size, agitation time and dosage. Adsorption isotherms have been modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The fluoride sorption capacity at breakthrough point for bottom ash was greatly influenced by bed depth. The results were then analyzed using the Bed Depth Service Time (BDST Model and various performance parameters like Adsorption Capacity, Critical Bed Depth, and Adsorption Rate Constant were evaluated. With the observed data Thomas model and Yoon Nelson Model fitted well and constants are found.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.1396

  5. MSSM Higgs-boson production in bottom-quark fusion: electroweak radiative corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Mück, A; Schl"uter, T; Dittmaier, Stefan; Kr\\"amer, Michael; Mück, Alexander; Schl\\"uter, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Higgs-boson production in association with bottom quarks is an important discovery channel for supersymmetric Higgs particles at hadron colliders for large values of tan(beta). We present the complete O(alpha) electroweak and O(alpha_s) strong corrections to associated bottom-Higgs production through bb fusion in the MSSM and improve this next-to-leading-order prediction by known two-loop contributions to the Higgs self-energies, as provided by the program FeynHiggs. Choosing proper renormalization and input-parameter schemes, the bulk of the corrections (in particular the leading terms for tan(beta)) can be absorbed into an improved Born approximation. The remaining non-universal corrections are typically of the order of a few per cent. Numerical results are discussed for the benchmark scenarios SPS 1b and SPS 4.

  6. Structure formation in warm dark matter cosmologies: Top-Bottom Upside-Down

    CERN Document Server

    Paduroiu, Sinziana; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The damping on the fluctuation spectrum and the presence of thermal velocities as properties of warm dark matter particles like sterile neutrinos imprint a distinct signature found from the structure formation mechanisms to the internal structures of halos. Using warm dark matter simulations we explore these effects on the structure formation for different particle energies and we find that the formation of structure is more complex than originally assumed, a combination of top-down collapse and hierarchical (bottom-up) clustering on multiple scales. The degree on which one scenario is more prominent with respect to the other depends globally on the energy of the particle and locally on the morphology and architecture of the analyzed region. The presence of shells and caustics in warm dark matter haloes is another important effect seen in simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of thermal velocities on the structure formation from theoretical considerations as well as from the analysis of the simulati...

  7. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  8. To the Bottom of the Sbottom

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tao; Wu, Yongcheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Huanian

    2015-01-01

    In the search for bottom squark (sbottom) in SUSY at the LHC, the common practice has been to assume a $100\\%$ decay branching fraction for a given search channel. In realistic MSSM scenarios, there are often more than one significant decay modes to be present, which significantly weaken the current sbottom search limits at the LHC. On the other hand, the combination of the multiple decay modes offers alternative discovery channels for sbottom searches. In this paper, we present the sbottom decays in a few representative mass parameter scenarios. We then analyze the sbottom signal for the pair production in QCD with one sbottom decaying via $\\tilde{b}\\rightarrow b \\chi_1^0,\\ b \\chi_2^0$, and the other one decaying via $\\tilde{b} \\rightarrow t \\chi_1^\\pm$. With the gaugino subsequent decaying to gauge bosons or a Higgs boson $\\chi_2^0 \\rightarrow Z \\chi_1^0,\\ h \\chi_1^0$ and $\\chi_1^\\pm \\rightarrow W^\\pm \\chi_1^0$, we study the reach of those signals at the 14 TeV LHC with 300 ${\\rm fb^{-1}}$ integrated lumino...

  9. Particle-Particle-String Vertex

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    1996-01-01

    We study a theory of particles interacting with strings. Considering such a theory for Type IIA superstring will give some clue about M-theory. As a first step toward such a theory, we construct the particle-particle-string interaction vertex generalizing the D-particle boundary state.

  10. Long-term Performance of MSWI Bottom Ash in a Test Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christian Frogner-Kockum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a

  11. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values can however exceed these target values. The low leaching of elements such as Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn at L/S 10 results in that almost all values in the sample test are below the target values for waste that can be disposed in to landfills for inert waste, i.e. far below preliminary target values for use of secondary materials in subbase layers. Environmental assessments based on leaching as a function of L/S should instead focus on other elements such as Cu, Mo, SO{sub 4}{sup 2,} Cl{sup a}nd Sb. Besides, the leaching of Cl{sup a}nd SO{sub 4}{sup 2c}ould be a problem for the use of bottom ash in subbase layers. Our calculations indicate that at least 2 samples should be collected and analyzed from a storage heap containing = 30 tonnes of bottom ash. The calculations are dependent on the target values used and therefore the requirements can change if other target values are used. Nordtest NT ENVIR 004 recommends that at least 5 samples (N=5) are collected and analyzed. If instead a storage heap contains 5,000 tonnes and N=5, 65 subsamples should be collected and combined into composite samples according to our calculations. If the amount of bottom ash is increased to 25,000 tonnes, 145 subsamples should be collected. We have not specified the number of composite samples, since clear instructions about this procedure is missing in our background material. If the maximum particle size for bottom ash is 45 mm, samples and subsamples should contain at least 2.5 liter bottom ash according to our calculations. General connections between pH and the availability or the leachability of different elements which could be used to identify extreme leaching properties in bottom ash seem to be missing. There is also a lack of general connections that could be used to estimate the leachability of different elements from the

  12. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    can however exceed these target values. The low leaching of elements such as Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn at L/S 10 results in that almost all values in the sample test are below the target values for waste that can be disposed in to landfills for inert waste, i.e. far below preliminary target values for use of secondary materials in subbase layers. Environmental assessments based on leaching as a function of L/S should instead focus on other elements such as Cu, Mo, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} , Cl{sup -} and Sb. Besides, the leaching of Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} could be a problem for the use of bottom ash in subbase layers. Our calculations indicate that at least 2 samples should be collected and analyzed from a storage heap containing = 30 tonnes of bottom ash. The calculations are dependent on the target values used and therefore the requirements can change if other target values are used. Nordtest NT ENVIR 004 recommends that at least 5 samples are collected and analyzed. If instead a storage heap contains 5,000 tonnes and N=5, 65 subsamples should be collected and combined into composite samples according to our calculations. If the amount of bottom ash is increased to 25,000 tonnes, 145 subsamples should be collected. We have not specified the number of composite samples, since clear instructions about this procedure is missing in our background material. If the maximum particle size for bottom ash is 45 mm, samples and subsamples should contain at least 2.5 liter bottom ash according to our calculations. This value has earlier been presented by HG. General connections between pH and the availability or the leachability of different elements which could be used to identify extreme leaching properties in bottom ash seem to be missing. There is also a lack of general connections that could be used to estimate the leachability of different elements from the availability of the same element. Besides, the values used in this study indicate that it is difficult to guarantee

  13. Particle decays hint at new matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Unexpected observations at a Japanese particle accelerator may signal the presence of previously unknown subatomic matter. The conjecture, from the so-called Belle team at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, was inspired by the team's measurements of a specific type of decay of fundamental particles called bottom, or b, quarks and their antimatter counter- parts, anti-b quarks" (1/2 page).

  14. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  15. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  16. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations......, however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized...... in full scale bottom ash upgrading facilities, and the possibilities for complying with the regulatory limit values. A range of Danish research and development projects have within 1997-2005 investigated important techniques for bottom ash upgrading. The primary focus has been placed on curing...

  17. EFFECTS OF VARYING BOTTOM ON NONLINEAR SURFACE WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The resonant flow of an incompressible, inviscid fluid with surface tension on varying bottoms was researched. The effects of different bottoms on the nonlinear surface waves were analyzed. The waterfall plots of the wave were drawn with Matlab according to the numerical simulation of the fKdV equation with the pseudo-spectral method. From the waterfall plots, the results are obtained as follows: for the convex bottom, the waves system can be viewed as a combination of the effects of forward-step forcing and backward step forcing, and these two wave systems respectively radiate upstream and downstream without mutual interaction. Nevertheless, the result for the concave bottom is contrary to the convex one. For some combined bottoms, the wave systems can be considered as the combination of positive forcing and negative forcing.

  18. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  19. Effect of activated sludge in the bottom zone on biogenic sulfate reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagafarov, G.G.; Bikchentayeva, A.G.; Yagafarov, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that sulfate destruction in the Arlansk group of fields is caused by infection of the formation by sulfate reducing bacteria in the drilling process and flooding by surface water. For the first time, the necessity is shown of considering the activated sludge formed from particles suspended in water and biocenosis of microorganisms during microbiological investigation of wells. It is suggested that biodecomposition of surfactants is possible only in the area of formation of activated sludge around the bottom of the injection well.

  20. Higgs production in bottom-quark fusion: matching beyond leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ubiali, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We compute the total cross-section for Higgs boson production in bottom-quark fusion using the so-called FONLL method for the matching of a scheme in which the $b$-quark is treated as a massless parton to that in which it is treated as a massive final-state particle, and extend our previous results to the case in which the next-to-next-to-leading-log five-flavor scheme result is combined with the next-to-leading-order O(as^3) four-flavor scheme computation.

  1. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, C.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    Theory Acrobat PDF (1.3 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.9 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (235 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (1.5 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.2 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (7.4 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (3.1 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (3.97 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (2.4 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (160 KB)

  2. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  3. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  4. Spectroscopy of singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke-Wei; Liu, Na; Wang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Xin-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many singly bottom baryons have been established experimentally, but no doubly or triply bottom baryon has been observed. Under the Regge phenomenology, the mass of a ground state unobserved doubly or triply bottom baryon is expressed as a function of masses of the well established light baryons and singly bottom baryons. (For example, we write the mass of $\\Omega_{bbb}$ as a function of the masses of well established light baryons ($\\Sigma^{*}$, $\\Xi^{*}$, $\\Omega$) and singly bottom baryons ($\\Sigma_b^{*}$, $\\Xi_b^{*}$), and give its value to be 14788$\\pm$80 MeV.) After that, we calculate the values of Regge slopes and Regge intercepts for singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons. (Regge intercepts and slopes, which are usually regarded as fundamental constants of hadron dynamics, are useful for many spectral and nonspectral purposes.) Then, masses of the orbitally excited singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons are estimated. The isospin splitting is also determined, $M_{\\Xi_{bb}^{-}}-M_{\\Xi_{...

  5. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  6. Axial Force at the Vessel Bottom Induced by Axial Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; P. Hasal; A. Paglianti; F. Magelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the axial force affecting the flat bottom of a cylindrical stirred vessel. The vessel is equipped with four radial baffles and is stirred with a four 45° pitched blade impeller pumping downwards. The set of pressure transducers is located along the whole radius of the flat bottom between two radial baffles. The radial distribution of the dynamic pressures indicated by the transducers is measured in dependence on the impeller off-bottom clearance and impeller speed.It fol...

  7. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    PDF (1.77 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.57 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (325 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2.38 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (2.03 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.51 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4.91 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (9.03 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (4.03 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (4.54 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (3.98 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (276 KB)

  8. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  9. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is...

  10. NEFSC 2005 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0502, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. NEFSC 2009 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0905, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. NMFS Bottom Longline Analytical Dataset Provided to NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized bottom longline surveys in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic since...

  13. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  14. Bottom production mechanism for same-sign dileptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, C.E.M.; Martins Simoes, J.A. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Garcia Canal, C.A. (La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina))

    1983-01-22

    Bottom production is investigated as a possible mechanism for same-sign prompt dileptons in neutrino reactions. A partonlike model is able to account for the CDHS dilepton signal with inputs compatible with other data.

  15. NEFSC 2015 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1506, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (Al0006, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0508, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 1998 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9811, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2013 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1304, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 2012 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1201, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2013 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1301, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0803, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. NEFSC 2002 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0210, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  4. NEFSC 2014 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1401, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. NEFSC 2005 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0504, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  6. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0711, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  7. NEFSC 2011 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1102, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. NEFSC 2004 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0401, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. NEFSC 2004 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0403, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  10. NEFSC 2011 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1105, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0807, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. NEFSC 1999 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9911, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0509, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NEFSC 2009 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0901, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  15. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0802, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0007, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2004 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0409, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2014 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2015 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 2001 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0110, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2012 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. NEFSC 2002 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0203, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kruglyak; P.A. Kondratenko; Yu.М. Lopatkin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  4. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0710, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. sir-06-5129_depth_bottom_trinidad_con

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set consists of contours of lines of equal depth to the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  6. NEFSC 2002 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0204, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  7. Bottom Sediments -- Cape Ann to Casco Bay (FOLGER75 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The reconnaissance maps upon which this data set is based show the areal distribution of the major bottom sediment types covering the sea floor off eastern New...

  8. NEFSC 2010 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. Base Stress of the Opened Bottom Cylinder Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建起; 孟晓娟

    2004-01-01

    The base stress of the opened bottom cylinder structure differs greatly from that of the structure with a closed bottom. By investigating the inner soil pressure on the cylinder wall and the base stress of the cylinder base, which were obtained from the model experiments, the interactions among the filler inside the cylinder,subsoil and cylinder are analyzed. The adjusting mechanism of frictional resistance between the inner filler and the wall of the cylinder during the overturning of the cylinder is discussed. Based on the experimental study, a method for calculating the base stress of the opened bottom cylinder structure is proposed. Meanwhile, the formulas for calculating the effective anti-overturning ratio of the opened bottom cylinder are derived.

  10. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  11. NEFSC 2003 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0305, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load...

  13. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0801, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NEFSC 2003 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (DE0303, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  15. Particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-09-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  16. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  17. Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2008-01-01

    An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod

  18. Method for treatment of oil well bottom zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent deals with a method for the inactivation of sulfate reducing bacteria in an oil well bottom zone. According to the invention the feeding of a bactericidal agent into the well bottom zone is combined with gamma radiation in the zone where the radiation dose is at least 150 krad. A pressure in the range from 2 to 50 MPa is maintained during irrradiation. 1 tab

  19. Controlling near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Kundu, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Instead of taking the usual passive view for warning of near shore surging waves including extreme waves like tsunamis, we aim to study the possibility of intervening and controlling nonlinear surface waves through the feedback boundary effect at the bottom. It has been shown through analytic result that the controlled leakage at the bottom may regulate the surface solitary wave amplitude opposing the hazardous variable depth effect. The theoretical results are applied to a real coastal bathymetry in India.

  20. Marine plastic litter as an artificial hard bottom fouling ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.

    1990-09-01

    20 fouling organisms were observed on plastic litter dredged from the Elbe estuary during July 1990; 60% of the species were typical sessile hard bottom organisms. Most individuals found on this artificial hard bottom were barnacles ( Balanus crenatus, Elminius modestus), the mussel Mytilus edulis and the polychaete Lanice conchilega. All individuals were juveniles which had settled only recently on the plastics. The earliest settlers were not much older than 4 8 weeks.

  1. Time base stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  2. Particle motion inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Matute, Matias; van der Linden, Steven; van Heijst, Gertjan

    2014-11-01

    We present results from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the motion of heavy particles inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers. The particles are initially at rest on the bottom of a rotating cylinder filled with water and with its axis parallel to the axis of rotation. The particles are set into motion by suddenly diminishing the rotation rate and the subsequent creation of a swirl flow with the boundary layer above the bottom plate. We consider both spherical and non-spherical particles with their size of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. It was found that the particle trajectories define a clear logarithmic spiral with its shape depending on the different parameters of the problem. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experiments and help explain the motion of the particles. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI Grant 863.13.022.

  3. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37∘C and 50∘C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37∘C and at 18th week under 50∘C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50∘C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37∘C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported.

  4. BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS UNDER WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong

    2008-01-01

    The present work adopts the COHERENS-SWAN model developed by the first author through coupling three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) and third-generation wave model (SWAN). Inside the COHERENS-SWAN, the SWAN is regarded as a subroutine and the time- and space-varying current velocity and surface elevation are obtained from the COHERENS. Wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave induced surface mixing length and wave dependent surface drag coefficient have been introduced into the COHERENS. Secondly, as wave-enhanced bottom shear stress ("bottom shear stress" described as BSS sometimes in this article) is concerned, a modified bottom shear stress Grant and Madsen model which introduces random wave field is given and introduced to COHERENS-SWAN. COHERENS-SWAN is also adopted to simulate three-dimensional flow in the Yellow River Delta with wave-current co-existing. Four numerical experiments were given to study the effects of wave-current interaction on enhancing bottom shear stress. The simulated current velocities, wave height and wave period match well with field measurement data. The simulated significant wave height and wave period for the case with considering the effects of current can give better agreement with measurement data than the case without involving the effects of current. The introduction of random wave generates lower the bottom shear stress than the case without introducing it. There are obvious differences between bottom shear stress of two way interaction and one way interaction. Velocity field obtained by the COHERENS-SWAN is reasonable according to previous studies and measurements.

  5. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    Bar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  6. Stability of leadership in bottom-up hierarchical organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, S

    2007-01-01

    The stability of a leadership against a growing internal opposition is studied in bottom-up hierarchical organizations. Using a very simple model with bottom-up majority rule voting, the dynamics of power distribution at the various hierarchical levels is calculated within a probabilistic framework. Given a leadership at the top, the opposition weight from the hierarchy bottom is shown to fall off quickly while climbing up the hierarchy. It reaches zero after only a few hierarchical levels. Indeed the voting process is found to obey a threshold dynamics with a deterministic top outcome. Accordingly the leadership may stay stable against very large amplitude increases in the opposition at the bottom level. An opposition can thus grow steadily from few percent up to seventy seven percent with not one a single change at the elected top level. However and in contrast, from one election to another, in the vicinity of the threshold, less than a one percent additional shift at the bottom level can drive a drastic an...

  7. Elementary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, R.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the text of a speech given to a conference of physics teachers in which the full spectrum of elementary particles is given, along with their classification. Also includes some teaching materials available on this topic. (PEB)

  8. The S to P convert wave from the bottom of sediment basin in the near-field seismic records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the near-field records of aftershocks of October 1989 and March 1991 Datong earthquakes, an extra phase between P and S arrivals is found. High-precision epicenter location shows that some of these records are obtained with the incidental angle less than the critical angle. This excludes the possibility that the extra wave phase is a refractive wave from ground surface. Particle motion analysis shows that the characteristic of the extra wave is similar to that of P wave, therefore it is very possible that the extra phase is an S to P convert wave from the bottom of sediment basin. Suppose a low velocity layer covers on a high velocity basement. Successful simulation by synthetic seismogram conforms that the extra phase is an S-P convert wave from the interface of basin bottom. Modifying the depth of interface at each ray path to match the waveform, we obtain an interface distribution in space. In this way a brief imagine of bottom could be shown, and Datong basin has a (V( shape basin bottom.

  9. Higgs particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical work on models of the electroweak interaction and simple grand unified models with a nonstandard set of Higgs particles is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on light and even strictly massless Higgs particles: Goldstone and pseudo-Goldstone bosons. It is shown that such bosons arise in a natural way in the theory if the Higgs particles are in fact composite. The low-energy effective Lagrangian of these particles is studied. A detailed study is made of the problem of CP breaking in a strong interaction and of a natural solution of this problem through the introduction of a pseudo-Goldstone particle: an axion. The theory of the ''standard'' axion and its experimental status are reviewed. Possible ''invisible'' and ''visualized'' axions are discussed, as are certain astrophysical aspects of the existence of an axion. By analogy with the axion, an analysis is made of another hypothetical particle: the strictly massless Goldstone boson or arion. Model-independent properties of the arion are determined. The similarity between the arion fields and magnetic fields and the differences between these fields are shown. Possible methods for detecting an arion field are discussed. An experiment which has set a limit on the strength of the arion interaction is described. Neutral Goldstone bosons whose emission is accompanied by changes in fermion flavors (''familons'') are discussed. Two versions of the theory with a Goldstone boson (a majoron) which arises upon a spontaneous breaking of lepton number are described

  10. Perspectives on Geoacoustic Inversion of Ocean Bottom Reflectivity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ross Chapman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on acoustic reflectivity of the ocean bottom, and describes inversion of reflection data from an experiment designed to study the physical properties and structure of the ocean bottom. The formalism of Bayesian inference is reviewed briefly to establish an understanding of the approach for inversion that is in widespread use. A Bayesian inversion of ocean bottom reflection coefficient versus angle data to estimate geoacoustic model parameters of young oceanic crust is presented. The data were obtained in an experiment to study the variation of sound speed in crustal basalt with age of the crust at deep water sites in the Pacific Ocean where the sediment deposits overlying the basalt are very thin. The inversion results show that sound speed of both compressional and shear waves is increasing with crustal age over the track of the experiment where age increased from 40 to 70 million years.

  11. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM. We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜−mχ≲O(100 GeV in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  12. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  13. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  14. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  15. The Interplay of Top-Down and Bottom-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till; Brown, Carol V.; Ozturk, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of patient health information across different organizations involved in healthcare delivery has potential benefits for a wide range of stakeholders. However, many governments in Europe and in the U.S. have, despite both top-down and bottom-up initiatives, experienced major barriers...... organizations (HIOs) that facilitate HIE across regional stakeholders remains an unanswered question. This research investigates the impacts of top-down and bottom-up initiatives on the evolutionary paths of HIOs in two contingent states in the U.S. (New Jersey and New York) which had different starting...

  16. Discovering the Higgs Bosons of Minimal Supersymmetry with Bottom Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua; Wang, Yili

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of a neutral Higgs boson produced with one bottom quark followed by Higgs decay into a pair of bottom quarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The dominant physics background is calculated with realistic acceptance cuts and efficiencies including the production of $bb\\bar{b}$, $\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$, $jb\\bar{b}$ ($j = g, q, \\bar{q}$; $q = u, d, s, c$), $t\\bar{t} \\to b\\bar{b}jj\\ell\

  17. On the universal sl_2 invariant of Brunnian bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    A link L is called Brunnian if every proper sublink of L is trivial. Similarly, a bottom tangle T is called Brunnian if every proper subtangle of T is trivial. In this paper, we give a small subalgebra of the n-fold completed tensor power of U_h(sl_2) in which the universal sl_2 invariant of n-component Brunnian bottom tangles takes values. As an application, we give a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of Brunnian links.

  18. On the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    The universal sl_2 invariant of bottom tangles has a universality property for the colored Jones polynomial of links. Habiro conjectured that the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles takes values in certain subalgebras of the completed tensor powers of the quantized enveloping algebra U_h(sl_2) of the Lie algebra sl_2. In the present paper, we prove an improved version of Habiro's conjecture. As an application, we prove a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of boundary links.

  19. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.;

    2014-01-01

    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  20. Thickness optimization of the flow plate of bottom end piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    High burnup fuel assembly has been the worldwide trends in nuclear fuel design. The burnup increase will result in more axial irradiation growth of fuel rod and consequently it requires more space between top and bottom nozzles to accommodate the increased axial growth of the fuel rod. In order to get more axial space between top and bottom nozzles, thickness optimization of the flow plate for the Korean fuel assembly (KOFA) as well as DRBEP-DG based on stress criterion was performed by way of finite element code `ANSYS`. 12 tabs., 92 figs., 9 refs. (Author) .new.

  1. Single-particle characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) ash particles using low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, HeeJin; Ro, Chul-Un

    Environmentally benign treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) ashes has been a worldwide issue since more countries are implementing incineration to reduce waste volume. A single-particle analytical technique, named low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low- Z particle EPMA) was applied to characterize MSW fly- and bottom-ash particle samples collected from two municipal incinerators in Korea. According to their chemical composition, many distinctive particle types were identified. For fly ash sample collected in one incinerator (sample S1), where lime slurry injection is used for acid-gas treatment, CaCO 3-containing particles (28.4%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by carbonaceous (23.6%), SiO 2-containing (13.8%), NaCl-containing (13.1%), and iron-containing (10.5%) particles. For fly ash sample collected at the other incinerator (sample S2), NaCl-containing particles (40.4%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by iron-containing (29.1%), carbonaceous (11.8%), CaCO 3-containing (2.2%), and SiO 2-containing (7.0%) particles. For bottom ash sample collected at one incinerator (sample S3), iron-containing particles (46.6%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by CaCO 3-containing (17.3%), carbonaceous (16.6%), and Si and/or Al oxide-containing (15.8%) particles. For bottom ash sample collected in the other incinerator (sample S4), iron-containing particles (63.4%) are also the most abundantly encountered, followed by carbonaceous (14.0%), CaCO 3-containing (10.0%), and Si and/or Al oxide-containing (6.1%) particles. Chemical compositions of the two bottom ash samples are not much different compared to those of the two fly ash samples. It was demonstrated that the single-particle characterization using this low- Z particle EPMA technique provided detailed information on various types of chemical species in the MSW ash samples. In addition, the technique has advantage over conventional analytical techniques in the

  2. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  3. An efficient and not polluting bottom ash extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that boiler waste water effluent must meet more and more tighter requirements to comply with environmental regulations; sluice water resulting from bottom ash handling is one of the main problems in this context, and many utilities are under effort to maximize the reuse of the sluice water, and, if possible, to meet the aim of zero water discharge from bottom ash handling system. At the same time ash reuse efforts gain strength in order to minimize waste production. One solution to these problems can be found in an innovative Bottom Ash Extraction System (MAC System), marked by the peculiarity to be a continuous dry ash removal; the system has been developed in the last four years by MAGALDI INDUSTRIE SRL in collaboration with ANSALDO Ricerche, the R and D department of ANSALDO, the main Italian Boiler Manufacturer, and is now installed in six ENEL Boilers. The elimination of the water as separation element between the bottom part of the furnace and the outside atmosphere gives advantages mainly from the environmental view point, but a certain improvement in the boiler efficiency has also been demonstrated by the application of the system

  4. Bottom-Up Analysis of Single-Case Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines and promotes the qualities of a "bottom-up" approach to single-case research (SCR) data analysis. Although "top-down" models, for example, multi-level or hierarchical linear models, are gaining momentum and have much to offer, interventionists should be cautious about analyses that are not easily understood, are not governed by…

  5. Reading Nature from a "Bottom-Up" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ecology teaching and learning in a Swedish primary school class (age 10-11 yrs). A teaching sequence was designed to help students read nature in a river ecosystem. The teaching sequence had a "bottom up" approach, taking as its starting point a common key organism--the freshwater shrimp. From this species and its…

  6. The Use of Coal Bottom Ash In Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Begyina Kodjo Nketsiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a waste material from coal burnt to generate electric power. It is incombustible and non-biodegradable; hence, the best way to dispose it is by recycling rather than incineration and land filling. Past research on bottom ash in road building have focused mainly on embankment filling, sub-base and base courses; except boiler slag which has received much attention in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. Bottom ash from Tanjung Bin Power Station was thus investigated through laboratory testing to justify its use in HMA construction in Malaysia. This Paper analysed the data with regards to performance in HMA. In the Marshall Mix design, the material largely satisfied the Stability, Flow and Stiffness requirements which were comparable to that of conventional aggregates, although void contents were a bit higher. When blended with granite, all the parameters were met. Contrary to past suggestions that bottom ash in HMA consumes more bitumen, the 6.4% (51.20g Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC achieved in this study does not necessarily translate into high consumption, compared to OBC of 5.3% (59.63g in the case of granite. The HMA also proved to be highly resistant to moisture-induced damage and satisfied the minimum JKR specification for Static Uniaxial Load Strain.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging based procedures applied to bottom ash characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) is mainly land filled or used as material for the foundation of road in European countries. Bottom ash is usually first crushed to below 40 mm and separated magnetically to recover the steel scrap. The remaining material contains predominantly sand, sinters and pieces of stone, glass and ceramics, which could be used as building material if strict technical and environmental requirements are respected. The main problem is the presence of residual organic matter in the ash and the large surface area presented by the fine fraction that creates leaching values, for elements such as copper, that are above the accepted levels for standard building materials. Main aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility offered by hyperspectral imaging to identify organic matter inside the residues in order to develop control/selection strategies to be implemented inside the bottom ash recycling plant. Reflectance spectra of selected bottom ash samples have been acquired in the VIS-NIR field (400- 1000 nm). Results showed as the organic content of the different samples influences the spectral signatures, in particular an inverse correlation between reflectance level and organic matter content was found.

  8. The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbatore Krishnarao Prahalad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a 1998 working paper from the authors. It was originally published in Strategy+Business n. 26, first quarter 2002, and is one of the basis for the CK Prahalad best seller of the same title. Tha article argues about the possibility and opportunity to transform the bottom of the pyramid market in a profitable market.

  9. Simulation Study on Flat-Bottom Structure Slamming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen; XIAO Xi; WANG De-yu

    2005-01-01

    A study is performed about the water entry of a flat-bottom structure by use of the FE software MSC Dytran. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of the air cushion and structural mass on the impact peak pressure and the role of splash in the course of water entry. Some FE models are built up and some cases including the flat-bottom structure with different masses impacting water at some constant or initial velocities are calculated. The calculation shows that air plays an important role in the course of water entry of a flat-bottom structure and the compression of the air captured by the flat-bottom structure produces the first peak pressure. And the mass of the structure has a great effect on the peak value of impact pressure. The structure with different masses will produce different impact pressures even at the same impact velocity. Splash will occur a long time after the impact pressure reaches the peak value. A formula is given for the calculation of the peak value of impact pressure in this paper.

  10. GROUTING TECHNIQUES IN BOTTOM SEALING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom sealing of hazardous waste sites involves the injection or insertion of an inert impermeable and continuous horizontal barrier in soil below the source of contamination. This type of containment strategy could be used in conjunction with other technology such as slurry wal...

  11. Two Dimensional Polymerization of Graphene Oxide: Bottom-up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasov, Victor; Russev, Stoyan; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Dimitrova, Iglika; Avdeev, Georgy; Avramova, Ivalina; Vulcheva, Evgenia; Kirilov, Kiril; Tzonev, Atanas; Abrashev, Miroslav; Tsutsumanova, Gichka

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a bottom-up synthesis of structures similar to graphene oxide via a two dimensional polymerization. Experimental evidence and discussion are conveyed as well as a general framework for this two dimensional polymerization. The proposed morphologies and lattice structures of these graphene oxides are derived from aldol condensation of alternating three nucleophilic and three electrophilic centers of benzenetriol.

  12. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  13. Flowable Backfill Materials from Bottom Ash for Underground Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Joong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strength and strain in manufacturing controlled low strength materials to recycle incineration bottom ash. Laboratory tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. The optimum mixing ratios were 25%–45% of in-situ soil, 30% of bottom ash, 10%–20% of fly ash, 0%–3% of crumb rubber, 3% of cement, and 22% of water. Each mixture satisfied the standard specifications: a minimum 20 cm of flowability and 127 kPa of unconfined compressive strength. The average secant modulus (E50 was (0.07–0.08 qu. The ranges of the internal friction angle and cohesion for mixtures were 36.5°–46.6° and 49.1–180 kPa, respectively. The pH of all of the mixtures was over 12, which is strongly alkaline. Small-scale chamber tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. Vertical deflection of 0.88–2.41 mm and horizontal deflection of 0.83–3.72 mm were measured during backfilling. The vertical and horizontal deflections of controlled low strength materials were smaller than that of sand backfill.

  14. Rawlsian governments and the race to the bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Lozachmeur; Pierre Pestieau; Jon Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that there is no race to the bottom when the social planner adopts a Rawlsian criterion, only the poor are mobile and they do not work at the optimal tax outcome. This argument is developed within a two skill-model of optimal income taxation.

  15. Charm and bottom quark masses on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Lytle, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    Lattice determinations of quark mass have made significant progress in the last few years. I will review recent advances in calculations of charm and bottom mass, which are near to achieving percent-level precision and with fully controlled systematics. Precise knowledge of these parameters is of particular interest for precision Higgs studies at future accelerators.

  16. Water Surface Wave in a Trough with Periodical Topographic Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; ZHANG Hua; MIAO Guo-Qing; WEI Rong-Jue

    2007-01-01

    @@ We present the theoretical and experimental results of water surface wave in a trough with periodical topographic bottom under parametric excitation. There are 19 steps of the same size periodically inserted into the trough. It is found that waveforms observed in the experiment are consistent with theoretical ones. Moreover, some complex and interesting phenomena arise in the experiment due to nonlinearity.

  17. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  18. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valve due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. (5) Bottom outlet nozzle of interior valves... the root of the “V” be more than 1/4 inch. The outlet nozzle on interior valves or the valve body on... inside closure seat or plug. In no case may the nozzle wall thickness at the root of the “V” be more...

  19. ADC Module built for an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras, Normandino; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new data acquisition system designed for autonomous Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) to study the earth dynamics and internal structure. This part is the responsible to acquire the signals from two different sensors to be processed. The analog-to-digital converter module is based on input amplifiers, modulator and digital filter.

  20. Data acquisition system for a cabled ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski, Tomasz; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are highly used to monitor seismic activities at sea. They are also used to detect tsunamis and generate warning alarms. This paper presents a data acquisition system built for an OBS with capability to synchronize time through IEEE-1588 protocol. This acquisition system provides real time data through the Ethernet making it suitable for OBSs deployed at seafloor observatories.

  1. Bottom Sediments of Georges Bank (WIGLEY61 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected as part of a survey of the bottom sediments of Georges Bank. The purpose of the survey was to provide basic data for use in studying the...

  2. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  3. Search for Resonances Decaying to Top and Bottom Quarks with the CDF Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amerio, Silvia; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Anza, Fabio; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bianchi, Ludovico; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi Marchese; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for charged massive resonances decaying to top ($t$) and bottom ($b$) quarks in the full data set of proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV collected by the CDF~II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.5 $fb^{-1}$. No significant excess above the standard model (SM) background prediction is observed. We set 95% Bayesian credibility mass-dependent upper limits on the heavy charged particle production cross section times branching ratio to $t b$. Using a SM extension with a $W^{\\prime}$ and left-right-symmetric couplings as a benchmark model, we constrain the $W^{\\prime}$ mass and couplings in the 300 to 900 GeV/$c^2$ range. The limits presented here are the most stringent for a charged resonance with mass in the range 300 -- 600 GeV/$c^2$ decaying to top and bottom quarks.

  4. A Laboratory Model for the Flow in Urban Street Canyons Induced by Bottom Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国

    2003-01-01

    Water tank experiments are carried out to investigate the convection flow induced by bottom heating and the effects of the ambient wind on the flow in non-symmetrical urban street canyons based on the PIV (Particle Image Visualization) technique. Fluid experiments show that with calm ambient wind,the flows in the street canyon are completely driven by thermal force, and the convection can reach the upper atmosphere of the street canyon. Horizontal and vertical motions also appear above the roofs of the buildings. These are the conditions which favor the exchange of momentum and air mass between the street canyon and its environment. More than two vortices are induced by the convection, and the complex circulation pattern will vary with time in a wider street canyon. However, in a narrow street canyon, just one vortex appears. With a light ambient wind, the bottom heating and the associated convection result in just one main vortex. As the ambient wind speed increases, the vortex becomes more organized and its center shifts closer to the leeward building.

  5. Search for resonances decaying to top and bottom quarks with the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero [Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). et al.

    2015-08-03

    We report on a search for charged massive resonances decaying to top (t) and bottom (b) quarks in the full data set of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.5 fb–1. No significant excess above the standard model background prediction is observed. We set 95% Bayesian credibility mass-dependent upper limits on the heavy charged-particle production cross section times branching ratio to tb. Using a standard model extension with a W' → tb and left-right-symmetric couplings as a benchmark model, we constrain the W' mass and couplings in the 300–900 GeV/c2 range. As a result, the limits presented here are the most stringent for a charged resonance with mass in the range 300–600 GeV/c2 decaying to top and bottom quarks.

  6. Search for Resonances Decaying to Top and Bottom Quarks with the CDF Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Anzà, F; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bianchi, L; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2015-08-01

    We report on a search for charged massive resonances decaying to top (t) and bottom (b) quarks in the full data set of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √[s]=1.96  TeV collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.5  fb(-1). No significant excess above the standard model background prediction is observed. We set 95% Bayesian credibility mass-dependent upper limits on the heavy charged-particle production cross section times branching ratio to tb. Using a standard model extension with a W'→tb and left-right-symmetric couplings as a benchmark model, we constrain the W' mass and couplings in the 300-900  GeV/c(2) range. The limits presented here are the most stringent for a charged resonance with mass in the range 300-600  GeV/c(2) decaying to top and bottom quarks.

  7. Search for Resonances Decaying to Top and Bottom Quarks with the CDF Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Anzà, F.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report on a search for charged massive resonances decaying to top (t ) and bottom (b ) quarks in the full data set of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.5 fb-1 . No significant excess above the standard model background prediction is observed. We set 95% Bayesian credibility mass-dependent upper limits on the heavy charged-particle production cross section times branching ratio to t b . Using a standard model extension with a W'→t b and left-right-symmetric couplings as a benchmark model, we constrain the W' mass and couplings in the 300 - 900 GeV /c2 range. The limits presented here are the most stringent for a charged resonance with mass in the range 300 - 600 GeV /c2 decaying to top and bottom quarks.

  8. Effect of rolling friction on wall pressure, discharge velocity and outflow of granular material from a flat-bottomed bin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Balevi(c)ius; I.Sielamowicz; Z.Mróz; R.Ka(c)ianauskas

    2012-01-01

    The present paper provides both experimental and DEM analyses of the filling and discharge of pea grains from a 3D flat-bottomed bin.In the DEM model,the fixed mean values of the experimentally determined single particle data,such as the particle density,Young's modulus,Poisson's ratio as well as the sliding and rolling friction coefficients were incorporated to analyse their effects on the macroscale indicators,such as the wall pressure,discharge velocities and material outflow parameters.The effect of rolling friction was studied based on the experimentally measured single particle rolling friction coefficient.This analysis is aimed at the quantitative prediction of flow parameters as related to the identification of material parameters.

  9. Numerical research for contaminant release from un-suspended bottom sediment under different hydrodynamic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-da; ZHU Hong-wei; FAN Jing-yu; FEI Min-rui; WANG Dao-zeng

    2013-01-01

    Contaminant release from bottom sediments in rivers is one of the main problems to study the environmental hydrodynamics.Contaminant will release into the overlying water column under different hydrodynamic conditions through pore-water in sediment,the release mechanism can be roughly divided into convection diffusion,molecular diffusion and adsorption/desorption.In this article,phosphorus was as a typical contaminant with sorption.Through theoretical analysis of the contaminant release,according to different particle-sized and hydraulic conditions,the mathematics model of contaminant release can be established by the coupled Navier-Stokes equation,Darcy equation,solute transport equation and adsorption/desorption equation.Then that model was verified by flume experiment.Numerical studies show that,under different velocity,the instantaneous concentration of convection diffusion is about 6 times to 50 times larger than that of molecular diffusion during initial stages.The concentration of molecular diffusion is about 1 times to 4 times larger than to that of convection diffusion during late stages.Through analysis,the diffusive boundary layer near the interface can be obtained.In addition,the release will increase with particle size decreasing,and the release will be influenced much more by the size change when the particle size is relatively big under different velocity.

  10. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  11. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  12. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ceres; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of geopolymer from bottom ash and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggarini, Ufafa; Sukmana, Ndaru C.

    2016-02-01

    All Geopolymer (GP) has been synthesized from bottom ash and rice husk ash. This research aims to determine the effect of Si/Al ratio on geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymer was synthesized with various Si/Al ratio of 2, 3 and 4. The characterization result using XRD and SEM indicated that by using a different ratio of Si/A, it will produce geopolymer with varied structure and morphology. Diffractogram result shows that polymerization has been done for all samples (GP2, GP3, Gp4) with the presence of hump peak at 2θ = 27-35°. In GP4, no peak at 2θ = 18° indicating sodalite phase forming. Besides that, the morphology of geopolymer with a varied ratio of Si/Al shows that higher ratio will produce geopolymer with higher particle size. The highest compressive strength of geopolymer was obtained at a ratio of Si/Al = 4, with a maximum load of 12866 kgf.

  14. Higgs production in bottom-quark fusion in a matched scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Forte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compute the total cross-section for Higgs boson production in bottom-quark fusion using the so-called FONLL method for the matching of a scheme in which the b-quark is treated as a massless parton to that in which it is treated as a massive final-state particle. We discuss the general framework for the application of the FONLL method to this process, and then we present explicit expressions for the case in which the next-to-next-to-leading-log five-flavor scheme result is combined with the leading-order O(αs2 four-flavor scheme computation. We compare our results in this case to the four- and five-flavor scheme computations, and to the so-called Santander matching.

  15. Direct measurement of hairpin-like vortices in the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Edward C. C.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Vlasenko, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory measurements and numerical modeling at low Reynolds numbers (Reθocean at higher Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 266,150) show tidal flows also contain packets of large vortices separated by periods of more quiescent conditions. The 1452 vortices recorded within a 20 min period are typically aligned along stream (˜8.0° from the mean flow direction) and inclined to the horizontal (˜27.0° from the seabed), with a mean period of occurrence of 4.3 s. These results lend three-dimensional, in situ support to an interpretation of the coastal ocean bottom boundary layer as comprising coherent packets of hairpin vortices. This demonstrates a direct linkage from low Reynolds number experiments to higher Reynolds number flows, permitting fine-scale details of particle transport and pollutant dispersion to be inferred from lower Reynolds number data.

  16. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  17. Computer simulations of particle-bubble interactions and particle sliding using Discrete Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R; Ata, S; Wanless, E J; Moreno-Atanasio, R

    2012-09-01

    Three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) computer simulations have been carried out to analyse the kinetics of collision of multiple particles against a stationary bubble and the sliding of the particles over the bubble surface. This is the first time that a computational analysis of the sliding time and particle packing arrangements of multiple particles on the surface of a bubble has been carried out. The collision kinetics of monodisperse (33 μm in radius) and polydisperse (12-33 μm in radius) particle systems have been analysed in terms of the time taken by 10%, 50% and 100% of the particles to collide against the bubble. The dependencies of these collision times on the strength of hydrophobic interactions follow relationships close to power laws. However, minimal sensitivity of the collision times to particle size was found when linear and square relationships of the hydrophobic force with particles radius were considered. The sliding time for single particles has corroborated published theoretical expressions. Finally, a good qualitative comparison with experiments has been observed with respect to the particle packing at the bottom of the bubble after sliding demonstrating the usefulness of computer simulations in the studies of particle-bubble systems.

  18. DISCRETE PARTICLE SIMULATION OF SIZE SEGREGATION OF PARTICLE MIXTURES IN A GAS FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Feng; A. B. Yu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the mixing/segregation behaviour of particle mixtures in a gas fluidized bed by use of the discrete particle simulation. Spherical particles with diameters 2 mm (jetsam) and 1 mm (flotsam) and density 2 500 kg·m-3 are used as solid mixtures with different volume fractions. The particles are initially packed uniformly in a rectangular bed and then fluidized by gas uniformly injected at the bottom of the bed. The gas injection velocities vary to cover fixed, partially and fully fluidized bed conditions. Segregation/mixing behaviour is discussed in terms of flow patterns, solid concentration profile and mixing kinetics. The results show that segregation, as a transient fluidization process, is strongly affected by gas injection velocities for a given particle mixture. With the increase of the volume fraction of flotsam, size segregation appears at lower velocities.

  19. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.

  20. An analysis of the chaotic motion of particles of different sizes in a gas fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of individual particles during the mixing/segregation process of particle mixtures in a gas fluidized bed is analyzed. The analysis is based on the results generated from discrete particle simulation, with the focus on the trajectory of and forces acting on individual particles.Typical particles are selected representing three kinds of particle motion:a flotsam particle which is initially at the bottom part of the bed and finally fluidized at the top part of the bed; a jetsam particle which is initially at the top part of the bed and finally stays in the bottom de-fluidized layer of the bed; and a jetsam particle which is intermittently joining the top fluidized and bottom de-fluidized layers. The results show that the motion of a particle is chaotic at macroscopic or global scale, but can be well explained at a microscopic scale in terms of its interaction forces and contact conditions with other particles, particle-fluid interaction force, and local flow structure. They also highlight the need for establishing a suitable method to link the information generated and modeled at different time and length scales.

  1. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  2. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  3. Masses and decay widths of radially excited Bottom mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Inspired from the experimental information coming from LHC [2,3] and Babar [4] for radially higher excited charmed mesons, we predict the masses and decays of the n=2 S-wave and P- wave bottom mesons using the effective lagrangian approach. Using heavy quark effective theory approach, non-perturbative parameters (?, ?1 and ?2) are fitted using the available experimental and theoretical informations on charm masses. Using heavy quark symmetry and the values of these fitted parameters, the masses of radially excited even and odd parity bottom mesons with and without strangness are predicted. These predicted masses led in constraining the decay widths of these 12 states, and also shed light on the unknown values of the higher hadronic coupling constants eeg 2 SH and eeg 2 TH. Studying the properties like masses, decays of 2S and 2P states and some hadronic couplings would help forthcoming experiments to look into these states in future.

  4. Research on rotary forming mechanism of cartridge bottom by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钢; 姚雄亮; 黄少东; 唐全波

    2003-01-01

    The rotary forging of a cartridge bottom is simulated by finite element method with DEFORMTM. The analysis of stress and strain rate results indicates that the deformation conditions and the final geometry of a product are not completely axis-symmetrical under the partial loading conditions during the rotary forging operations. It is therefore required to have a few more rotary forging cycles at the end of total feeding to eliminate nonuniformity. The results of simulation show that the optimization of rotary forging process conditions can be achieved to avoid the underfill defect resulting from improper process conditions. This technology can be used to manufacture ring components with thin bottoms by properly controlling the working process and the tooling motion.

  5. Inverse problem of bottom slope design for aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 樊博; 许唯临

    2013-01-01

    Air entrainment is an effective approach to protect release works from cavitation damage. The traditional method of aera-tor device designs is that, for given flow conditions, the geometries of the aerator device are designed and then the effects are experi-mentally tested for cavitation damage control. The present paper proposes an inverse problem method of determining the bottom slopes in front of and behind an aerator if the requirements of air entrainment, flow conditions and some of aerator geometric para-meters are given. An RBF neural network model is developed and the relevant bottom slopes are calculated in different conditions of flow and geometry on the basis of the data of 19 aerator devices from different discharge tunnels with safe operation. The case study shows that the methodology provides an effective way to design aerator devices under given target conditions.

  6. Bottom-up effects on attention capture and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Attention processes and decision making are accepted to be closely linked together because only information that is attended to can be incorporated in the decision process. Little is known however, to which extent bottom-up processes of attention affect stimulus selection and therefore...... the information available to form a decision. Does changing one visual cue in the stimulus set affect attention towards this cue and what does that mean for the choice outcome? To address this, we conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment in a consumer choice setting with visual shelf simulations...... salient. The observed effect on attention also carries over into increased choice likelihood. From these results, we conclude that even small changes in the choice capture attention based on bottom-up processes. Also for eye tracking studies in other domains (e.g. search tasks) this means that stimulus...

  7. The bottom oxygen border of bioluminescence distribution in ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, Valerii

    2006-02-01

    From materials of forwarding researches follows, that the depth of deposition of the bottom border of bioluminescence plankton has not correlation with any of measurable hydrological parameters. As the reaction of bioluminescence is oxygen depended, it was logical to assume, that the situation of the bottom maximum of luminescence plankton is determined by concentration of oxygen. The data of vertical distribution of bioluminescence intensity of plankton and concentration of oxygen received in the Black Sea and near to east coast of America were investigated. Is established, that the deep maximum of bioluminescence of plankton is found out between isooxygen 0.35 and 0.20 ml/l. At concentration of oxygen in water is lower 0.10-0.20 ml/l the bioluminescence of plankton it is not found out.

  8. A review of the open charm and open bottom mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first charmed meson in 1976, many open-charm and open-bottom mesons were observed. In 2003 two narrow charm-strange states $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ were discovered by the BaBar and CLEO Collaborations, respectively. After that, more excited heavy mesons were reported. In this work, we review the experimental and theoretical progress in this field.

  9. Biphase turbine bottoming cycle for a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Hays, L.

    1977-02-15

    Application of a two-phase turbine system to waste heat recovery was examined. Bottoming cycle efficiencies ranging from 15 to 30% were calculated for a 720/sup 0/F diesel exhaust temperature. A single stage demonstration unit, designed for non-toxic fluids (water and DowTherm A) and for atmospheric seals and bearings, had a cycle efficiency of 23%. The net output power was 276 hp at 8,100 rpm, increasing the total shaft power from 1,800 hp for the diesel alone, to 2,076 hp for the combined system. A four stage organic turbine, for the same application, had a rotational speed of 14,700 rpm while a four stage steam turbine had 26,000 rpm. Fabrication drawings were prepared for the turbine and nozzle. The major improvement leading to higher cycle efficiency and lower turbine rpm was found to be the use of a liquid component with lower sensible heat. A reduction in capital cost was found to result from the use of a contact heat exchanger instead of tube-fin construction. The cost for a contact heat exchanger was only $35-52/kWe compared to $98/kWe for a tube-fin heat exchanger. Design drawings and materials list were prepared. A program resulting in the demonstration of a two-phase bottoming system was planned and the required cost estimated. The program would result in a feasibility test of the nozzle and turbine at the end of the first year, a laboratory performance test of the bottoming system by the end of the second year and a field demonstration test and laboratory endurance test of the bottoming system during the third year. The blowdown test rig for the first year's program and test turbine were designed.

  10. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  11. Effect of bottom cell properties on micromorph tandem device performance

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; PRIVATO Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Micromorph tandem solar cells represent an elegant way of overcoming the efficiency limits of single-junction solar cells and reducing the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon films. Micromorph devices have been realized on Asahi U-type TCO-covered glass substrates by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 100 MHz at low substrate temperature (150 ?C). For the bottom cell different growth regimes have been explored by changi...

  12. Bottom-up approaches for defining future climate mitigation commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.

    2004-07-01

    This report analyses a number of alternative, bottom-up approaches, i.e. technology and performance standards; technology Research and Development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), sector based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). Included are technology and performance standards; technology, research and development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), and sector-based (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). A more bottom-up approach for defining national emission targets, the so-called Triptych approach is also explored and compared with more top-down types of approaches (Multi-Stage and Contraction and Convergence) based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis. While bottom-up approaches are concluded as being valuable components of a future climate regime, they, in themselves, do not seem to offer a real alternative to emission reduction and limitation targets, as they provide little certainty about the overall environmental effectiveness of climate policies. In comparison with Multi-stage and the C and C approaches, the global Triptych approach offers the opportunity of early participation by developing countries' without the risk of creating large amounts of surplus emissions as in C and C; in using the approach we also avoid the need for dividing up the non-Annex I countries as in Multi-Stage. However, there will be substantial implementation problems related to the institutional and technical capabilities required. Thus it would seem better to exclude the least developing countries and have them first participate in some of the alternative bottom-up approaches.

  13. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Vlček; Jan Skočilas; Tomáš Jirout

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baf...

  14. Deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable Data:Two approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagmeet; Subramanyam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Two filter based approaches for deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable data are presented. One of them is phase shifting of geophone followed by least square matching of cross ghosted geophone and hydrophone data.In the second approach,phase shifting of geophone is followed by direct matching of geophone's amplitude spectrum with that of the hydrophone within the seismic bandwidth.Results obtained from both approaches were found to be at par with one of the proprietary softwares available with ONGC.

  15. Energy of tsunami waves generated by bottom motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    20 pages, 12 figures. Accepted to Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Other authors papers and supporting material can be downloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh International audience In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both...

  16. Magic for Filter Optimization in Dynamic Bottom-up Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Minnen, G

    1996-01-01

    Off-line compilation of logic grammars using Magic allows an incorporation of filtering into the logic underlying the grammar. The explicit definite clause characterization of filtering resulting from Magic compilation allows processor independent and logically clean optimizations of dynamic bottom-up processing with respect to goal-directedness. Two filter optimizations based on the program transformation technique of Unfolding are discussed which are of practical and theoretical interest.

  17. Bottom Baryon Decays to Pseudoscalar Meson and Pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Based on SU(3) flavor symmetry, we decompose the decay amplitudes of bottom baryon decays to a pseudoscalar meson and an octet or a decuplet pentaquark in terms of three invariant amplitudes $T_1$ and $T_{2,3}$ corresponding to external $W$-emission and internal $W$-emission diagrams, respectively. For antitriplet bottom baryons $\\Lambda_b^0,\\Xi_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^-$, their decays to a decuplet pentaquark proceed only through the internal $W$-emission diagram. Assuming the dominance from the external $W$-emission amplitudes, we present an estimate of the decay rates relative to $\\Lambda_b^0\\to P_p^+K^-$, where $P_p^+$ is the hidden-charm pentaquark with the same light quark content as the proton. Hence, our numerical results will provide a very useful guideline to the experimental search for pentaquarks in bottom baryon decays. For example, $\\Xi_b^0\\to P_{\\Sigma^+}K^-$, $\\Xi_b^-\\to P_{\\Sigma^-}\\bar K^0$, $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^-}\\bar K^0$ and $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^0}K^-$ may have rates comparable to that of $\\Lam...

  18. Simulation of Random Waves and Associated Laminar Bottom Shear Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin SHEN; Ching-Jer HUANG

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for simulating the random waves in viscous fluids and the associated bottom shear stresses. By generating the incident random waves in a numerical wave flume and solving the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions for the fluid flows in the flume, the viscous flows and laminar bottom shear stresses induced by random waves are determined. The deterministic spectral amplitude method implemented by use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm was adopted to generate the incident random waves. The accuracy of the numerical scheme is confirmed by comparing the predicted wave spectrum with the target spectrum and by comparing the numerical transfer function between the shear stress and the surface elevation with the theoretical transfer function. The maximum bottom shear stress caused by random waves, computed by this wave model, is compared with that obtained by Myrhaug's model (1995). The transfer function method is also employed to determine the maximum shear stress, and is proved accurate.

  19. Time variable bottom water outflow in the Northwestern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzow, Torsten; Rohardt, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) has shown widespread warming in recent decades, with implications for sea level rise and global heat uptake. Anomalously warm AABW has recently been reported to have reached the Brazil basin in the South Atlantic, while the warming further south partly seems to have come to a halt. The Weddell Sea represents the primary source of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation in the Southern Ocean. More than 60% of the AABW are supplied by Weddell Sea Deep Water, of which Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is the main source. WSBW descends down the continental slope along the western margin of the Weddell Sea as a northward flowing plume, thereby entraining warmer ambient waters. The plume has been observed using moored current meters and temperature sensors between 1989 and 1998 and between 2005 and 2012 near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, complemented by repeated cross-slope CTD sections along the mooring array. In this study we extend the WSBW volume transport and temperature time series of Fahrbach et al. (2001) originally covering the 1989-1998 interval by the more recent period. We will report on both seasonal to inter-annual variability and possible longer-term trends in both volume transport and temperature of WSBW. The results will be discussed in the context of changes in the source areas of WSBW, such as the breakup of parts of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the eastern Arctic Peninsula, possibly fueling the formation dense water on the shelf.

  20. Evaluation of aseismic integrity in HTTR core-bottom structure. Pt. 1. Aseismic test for core-bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aseismic tests were carried out using (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale models of the core-bottom structure of the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the response of acceleration, strain, impact load etc. The following conclusions are obtained. (i) The frequency response of the keyway strain is correlative with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum block. (ii) It was confirmed through (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale model tests that the applied similarity law is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the core-bottom structure. (ii) The stress of graphite components estimated from the scale model test using S2-earthquake excitation was sufficiently lower than the allowable stress used as the design criterion. ((orig.))

  1. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  2. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two main themes of this volume are the standard model of the fundamental interactions (and beyond) and astrophysics. The remarkable advances in the theoretical understanding and experimental confirmation of the standard model were reviewed in several lectures where the reader will find a thorough analysis of recent experiments as well as a detailed comparison of the standard model with experiment. On a more theoretical side, supersymmetry, supergravity and strings were discussed as well. The second theme concerns astrophysics where the school was quite successful in bridging the gap between this fascinating subject and more conventional particle physics

  3. Simulation for Path Planning of SLOCUM Glider in Near-bottom Ocean Currents Using Heuristic Algorithms and Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh Gautam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the need for exploration of benthic zones utilising autonomous underwater vehicles, this paper presents a simulation for an optimised path planning from the source node to the destination node of the autonomous underwater vehicle SLOCUM Glider in near-bottom ocean environment. Near-bottom ocean current data from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada, have been used for this simulation. A cost function is formulated to describe the dynamics of the autonomous underwater vehicle in near-bottom ocean currents. This cost function is then optimised using various biologically-inspired algorithms such as genetic algorithm, Ant Colony optimisation algorithm and particle swarm optimisation algorithm. The simulation of path planning is also performed using Q-learning technique and the results are compared with the biologically-inspired algorithms. The results clearly show that the Q-learning algorithm is better in computational complexity than the biologically-inspired algorithms. The ease of simulating the environment is also more in the case of Q-learning techniques. Hence this paper presents an effective path planning technique, which has been tested for the SLOCUM glider and it may be extended for use in any standard autonomous underwater vehicle.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.220-225, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7855

  4. Preliminary Examination of the System Fly Ash-Bottom Ash-Flue Gas Desulphurization Gypsum-Portland Cement-Water for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tokalic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation into the use of three power plant wastes: fly ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and bottom ash for subbase layers in road construction. Two kinds of mixtures of these wastes with Portland cement and water were made: first with fly ash consisting of coarser particles (<1.651 mm and second with fly ash consisting of smaller particles (<0.42 mm. The mass ratio of fly ash-Portland cement-flue gas desulphurization gypsum-bottom ash was the same (3 : 1 : 1 : 5 in both mixtures. For both mixtures, the compressive strength, the mineralogical composition, and the leaching characteristics were determined at different times, 7 and 28 days, after preparation. The obtained results showed that both mixtures could find a potential use for subbase layers in road construction.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Bottom hadrons from lattice QCD with domain wall and NRQCD fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Meinel, William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Matthew Wingate

    2009-07-01

    Dynamical 2+1 flavor lattice QCD is used to calculate the masses of bottom hadrons, including B mesons, singly and doubly bottom baryons, and for the first time also the triply-bottom baryon Omega{sub bbb}. The domain wall action is used for the up-, down-, and strange quarks (both valence and sea), while the bottom quark is implemented with non-relativistic QCD. A calculation of the bottomonium spectrum is also presented.

  7. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays) and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baran A.; Jasiewicz C.; Tarnawski M.

    2013-01-01

    Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to...

  8. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Wenbin; Chen Jianghai; Wang Zhenxiong; Wang Zhihua; Liu Jianqing; Lu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  9. Ocean bottom pressure changes lead to a decreasing length-of-day in a warming climate

    OpenAIRE

    F. Landerer; Jungclaus, J.; Marotzke, J.

    2007-01-01

    We use a coupled climate model to evaluate ocean bottom pressure changes in the IPCC-A1B climate scenario. Ocean warming in the 21st and 22nd centuries causes secular oceanic bottom pressure anomalies. The essential feature is a net mass transfer onto shallow shelf areas from the deeper ocean areas, which exhibit negative bottom pressure anomalies. We develop a simple mass redistribution model that explains this mechanism. Regionally, however, distinct patterns of bottom pressure anomalies em...

  10. Geotechnical properties of MSW-incinerated bottom ash%垃圾焚烧炉渣的土工特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许四法; 杨杨; 王哲

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of incinerator residue disposal and recycle, the changes of geotechnical properties of the bottom ash with time were investigated by indoor physical tests and SEM.The results show that the initial particle size is large when its diameter increases and the maximum dry density decreases with the time; that the bottom ash is in high initial void ratio and compressibility, but because of the adsorption and the hydrated reaction, the void ratio deceases with the time; and that the compressive strength increases and the deformation decreases with the time.Finally, the causes of the change on the geotechnical characteristics of the bottom ash with the time were analyzed by the electron microscopy,which provids a reference for efficacious utilization of bottom ash.%为了有效处理和利用炉渣,以炉渣为研究对象,采用室内物理试验和扫描电镜,探讨炉渣的性质随时间变化的特性.试验结果表明:随着放置时间的增加、粗颗粒变多以及最大干密度变小,炉渣的初始孔隙比较大,属于中高压缩性土,但由于吸附和水化反应,孔隙比随时间减小;同样,无侧限抗压强度随时间增加,变形下降.最后,通过电子显微镜分析了炉渣的土工特性随时间变化的原因,为炉渣的有效利用提供参考.

  11. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  12. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  13. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  14. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  15. Ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Wierzbicka, Aneta;

    2013-01-01

    Particle number (PN) concentrations (10-300 nm in size) were continuously measured over a period of ∼45 h in 56 residences of nonsmokers in Copenhagen, Denmark. The highest concentrations were measured when occupants were present and awake (geometric mean, GM: 22.3 × 103 cm-3), the lowest when th......). Candle burning occurred in half of the homes where, on average, it was responsible for almost 60% of the integrated exposure. © 2013 American Chemical Society........3 × 105 cm-3·h/day). On average, ∼90% of this exposure occurred outside of the period from midnight to 6 a.m. Source events, especially candle burning, cooking, toasting, and unknown activities, were responsible on average for ∼65% of the residential integrated exposure (51% without the unknown activities...

  16. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...... is insensitive to these uncertainties.The result of the analysis suggests that the normalised raking damage (damage length/ship length) to HSC can be expected to be 3-4 times longer than that to conventional ships. This implies that a significant part of HSC grounding accidents will produce tears in the full...

  17. Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock

  18. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  19. QCD Corrections to Higgs Pair Production in Bottom Quark Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Kao, Chung; /Fermilab /Oklahoma U.; Wang, Yili; Williams, Peter; /Oklahoma U.

    2006-10-01

    We present a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation for the total cross section of inclusive Higgs pair production via bottom-quark fusion (b{bar b} {yields} hh) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model. The NLO QCD corrections lead to less dependence on the renormalization scale ({mu}{sub R}) and the factorization scale ({mu}{sub F}) than the leading-order (LO) cross section, and they significantly increase the LO cross section. The rate for inclusive Higgs pair production is small in the Standard Model, but can be large in models with enhanced couplings of the b quark to the Higgs bosons.

  20. Recent progress in backreacted bottom-up holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvinen, Matti [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-22

    Recent progress in constructing holographic models for QCD is discussed, concentrating on the bottom-up models which implement holographically the renormalization group flow of QCD. The dynamics of gluons can be modeled by using a string-inspired model termed improved holographic QCD, and flavor can be added by introducing space filling branes in this model. The flavor fully backreacts to the glue in the Veneziano limit, giving rise to a class of models which are called V-QCD. The phase diagrams and spectra of V-QCD are in good agreement with results for QCD obtained by other methods.

  1. Bottom-up graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Patrick B. [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pedramrazi, Zahra [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Madani, Ali [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Yen-Chia; Crommie, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Oteyza, Dimas G. de [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC/UPV-EHU-Materials Physics Center, San Sebastián E-20018 (Spain); Chen, Chen [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bokor, Jeffrey, E-mail: jbokor@eecs.berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    Recently developed processes have enabled bottom-up chemical synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with precise atomic structure. These GNRs are ideal candidates for electronic devices because of their uniformity, extremely narrow width below 1 nm, atomically perfect edge structure, and desirable electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate nano-scale chemically synthesized GNR field-effect transistors, made possible by development of a reliable layer transfer process. We observe strong environmental sensitivity and unique transport behavior characteristic of sub-1 nm width GNRs.

  2. Wikipedia: organisation from a bottom-up approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spek, Sander; Postma, Eric; Herik, H. Jaap van den

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia can be considered as an extreme form of a self-managing team, as a means of labour division. One could expect that this bottom-up approach, with the absense of top-down organisational control, would lead to a chaos, but our analysis shows that this is not the case. In the Dutch Wikipedia, an integrated and coherent data structure is created, while at the same time users succeed in distributing roles by self-selection. Some users focus on an area of expertise, while others edit over ...

  3. Physical and numerical modeling of labyrinth weirs with polyhedral bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. San Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to comply with the new safety regulations a significant number of Spanish dam spillways must be upgraded. In this scenario and with the aim of increasing the discharge capacity with a reduced investment innovative designs become interesting solutions. One of these innovative designs are the labyrinth weirs. Project POLILAB is carrying out with the objective of optimize the design of labyrinth weirs, physical and numerical tests exposed in this article were developed within this framework. The most relevant results are related with the discharge capacity, the flow pattern and the structural reinforcement achieved by the implementation of a polyhedral bottom.

  4. Spintronics in the «Bottom-up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basic topics of spintronics such as spin valve, interface resistance due to the mismatch of conduction modes, spin potentials, non-local spin voltage, spin moment and its transport, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and explanation on its basis why a magnet has an “easy axis”, nanomagnet dynamics by spin current, polarizers and analyzers of spin current, diffusion equation for ballistic transport and current in terms of non-equilibrium potentials are discussed in the frame of the “bottom-up” approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  5. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions fo...

  6. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    The thesis deals with the wave breaking process of waves propagating over a steep submerged bottom slope. The amount of energy dissipated in the wave breaking process is focused upon. An extensive number of experimental tests (>400) using regular and irregular waves breaking over a simulated reef...... in the hydraulic laboratory are performed. Based on the experimental tests several formulae developed. Formulae  are capable of predicting the transmitted wave height and wave energy flux, respectively. Futhermore, a numerical wave model based on the extended Mild-Slope equation has been developed. The model...

  7. The seismic test of HTTR core bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic tests were carried out using scale models of the core bottom structure (CBS) in the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the responses of acceleration, strain, impact load and so on. The following conclusions are obtained. (1) The frequency response of the keyway strain could be correlated experimentally with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum blocks (HPB). (2) It was confirmed through the comparison of the 1/5-scale and 1/3-scale model tests that the applied similarity laws is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the CBS. (3) It was demonstrated that the structural integrity of the CBS will be kept against earthquakes. (author)

  8. Distinguishing Top-Down From Bottom-Up Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between top-down and bottom-up effects is widely relied on in experimental psychology. However, there is an important problem with the way it is normally defined. Top-down effects are effects of previously-stored information on processing the current input. But on the face of it that includes the information that is implicit in the operation of any psychological process – in its dispositions to transition from some types of representational state to others. This paper suggests...

  9. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  10. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

    2010-09-22

    Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cell’s secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a

  11. Influence of size-fractioning techniques on concentrations of selected trace metals in bottom materials from two streams in northeastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1986-01-01

    Identical stream-bottom material samples, when fractioned to the same size by different techniques, may contains significantly different trace-metal concentrations. Precision of techniques also may differ, which could affect the ability to discriminate between size-fractioned bottom-material samples having different metal concentrations. Bottom-material samples fractioned to less than 0.020 millimeters by means of three common techniques (air elutriation, sieving, and settling) were analyzed for six trace metals to determine whether the technique used to obtain the desired particle-size fraction affects the ability to discriminate between bottom materials having different trace-metal concentrations. In addition, this study attempts to assess whether median trace-metal concentration in size-fractioned bottom materials of identical origin differ depending on the size-fractioning technique used. Finally, this study evaluates the efficiency of the three size-fractioning techniques in terms of time, expense, and effort involved. Bottom-material samples were collected at two sites in northeastern Ohio: One is located in an undeveloped forested basin, and the other is located in a basin having a mixture of industrial and surface-mining land uses. The sites were selected fir their close physical proximity, similar contributing drainage areas, and the likelihood that trace-metal concentrations in the bottom materials would be significantly different. Statistically significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals were detected between bottom-material samples collected at the two sites when the samples had been size-fractioned by means of air elutriation or sieving. Statistical analyses of samples that had been size fractioned by settling in native water were not measurably different in any of the six trace metals analyzed. Results of multiple comparison tests suggest that differences related to size-fractioning technique were evident in median copper, lead, and

  12. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  13. Ice Particles Trapped by Temperature Gradients at mbar Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Dürmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In laboratory experiments we observe that ice particles (\\leq100 \\mu m) entrained in a low pressure atmosphere (~1 mbar) get trapped by temperature gradients between three reservoirs at different tempertature. Confining elements are a peltier element at 250 K (bottom), a liquid nitrogen reservoir at 77 K (top) and the surrounding vacuum chamber at 293 K. Particle levitation and trapping is modeled by an interplay of thermophoresis, photophoresis and gravity. A number of ice particles are trapped simultaneously in close spatial distance to each other at least up to minutes and are accessible for further experiments.

  14. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  15. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000-2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  16. "Triple-bottom-line" assessment of urban stormwater projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C; Fletcher, T D

    2006-01-01

    New guidelines have been developed and trialled in Australia to assist urban stormwater managers to assess options for projects that aim to improve urban waterway health. These guidelines help users to examine the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects (i.e., the so-called "triple-bottom-line"). Features of the assessment process described in the guidelines include use of multi criteria analysis, input from technical experts as well as non-technical stakeholders, and provision of three alternative levels of assessment to suit stormwater managers with differing needs and resources. This paper firstly provides a background to the new guidelines and triple-bottom-line assessment. The assessment methodology promoted in the new guidelines is then briefly summarised. This methodology is compared and contrasted with European guidelines from the "SWARD" project that have been primarily developed for assessing the relative sustainability of options involving urban water supply and sewerage assets. Finally, the paper discusses how assessment methodologies that evaluate the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects can, under some circumstances, be used to evaluate the relative progress of options for urban water management on a journey towards the widely pursued, but vaguely defined goal of "sustainable development".

  17. WAVE BOTTOM LAYERS DYNAMIC WITH SUSPENDED SEDIMENT OVER VORTEX RIPPLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chang-bo; BAI Yu-chuan; ZHAO Zi-dan; ZHANG Hong-wu

    2004-01-01

    Vortex ripple is widely formed in the coastal region, and the dynamic of vortex is quite important because it is responsible for sediment transport. The flow structure around the vortex ripples can be modeled as 2D flow due to the geometry of the flow boundaries. In this paper, 2D Large-Ed dy-Simulation (LES) method was used to predict the flow structure and the dynamic of vortex in the bottom layers under the action of the wave, the numerical simulation results show a completely process of vortex formation, evolvement and disappearance. Based on the study of flow structure, the suspended sediment transport was modeled in present paper. The simulated sediment concentrations were compared to measurements from the literature. The agreement between the time averaged simulated concentration profiles and measurements is satisfactory. For a high setting velocity, the suspended sediment is confined to the vicinity of the bed, and it is dominated by the local bottom shear stress. For a small setting velocity,the suspension is more dominated by the characteristic of vor tex. There are two suspended sediment transport peaks observed in the cross-section at the trough and crest in the half period, the second peak is due to the separation bubble taking the sediment.

  18. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Bottom-Up Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effect of magnetic field on chiral condensation in QCD via a simple bottom up holographic model which inputs QCD dynamics through the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark bilinear. Bottom up holography is a form of effective field theory and we use it to explore the dependence on the coefficients of the two lowest order terms linking the magnetic field and the quark condensate. In the massless theory, we identify a region of parameter space where magnetic catalysis occurs at zero temperature but inverse magnetic catalysis at temperatures of order the thermal phase transition. The model shows similar non-monotonic behaviour in the condensate with B at intermediate T as the lattice data. This behaviour is due to the separation of the meson melting and chiral transitions in the holographic framework. The introduction of quark mass raises the scale of B where inverse catalysis takes over from catalysis until the inverse catalysis lies outside the regime of validity of the effective descr...

  19. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Steele, T G; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We extend a moment QCD sum rule method to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark-antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm $cc\\bar c\\bar c$ tetraquark currents with $J^{PC} = 0^{++}$, $0^{-+}$, $0^{--}$, $1^{++}$, $1^{+-}$, $1^{-+}$, $1^{--}$, and $2^{++}$. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom $bb\\bar b\\bar b$ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\eta_b(1S)\\eta_b(1S)$, except one current of $J^{PC}=0^{++}$. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $\\eta_c(1S)\\eta_c(1S)$ channels.

  20. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. (Geological Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Fernandez, R. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. (Polytechnical Inst., Kuybyshev (USSR))

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. louhab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result show that the temperature and the length of incineration influence on the structure of the bottom ash and on the chromium in the bottom ash.

  2. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    suspended bottom material. Algal ingestion rate was proportional to algal concentration and independent of the concentration of suspended bottom material. Growth rate increased with algal concentration and was further increased by 10-110% by adding suspended bottom material. The positive effect of suspended...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  3. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  4. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  5. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  6. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding;

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels......, and whether a shift from dredging of full-grown blue mussels to production of blue mussels in bottom culture could reduce the area of impacted sea bottom. In the first study, the macrostructure of a commercial bottom culture was analysed by side scan mapping, and the growth of blue mussels was recorded...... on a transect from the edge to the central part of the bottom culture. In the second study, we analysed the effect of seeding density (1.5 and 3.5 kg m−2) on mussel production. The measured production was used to model the affected area when producing blue mussels in bottom culture. The macrostructure...

  7. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to

  8. Fractional order Darwinian particle swarm optimization applications and evaluation of an evolutionary algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Couceiro, Micael

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the bottom-up applicability of swarm intelligence to solving multiple problems, such as curve fitting, image segmentation, and swarm robotics. It compares the capabilities of some of the better-known bio-inspired optimization approaches, especially Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) and the recently proposed Fractional Order Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization (FODPSO), and comprehensively discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Further, it demonstrates the superiority and key advantages of using the FODPSO algorithm, suc

  9. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  10. Particles and curvatures in nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Francesca; Luo, Yimin; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    Elastic interactions in anisotropic fluids can be harnessed to direct particle interactions. A strategy to smoothly manipulate the director field in nematic liquid crystals is to vary the topography of the bounding surfaces. A rugged landscape with peaks and valleys create local deformations of the director field which can interact with particles in solution. We study this complex interaction in two different settings. The first consists of an array of shallow pores in a poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) membrane, whose curvature can be tuned either by swelling the PDMS membrane or by mechanical stretching. The second is a set of grooves with wavy walls, fabricated by photolithography, with various parameters of curvature and shapes. In this contexts we study how the motion of colloidal particles in nematic liquid crystals can be influenced by their interaction with the peaks and valleys of the bottom substrate or of the side walls. Particles with different associated topological defects (hedgehogs or Saturn rings) behave differently as they interact with the topographical features, favoring the docking on peaks or valleys. These experimental systems are also ideal to study the ``lock and key'' mechanism of particles in holes and to investigate a possible route for particle sorting.

  11. Sediment pollution and dynamic in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (southern Italy): insights from bottom sediment traps and surficial sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Cassin, Daniele; Giuliani, Silvia; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Major and trace element, PAH, and PCB concentrations were measured in surface sediments and particles from sediment traps collected in the First and Second Basin of the Mar Piccolo (Gulf of Taranto) in two periods (June-July and August-September, 2013). The aim of the study was to evaluate pollution degree, sediment transport and particle redistribution dynamic within the area. Results confirm the higher contamination of sediments from the First Basin observed by previous researches, particularly for Cu, Hg, Pb, total PAHs, and total PCBs. Advective transport from the First to the Second Basin appears to be the leading transfer mechanism of particles and adsorbed contaminants, as evidenced by measured fluxes and statistical analyses of contaminant concentrations in surficial sediments and particles from sediment traps. Long-range selective transports of PAHs and microbial anaerobic degradation processes for PCBs have been also observed. These results are limited to a restricted time window but are consistent with the presence of transport fluxes at the bottom of the water column. This mechanism deserves further investigation and monitoring activities, potentially being the main responsible of pollutant delivering to the less contaminated sectors of the Mar Piccolo. PMID:27117149

  12. Bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures on Ru(1010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junjie; Zhang, Han-jie; Cai, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuxi; Bao, Shining; He, Pimo

    2016-02-01

    Investigations on the bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures with 10, 10'-dibromo-9, 9'-bianthryl (DBBA) as a precursor on Ru(1010) were carried out using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Upon annealing the sample at submonolayer DBBA coverage, N = 7 graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) aligned along the [1210] direction form. Higher DBBA coverage and higher annealing temperature lead to the merging of GNRs into ribbon-like graphene nanoflakes with multiple orientations. These nanoflakes show different Moiré patterns, and their structures were determined by DFT simulations. The results showed that GNRs possess growth preference on the Ru(1010) substrate with a rectangular unit cell, and GNRs with armchair and zigzag boundaries are obtainable. Further DFT calculations suggest that the interaction between graphene and the substrate controls the orientations of the graphene overlayer and the growth of graphene on Ru(1010).

  13. Succeeding at the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Olsen, Mette

    initiative to build a social impact venture at the interface of a multi-national corporation and a hybrid organization that is operating on the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid market. Our study identifies how corporate social entrepreneurs dynamically use framing and organizational anchoring strategies to build...... internal support and external legitimacy for a radically new social venture initiative. Our findings point to the challenges, opportunities, and strategies associated with straddling global events and internal corporate priorities when engaging in corporate social entrepreneurship.......Hybrid organizational forms often rely on the initiative or collaboration of corporate actors, yet the role of these actors is rarely examined in detail. This paper examines corporate social entrepreneurship, which refers to the initiative of corporate actors to establish new, independent social...

  14. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  15. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...... occurrence probabilities can be significantly reduced by adapting the control parameters. The magnitude of the slamming load is severely influenced by the buoy shape. The ratio between the peak impact load on the hemisphere and that on the 45 cone is approximately 2, whereas the power absorption is only 4......-8% higher for the 45 degrees cone. This work illustrates the need to include slamming considerations aside from power absorption criteria in the buoy shape design process and the control strategy....

  16. Exotic nuclei with charm and bottom flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of existence of exotic nuclei containing charm and bottom mesons. We study the interaction between $ar{D}$ (B mesons and nucleons from view of heavy quark symmetry, and derive the one pion exchange potentials. We apply these potentials to the two body system of $ar{D}$ (B meson and nucleon N , and find there are possible stable bound states with spin JP = 1/2− and isospin I = 0. We find that the tensor interaction mixing $ar{D}$N and $ar{D}$*N (BN and B*N plays an important role. We also qualitatively discuss the possible bound states of $ar{D}$ (B meson and two nucleons.

  17. Doubly bottom strong-interaction stable tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Anthony; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of $qq^\\prime \\bar Q \\bar Q$ tetraquark bound states using $n_f=2+1$ lattice QCD ensembles with pion masses $\\simeq 164$, $299$ and $415$ MeV. Motivated by observations from heavy baryon phenomenology, we consider two lattice interpolating operators both of which are expected to couple efficiently to tetraquark states: one with diquark-antidiquark and one with meson-meson structure. Using NRQCD to simulate the bottom quarks we study the $ud\\bar b \\bar b$, $\\ell s\\bar b \\bar b$ channels with $\\ell=u,d$, and find unambiguous signals for strong-interaction-stable $J^P=1^+$ tetraquarks. These states are found to lie $189(10)$ and $98(7)$ MeV below the corresponding free two-meson thresholds.

  18. Experimental Analysis of Pressure Fluctuations behind a Bottom Aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental observations show that the random process of two-phase flow beh ind an aerator is an ergodic process and its amplitude distribution is similar t o a normal distribution. The maximum pressure fluctuation is at the re-attachme n t point where the jet-trajectory flow over the aerator re-attaches to bottom o f the channel, and its amplitude is 2-3 times larger than when there is no aerato r. There is a dominant frequency of 1.24 Hz in the model, but the coherence in th e frequency domain is not obvious for other frequencies beside the dominant frequ ency. There is a large vortex at the re-attachment point behind the aerator but correlation among the measurement points is not obvious in the time domain.

  19. Contextualised ICT4D: a Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Sutinen, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    . In a certain way, this agenda can be understood as a topdown approach which transfers technology in a hierarchical way to actual users. Complementary to the traditional approach, a bottom-up approach starts by identifying communities that are ready to participate in a process to use technology to transform......The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Much of the research in the field is based on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Asian origin, in the context of developing countries...... their own strengths to new levels by designing appropriate technologies with experts of technology and design. The bottomup approach requires a new kind of ICT education at the undergraduate level. An example of the development of a contextualized IT degree program at Tumaini University in Tanzania shows...

  20. Fallout Radioactivity in Some Egyptian Lakes Bottom Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Egyptian environmental radioactivity monitoring program, the fallout radioactivity levels in Qarun, Bardawill and Ed ku lakes bottom sediments have been measured. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometer based on Hyper pure germanium detector. The specific activities of plutonium isotopes(238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Pu) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface battier detectors and liquid scintillation spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The activity ratios 239+240Pu/137Cs, 239+240Pu/241Pu, and 238Pu/ 239+240Pu were calculated. The results seemed to confirm that fallout radioactivity is mainly due to nuclear weapons testing fallout

  1. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  2. On extracting weak quark couplings from bottom and top decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We list and discuss the various types of systematic uncertainties one faces when extracting quark mixing angles from the decays of bottom and top hadrons. Evaluating various suggested methods we conclude that a study of the lepton energy spectrum in B and T decays provides a reasonable way of obtaining the ratio of mixing angles; yet analysis of just the endpoint region will not lead to a reliable determination. Such results should be backed up by other studies based on very energetic kaons and on the mode B-->tau-anti #betta#sub(tau). A dedicated effort should be made to search for flavour changing neutral currents in channels like B, T->tau+tau-X. (orig.)

  3. Variations in the Holocene North Atlantic Bottom Current Strength in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, C.; Van Toer, A.; Cortijo, E.; Turon, J.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the strength of the North Atlantic bottom current during the Holocene period is presented via the study of cores located at the western termination of the northern deep channel of the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone. This natural roughly E-W corridor is bathed by the Iceland-Scotland overflow water (ISOW) when it passes westward out of the Iceland Basin into the western North Atlantic basin. At present, it is also described as the place where southern sourced silicate-rich Lower Deep Water (LDW) derived from the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) are passing westward, mixing with the ISOW. We conducted a deep-water multiproxy analysis on two nearby cores, coupling magnetic properties, anisotropy, sortable silt and benthic foraminifera isotopes. The first core had been taken by the R. V. Charcot in 1977 and the second one is a CASQ core taken during the IMAGES-AMOCINT MD168- cruise in the framework of the 06-EuroMARC-FP-008 Project on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne (French Polar Institute, IPEV) in 2008. The radiocarbon ages indicate an average sedimentation rate of about 50 cm/kyr through middle and late Holocene allowing a data resolution ranging from 40 to 100 years depending on the proxy. In each core, we observe long-term and short-term changes in the strength of the bottom currents. On the long term, a decrease in the amount of magnetic particles (normalized by the carbonate content) is first from 10 kyr to 8.6 kyr and then between 6 and 2 kyrs before reaching a steady state. Following Kissel et al. (2009), this indicates a decrease in the ISOW strength. The mean sortable silt shows exactly the same pattern indicating that not only the intensity of the ISOW but the whole deep water mass bathing the sites has decreased. On the short term, a first very prominent event centered at about 8.4 kyr (cal. ages) is marked by a pronounced minima in magnetic content and the smaller mean sortable silt sizes. This is typical for an abrupt reduction in deep flow

  4. Top-down or bottom-up forecasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The operations literature continues on inconclusive as to the most appropriate sales forecasting approach (Top-Down or Bottom-up for the determination of safety inventory levels. This paper presents the analytical results for the variance of the sales forecasting errors during the lead-time in both approaches. The forecasting method used was the Simple Exponential Smoothing and the results led to the identification of two supplementary impacts upon the forecasting error variance, and consequently, upon safety inventory levels: the Portfolio Effect and the Anchoring Effect. The first depends upon the correlation coefficient of demand between two individual items and the latter, depends upon the smoothing constant and upon the participation of the individual item in total sales. It is also analysed under which conditions these variables would favour one forecasting approach instead of the other.A literatura de operações permanece sem concluir sobre a abordagem mais adequada de previsão de vendas (Top-Down ou Bottom-Up para o dimensionamento de estoques de segurança. Nesse manuscrito são apresentados os resultados analíticos para a variância dos erros de previsão no tempo de resposta com amortecimento exponencial nessas duas abordagens. Os resultados apontam dois impactos complementares na variância do erro de previsão, e conseqüentemente, nos níveis de estoque de segurança: Efeito Portifólio e Efeito Ancoragem. O primeiro depende do coeficiente de correlação da demanda entre os produtos e o segundo, da constante de amortecimento e da participação das vendas do produto nas vendas totais. É analisado sob quais condições essas variáveis favoreceriam uma abordagem de previsão em detrimento da outra.

  5. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  6. Analisis Kecepatan Bottom Block Terhadap Struktur Mikro Produk Direct Chill Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono Tjitro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct chill casting process is used to produce to ingot. To produce to ingot is influenced such as bottom block speed. The objective of this research is to examine to ingot's microstructures. To use to bottom block speed is 57 mm/min and 67 mm/min. The pouring temperature of melt aluminum alloys is 750oC. Water flow rate is constant. Testing specimen is round shape which diameter and length each 70 mm and 400 mm. Microstructures on longitudinal and transversal round is investigated. Generally, microstructures of product of Direct Casting Process is non-uniform dendritic. Grain shape of 67 mm/minute bottom block rate is larger than 57 mm/minute bottom block rate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Proses Direct Chill Casting digunakan untuk menghasilkan ingot. Proses pembuatan ingot ini dipengaruhi antara lain kecepatan bottom block. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan bottom block terhadap struktur mikro ingot. Kecepatan bottom block yang digunakan 57 mm/menit dan 67 mm/menit. Temperatur tuang paduan aluminium 750oC. Debit air konstan. Spesimen uji berbentuk round dengan diameter 70 mm dan panjang 400 mm. Struktur mikro yang diamati pada ke arah longitudinal dan transversal round. Struktur mikro yang dihasilkan proses direct chill casting secara umum adalah dendritik yang tidak seragam. Bentuk butir kecepatan bottom block 67 mm/menit lebih besar daripada kecepatan bottom block 57 mm/menit. Kata kunci: direct chill casting, struktur mikro, kecepatan bottom block.

  7. Search for Direct Pair Production of Supersymmetric Top and Supersymmetric Bottom Quarks in p-pbar Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Da Ronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-01-01

    We search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top quarks and supersymmetric bottom quarks in proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV, using 295 pb^-1 of data recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II) experiment. The supersymmetric top (supersymmetric bottom) quarks are selected by reconstructing their decay into a charm (bottom) quark and a neutralino, which is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. The signature of such processes is two energetic heavy-flavor jets and missing transverse energy. The number of events that pass our selection for each search process is consistent with the standard model expectation. By comparing our results to the theoretical production cross sections of the supersymmetric top and supersymmetric bottom quarks in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we exclude, at a 95% confidence level in the frame of that model, a supersymmetric top quark mass up to 132 GeV/c^2 for a neutralino mass of 48 GeV/c^2, and a supersymmetric botto...

  8. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  9. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  10. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  11. Leaching behaviour of bottom ash from RDF high-temperature gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the physical properties, the chemical composition and the leaching behaviour of two bottom ash (BA) samples from two different refuse derived fuel high-temperature gasification plants, as a function of particle size. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the materials contained large amounts of glass. This aspect was also confirmed by the results of availability and ANC leaching tests. Chemical composition indicated that Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr were the most abundant metals, with a slight enrichment in the finest fractions. Suitability of samples for inert waste landfilling and reuse was evaluated through the leaching test EN 12457-2. In one sample the concentration of all metals was below the limit set by law, while limits were exceeded for Cu, Cr and Ni in the other sample, where the finest fraction showed to give the main contribution to leaching of Cu and Ni. Preliminary results of physical and geotechnical characterisation indicated the suitability of vitrified BA for reuse in the field of civil engineering. The possible application of a size separation pre-treatment in order to improve the chemical characteristics of the materials was also discussed.

  12. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 degrees C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively. PMID:16730889

  13. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisi, Mirko [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio 67040 (Italy); Karamanov, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio 67040 (Italy)]. E-mail: karama@ing.univaq.it; Taglieri, Giuliana [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio 67040 (Italy); Ferrante, Fabiola [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio 67040 (Italy); Pelino, Mario [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Monteluco di Roio 67040 (Italy)]. E-mail: pelino@ing.univaq.it

    2006-09-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 deg. C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively.

  14. Search for two Higgs bosons in final states containing two photons and two bottom quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-03-22

    A search is presented for the production of two Higgs bosons in final states containing two photons and two bottom quarks. Both resonant and nonresonant hypotheses are investigated. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV collected with the CMS detector. Good agreement is observed between data and predictions of the standard model (SM). Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the production cross section of new particles and compared to the prediction for the existence of a warped extra dimension. When the decay to two Higgs bosons is kinematically allowed, assuming a mass scale LambdaR = 1 TeV for the model, the data exclude a radion scalar at masses below 980 GeV. The first Kaluza-Klein excitation mode of the graviton in Randall-Sundrum models is excluded for masses between 325 and 450 GeV. Limits set on nonresonant production constrain the parameter space for anomalous Higgs boson couplings.

  15. Optical and electronic properties study of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Cesar E. P.; Rocha, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), turn out to be serious contender for several optolectronic applications due to their physical properties. Recently, bottom-up methods, using the assembly of appropriate precursor molecules were shown to be an exciting pathway towards making precise nanoribbons. In particular, it has been demonstrated that so-called cove-shaped GNRs absorb light in the visible part of the spectrum, suggesting they could be used for photovoltaic applications. In solar cells, the key ingredient is the presence excitons and their subsequent diffusion along a donor material. This is influenced by the character of the different excitations taking place, as well as, the exciton binding energy. Thus, In this work we use many-body corrected density functional theory to simulate the optical properties of these nanoribbons. We elucidate the most important transitions occurring in these systems, and identify types of excitatiions that have not been previously observed in conventional nanoribbons. We also find that the exciton binding energies for all the structures we considered are in the eV range, which enhances the diffusion lengths for the particle-hole pairs. Finally, we estimate the potencial of these systems as solar cells by calculating the short-circuit current. The Authors thank FAPESP for financial support.

  16. High accuracy particle analysis using sheathless microfluidic impedance cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Daniel; Caselli, Federica; Bisegna, Paolo; Morgan, Hywel

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new design of microfluidic impedance cytometer enabling accurate characterization of particles without the need for focusing. The approach uses multiple pairs of electrodes to measure the transit time of particles through the device in two simultaneous different current measurements, a transverse (top to bottom) current and an oblique current. This gives a new metric that can be used to estimate the vertical position of the particle trajectory through the microchannel. This parameter effectively compensates for the non-uniform electric field in the channel that is an unavoidable consequence of the use of planar parallel facing electrodes. The new technique is explained and validated using numerical modelling. Impedance data for 5, 6 and 7 μm particles are collected and compared with simulations. The method gives excellent coefficient of variation in (electrical) radius of particles of 1% for a sheathless configuration.

  17. Search for scalar bottom quarks from gluino decays in collisions at.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; di Giovanni, G P; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J

    2006-05-01

    We searched for scalar bottom quarks 156 pb(-1) of pp collisions at radicalS = 1.96 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Tevatron. Scalar bottom quarks can be produced from gluino decays in -parity conserving models of supersymmetry when the mass of the gluino exceeds that of the scalar bottom quark. Then, a scalar bottom quark can decay into a bottom quark and a neutralino. To search for this scenario, we investigated events with large missing transverse energy and at least three jets, two or more of which were identified as containing a secondary vertex from the hadronization of quarks. We found four candidate events, where 2.6 +/- 0.7 are expected from standard model processes, and placed 95% confidence level lower limits on gluino and scalar bottom quark masses of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c(2), respectively.

  18. Measurements by Ocean Bottom Gravimeter at Harima-nada in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshima, Masato; Ishihara, Takemi; Koizumi, Kin-Ichiro; Seama, Nobukazu; Oshida, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    Gravity measurements on the sea bottom using an ocean bottom gravimeter(OBG) and a small survey vessel of 8.5 tons were performed at Harima-nada, in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Measurements at one bottom station were completed in about 30 minutes including 2 mile transit from the previous station, and 23 new data were obtained during 4 days. The measurement noise on the shallow sea-bottom was reduced considerably by attaching an anchor to the rope between the deployed ocean bottom gravimeter and the ship, and by keeping the ship almost fixed to the deployed anchor. The measurement accuracy is better than 0.005 mgal at the base station and is better than 0.05 mgal for the sea bottom measurements with the anchor. The new measurements combined with old data revealed the presence of high gravity anomaly zone running in Harima-nada sub-parallel to the Median Tectonic Line.

  19. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    it is therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom culturing in Europe the method is still de-pendent on natural conditions, such as recruitment, food...... insights in biological mechanisms can be used as a tool to develop and optimize bottom culture production methods. The study was addressed through the following questions: 1) How can the seed mussel source in bottom culturing be supported? 2) How can survival of mussels in bottom culturing be improved......? And 3) How does bottom culture practice support an area-intensive exploitation of blue mussels? To answer the questions four experimental studies were conducted. Results from a laboratory- and a manipulated field experiment showed that blue mussels collected on sus-pended long line cultures in the water...

  20. The impact of bottom brightness on spectral reflectance of suspended sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Brian L.; Han, L.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate how bottom brightness impacts the spectral response of a water column under varied suspended sediment concentrations. A white aluminum panel placed at the bottom of the tank was used as the bright bottom, and a flat-black tank liner served as the dark bottom. Sixteen levels of suspended sediment from 25 to 400 mg litre -1 were used in each experiment. Spectral data were collected using a Spectron SE-590 spectroradiometer. The major findings include the following: the bright bottom had the greatest impact at visible wavelengths; when suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 100 mg litre -1, the bright bottom response was found to be negligible; and, substrate brightness has minimal impact between 740 and 900 nm, suggesting that these wavelengths are best for measuring suspended sediment concentrations by means of remote sensing.

  1. Preliminary Hard and Soft Bottom Seafloor Substrate Map Derived from an Unsupervised Classification of Gridded Backscatter and Bathymetry Derivatives at Selected U.S. Locations in the Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Substrate, Hard bottom vs. Soft bottom: This is a preliminary product. Cell values reflect whether the seafloor is hard bottom or soft bottom based on an...

  2. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  3. Search for Dark Matter production associated with bottom quarks with 13.3 fb−1 of pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The result of a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom quarks in 13.3 $fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is reported. The search is optimised for spin-0 mediators to the dark sector which are produced in association with bottom quarks and decay into a pair of Dirac Dark Matter particles. Events containing large missing transverse momentum and exactly two jets identified as originating from $b$-quarks are considered. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model background expectations. Limits at 95\\% confidence level are derived on the production cross section of a spin-0 mediator decaying to a pair of Dark Matter particles and produced in association with $b$-quarks as a function of the mediator mass, assuming the Dark Matter particle mass to be 1~GeV.

  4. A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁要红; 黄虎

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.

  5. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  6. SIMULATION STUDY OF IMAGING OF UNDERWATER BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY BY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between current and underwater bottom topography modulates roughness of the sea surface, which in turn yields variation of the radar scattering echo. By using the mechanism, this paper presents a simulation model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of underwater bottom topography. The numerical simulations experiments were made using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and analytical expression theory of SAR Image in Mischief sea area. It is concluded that the SAR image is better visual when water depth of underwater bottom topography is shallow or gradient of underwater bottom topography is high.

  7. Search for third-generation leptoquarks and scalar bottom quarks in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Kuotb Awad, Alaa Metwaly; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; 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Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; 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Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; 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Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for third-generation leptoquarks and scalar bottom quarks in a sample of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 inverse femtobarns. A scenario where the new particles are pair produced and each decays to a b quark plus a tau neutrino or neutralino is considered. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model prediction. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the production cross sections. Leptoquarks with masses below about 450 GeV are excluded. Upper limits in the mass plane of the scalar quark and neutralino are set such that scalar bottom quark masses up to 410 GeV are excluded for neutralino masses of 50 GeV.

  8. LHC search for di-Higgs decays of stoponium and other scalars in events with two photons and two bottom jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nilanjana [Northern Illinois U.; Martin, Stephen P. [Fermilab

    2014-09-08

    We study the prospects for LHC discovery of a narrow resonance that decays to two Higgs bosons, using the final state of two photons and two bottom jets. Our work is motivated in part by a scenario in which two-body flavor-preserving decays of the top squark are kinematically forbidden. Stoponium, a hadronic bound state of the top squark and its anti-particle, will then form, and may have a large branching fraction into the two Higgs boson final state. We estimate the cross-section needed for a 5-sigma discovery at the 14 TeV LHC for such a narrow di-Higgs resonance, using the invariant mass distributions of the final state bottom jets and photons, as a function of the integrated luminosity. The results are also applicable to any other di-Higgs resonance produced by gluon fusion.

  9. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf.

  10. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  11. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf

  12. Microbial food web contributions to bottom water hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, Michael; Sato, Riki; Liu, Hongbin; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Green, Rebecca; Powell, Rodney

    2008-05-01

    Nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya Rivers greatly stimulate biological production in the 'classical' food web on the inner shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Portions of this production, especially large diatoms and zooplankton fecal pellets, sink and decompose in the bottom water, consuming oxygen and contributing to the annual development of an extensive zone of bottom water hypoxia, typically >15,000 km 2 since 1993. The microbial food web is also active in the Mississippi River plume, but consists of small organisms that sink slowly. This 'recycling' food web has not been considered as a significant contributor to vertical flux and hypoxia. However, gelatinous zooplankton, especially pelagic appendicularians such as Oikopleura dioica, mediate the conversion of microbial web organisms to organic particles with high sinking rates. When pelagic appendicularians are abundant in coastal regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico, they stimulate the rapid vertical transfer of microbial web productivity in the surface layer, which is only 5-15 m thick in the coastal hypoxic region, to the sub-pycnocline layer that becomes hypoxic each summer. In this paper we present results from two studies examining the significance of this pathway. In both 2002 and 2004, we observed high production rates of appendicularians in coastal waters. Discarded gelatinous houses and fecal pellets from the appendicularian populations often provided more than 1 g m -2 d -1 of organic carbon for the establishment and maintenance of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This source of organic matter flux is especially important in regions far from the river plumes and during periods of low river discharge. Autotrophic elements of this food web are primarily supported by recycled inorganic nutrients originating in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. Sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) supporting the heterotrophic components of this microbial food web may include in situ

  13. A search for a heavy resonance decaying to a top quark and a bottom quark with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sperka, David

    The standard model of particle physics can explain most measurements of elementary par- ticle properties and interactions performed to date. However, it does not naturally explain the relatively light Higgs boson mass or the existence of small neutrino masses, and has no explanation for the dark matter observed in the universe. Many extensions to the standard model have been proposed to attempt to address these questions, and several predict the existence of heavy charged gauge bosons, usually referred to as W' bosons. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world and offers the opportunity to search for W' bosons using the CMS experiment, a large multi-purpose particle detector. Results are presented from a search for a W' boson produced in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and decaying into a top and a bottom quark, using a dataset collected by the CMS experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 . ...

  14. The "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are back at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The highly coveted "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are given to the winners of the “Bike to CERN” competition. There is only one way to secure your place in history: commute to work on your bike, no matter what the weather conditions are and how busy you may feel.   The president of the CERN cycling club, Henrik Nissen (left), with Tim Smith, one of the three winners of the “Bike to CERN” Challenge. At CERN, bikers have a dedicated club and can take part in two popular events designed to challenge them: Bike2Work, which has been going for 10 years and which, every June, mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland, and the “unofficial Bike to CERN” challenge, which runs throughout the year. In 2013, 125 people took part in this local competition, but many CERN personnel ride to work every day without registering their kilometres. The three winners, all correspond...

  15. BB interactions with static bottom quarks from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of $B$ mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavours of degenerate dynamical quarks. The $B$ meson is addressed in the static-light approximation, i.e.\\ the $b$ quarks are infinitely heavy. From the results of the $B\\,B$ meson-meson potentials, a simple rule can be deduced stating which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces. We provide fits to the ground state potentials in the attractive channels and discuss the potentials in the repulsive and excited channels. The attractive channels are most important since they can possibly lead to a bound four-quark state, i.e.\\ a $\\bar{b}\\bar{b}ud$ tetraquark. Using these attractive potentials in the Schr\\"odinger equation, we find indication for such a tetraquark state of two static bottom antiquarks and two light $u/d$ quarks with mass extrapolated down to the physical value.

  16. Integrating health impact assessment into the triple bottom line concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This theoretical study explores the links between the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept and the principles of HIA and considers the potential role of HIA to provide a mechanism for integrating health concerns within a broader agenda of government and business. TBL is a framework linked to the broader sustainability agenda that underpins and reviews environmental, economic and social performance of organizations. In its simplest form, TBL acts as a tool for reporting to stakeholders/shareholders organizational performance and the nature of the impacts on the community. The links to HIA are clear as both seek to determine the impact (potential and actual) on the health and well-being of the population. The study found that TBL can operate at four levels within organizations ranging from reporting through to full integration with the organization's goals and practices. Health is narrowly defined and there are tensions about how to undertake the social accountability functions. The study shows the potential role for HIA within the broader policy and accountability agenda. As health is one of the main outcomes of an organization's activities it needs to be taken into account at all levels of activity

  17. Utilization of Meat and Bone Meal Bottom Ash in Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During utilization of animal waste meat and bone meal (MBM is received, realization and use of which has been stopped due to risk for the transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection. The MBM must be safely stored or treated. Most often meat and bone meal undergoes thermal treatment. During combustion large quantities of residues (ashes are received, the recycled use of which has been given a lot of attention lately. In this work it was investigated the impact of the additive of the bottom ash (BA formed during combustion of the MBM on the properties of forming mass and ceramic body of hydromica clay, and also it was evaluated a possibility to use the MBM BA in manufacturing of building ceramics. After replacing the sand in porous ceramics by this additive the plasticity of the forming mass, drying and firing shrinkage as well as density of ceramic body changed insignificantly whereas the compressive strength increased by 8 % - 22 %. So the MBM BA can be utilized in production of porous ceramics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.256

  18. Nonplanar conductive surfaces via "bottom-up" nanostructured gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, T P; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-03-12

    Development of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important albeit challenging goals in the promising field of "flexible electronics". We present a generic solution-based "bottom-up" approach for assembling conductive gold nanostructured layers on nonplanar polymer surfaces. The simple two-step experimental scheme is based upon incubation of an amine-displaying polymer [the abundantly used poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), selected here as a proof of concept] with Au(SCN)4(-), followed by a brief treatment with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)] solution. Importantly, no reducing agent is co-added to the gold complex solution. The resultant surfaces are conductive and exhibit a unique "nanoribbon" gold morphology. The scheme yields conductive layers upon PDMS in varied configurations: planar, "wrinkled", and mechanically bent surfaces. The technology is simple, inexpensive, and easy to implement for varied polymer surfaces (and other substances), opening the way for practical applications in flexible electronics and related fields. PMID:24548243

  19. A top-bottom price approach to understanding financial fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Castro, Miguel A.; Miranda, José G. V.; Borges, Ernesto P.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of sequences of top and bottom (TB) events in financial series is investigated for the purpose of characterizing such switching points. They clearly mark a change in the trend of rising or falling prices of assets to the opposite tendency, are of crucial importance for the players' decision and also for the market stability. Previous attempts to characterize switching points have been based on the behavior of the volatility and on the definition of microtrends. The approach used herein is based on the smoothing of the original data with a Gaussian kernel. The events are identified by the magnitude of the difference of the extreme prices, by the time lag between the corresponding events (waiting time), and by the time interval between events with a minimal magnitude (return time). Results from the analysis of the inter day Dow Jones Industrial Average index (DJIA) from 1928 to 2011 are discussed. q-Gaussian functions with power law tails are found to provide a very accurate description of a class of measures obtained from the series statistics.

  20. [Bottoming out in augmentation mammaplasty--correction and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Stahlenbrecher, A

    2006-08-01

    Displacement of a breast implant beneath the original submammary fold is known as a rare but, in most cases, difficult to correct complication after augmentation mammaplasty. Suggestions for re-centering the mammary implant range from simple percutaneous sutures to the additional application of expensive alloplastic dermal grafts. Based on the latest findings concerning plastination histology of the fascial system of the breast and in the light of our own clinical experience regarding correction of implant ptosis we have developed a special treatment concept. When placing the implant, the vertical fibers of the submammary fold are saved as a precautionary measure. In cases where there is a risk of possible inferior displacement of the mammary implant, an individually manufactured belt-like bandage is applied for approximately eight weeks postoperatively. In cases requiring the correction of a severe "bottoming out" deformity, we either lift the capsular shell of the implant or, if the fibrous capsule is thin and vulnerable, we use a special capsular flap technique resulting in a hammock that catches the implant at the height of the new submammary fold. Postoperative application of our belt-like bandage is again indispensable. PMID:16991043

  1. Bypass transition of the bottom boundary layer under solitary wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mahmoud; Diamessis, Peter; Parras, Luis; Liu, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) flow driven by a soliton-like pressure gradient in an oscillating water tunnel (an approximation for the BBL under solitary waves) is investigated using hydrodynamic linear stability theory and DNS. As observed in the laboratory experiment by Sumer et al. (2010), two possible transition scenarios exist. The first scenario is associated with the classical transition resulting from the breakdown of the exponentially growing 2-D Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The alternative scenario; i.e., bypass transition; takes place through formation of localized turbulent spots. The investigation of the latter transition scenario is performed in two steps. The first step consists of reformulating the linear stability analysis in the non-modal framework for the purpose of finding the optimum disturbance characteristics which lead to the formation of those turbulent spots. In the second step, the computed optimum noise structure is inserted in the 3D DNS in order to induce the formation of the turbulent spots and effectively simulate the bypass transition observed experimentally.

  2. Analysis of ADCP data above a bottom observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A 300-kHz ADCP was set on GEOSTAR, a six-m3 deep-sea observatory. It was operated with cells of 80 cm during a three-week test experiment at 42-m water depth in the northern Adriatic sub-basin. Although it provided valuable data about the horizontal current field over most of the water column, it also allowed specifying the wake disturbances induced by the observatory. These disturbances are characterised by vertical velocities that are significant up to ~20 m above seafloor (echo intensity data suggest that the wake can even reach the surface, and by inclinations of the bottom nepheloïd layer (as deduced from differences in echo intensities from beam to beam. Our analysis is validated by consistent relationships between the horizontal current direction and speed on one side and the characteristics of both dynamical (vertical velocity and non-dynamical (echo intensity parameters on the other side. It is in good agreement with the simulations from a numerical model, and hence specifies the sensitivity (especially with respect to echo intensity and accuracy of an instrument usually operated within fields of current and scatterers not disturbed by the device supporting it. In addition, the error velocity parameter displays specific characteristics that easily allow specifying the thickness of the layer disturbed by the observatory, thus providing a technique to validate the quality of data acquired in similar conditions.

  3. Method for Determining Leakage Velocities through the Bottom of Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method based on an idea of converting a slow flow through a chosen area of reservoir bottom to a fast flow in a pipe of a small diameter is presented. If the chosen area is tightly covered by a bottomless cylinder with an outlet through a pipe then the product of leakage velocity and the area covered is equal to the product of flow velocity in the pipe and the pipe cross-section. Even extremely low leakage velocities render measurable velocities in the pipe if its cross-section is very small in comparison with the covered area. This idea can be used for leakage velocity measurements if the measuring device does not disturb natural flow lines. Conditions under which this requirement is satisfied are considered in detail. A measuring device constructed according to these conditions and described in the paper can measure leakage velocities from 5 x 10-7 to 3 x 10-3 cm/sec. The flow velocity in the measuring pipe is known from the transit time measurement of an injected pulse of a radioisotope. (author)

  4. Organizing a Global Labor Movement from Top and Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the prospects for a global labor movement are ripe, working people and their supporters may fail to take full advantage of this historical opening. A potential barrier is the existence of a strategic myopia when it comes to the role of preexisting labor organizations at the national and international levels. Specifically, these higher-tier institutions are often viewed by labor activists and the rank-and-file as inherently autocratic and imperialistic, and are thus deemed to have little value for efforts at fostering global labor solidarity. A consequence is that many in the labor movement concentrate their energies solely at a local or community level, with the idea that it is only here that true progressive change can result. In terms of broader solidarity and resistance, it is felt that cross-regional and cross-national linkages will eventually develop to expand the struggle to a truly global level. In effect, it is presumed by many that a global labor movement will, and in fact must, be built strictly from the "bottom-up" ( e.g. Brecher and Costello, 1994.

  5. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baffled vessel.The vessel is filled with water and the impeller speed            is 100 min−1. Three turbulent models were used for the solution: k-ε, k-ω and RSM. The results were compared with experimental data or data from the literature. The k-ε model had the smallest demands on processor time, and the results compared satisfactorily with the experimental data. The model provides comprehensive information about the characteristics of the system.

  6. BUEES:a bottom-up event extraction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao DING; Bing QIN; Ting LIU

    2015-01-01

    Traditional event extraction systems focus mainly on event type identifi cation and event participant extraction based on pre-specifi ed event type paradigms and manually annotated corpora. However, different domains have different event type paradigms. When transferring to a new domain, we have to build a new event type paradigm and annotate a new corpus from scratch. This kind of conventional event extraction system requires massive human effort, and hence prevents event extraction from being widely applicable. In this paper, we present BUEES, a bottom-up event extraction system, which extracts events from the web in a completely unsupervised way. The system automatically builds an event type paradigm in the input corpus, and then proceeds to extract a large number of instance patterns of these events. Subsequently, the system extracts event arguments according to these patterns. By conducting a series of experiments, we demonstrate the good performance of BUEES and compare it to a state-of-the-art Chinese event extraction system, i.e., a supervised event extraction system. Experimental results show that BUEES performs comparably (5% higher F-measure in event type identifi cation and 3% higher F-measure in event argument extraction), but without any human effort.

  7. Reservoir behavior and production rate using bottom waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia C., A.G.

    1975-08-01

    Calculation of predictable behavior and assignment of production rate per well is a recommended procedure, based on Buckley and Leverett's theory on frontal displacement using bottom waterflooding. The study of a natural reservoir mechanism of production by hydraulic drive or gas-layer drive was made because they are rate sensitive. Production rates are established after a feasibile economic analysis. The production effect on final oil recovery must be established from the reservoir itself, to get more hydrocarbons efficiently, avoiding gas or water problems, and premature advance of the aquiferous or the gas layer. The calculation determines fundamental reservoir parameters which can be used to predict expected problems to be avoided with no risk. Most productive formations are thin but extended, and their exploitation is not economical if the equilibrium between oil and water production is broken down. When the characteristics are favorable, engineering analysis and study are used to yield optimal reservoir control and exploitation using frontal displacement mechanisms. 10 references.

  8. Bottom-Up Synthesis and Sensor Applications of Biomimetic Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanotechnology, biology, and bioengineering greatly improved the developments of nanomaterials with unique functions and properties. Biomolecules as the nanoscale building blocks play very important roles for the final formation of functional nanostructures. Many kinds of novel nanostructures have been created by using the bioinspired self-assembly and subsequent binding with various nanoparticles. In this review, we summarized the studies on the fabrications and sensor applications of biomimetic nanostructures. The strategies for creating different bottom-up nanostructures by using biomolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and virus, as well as microorganisms like bacteria and plant leaf are introduced. In addition, the potential applications of the synthesized biomimetic nanostructures for colorimetry, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrical resistance, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are presented. This review will promote the understanding of relationships between biomolecules/microorganisms and functional nanomaterials in one way, and in another way it will guide the design and synthesis of biomimetic nanomaterials with unique properties in the future.

  9. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  10. The faith of a physicist reflections of a bottom-up thinker : the Gifford lectures for 1993-4

    CERN Document Server

    Polkinghorne, John C

    1994-01-01

    Is it possible to think like a scientist and yet have the faith of a Christian? Although many Westerners might say no, there are also many critically minded individuals who entertain what John Polkinghorne calls a "wistful wariness" toward religion--they feel unable to accept religion on rational grounds yet cannot dismiss it completely. Polkinghorne, both a particle physicist and Anglican priest, here explores just what rational grounds there could be for Christian beliefs, maintaining that the quest for motivated understanding is a concern shared by scientists and religious thinkers alike. Anyone who assumes that religion is based on unquestioning certainties, or that it need not take into account empirical knowledge, will be challenged by Polkinghorne's bottom-up examination of Christian beliefs about events ranging from creation to the resurrection. The author organizes his inquiry around the Nicene Creed, an early statement that continues to summarize Christian beliefs. He applies to each of its tenets ...

  11. Wind erosion at the dry-up bottom of Aiby Lake-- A case study on the source of air dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆桂金; 闫顺; 吉力力; 何青; 夏训诚

    2002-01-01

    Clay-rich deposits are usually considered as hard materials to be eroded by wind.Data from both surface monitoring and field survey at the dry-up bottom of Aiby Lake present thatclay-rich lacustrine deposits are easily broken down and eroded away by wind in the seasonalalternation process under the natural arid environment, and are the significant source of air dust.The surface of the clay-rich deposits is broken and softened by the freezing-and-thawing action inwinter season and/or by salt and alkali action with precipitation. Impact of wind-input particles andplow of plant branches with wind force drive the clay-rich sediments moving. Wind picks up theclay pebbles and repeats the impaction further-ward onto the dry-up surface. Tremendous finematerials, including soft salts, are contributed to air dust, and transported in long distance.

  12. Particle sorting in dense granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Fan, Y.; Yohannes, B.

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of particles tend to unmix by particle property. One of the most dramatically destructive examples of this occurs in debris flow: boulders, rocks, and mud tumble down a hillside, and the largest rocks migrate toward the top and then the front of the flow where they do the most damage. Rotating drums and chute flows are two of the most common apparatuses used to systematically study segregation in dense, gravity driven granular flows. In these cases, smaller or, alternatively, denser particles segregate away from the free surface, phenomena that have been modeled using mechanisms such as kinetic sieving and buoyancy, respectively. Other segregation mechanisms have been identified in suspensions and in more energetic systems such as a gradient in granular temperature -- the kinetic energy of velocity fluctuations -- and curvature effects. However, with most experimental systems the dominant segregation mechanism is difficult to ascertain. In typical experimental systems designed to study segregation in dense granular flow (such as chutes and rotated drums), gravity, velocity gradients and porosity gradients coexist in the direction of segregation. We study the segregation of mixtures of particles numerically and experimentally in a split-bottom cell and in a rotating drum to isolate three possible driving mechanisms for segregation of densely-sheared granular mixtures: gravity, porosity, and velocity gradients and their associated dynamics. We find gravity alone does not drive segregation associated with particle size without a sufficiently large porosity or porosity gradient. A velocity gradient, however, appears capable of driving segregation associated both with particle size and material density in dense flows. We present our results and discuss the implications for some particle segregation behaviors observed in natural systems such as debris flows and sediment transport.

  13. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  14. A bottom-up approach for optimization of friction stir processing parameters; a study on aluminium 2024-T3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An experimental bottom-up approach has been developed for optimizing the process parameters for friction stir processing. • Optimum parameter processed samples were tested and characterized in detail. • Ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 times the base metal strength was obtained. • Residual stresses on the processed surface were only 10% of the yield strength of base metal. • Microstructure observations revealed fine equi-axed grains with precipitate particles at the grain boundaries. - Abstract: Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as one of the most competent severe plastic deformation (SPD) method for producing bulk ultra-fine grained materials with improved properties. Optimizing the process parameters for a defect free process is one of the challenging aspects of FSP to mark its commercial use. For the commercial aluminium alloy 2024-T3 plate of 6 mm thickness, a bottom-up approach has been attempted to optimize major independent parameters of the process such as plunge depth, tool rotation speed and traverse speed. Tensile properties of the optimum friction stir processed sample were correlated with the microstructural characterization done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Optimum parameters from the bottom-up approach have led to a defect free FSP having a maximum strength of 93% the base material strength. Micro tensile testing of the samples taken from the center of processed zone has shown an increased strength of 1.3 times the base material. Measured maximum longitudinal residual stress on the processed surface was only 30 MPa which was attributed to the solid state nature of FSP. Microstructural observation reveals significant grain refinement with less variation in the grain size across the thickness and a large amount of grain boundary precipitation compared to the base metal. The proposed experimental bottom-up approach can be applied as an effective method for

  15. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  16. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  17. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  18. A fluid particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a mechanistic model for a Newtonian fluid called fluid particle dynamics. By analyzing the concept of ``fluid particle'' from the point of view of a Voronoi tessellation of a molecular fluid, we propose an heuristic derivation of a dissipative particle dynamics algorithm that incorporates shear forces between dissipative particles. The inclusion of these non-central shear forces requires the consideration of angular velocities of the dissipative particles in order to comply with th...

  19. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  20. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr- 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  1. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis i...

  2. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  3. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  4. Water purification with sintered porous materials fabricated at 400℃ from sea bottom sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A sintering technology for preparing porous materials from sea bottom sediments was developed for use in water purification. The purpose of the present study was to develop methods for converting the sea bottom sediments dredged from Ago Bay into value-added recycled products. The sintered products fabricated at 400℃ were found to be very effective adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  5. Charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarenko, Ksenia Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained from experiments designed for a consistent study of charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures. New unconventional ways to build elements of electrical circuits (like dielectrophoresis, wedging transfer and bottom-up f

  6. Bottom excitation contribution to dilepton production in ν, anti ν reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom production in ν and anti ν deep inelastic reactions is discussed within the framework of the standard model for quarks and leptons. Using the Kobayashi-Maskawa model it is found that dilepton events available at present can have a bottom contribution which can be as high as 10% (upper bound)

  7. Numerical Study on the Influence of Different Waving Bottom Form on the Fluid Surface Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of waving bottom on the surface wave is studied. Basing on the fundamental equations of potential flow theory and boundary conditions, using the multiple scales perturbation method to derive the first-order and the second-order approximate equation which the fluid surface waves satisfied in the presence of waving bottom. Under the second-order approximation, the fluid surface waveform in first-order approximate equation is numerically simulated with MATLAB in the presence of different waving bottom form. The results show that: the fluid surface waveform is composed of a harmonic wave which has the same frequency with waving bottom and a pair of KdV solitary waves that spread to both the right and the left side when the waving bottom wave is a harmonic wave; and when the waving bottom is a solitary wave packet, it consists of a solitary wave which is closely related to the specific form of waving bottom and a couple of KdV solitary waves. With the development of time, three waves in fluid surface do not affect each other and they propagate independently. Thus it can be seen the waving bottom is effective for maintaining surface wave energy balance income and expenditure in the spreading process.

  8. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure distributions must be applied: (1) For an unflared bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance... same as that for an unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the...

  9. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix I of this part. The pressure at... unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the flare varies linearly,...

  10. Bottom-Up Colloidal Crystal Assembly with a Twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Likos, Christos N; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2016-05-24

    Globally ordered colloidal crystal lattices have broad utility in a wide range of optical and catalytic devices, for example, as photonic band gap materials. However, the self-assembly of stereospecific structures is often confounded by polymorphism. Small free-energy differences often characterize ensembles of different structures, making it difficult to produce a single morphology at will. Current techniques to handle this problem adopt one of two approaches: that of the "top-down" or "bottom-up" methodology, whereby structures are engineered starting from the largest or smallest relevant length scales, respectively. However, recently, a third approach for directing high fidelity assembly of colloidal crystals has been suggested which relies on the introduction of polymer cosolutes into the crystal phase [Mahynski, N.; Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.; Meng, D.; Kumar, S. K. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4472]. By tuning the polymer's morphology to interact uniquely with the void symmetry of a single desired crystal, the entropy loss associated with polymer confinement has been shown to strongly bias the formation of that phase. However, previously, this approach has only been demonstrated in the limiting case of close-packed crystals. Here, we show how this approach may be generalized and extended to complex open crystals, illustrating the utility of this "structure-directing agent" paradigm in engineering the nanoscale structure of ordered colloidal materials. The high degree of transferability of this paradigm's basic principles between relatively simple crystals and more complex ones suggests that this represents a valuable addition to presently known self-assembly techniques. PMID:27124487

  11. Building Models from the Bottom Up: The HOBBES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lund, J. R.; Chu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Water problems are often bigger than technical and data challenges associated in representing a water system using a model. Controversy and complexity is inherent when water is to be allocated among different uses making difficult to maintain coherent and productive discussions on addressing water problems. Quantification of a water supply system through models has proven to be helpful to improve understanding, explore and develop adaptable solutions to water problems. However, models often become too large and complex and become hostages of endless discussions of the assumptions, their algorithms and their limitations. Data management organization and documentation keep model flexible and useful over time. The UC Davis HOBBES project is a new approach, building models from the bottom up. Reversing the traditional model development, where data are arranged around a model algorithm, in Hobbes the data structure, organization and documentation are established first, followed by application of simulation or optimization modeling algorithms for a particular problem at hand. The HOBBES project establishes standards for storing, documenting and sharing datasets on California water system. This allows models to be developed and modified more easily and transparently, with greater comparability. Elements in the database have a spatial definition and can aggregate several infrastructural elements into detailed to coarse representations of the water system. Elements in the database represent reservoirs, groundwater basins, pumping stations, hydropower and water treatment facilities, demand areas and conveyance infrastructure statewide. These elements also host time series, economic and other information from hydrologic, economic, climate and other models. This presentation provides an overview of the project HOBBES project, its applications and prospects for California and elsewhere. The HOBBES Project

  12. Properties of the Water Column and Bottom Derived from AVIRIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, F. Robert; Peacock, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    Using AVIRIS data as an example, we show in this study that the optical properties of the water column and bottom of a large, shallow area can be adequately retrieved using a model-driven optimization technique. The simultaneously derived properties include bottom depth, bottom albedo, and water absorption and backscattering coefficients, which in turn could be used to derive concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. The derived bottom depths were compared with a bathymetry chart and a boat survey and were found to agree very well. Also, the derived bottom-albedo image shows clear spatial patterns, with end members consistent with sand and seagrass. The image of absorption and backscattering coefficients indicates that the water is quite horizontally mixed. These results suggest that the model and approach used work very well for the retrieval of sub-surface properties of shallow-water environments even for rather turbid environments like Tampa Bay, Florida.

  13. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  14. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xu DU; Huan WANG; Cheng-zhi HAO; Xin-liang LI

    2014-01-01

    The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  15. Particle trapping using dielectrophoretically patterned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Chen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J; Baratchi, Sara; Hu, Zheng; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2010-04-01

    This study presents the dielectrophoretic (DEP) assembly of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between curved microelectrodes for the purpose of trapping polystyrene microparticles within a microfluidic system. Under normal conditions, polystyrene particles exhibit negative DEP behaviour and are repelled from microelectrodes. Interestingly, the addition of MWCNTs to the system alters this situation in two ways: first, they coat the surface of particles and change their dielectric properties to exhibit positive DEP behaviour; second, the assembled MWCNTs are highly conductive and after the deposition serve as extensions to the microelectrodes. They establish an array of nanoelectrodes that initiates from the edge of microelectrodes and grow along the electric field lines. These nanoelectrodes can effectively trap the MWCNT-coated particles, since they cover a large portion of the microchannel bottom surface and also create a much stronger electric field than the primary microelectrodes as confirmed by our numerical simulations. We will show that the presence of MWCNT significantly changes performance of the system, which is investigated by trapping sample polystyrene particles with plain, COOH and goat anti-mouse IgG surfaces. PMID:20301125

  16. The implications of particle rotation on the effect of photophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    van Eymeren, Janine

    2011-01-01

    In a laboratory experiment, water-ice aggregates are trapped in a vacuum chamber at a pressure of 2 mbar due to photophoresis and thermophoresis. The particles are located between a Peltier element at the bottom at 250 K and a reservoir of liquid nitrogen at the top at 77 K. Particle sizes vary between 20 micrometres and a few hundred micrometres. It is found that 95% of all the particles rotate about their vertical axis. A qualitative model is developed which explains why particles should mainly align to and rotate around the vertical. The results imply that rotation does not decrease the vertical strength of photophoretically driven motion in, e.g., protoplanetary discs.

  17. Particle capture device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  18. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Status report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    A baseline description of the benthos was carried out in spring and autumn 2001 prior to the construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, situated approximately 15 km off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. The surveys have been conducted as part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines set up by the Danish Energy Agency for offshore wind farms. Because no environmental criteria existed for benthic communities in connection with the construction activities, no power analysis was made prior to the design of the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna is thus somewhat limited and only major changes in the community structure are expected to be detectable. The baseline description for the benthic infauna can also be used for comparison of the stomach contents of fish in a comparative programme. A newly defined reference area may be introduced for the fish programme why sampling in this area was carried out in the autumn 2001. Samples were recovered at a total of 18 stations at 6 wind turbine locations in the wind farm area in June 2001 and at a total of 9 stations at 3 wind turbine locations in September 2001. In September additional sampling was carried out at 5 stations in a designated reference area. At the wind turbine locations sampling was carried out at 3 stations located 5, 25 and 100 m from the edge of the planned scour protection. Samples were analysed for sediment characteristics and for benthic infauna. Only the benthos relating to the macrofauna was investigated during the surveys. (au)

  19. Coupling of ocean bottom seismometers to sediment: results of tests with the U.S. Geological Survey ocean bottom seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehu, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    The response of an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) to a transient pull that excites the natural OBS-sediment coupling resonance can be modeled as a mass-spring-dashpot system in which the resonant frequency and damping are functions of instrument mass and bearing radius and of the physical properties of the sediment (primarily the shear modulus). For the very soft sediments sometimes found on the sea floor, this resonance may be within the main frequency band of interest (2 to 15 Hz) for many common instrument configurations. To test the model and to find an anchor that would shift the coupling resonance to a higher frequency and decrease its amplitude, we conducted a series of tests which measured the response of the vertical and horizontal components of the U.S. Geological Survey OBS to transient pulls as a function of anchor configuration and sediment properties. The tested anchors included a concrete “flowerpot,” a tripod, a plate, and a perforated plate. Sites were on soft, organic-rich ooze and on firm sand. Several small shots were also fired at the ooze site in order to compare the response of the plate and “flowerpot” anchors to seismic signals. For a given anchor at a given site, the observed response was very repeatable. We found that the model predicts the vertical coupling response quite well and that good vertical coupling can be achieved with the plate or perforated-plate anchors. The response to the horizontal pulls, however, was similar and resonant for all anchors.

  20. Effects of magnetic configuration on divertor power and particle deposition for long pulse operation in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic configuration exhibits a strong influence on the dynamics of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), as demonstrated in the EAST superconducting tokamak. We find that poloidal drifts play an important role in particle deposition during the ELMs, leading to a strong up/down asymmetry in the double null divertor configuration, favoring the upper divertor for normal toroidal field, Bt, i.e., with the ion ∇B drift towards the bottom, while the heat flux distribution appears to be rather uniform during ELMs. These observations are well reproduced by the boundary plasma turbulence code, BOUT++. As divertor pumping was only available at the bottom, the preferential particle flow towards the bottom divertor associated with reverse Bt led to a preferred scenario for long pulse operation in EAST

  1. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  2. Characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash from the municipal solid waste incineration plant in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Incineration is an attractive method of energy production and waste reduction for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, the secondary pollutants followed such as fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) from the waste incineration are always a concern. Yet few articles provide detailed information about the physical and chemical characteristics of trace elements in ash at the molecular level. Purpose: The elemental concentrations and microstructure characteristics of ash were investigated to understand the distribution and migration of the elements in MSW incineration process. Methods: The study of the characteristics of FA and BA from Shanghai MSW incineration plant was based on the concentrations of elements, water-soluble salts, microstructure, section-distribution of the elements in single particle, isotope ratio and chemical species of Pb, which were studied respectively by using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX), Synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra. Results: Mass concentrations of most metal elements in FA were higher than those in BA, especially Pb and Cd, which had been obviously enriched. FA particles were of relatively smaller size and rougher surface than those of BA, which brought easier adsorption of heavy metals in FA. The large enrichment factors of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn indicated these elements were in extreme pollution state. Water-soluble salts in FA and BA mainly existed as chloride and sulfate of Ca, Na and K. The ion concentrations in FA were generally higher than those in BA. Results of μ-XRF suggested that Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe and Mn had nonuniform distributions and highly localized to some small regions in FA and BA. Isotope ratio of Pb in FA and BA was similar. Chemical

  3. A practical alpha particle irradiator for studying internal alpha particle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Man; Lee, Ui-Seob; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    An alpha particle irradiator has been built in the Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory at Seoul National University (SNU) to investigate the cellular responses to alpha emissions from radon and the progeny. This irradiator is designed to have the energy of alpha particles entering target cells similar to that of alpha emissions from the radon progeny Po-218 and Po-214 residing in the human respiratory tract. For the SNU alpha particle irradiator, an irradiation system is equipped with cell dishes of 4µm thick Mylar bottom and a special setup of cells on slide for gamma-H2AX assay. Dose calibration for the alpha particle irradiator was performed by dual approaches, detection and computer simulation, in consideration of the source-to-target distance (STD) and the size of a cell dish. The uniformity of dose among cells in a dish is achieved by keeping the STD and the size of cell dish in certain ranges. The performance of the SNU alpha particle irradiator has been proven to be reliable through the gamma-H2AX assay with the human lung epithelial cells irradiated. PMID:27475622

  4. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  5. Optimization for the structure of BF hearth bottom and the arrangement of thermal couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhao; Shusen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The hearth of "heat transfer method" and the ceramic cup synthetic hearth bottom of "heart isolation method" are two most popular designs for blast furnace (BF). Although there are successful real examples, some disadvantages, for instance large heat loss and high cost, still exist for these designs. According to the theory of heat transfer, based on the calculation of temperature distribution of the hearth bottom, it is elucidated that all brick layers at the hearth bottom may not be considered as the only reason why different structures exhibited different temperature distributions although total heat resistance is the same, and then based on the effect of hot metal and cold water on different temperature distribution ranges, the concepts of "heat resistance" and "cooling enhancement" are put forth. Based on this, the disadvantages and the factors affecting temperature distribution, of the two types of hearth bottoms were illustrated. On the basis of these analyses, a novel structure for BF hearth bottom designing that can easily form "self-protecting" slag layer stably, called "the method of gradient brick layout that has an optimum combination of cooling enhancement and heat resistance"was proposed; it can not only prolong the hearth bottom longevity but also reduce the cost and heat loss. Also, the optimum arrangement of thermal couples in hearth bottom was suggested based on the previous studies on erosion prediction carried out by the author.

  6. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency. PMID:26502885

  7. A search for dark matter with bottom quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Michael Evans

    2016-01-01

    Despite making up over 80% of the matter in the universe, very little is known about dark matter. Its only well-established property is that it interacts gravitationally, but does not interact with ordinary matter through any of the other known forces. Specific details such as the number of dark matter particles, their quantum properties, and their interactions remain elusive and are only loosely constrained by experiments. In this dissertation I describe a novel search for a particular type of dark matter that couples preferentially to heavy quarks, using LHC proton-proton collisions at ATLAS. With a model-independent framework, comparisons are made to results obtained from other dark matter searches, and new limits are set on various interaction strengths.

  8. Colloidal Recycling: Reconfiguration of Random Aggregates into Patchy Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meester, Vera; Verweij, Ruben W; van der Wel, Casper; Kraft, Daniela J

    2016-04-26

    The key ingredients to the successful bottom-up construction of complex materials are believed to be colloids with anisotropic shapes and directional, or patchy, interactions. We present an approach for creating such anisotropic patchy particles based on reconfiguring randomly shaped aggregates of colloidal spheres. While colloidal aggregates are often undesirable in colloidal dispersions due to their random shapes, we exploit them as a starting point to synthesize patchy particles. By a deliberate destabilization of the colloidal particles, diffusion-limited aggregation is induced which partitions the particles into randomly shaped aggregates with controlled size distribution. We achieve a reconfiguration of the aggregates into uniform structures by swelling the polymer spheres with an apolar solvent. The swelling lowers the attractive van der Waals forces, lubricates the contact area between the spheres, and drives the reorganization through minimization of the interfacial energy of the swollen polymer network. This reorganization process yields patchy particles whose patch arrangement is uniform for up to five patches. For particles with more patches, we find that the patch orientation depends on the degree of phase separation between the spheres and the monomer. This enables the synthesis of patchy particles with unprecedented patch arrangements. We demonstrate the broad applicability of this recycling strategy for making patchy particles as well as clusters of spheres by varying the swelling ratio, swelling solvent, surfactant concentration, and swelling time. PMID:27014995

  9. Search for gluino mediated bottom- and top-squark production in multijet final states in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    A search for supersymmetry is presented based on events with large missing transverse energy, no isolated electron or muon, and at least three jets, with one or more identified as a bottom-quark jet. A simultaneous examination is performed of the numbers of events in exclusive bins of the scalar sum of jet transverse momentum values, missing transverse energy, and bottom-quark jet multiplicity. The sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 inverse femtobarns, consists of proton-proton collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2012. The observed numbers of events are found to be consistent with the standard model expectation, which is evaluated with control samples in data. The results are interpreted in the context of two simplified supersymmetric scenarios in which gluino pair production is followed by the decay of each gluino to an undetected lightest supersymmetric particle and either a bottom or top quark-antiquark pair, characteristic ...

  10. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application. PMID:26687102

  11. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application.

  12. Multiscale Simulations Using Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore

    We are developing particle methods as a general framework for large scale simulations of discrete and continuous systems in science and engineering. The specific application and research areas include: discrete element simulations of granular flow, smoothed particle hydrodynamics and particle...... vortex methods for problems in continuum fluid dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics for flow at the meso scale, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidic systems. We employ multiscale techniques to breach the atomistic and continuum scales to study fundamental problems in fluid...

  13. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  14. A spray of particles

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    These tracks are produced by high energy particles that have been created in the collision of a proton and an antiproton in the SPS collider at CERN. Particle detectors use electronics and complicated devices to recreate the tracks left by real particles. Such detectors are usually embedded in a strong magnetic field, causing the charged particles to follow a curved path so that they can be identified and measurements can be made of their momentum.

  15. Cooperation between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Theorem Provers by Subgoal Clause Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Top-down and bottom-up theorem proving approaches have each specific ad-vantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up provers profit from strong redundancycontrol and suffer from the lack of goal-orientation, whereas top-down provers aregoal-oriented but have weak calculi when their proof lengths are considered. Inorder to integrate both approaches our method is to achieve cooperation betweena top-down and a bottom-up prover: The top-down prover generates subgoalclauses, then they are processed by a ...

  16. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Bedau M.A.; Parke E.C.; Tangen U.; Hantsche-Tangen B.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional “top-down” approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the “bottom up” by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called “protocells.” In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology....

  17. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.;

    2001-01-01

    the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  18. Can Tax Competition Lead to a Race to the Bottom in Europe? A Skeptical View

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Warin; André Fourçans

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the likelihood of a race to the bottom in a monetary union, like the Euro-zone, that could result from tax competition between countries. This fear of a race to the bottom is used both in the economic literature and the political arena to promote tax harmonization. Using a game theoretical approach with the costs of changing tax policies to analyze the conditions of a race to the bottom, this paper shows that countries may not choose such an extreme strate...

  19. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed...... and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in the bottom-up account but absent from the top-down. Finally, the study shows that network mapping...... is a promising strategy for visualizing and analysing different accounts of project management practices....

  20. Nitrogen starvation induces expression of Lg-FLO1 and flocculation in bottom-fermenting yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoo

    2012-11-01

    When exponentially growing cells of bottom-fermenting yeast were starved for nitrogen or were grown on proline (a non-preferred nitrogen source), flocculation was induced. This flocculation was not induced by starvation for either carbon or amino acids. Expression of Lg-FLO1, which is required for flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast, was also found to be induced by starvation for nitrogen. This suggests that the flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast is under the control of a nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-like mechanism.

  1. On the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects in Higgs boson production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Romain; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem

    2016-08-01

    We present analytic results for the partonic cross-sections contributing to the top-bottom interference in Higgs production via gluon fusion at hadron colliders at NLO accuracy in QCD. We develop a method of expansion in small bottom-mass for master integrals and combine it with the usual infinite top-mass effective theory. Our method of expansion admits a simple algorithmic description and can be easily generalized to any small parameter. These results for the integrated cross-sections will be needed in the computation of the renormalization counter-terms entering the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects at NNLO.

  2. Study of top and bottom contact resistance in one organic field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ge; Liu Ming; Wang Hong; Shang Li-Wei; Ji Zhuo-Yu; Liu Xing-Hua; Liu Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the organic field-effect transistors with hybrid contact geometry were fabricated,in whic hthe top electrodes and the bottom electrodes were combined in parallel resistances within one transistor.With the facility of the novel structure,the difference of contact resistance between the top contact geometry and the bottom contact geometry was studied.The hybrid contact devices showed similar characteristics with the top contact configuration devices,which provide helpful evidence on the lower contact resistance of the top contact configuration device.The origin of the different contact resistance between the top contact device and the bottom contact device was discussed.

  3. Search for Dark Matter Produced in Association with a Higgs Boson Decaying to Two Bottom Quarks at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00291862

    This thesis presents a search for dark matter production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from 20.3\\,fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $8$ TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dark matter particles are assumed to be Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, and can be produced in pairs at collider experiments. Events with large $E_T^{miss}$ are selected when produced in association with high momentum jets, of which at least two are identified as jets containing $b$-quarks consistent with those from a Higgs boson decay. To maintain good detector acceptance and selection efficiency of the signal across a wide kinematic range, two methods of Higgs boson reconstruction are used. The Higgs boson is reconstructed either as a pair of small-radius jets both containing $b$-quarks, called the ``resolved'' analysis, or as a single large-radius jet with substructure consistent with a high momentum $b\\bar{b}$ system, called ...

  4. D-Branes at Singularities A Bottom-Up Approach to the String Embedding of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aldazabal, G; Quevedo, Fernando; Uranga, Angel M

    2000-01-01

    We propose a bottom-up approach to the building of particle physics models from string theory. Our building blocks are Type II D-branes which we combine appropriately to reproduce desirable features of a particle theory model: 1) Chirality ; 2) Standard Model group ; 3) N=1 or N=0 supersymmetry ; 4) Three quark-lepton generations. We start such a program by studying configurations of D=10, Type IIB D3-branes located at singularities. We study in detail the case of Z_N, N=1,0 supersymmetric orbifold singularities leading to the SM group or some left-right symmetricextension. In general, tadpole cancellation conditions require the presence of additional branes, e.g. D7-branes. For the N=1 supersymmetric case the unique twist leading to three quark-lepton generations is Z_3, predicting $\\sin^2\\theta_W=3/14=0.21$. The models obtained are the simplest semirealistic string models ever built. In the non-supersymmetric case there is a three-generation model for each Z_N, N>4, but the Weinberg angle is in general too ...

  5. Simulation of Granular Flows and Pile Formation in a Flat-Bottomed Hopper and Bin, and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yuu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows of 200 μm particles and the pile formation in a flat-bottomed hopper and bin in the presence of air and in a vacuum were predicted based on three-dimensional numerically empirical constitutive relations using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. The constitutive relations for the strain rate independent stress have been obtained as the functions of the Almansi strain including the large deformation by the same method as Yuu et al. [1]. The constitutive relations cover the elastic and the plastic regions including the flow state and represent the friction mechanism of granular material. We considered the effect of air on the granular flow and pile by the two-way coupling method. The granular flow patterns, the shapes of piles and the granular flow rates in the evolution are compared with experimental data measured under the same conditions. There was good agreement between these results, which suggests that the constitutive relations and the simulation method would be applicable for predicting granular flows and pile formation with complex geometry including free surface geometry. We describe the mechanisms by which the air decreases the granular flow rate and forms the convergence granular flow below the hopper outlet.

  6. Chemical data for bottom sediment, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Van Metre, P.C.; Moring, J.B.; Braun, C.L.; Wilson, J.T.; Mahler, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir adjacent to two U.S. Department of the Navy facilities, the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant and the Naval Air Station in Dallas, Texas. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation found ground-water plumes containing chlorinated solvents on both facilities. These findings led to a U.S. Geological Survey study of Mountain Creek Lake adjacent to both facilities between June 1994 and August 1996. Bottom sediments, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish were collected for chemical analysis.

  7. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  8. When is a Particle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Sidney D.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a new definition for the concept of the elementary particle in nuclear physics. Explains why the existance of the quark as an elementary particle could be an accepted fact even though it lacks what traditionally identifies a particle. Compares this with the development which took place during the discovery of the neutrino in the early…

  9. Passive Seismic Reflectivity Imaging with Ocean-Bottom Cable Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, D.; Mateeva, A.

    2005-12-01

    The idea of imaging the subsurface reflectivity distribution by correlating long traces of seismic ``noise'' (i.e. seismic data recorded without active sources) goes back more than 30 years [1]. To this day, passive seismic reflectivity imaging has not been exploited for business use in the E&P industry. The conditions for successful passive seismic reflection imaging have greatly improved over the past few years, and the prize of cheap continuous sourceless seismic imaging and possibly monitoring is still large. Nearly unlimited quantities of very high quality passive noise data are now available from permanent 4C ocean bottom cable (OBC) installations. In the present contribution, we report our initial results for single-line (2D) OBC data collected in the North Sea and GOM. The OBCs used for the experiment are of length 6-10 km with 4C receivers spaced 50 m apart. They are deployed in both shallow and deep water over large hydrocarbon reservoirs. Passive noise data were recorded for 8-24 h periods, sometimes several times, and months apart. In the analysis presented here only the hydrophone records are used, and the data from all recording periods are used together to produce a single 2D migrated reflectivity section. We observe that environmental noise (e.g. boat and rig activity) play an important role for imaging and usually requires pre-migration seismic processing steps to filter out unwanted signals. At the core of our image generation and processing sequence is the crosscorrelation of noise trace pairs and subsequent prestack time migration [1] with a velocity model established for the active-source OBC data processing. We compute 4 sec of lag time to either side of t=0. After removing unwanted signals (e.g. seafloor interface waves) from these ``virtual shot gathers'' one can clearly detect the linear-moveout direct water wave with velocity 1500 m/s, and a linear interface wave with velocity 2000 m/s. Other ``events'' with moveout are visible, but the

  10. The Particle Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2016-01-01

    The idea that particles are the basic constituents of all matter dates back to ancient times and formed the basis of physical thought well into modern times. The debate about whether light was a wave or a stream of particles also lasted until relatively recently. It was the advent of de Broglie's work and its implications that revolutionized the concept of an elementary particle -- but unfortunately did not banish the idea of a point particle despite its difficulties in both classical and quantum physics. Some of these problems are discussed in this essay, which covers chiral oscillations, Penrose's "zigzag" picture of particles satisfying the Dirac equation, and some ideas derived from string theory.

  11. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  12. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  13. Veel haring, maar vrijwel geen jonge kabeljauw: International Bottom Trawl Survey 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heessen, H.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Onderzoeksvaartuigen hebben de jaarlijkse International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) uitgevoerd om een indruk te krijgen van de jongste jaarklassen van jonge haring, sprot en rondvis. Overzicht van de bestanden van kabeljauw, schelvis, wijting en haring 1978-2002

  14. Bottom-up and top-down effects on plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, Lara; Zelikova, Tamara Jane; Sanders, Nate

    2016-01-01

    Top-down effects of herbivores and bottom-up effects of nutrients shape productivity and diversity across ecosystems, yet their single and combined effects on spatial and temporal beta diversity is unknown. We established a field experiment in which the abundance of insect herbivores (top...... herbivores did not alter plant richness (α diversity) yet consistently promoted Shannon's evenness, relative to plots where insect herbivores were present. Further, insect herbivores promoted spatial-temporal β diversity. Overall, we found that the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up controls......-down) and soil nitrogen (bottom-up) were manipulated over six years in an existing old-field community. We tracked plant α and β diversity - within plot richness and among plot biodiversity- and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) over the course of the experiment. We found that bottom-up factors...

  15. Field measurements of bottom boundary layer processes and sediment resuspension in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青; 李九发; 李炎; 金惜三; 车越

    2001-01-01

    A field observation of the hydrodynamics and the sediment resuspension in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in the Changjiang Estuary, during July-August 1997. Using bottom field research facilities, detailed measurements of near-bottom currents and suspended sediment concentration distribution within 1.0 m above bed have been obtained in the Changjiang Estuary——a high concentration estuary. An Acoustic Suspended Sediment Monitor (ASSM) wasused to observe near bed sediment resuspension processes. In addition, the log-profile method was applied to estimating hydraulic roughness Z0 and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u). Further understanding of sediment suspension mechanics and hydrodynamic characteristics will require the long-term measurements of near bed processes.

  16. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    a case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  17. Numerical Investigation of Wave Slamming of Flat Bottom Body during Water Entry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical wave load model based on two-phase (water-air Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS type equations is used to evaluate hydrodynamic forces exerted on flat bottom body while entering ocean waves of deploying process. The discretization of the RANS equations is achieved by a finite volume (FV approach. The volume of fluid (VOF method is employed to track the complicated free surface. A numerical wave tank is built to generate the ocean waves which are suitable for deploying offshore structures. A typical deploying condition is employed to reflect the process of flat bottom body impacting waves, and the pressure distribution of bottom is also presented. Four different lowering velocities are applied to obtain the relationship between slamming force and wave parameters. The numerical results clearly demonstrated the characteristics of flat bottom body impacting ocean waves.

  18. NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 2D FREE SURFACE WAVES WITH FIXED BOTTOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-wen Zhang; Xiao-ming Zheng

    2002-01-01

    The motion of surface waves under the effect of bottom is a very interesting and challenging phenomenon in the nature. we use boundary integral method to compute and analyze this problem. In the linear analysis, the linearized equations have bounded error increase under some compatible conditions. This contributes to the cancellation of instable Kelvin-Helmholtz terms. Under the effect of bottom, the existence of equations is hard to determine, but given some limitations it proves true. These limitations are that the swing of interfaces should be small enough, and the distance between surface and bottom should be large enough. In order to maintain the stability of computation, some compatible relationship must be satisfied like that of [5]. In the numerical examples, the simulation of standing waves and breaking waves are calculated. And in the case of shallow bottom, we found that the behavior of waves are rather singular.

  19. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey - Site Specific Calibration (HB0803, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. Charm and bottom production in two-photon collisions with OPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Csilling, Akos

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary update of the previous OPAL measurement of the inclusive production of D* mesons in anti-tagged photon-photon collisions is presented together with the first preliminary OPAL measurement of bottom production in photon-photon collisions.

  1. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; Parke, Emily C; Tangen, Uwe; Hantsche-Tangen, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional "top-down" approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the "bottom up" by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called "protocells." In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology. Protocells have not yet been developed, but many expect this to happen within the next five to ten years. Accordingly, we identify six key checkpoints in protocell development at which particular attention should be given to specific ethical, social and regulatory issues concerning bottom-up synthetic biology, and make ten recommendations for responsible protocell science that are tied to the achievement of these checkpoints. PMID:19816801

  2. Altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of structure contours that show lines of equal altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  3. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  4. BOEM Seismic Water Bottom Anomalies - Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, geoscientists at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have identified and mapped over 31,000 water bottom (seafloor) acoustic amplitude...

  5. EFFECTS OF WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTIONS ON BOTTOM STRESS AND CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Bao-shu; Yang De-zhou; Lin Xiang; Hou Yi-jun; Cheng Ming-hua; Will Perrie

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a high-resolution (2′×2′) numerical model of coastal coupled wave-current interaction with explicit consideration of the effects of wave-current interaction on bottom stress. For two selected storms with measured data in the Yellow River coastal area of the Bohai Sea, it is shown that the bottom stress calculated by using a coupled wave-current model is increased, as one would expect, compared with the bottom stress computed with an uncoupled current model. Moreover, the current velocity field is also changed, but the corresponding current directions show less influence in the two simulations. The extents of changes in bottom stress and current velocity vary with storm intensities. The results further imply that the coupled wave-current model should be used as the basis for simulating the current velocity and sea level in the near shore region.

  6. The suppression of Antarctic bottom water formation by melting ice shelves in Prydz Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G D; Herraiz-Borreguero, L; Roquet, F; Tamura, T; Ohshima, K I; Fukamachi, Y; Fraser, A D; Gao, L; Chen, H; McMahon, C R; Harcourt, R; Hindell, M

    2016-01-01

    A fourth production region for the globally important Antarctic bottom water has been attributed to dense shelf water formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya, adjoining Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Here we show new observations from CTD-instrumented elephant seals in 2011-2013 that provide the first complete assessment of dense shelf water formation in Prydz Bay. After a complex evolution involving opposing contributions from three polynyas (positive) and two ice shelves (negative), dense shelf water (salinity 34.65-34.7) is exported through Prydz Channel. This provides a distinct, relatively fresh contribution to Cape Darnley bottom water. Elsewhere, dense water formation is hindered by the freshwater input from the Amery and West Ice Shelves into the Prydz Bay Gyre. This study highlights the susceptibility of Antarctic bottom water to increased freshwater input from the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and ultimately the potential collapse of Antarctic bottom water formation in a warming climate.

  7. Food plants utilized by migratory waterfowl at Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this problem was to gather information on food habits of migratory waterfowl using Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge, and to determine the most...

  8. Generation of surface waves by an underwater moving bottom: Experiments and application to tsunami modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.

  9. Numerical simulation of water flow through the bottom en piece of a nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Moyses A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: navarro@cdtn.br; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: acampagnole@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Sydney da Silva; Brittes, Luiz Henrique A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Reende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sydney@inb.gov.br; brittes@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The water flow through the bottom nozzle of a nuclear fuel assembly was simulated using a commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0. Previously, simulations with a perforated plate similar to the bottom nozzle plate were performed to define the appropriate mesh refinement and turbulence model ({kappa}-{epsilon} or SST). Subsequently, the numerical simulation was performed with the optimized mesh using the turbulence model ({kappa}-{epsilon} in a standard bottom nozzle with some geometric simplifications. The numerical results were compared with experimental results to determine the pressure drop through the bottom nozzle in the Reynolds range from {approx}10500 to {approx}95000. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results may be considered satisfactory. The study indicated that the CFD codes can play an important role in the development of pieces with complex geometries, optimizing the planning of the experiments and aiding in the experimental analysis. (author)

  10. Ecological Dynamics of Wetlands at Lisbon Bottom, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study documented the interaction between hydrology and the biological dynamics within a single spring season at Lisbon Bottom in 1999. The study goal was to...

  11. Anisotropic amplitude variation of the bottom-simulating reflector beneath fracture-filled gas hydrate deposit

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sriram, G.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; RamaRao, P.

    For the first time, we report the amplitude variation with angle (AVA) pattern of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) beneath fracture-filled gas hydrate deposits when the effective medium is anisotropic. The common depth point (CDP) gathers of two...

  12. Comparison between laboratory and field leachability of MSWI bottom ash as a road material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Josa, Alejandro; Vazquez, Enric; López-Soler, Angel

    2008-01-15

    The leaching properties of bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used as an aggregate substitute in unbound pavement layers are evaluated. The mechanical behaviour of bottom ash is acceptable for this application, but the potential environmental consequences constitute the most important limitation on the use of bottom ash as a road material. The environmental properties of bottom ash are assessed by means of the Dutch availability test NEN 7341 and the single-batch and two-stage batch European EN 12457 laboratory leaching tests. Furthermore, an experimental unbound pavement stretch is constructed to provide information on leaching behaviour under field conditions. In this high infiltration scenario, the results from predicted (based upon laboratory leaching tests) and measured releases (under field conditions) are compared, evidencing that predictions based on compliance leaching tests may be highly realistic. The depletion period of the extractable fraction of a number of elements in these field conditions is also quantified.

  13. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  14. The suppression of Antarctic bottom water formation by melting ice shelves in Prydz Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. D.; Herraiz-Borreguero, L.; Roquet, F.; Tamura, T.; Ohshima, K. I.; Fukamachi, Y.; Fraser, A. D.; Gao, L.; Chen, H.; McMahon, C. R.; Harcourt, R.; Hindell, M.

    2016-08-01

    A fourth production region for the globally important Antarctic bottom water has been attributed to dense shelf water formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya, adjoining Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Here we show new observations from CTD-instrumented elephant seals in 2011-2013 that provide the first complete assessment of dense shelf water formation in Prydz Bay. After a complex evolution involving opposing contributions from three polynyas (positive) and two ice shelves (negative), dense shelf water (salinity 34.65-34.7) is exported through Prydz Channel. This provides a distinct, relatively fresh contribution to Cape Darnley bottom water. Elsewhere, dense water formation is hindered by the freshwater input from the Amery and West Ice Shelves into the Prydz Bay Gyre. This study highlights the susceptibility of Antarctic bottom water to increased freshwater input from the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and ultimately the potential collapse of Antarctic bottom water formation in a warming climate.

  15. Particle separator scroll vanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastrina, F. A.; Mayer, J. C.; Pommer, L. M.

    1985-07-09

    An inlet particle separator for a gas turbine engine is provided with unique vanes distributed around an entrance to a particle collection chamber. The vanes are uniquely constructed to direct extraneous particles that enter the engine into the collection chamber and prevent the particles from rebounding back into the engine's air flow stream. The vanes are provided with several features to accomplish this function, including upstream faces that are sharply angled towards air flow stream direction to cause particles to bounce towards the collection chamber. In addition, throat regions between the vanes cause a localized air flow acceleration and a focusing of the particles that aid in directing the particles in a proper direction.

  16. Impressions of the turbulence variability in a weakly stratified, flat-bottom deep-sea ‘boundary layer’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the

  17. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Miesner; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.(Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 , Bamberg, Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented ...

  18. Use of Coal Bottom Ash as Mechanical Stabiliser in Subgrade Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Abdus Salaam Cadersa; Akshay Kumar Seeborun; Andre Chan Chim Yuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the laboratory investigation work which forms part of a full scale research road project in Mauritius where coal bottom ash is used as mechanical stabiliser in a saprolitic subgrade soil. Three mixtures of subgrade soil and CBA were investigated in the laboratory, each containing varying percentages of coal bottom ash by weight (15%, 30%, and 40%, resp.). The laboratory research indicated that the mechanical properties of the subgrade soil are improved with the addition of...

  19. Expression of Bottom Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Cowpea Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rezelman, Geertje; Goldbach, Rob; van Kammen, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Upon inoculation of cowpea protoplasts with the bottom component of cowpea mosaic virus, at least six virus-induced proteins (with sizes of 170, 110, 87, 84, 60, and 32 kilodaltons) are synthesized, but not the capsid proteins (37 and 23 kilodaltons). These bottom-component-induced proteins were studied with respect to their genetic origin and mode of synthesis. The analyses were based on their electrophoretic peptide patterns resulting from partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protea...

  20. Numerical modelling of electrovortex and heat flows in dc electric arc furnace with cooling bottom electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to the numerical modelling of electrovortex and convection flows in DC electric arc furnace with the cooling bottom electrode. The shear stress on the fettle area are offered as criteria for the estimation of vortex flows influence on the increased wearing of fettle. It is shown that cooling down the bottom electrode to the melting metal temperature leads to decrease of shear stress on the fettle area by 15 %.

  1. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material.

  2. Changes in discharge and solute dynamics between hillslope and valley-bottom intermittent streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain understanding on how alluvial zones modify water and nutrient export from semiarid catchments, we compared monthly discharge as well as stream chloride, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics between a hillslope catchment and a valley-bottom catchment with a well-developed alluvium. Stream water and solute fluxes from the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments showed contrasting patterns between hydrological transitions and wet periods, especially for bio-reactive solutes. During transition periods, stream water export decreased >40% between the hillslope and the valley bottom coinciding with the prevalence of stream-to-aquifer fluxes at the alluvial zone. In contrast, stream water export increased by 20–70% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments during wet periods. During transition periods, stream solute export decreased by 34–97% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments for chloride, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon. In annual terms, stream nitrate export from the valley-bottom catchment (0.32 ± 0.12 kg N ha−1 yr−1 [average ± standard deviation] was 30–50% lower than from the hillslope catchment (0.56 ± 0.32 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The annual export of dissolved organic carbon was similar between the two catchments (1.8 ± 1 kg C ha−1 yr−1. Our results suggest that hydrological retention in the alluvial zone contributed to reduce stream water and solute export from the valley-bottom catchment during hydrological transition periods when hydrological connectivity between the hillslope and the valley bottom was low.

  3. Methane and ethane from global oil and gas production: bottom-up simulations over three decades

    OpenAIRE

    L. Höglund-Isaksson

    2016-01-01

    Existing bottom-up emission inventories of historical methane and ethane emissions from global oil and gas systems do not well explain year-on-year variations estimated by top-down models from atmospheric measurements. This paper develops a bottom-up methodology which allows for country- and year specific source attribution of methane and ethane emissions from global oil and natural gas production for the period 1980 to 2012. The analysis rests on country-specific simulations of associated ga...

  4. Posture of Iridina spekei (Bivalvia: Mutelidae) on the Flat Sandy Bottom of Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Takaki

    1986-01-01

    Length, height and angle of the exposed part of mussel, Iridina spekei, above the bottom were examined on the sandy flat of Lake Tanganyika. The larger mussel protruded higher above the bottom, which seemed to be advantageous to scatter sperm or larvae father in order to increase chances of the fertilization or parasitism of larvae on fish. Immature mussels seemed to lie hidden to avoid predation by fish.

  5. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Zeolites from Coal Fly and Bottom Ashes

    OpenAIRE

    Tharcila Colachite Rodrigues Bertolini; Juliana C. Izidoro; Carina P. Magdalena; Denise A. Fungaro

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of the cationic dye Crystal Violet (CV) over zeolites from coal fly ash (ZFA) and bottom ash (ZBA) was evaluated. The coal fly ash (CFA) and the coal bottom ash (CBA) used in the synthesis of the zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in Jorge Lacerda coal-fired power plant located at Capivari de Baixo County, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The zeolitic materials were characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite and X. The dye adsorption equilibrium was...

  6. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in t...

  7. Conservation laws and symmetries of the shallow water system above rough bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Druzhkov, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    The system of one-dimensional shallow water equations above the rough bottom is considered. All its hydrodynamic conservation laws are found, and a group classification is performed. A new conservation law additional to the two basic conservation laws is found. It is shown that the system of shallow water equations can be linearized by a point change of variables only in cases of constant and linear bottom profiles.

  8. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Σb States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λ0b decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96 TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  10. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Sigma(b) States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λb0 decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  11. What is a particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical developments related to gravitational interaction have questioned the notion of particle in quantum field theory (QFT). For instance, uniquely defined particle states do not exist in general, in QFT on a curved spacetime. More generally, particle states are difficult to define in a background-independent quantum theory of gravity. These difficulties have led some to suggest that in general QFT should not be interpreted in terms of particle states, but rather in terms of eigenstates of local operators. Still, it is not obvious how to reconcile this view with the empirically-observed ubiquitous particle-like behavior of quantum fields, apparent for instance in experimental high-energy physics, or 'particle' physics. Here we offer an element of clarification by observing that already in flat space there exist-strictly speaking-two distinct notions of particles: globally defined n-particle Fock-states and local particle states. The last describes the physical objects detected by finite-size particle detectors and are eigenstates of local field operators. In the limit in which the particle detectors are appropriately large, global and local particle states converge in a weak topology (but not in norm). This observation has little relevance for flat-space theories-it amounts to a reminder that there are boundary effects in realistic detectors-but is relevant for gravity. It reconciles the two points of view mentioned above. More importantly, it provides a definition of the local particle state that remains well defined even when the conventional global particle states are not defined. This definition plays an important role in quantum gravity.

  12. Search for Double Higgs Production in the Final State with Two Photons and Two Bottom Quarks at the CMS Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebda, Philip Robert

    A search for the production of Higgs pairs in the decay channel with two photons and two bottom quarks is reported for both resonant and nonresonant cases. The data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 /fb of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the CMS detector at the CERN Large Hardron Collider. The candidate events are selected by requiring two photons and two jets and are classified according to the number of jets tagged as coming from the hadronization of a bottom quark. The search for resonance production of two Higgs bosons through a new particle as hypothesized in extensions to the Standard Model involving a Radion or KK-graviton from models with warped extra dimensions or involving a heavy Higgs from models with supersymmetry, is performed on the resonant mass range from 260 GeV to 1100 GeV. The search for Standard Model nonresonant production of two Higgs bosons is performed; in addition a theoretical framework is explored for the analysis of anomalous values of the couplings tt¯H, HHH, and tt¯HH. The observations are consistent with background expectations. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are extracted on the production cross section of resonant and SM nonresonant production. In particular, the Radion with a vacuum expectation of 1 TeV is observed (expected) to be excluded with masses below 0.97 TeV (0.88 TeV), while the analysis is not sensitive to the Radion with a vacuum expectation of 3 TeV. The nonresonant double Higgs cross section is observed (expected) to be excluded at 1.91 fb (1.59 fb) or 72.9 (60.7) times the NNLO Standard Model value.

  13. Water-Tank Experiment on the Thermal Circulation Induced by the Bottom Heating in an Asymmetric Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国

    2004-01-01

    Water tank experiments were carried out to investigate the thermal convection due to the bottom heating in an asymmetrical valley under neutral and stably stratified approach flows with the Particle Image Velometry (PIV) visualization technique. In the neutral stratification approach flow, the ascending draft induced by bottom heating is mainly located in the center of the valley in calm ambient wind. However,with ambient wind flow, the thermal convection is shifted leeward, and the descending draft is located on the leeward side of the valley, while the ascending draft is located on the windward side. The descending draft is minorly turbulent and organized, while the ascending draft is highly turbulent. With the increase of the towing speed, the descending and ascending drafts induced by the mechanical elevation begin to play a more dominant role in the valley flow, while the role of the thermal convection in the valley airflow becomes limited. In the stable stratification approach flow, the thermal convection is limited by the stable stratification and no distinct circulation is formed in calm ambient wind. With ambient wind, agravity wave appears in the upper layer in the valley. With the increase of the ambient wind speed, a gravity wave plays an important role in the valley flow, and the location and intensity of the thermal convection are also modulated by the gravity internal waves. The thermal convection has difficulty penetrating the upper stable layer. Its exchange is limited between the air in the upper layer and that in the lower layer in the valley, and it is adverse to the diffusion of pollutants in the valley.

  14. Variations in the Strength of the North Atlantic Bottom water during Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, C.; Van Toer, A.; Michel, E.; Cortijo, E.

    2012-04-01

    One aspect of the Past4Future project is to combine multidisciplinary approaches to monitor changes in ocean circulation during previous interglacial periods. In the framework of this project, our study focusses on the changes in the strength of the North Atlantic deep water during the Holocene period using multiproxy analysis (magnetic and sedimentary). The main part of the study has been conducted on two cores located at the western termination of the northern deep channel of the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone. This natural E-W corridor is bathed by the Iceland-Scotland overflow water (ISOW) when it passes westward out of the Iceland Basin into the western North Atlantic basin. At present, it is also described as the place where southern sourced silicate-rich Lower Deep Water (LDW) derived from the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) are passing westward, mixing with the ISOW. One core had been taken by the R. V. Charcot in 1977 and the second one is a CASQ core taken during the IMAGES-AMOCINT MD168- cruise in the framework of the 06-EuroMARC-FP-008 Project on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne (French Polar Institute, IPEV) in 2008. Radiocarbon ages indicate an average sedimentation rate of about 90 cm/kyr during early Holocene and 50 cm/kyr through middle and late Holocene allowing a data resolution ranging from 40 to 100 years depending on the proxy. We coupled magnetic properties, anisotropy, sortable silt and benthic foraminifera isotopes. On the long term, a decrease in the amount of magnetic particles (normalized by the carbonate content) is first observed from 10 kyr to 8.6 kyr and then from 6 to 2 kyrs before reaching a steady state during the last two millenia. Following Kissel et al. (2009), this indicates a two steps decrease in the ISOW strength. The mean sortable silt shows exactly the same pattern indicating that not only the intensity of the ISOW but the whole deep water mass bathing the sites has decreased. On the short term, a first very prominent event

  15. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  16. Use of waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as potential adsorbents for the removal of Amaranth from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Alok; Kurup Krishnan, Lisha; Gupta, Vinod K

    2005-01-31

    Bottom Ash, a power plan t waste material and De-Oiled Soya, an agriculture waste product were successfully utilized in removing trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulphonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulphonate--a water-soluble hazardous azo dye (Amaranth). The paper incorporates thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the adsorption of the dye on these two waste materials as adsorbents. Characterization of each adsorbent was carried out by I.R. and D.T.A. curves. Batch adsorption studies were made by measuring effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature etc. Specific rate constants for the processes were calculated by kinetic measurements and a first order adsorption kinetics was observed in each case. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to calculate thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption on Bottom Ash takes place via film diffusion process at lower concentrations and via particle diffusion process at higher concentrations, while in the case of De-Oiled Soya process only particle diffusion takes place in the entire concentration range.

  17. Use of Coal Bottom Ash as Mechanical Stabiliser in Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salaam Cadersa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the laboratory investigation work which forms part of a full scale research road project in Mauritius where coal bottom ash is used as mechanical stabiliser in a saprolitic subgrade soil. Three mixtures of subgrade soil and CBA were investigated in the laboratory, each containing varying percentages of coal bottom ash by weight (15%, 30%, and 40%, resp.. The laboratory research indicated that the mechanical properties of the subgrade soil are improved with the addition of bottom ash. Highest values for soaked and unsoaked CBR values were obtained for the mixture containing 30% by weight of bottom ash, which were 145% and 95%, respectively, as compared to 40% and 55% for the subgrade soil alone. Upon addition of coal bottom ash, a considerable decrease in swelling potential during soaking was observed for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. The swell decreased from 0.17% for the subgrade soil alone to 0.04% for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. Moreover, a CBA content of 30% resulted in a mix of intermediate plasticity as compared to the subgrade soil which is highly plastic. It is concluded that coal bottom ash can be used successfully as a mechanical stabilizer in the experimental subgrade soil by addition of 30 to 40% of CBA.

  18. Deep water bottom current deposition in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Lei; LI XueJie; GENG JianHua; PANG Xiong; LEI YongChang; QIAO PeiJun; WANG LiaoLiang; WANG HongBin

    2007-01-01

    There are some active bottom currents on the northern continental slope of the South China Sea (SCS). Reflection seismic profiles show that the bottom current channels occur in the water depth range of 1000 to 2700 m, extending from the NE to the SW, leading to accumulation of discontinuous drifts with higher sedimentation rates on the eastern side of the channel. The stacking pattern of the layers suggests that these drifts propagated southwestward, following the direction of the bottom currents. One sedimentary drift to the southeast of the Dongsha Islands has the highest sedimentation rate of 97cm/ka in the last 12 ka. The sedimentary characteristics of the sediment layers indicate that these bottom currents are most likley caused by the water movement of a branch of the West Pacific Ocean Current, which enters the northern SCS via the Bashi Strait. Once formed, the bottom currents transport sediments along the northern slope of SCS southwestward and finally disappear into the central basin of the SCS. Due to the bottom current activity, the deep-sea sedimentary process in the northern SCS is complex.

  19. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  20. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  1. Eulerian-Eulerian Simulation of Particle-Liquid Slurry Flow in Horizontal Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ntow Ofei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation which adopts the inhomogeneous Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model in ANSYS CFX-15 was used to examine the influence of particle size (90 μm to 270 μm and in situ particle volume fraction (10% to 40% on the radial distribution of particle concentration and velocity and frictional pressure loss. The robustness of various turbulence models such as the k-epsilon (k-ε, k-omega (k-ω, SSG Reynolds stress, shear stress transport, and eddy viscosity transport was tested in predicting experimental data of particle concentration profiles. The k-epsilon model closely matched the experimental data better than the other turbulence models. Results showed a decrease in frictional pressure loss as particle size increased at constant particle volume fraction. Furthermore, for a constant particle volume fraction, the radial distribution of particle concentration increased with increasing particle size, where high concentration of particles occurred at the bottom of the pipe. Particles of size 90 μm were nearly buoyant especially for high particle volume fraction of 40%. The CFD study shows that knowledge of the variation of these parameters with pipe position is very crucial if the understanding of pipeline wear, particle attrition, or agglomeration is to be advanced.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  3. Experiments with particle damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Gordon, Robert W.

    1998-06-01

    High cycle fatigue in jet engines is a current military concern. The vibratory stresses that cause fatigue can be reduced by adding damping. However, the high temperatures that occur in the gas turbine greatly hinder the application of mature damping technologies. One technology which may perform in the harsh environment is particle damping. Particle damping involves placing metallic or ceramic particles inside structural cavities. As the cavity vibrates, energy is dissipated through particle collisions. Performance is influenced by many parameters including the type, shape, and size of the particles; the amount of free volume for the particles to move in; density of the particles; and the level of vibration. This paper presents results from a series of experiments designed to gain an appreciation of the important parameters. The experimental setup consists of a cantilever beam with drilled holes. These holes are partially filled with particles. The types of particles, location of the particles, fill level, and other parameters are varied. Damping is estimated for each configuration. Trends in the results are studied to determine the influence of the varied parameter.

  4. Particle image velocimetry for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment using a particle displacement tracking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Pline, Alexander D.

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electronic, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique called particle displacement tracking (PDT) which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. The PDT system is successful in producing velocity vector fields from the raw video data. Application of the PDT technique to a sample data set yielded 1606 vectors in 30 seconds of processing time. A bottom viewing optical arrangement is used to image the illuminated plane, which causes keystone distortion in the final recorded image. A coordinate transformation was incorporated into the system software to correct this viewing angle distortion. PDT processing produced 1.8 percent false identifications, due to random particle locations. A highly successful routine for removing the false identifications was also incorporated, reducing the number of false identifications to 0.2 percent.

  5. Particle Residence Time in Column Flotation Based on Cyclonic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-hua; LIU Jiong-tian

    2007-01-01

    The cyclonic static micro-bubble column flotation (FCSMC) is an effective separation device for fine particle treatment. The high mineralization rate and short flotation time of this equipment can be attributed to its unique cyclonic force field. It also has been observed that the presence of a cyclonic force field leads to a lower bottom separation size limit and a reduction of unselective entrainment. The collection zone of the column is considered to consist of two parts, a column separation zone and a cyclonic zone. Total recovery of the collection zone was developed. For our study, we analyzed the particle movement in the cyclonic zone. Particle residence time equations for the cyclonic zone were derived by force analysis. Results obtained in this study provide a theoretical foundation for the design and scale-up of the FCSMC.

  6. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK

    2005-01-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  7. LHCb unveils new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration announces the observation of four “exotic” particles from its analysis of the LHC data.   The LHCb experimental cavern. On 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the LHC. These particles each appear to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituents of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.            The quark model, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, is considered to be the most valid scheme for the classification of hadrons (all the composite particles) that has been fou...

  8. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  10. Feedback Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tao; Mehta, Prashant G.; Meyn, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    A new formulation of the particle filter for nonlinear filtering is presented, based on concepts from optimal control, and from the mean-field game theory. The optimal control is chosen so that the posterior distribution of a particle matches as closely as possible the posterior distribution of the true state given the observations. This is achieved by introducing a cost function, defined by the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence between the actual posterior, and the posterior of any particle....

  11. Trapping of photophoretic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Magiera, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    A trapping mechanism for self-propelled particles based on an inhomogeneous drive is presented and studied analytically as well as by computer simulations. In experiments this method can be realized using photophoretic Janus particles driven by a light source, which shines through a shading mask and leads to an accumulation of the swimmers in the shaded part. The mechanism can be traced back to a finite penetration depth of particles impinging from the illuminated part of the system into the shaded part.

  12. Music of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter

  13. Music of elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-12-12

    This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.

  14. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  15. Unstable Particles near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Chway, Dongjin; Kim, Hyung Do

    2015-01-01

    We explore physics of unstable particles when mother particle mass is around the sum of its daughter particle masses. In this case, the conventional wave function renormalization factor is ill-defined. We propose a simple resolution of the threshold singularity problem which still allows the use of narrow width approximation by defining branching ratio in terms of spectral density. The resonance peak and shape is different for different decay channels and no single decay width can be assigned to the unstable particles. Non-exponential decay happens in all time scales.

  16. Monte Carlo method of macroscopic modulation of small-angle charged particle reflection from solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I

    2001-01-01

    A novel method of Monte Carlo simulation of small-angle reflection of charged particles from solid surfaces has been developed. Instead of atomic-scale simulation of particle-surface collisions the method treats the reflection macroscopically as 'condensed history' event. Statistical parameters of reflection are sampled from the theoretical distributions upon energy and angles. An efficient sampling algorithm based on combination of inverse probability distribution function method and rejection method has been proposed and tested. As an example of application the results of statistical modeling of particles flux enhancement near the bottom of vertical Wehner cone are presented and compared with simple geometrical model of specular reflection.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Collision between 2D Circular Particles Suspension in Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision between 2D circular particles suspension in Couette flow is simulated by using multiple-relaxation-time based lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method in this paper. The patterns of particle collisions are simulated and analyzed in detail by changing the velocity of top and bottom walls in the Couette flow. It can be seen from the simulation results that, while the velocity is large enough, the number of collisions between particles will change little as this velocity varies.

  18. Probing magnetic bottom and crustal temperature variations along the Red Sea margin of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Salem, A.; Abdelaziz, A.M.S.; Elawadi, E.; Morgan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 magnetic bottom depths derived from spectra of magnetic anomalies in Eastern Egypt along the Red Sea margin show variable magnetic bottoms ranging from 10 to 34. km. The deep magnetic bottoms correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the region, and not the depth of 580??C, which lies significantly deeper on the steady state geotherms. These results support the idea of Wasilewski and coworkers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary in continental regions. Reduced-to-pole magnetic highs correspond to areas of Younger Granites that were emplaced toward the end of the Precambrian. Other crystalline Precambrian units formed earlier during the closure of ocean basins are not strongly magnetic. In the north, magnetic bottoms are shallow (10-15. km) in regions with a high proportion of these Younger Granites. In the south, the shoaling of the magnetic bottom associated with the Younger Granites appears to be restricted to the Aswan and Ras Banas regions. Complexity in the variation of magnetic bottom depths may arise due to a combination of factors: i) regions of Younger (Precambrian) Granites with high magnetite content in the upper crust, leaving behind low Curie temperature titanomagnetite components in the middle and lower crust, ii) rise in the depth of 580??C isotherm where the crust may have been heated due to initiation of intense magmatism at the time of the Red Sea rifting (~. 20. Ma), and iii) the contrast of the above two factors with respect to the neighboring regions where the Moho and/or Curie temperature truncates lithospheric ferromagnetism. Estimates of fractal and centroid magnetic bottoms in the oceanic regions of the Red Sea are significantly below the Moho in places suggesting that oceanic uppermost mantle may be serpentinized to the depth of 15-30 km in those regions. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  20. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application