WorldWideScience

Sample records for bottom current activity

  1. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    conditions, since it minimizes working time, hence cuts the costs related to the expensive ship time. One of the major factors of success is the development of a reliable pop-up mechanism, which includes not only unfailing hydro-acoustic communication, but also a reliable disconnector, both electrochemical and mechanical that could be used in salt and sweet waters. The extensive operational experience helped us to determine the reasons for non-emersion of the stations. The main problem was a sucking of instruments by muddy bottom sediments, and a simple spring assembly can release the station from the anchor with high probability Secondly, the newly developed software provides the great opportunity to reduce considerably the processing and interpretation time cycle. The calculation of forward kinematic problems can be performed on the notebook in seconds. Visualization tools render color images of gathers with various processing parameters. All mentioned above are proved by real data acquired by GNS during active and passive seismic surveys in deep and shallow waters. GNS has the pool of 65 OBS for large scale crustal 2D/3D active or passive experiments in any part World Ocean.

  2. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  3. Morphology and distribution of Oligocene and Miocene pockmarks in the Danish North Sea -implications for bottom current activity and fluid migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Katrine Juul; Huuse, Mads; Clausen, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    This study gives the first description of 33 mid-Oligocene and 646 late Miocene pockmarks mapped in the Danish part of the central North Sea. The pockmarks are all highly elongated, with average long- and short axes of 2.5 km and 700 m, and average internal depth of 30 m. The Miocene pockmarks...... strike 140-160° while the Oligocene pockmarks strike 100-105° paralleling the strike of the major Miocene and Oligocene clinoforms on which they occur. In cross-sections, the pockmarks appear as U-, V- and W-shaped or tabular depressions. Based on their geometry and degree of symmetry, three distinct...... the timing and location of the pockmarks. The pockmarks thus tell a story of thermogenic gas venting to the surface and paleo-current scour of the seabed in the eastern part of the central North Sea during the mid Oligocene and late Miocene....

  4. Sinking of less dense water in the bottom Ekman layer formed by a coastal downwelling current over a sloping bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, D. N.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Podymov, O. I.; Ostrovskii, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory experiments on the dynamics of a downwelling coastal current over a sloping bottom were conducted in a tank on a rotating platform. The current was generated by a source of stable water flow of the same density (barotropic case) or of lesser density (baroclinic case) compared with the surrounding water in the tank. It was found that even in the case of the baroclinic current, a less dense water downflow in the bottom Ekman layer was formed under certain conditions. At some moment, this downflow undergoes convective instability. Taking into account the results of the experiment, the parameters of the bottom Ekman layer on the continental shelf/slope of the Black Sea were preliminarily estimated and the possible sinking depth of less dense water was calculated.

  5. Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katrin; Hahn, Aljoscha M; Stark, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution of non-interacting particles with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases.

  6. Bottom mounted seabed mooring frame for high current field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Chandramohan, P.; Pednekar, P.S.; Diwan, S.G.

    and direction on the sea surface and at a fixed five layers. The company supplied frame was not suitable to use at the proposed measurement location, owing to random oscillation in the seabed, strong currents and high concentration of sediments in the water...

  7. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    wave mechanics for engineers and scientists. New Jersey: World Scientific . Dingler, J. R., and D. L. Inman. 1976. Wave-formed ripples in nearshore...sediment transport. New York: World Scientific . Papanicolaou, A. N., M. Elhakeem, G. Krallis, S. Prakash, and J. Edinger. 2008. Sediment transport...Boundary layers, Models, Near-shore processes, Review article , Sediment transport, Wave and current interaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  8. Model simulations of dense bottom currents in the Western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Janssen, Frank; Bolding, Karsten; Umlauf, Lars; Rennau, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    Only recently, medium intensity inflow events into the Baltic Sea have gained more awareness because of their potential to ventilate intermediate layers in the Southern Baltic Sea basins. With the present high-resolution model study of the Western Baltic Sea a first attempt is made to obtain model based realistic estimates of turbulent mixing in this area where dense bottom currents resulting from medium intensity inflow events are weakened by turbulent entrainment. The numerical model simulation which is carried out using the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) during nine months in 2003 and 2004 is first validated by means of three automatic stations at the Drogden and Darss Sills and in the Arkona Sea. In order to obtain good agreement between observations and model results, the 0.5×0.5 nautical mile bathymetry had to be adjusted in order to account for the fact that even at that scale many relevant topographic features are not resolved. Current velocity, salinity and turbulence observations during a medium intensity inflow event through the Øresund are then compared to the model results. Given the general problems of point to point comparisons between observations and model simulations, the agreement is fairly good with the characteristic features of the inflow event well represented by the model simulations. Two different bulk measures for mixing activity are then introduced, the vertically integrated decay of salinity variance, which is equal to the production of micro-scale salinity variance, and the vertically integrated turbulent salt flux, which is related to an increase of potential energy due to vertical mixing of stably stratified flow. Both measures give qualitatively similar results and identify the Drogden and Darss Sills as well as the Bornholm Channel as mixing hot spots. Further regions of strong mixing are the dense bottom current pathways from these sills into the Arkona Sea, areas around Kriegers Flak (a shoal in the western Arkona Sea

  9. Fishing profiles of Danish seiners and bottom trawlers in relation to current EU management regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Frandsen, R. P.; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    species are higher for trawlers. The results do not directly suggest a separation of the gears in terms of legislation as the quantities of fish below current minimum size were similar, but for example future survival studies may reach different conclusions. Additional factors were found to be important...... disagreement on current gear classification. This study compared both gears in terms of their fishing characteristics and catches of commercial species based on 16 years of observer data. Danish seining is a specialised fishing method that targeted few species but with higher total catch rates than bottom...... trawlers. Bottom trawling is a more all-purpose fishing method that targets a larger number of species, and bottom trawlers use larger engines than Danish seiners. A generalised additive mixed model indicated that catch rates of flatfish are generally higher for Danish seines, and catch rates of roundfish...

  10. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  11. Getting to the bottom of L2 listening instruction: Making a case for bottom-up activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Siegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the incorporation of bottom-up activities for English as a foreign language (EFL listening. It discusses theoretical concepts and pedagogic options for addressing bottom-up aural processing in the EFL classroom as well as how and why teachers may wish to include such activities in lessons. This discussion is augmented by a small-scale classroom-based research project that investigated six activities targeting learners’ bottom-up listening abilities. Learners studying at the lower-intermediate level of a compulsory EFL university course were divided into a treatment group (n = 21 and a contrast group (n = 32. Each group listened to the same audio material and completed listening activities from an assigned textbook. The treatment group also engaged in a set of six bottom-up listening activities using the same material. This quasi-experimental study used dictation and listening proficiency tests before and after the course. Between-group comparisons of t-test results of dictation and listening proficiency tests indicated that improvements for the treatment group were probably due to the BU intervention. In addition, results from a posttreatment survey suggested that learners value explicit bottom-up listening instruction.

  12. Conditions for the occurrence of intense turbidity currents in the benthic boundary layer over a sloping bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhmur, VV

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of density currents over the continental slope of the ocean is investigated with allowance for the entrainment of the bottom sediments and background liquid in motion. A simple criterion is proposed for determining the possibility of evolving initially weak density currents into bottom

  13. Characterizing wave- and current- induced bottom shear stress: U.S. middle Atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Butman, Bradford; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Signell, Richard P.; Wilkin, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Waves and currents create bottom shear stress, a force at the seabed that influences sediment texture distribution, micro-topography, habitat, and anthropogenic use. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the magnitude, variability, and driving mechanisms of bottom stress and resultant sediment mobility on regional scales using numerical model output. The analysis was applied to the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), off the U.S. East Coast, and identified a tidally-dominated shallow region with relatively high stress southeast of Massachusetts over Nantucket Shoals, where sediment mobility thresholds are exceeded over 50% of the time; a coastal band extending offshore to about 30 m water depth dominated by waves, where mobility occurs more than 20% of the time; and a quiescent low stress region southeast of Long Island, approximately coincident with an area of fine-grained sediments called the “Mud Patch”. The regional high in stress and mobility over Nantucket Shoals supports the hypothesis that fine grain sediment winnowed away in this region maintains the Mud Patch to the southwest. The analysis identified waves as the driving mechanism for stress throughout most of the MAB, excluding Nantucket Shoals and sheltered coastal bays where tides dominate; however, the relative dominance of low-frequency events varied regionally, and increased southward toward Cape Hatteras. The correlation between wave stress and local wind stress was lowest in the central MAB, indicating a relatively high contribution of swell to bottom stress in this area, rather than locally generated waves. Accurate prediction of the wave energy spectrum was critical to produce good estimates of bottom shear stress, which was sensitive to energy in the long period waves.

  14. Displacement current in bottom-contact organic thin-film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlica, E; Bratina, G [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13 SI-5001 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)], E-mail: bratina@p-ng.si

    2008-07-07

    We have used the Shockley-Ramo theorem to calculate the displacement current of drifting charge carriers in bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The displacement current is quantified in terms of the weighting field of the sensing electrode. We demonstrated that for the transistors, with dielectric thickness below 100 nm and channel length above 1 {mu}m, the weighting field near the sensing electrode exponentially decays with the distance from the electrode. This implies that the charge transport near metal contacts can be studied with a measurement of displacement current. The presented model approximation simplifies interpretation of, for example, transient photocurrent measurements and optical de-trapping measurements in OTFTs.

  15. Contourite drift off Madeira Island (Northeast Atlantic) and implications to Cenozoic bottom-current circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Cristina; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Madureira, Pedro; Quartau, Rui; Magalhães, Vitor; Carrara, Gabriela; Santos de Campos, Aldino; Brandão, Filipe; Tomás Vázquez, Juan; Somoza, Luis

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades several works have been carried out on the morphosedimentary processes driven by bottom-currents in several continental margins and abyssal plains worldwide. However these processes still remain poorly understood on deep-water settings and particularly around oceanic islands. This study is focused on the offshore of Madeira Island (Portugal), which is located in the Northeast Atlantic at about 700 km west of NW Africa. The interpretation of a newly acquired dataset, composed of multibeam bathymetry, Parasound echosounder profiles and multichannel seismic reflection profiles, allowed to identify a giant (about 385 km long and over than 175 km wide) plastered contourite drift, called the "Madeira Drift", developing along the lower slope of the Madeira plateau. It formed on top of a major erosional unconformity that truncates the underlying pelagic deposits, which drape over faulted blocks of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The Madeira Drift is composed of three main regional seismic units showing a predominant aggradational stacking pattern, without evidence of major lateral migration thought time. Its internal configuration indicates that it was build-up by a northwards flowing deep bottom current. These characteristics suggests that an almost persistent and stable water mass has been responsible for its edification trough time. While the precise age of this contourite drift is undetermined, some chronostratigraphic constraints can be determined based upon published works regarding seafloor magnetic anomalies (e.g. Bird et al., 2007), DSDP Site 136drilling data (Hayes et al., 1978). Attending to this, we propose that the possible onset of Madeira Drift must have occurred after Late Cretaceous, within the tertiary period, and quite probably in the Late Eocene / Eocene-Oligocene transition. Based on them is commonly accepted that an enhanced proto-Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) started to circulate at that time we considered this water mass as the

  16. Extreme bottom velocities induced by wind wave and currents in the Gulf of Gdańsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela; Jędrasik, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The principal goal of this study is to get some preliminary insights about the intensity of water movement generated by wind waves, and due to the currents in the bottom waters of Gulf of Gdańsk, during severe storms. The Gulf of Gdańsk is located in the southern Baltic Sea. This paper presents the results of analysis of wave and current-induced velocities during extreme wind conditions, which are determined based on long-term historical records. The bottom velocity fields originated from wind wave and wind currents, during analysed extreme wind events, are computed independently of each other. The long-term wind wave parameters for the Baltic Sea region are derived from the 44-year hindcast wave database generated in the framework of the project HIPOCAS funded by the European Union. The output from the numerical wave model WAM provides the boundary conditions for the model SWAN operating in high-resolution grid covering the area of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Wind current velocities are calculated with the M3D hydrodynamic model developed in the Institute of Oceanography of the University of Gdańsk based on the POM model. The three dimensional current fields together with trajectories of particle tracers spreading out of bottom boundary layer are modelled, and the calculated fields of bottom velocities are presented in the form of 2D maps. During northerly winds, causing in the Gulf of Gdańsk extreme waves and most significant wind-driven circulation, the wave-induced bottom velocities are greater than velocities due to currents. The current velocities in the bottom layer appeared to be smaller by an order of magnitude than the wave-induced bottom orbital velocities. Namely, during most severe northerly storms analysed, current bottom velocities ranged about 0.1-0.15 m/s, while the root mean square of wave-induced near-seabed velocities reached maximum values of up to 1.4 m/s in the southern part of Gulf of Gdańsk.

  17. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.

    2015-07-01

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  18. An Optimized Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layer Model for Arbitrary Bed Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    first-order correction to the definition of the wave boundary layer thickness produces accurate estimates of both the measured friction factor and...presence of surface waves reemphasizes the fact that wave-current effects are important on storm- dominated continental shelves. In addition to these...and current friction factor ( / / )cwσ f1 2 ,  is a measure of the relative contribution from the current to the total stress, and μ is a measure

  19. Current, temperature, salinity, and other data from bottom instrument packages off Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, from 02 April 1996 to 22 May 1996 (NODC Accession 0066099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of bottom currents and waves to investigate the flow field and sediment transport in a rippled scour depression offshore of Wrightsville Beach, NC.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy and bottom-current strength during the last glacial period in the North West Iberian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Daniel; Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Mohamed, Kais J.; Parés, Josep M.; Bernabeu, Ana M.; El Mekadem, Nadia; Rubio, Belén

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and the magnetic anisotropy of low field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (North West Iberian Margin). The core spans over the last 80 kyrs and comprise the last six Heinrich Stadials (HS). We have found systematically lower ARM/ χ values during the stadials than during interstadials, indicating coarsening of the magnetic fraction during the cold periods. The record also show the typical increase in magnetic susceptiblity (χ) that characterize the occurrence of Heinrich events (HE) during stadials in the North Atlantic, facilitating their detection. AMS analysis showed the majority of the ellipsoid minimum axes (K3) are close to vertical (Imean=80°), almost perpendicular to the bedding plane. AMS ellipsoid maximum axes (K1) are well-grouped marking two main magnetic lineations. These orientations are consistent with the main flow directions reported in the area and attributed to the action of regional bottom currents flowing along the continental margin. Down-core variations in the degree of anisotropy (Pj) showed significantly higher values during HS than during interstadials. We have noted that Pj down-core changes are independent of magnetic grain size, and interpreted them as the result of differences in the degree of grain alignment. These changes can be attributed to the variability in the strength of the bottom currents, indicating that they are stronger during stadials. We have concluded that the magnetic properties and AMS of core CI12PC3 are climatically modulated on a millennial time scale.

  1. Smart Novel Semi-Active Tuned Mass Damper for Fixed-Bottom and Floating Offshore Wind (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Tsouroukdissian, Arturo [Alstom Renewable US LLC

    2016-05-02

    The intention of this paper is to present the results of a novel smart semi-active tuned mass damper (SA-TMD), which mitigates unwanted loads for both fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems. (Presentation Format).

  2. Comparison of bottom-track to global positioning system referenced discharges measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Mueller, David S.

    2011-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be caused by the movement of sediment on or near the streambed. The integration of a global positioning system (GPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic negative bias associated with a moving streambed. More than 500 discharge transects from 63 discharge measurements with GPS data were collected at sites throughout the US, Canada, and New Zealand with no moving bed to compare GPS and bottom-track-referenced discharges. Although the data indicated some statistical bias depending on site conditions and type of GPS data used, these biases were typically about 0.5% or less. An assessment of differential correction sources was limited by a lack of data collected in a range of different correction sources and different GPS receivers at the same sites. Despite this limitation, the data indicate that the use of Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) corrected positional data is acceptable for discharge measurements using GGA as the boat-velocity reference. The discharge data based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the VTG data string, which does not require differential correction, were comparable to the discharges based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the differentially-corrected GGA data string. Spatial variability of measure discharges referenced to GGA, VTG and bottom-tracking is higher near the channel banks. The spatial variability of VTG-referenced discharges is correlated with the spatial distribution of maximum Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) values and the spatial variability of GGA-referenced discharges is correlated with proximity to channel banks.

  3. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  4. Deglacial to Holocene history of ice-sheet retreat and bottom current strength on the western Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, Hendrik; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Horry, Jan; Grave, Marina; Rebesco, Michele; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution sediment echosounder data combined with radiocarbon-dated sediment cores allowed us to reconstruct the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture of the Kveithola Trough and surrounding Spitsbergenbanken. The deposits display the successive deglacial retreat of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet. Basal subglacial till indicates that the grounded ice sheet covered both bank and trough during the Late Weichselian. A glaciomarine blanket inside the trough coinciding with laminated plumites on the bank formed during the initial ice-melting phase from at least 16.1 to 13.5 cal ka BP in close proximity to the ice margin. After the establishment of open-marine conditions at around 13.5 cal ka BP, a sediment drift developed in the confined setting of the Kveithola Trough, contemporary with crudely laminated mud, an overlying lag deposit, and modern bioclastic-rich sand on Spitsbergenbanken. The Kveithola Drift shows a remarkable grain-size coarsening from the moat towards the southern flank of the trough. This trend contradicts the concept of a separated drift (which would imply coarser grain sizes in proximity of the moat) and indicates that the southern bank is the main sediment source for the coarse material building up the Kveithola Drift. This depocenter represents, therefore, a yet undescribed combination of off-bank wedge and confined drift. Although the deposits inside Kveithola Trough and on Spitsbergenbanken display different depocenter geometries, time-equivalent grain-size changes imply a region-wide sediment-dynamic connection. We thus relate a phase of coarsest sediment supply (8.8-6.3 cal ka BP) to an increase in bottom current strength, which might be related to a stronger Atlantic Water inflow from the Southeast across the bank leading to winnowing and off-bank export of sandy sediments.

  5. Origin and history of the Charleston Bump - Geological formations, currents, bottom conditions, and their relationship to wreckfish habitats on the Blake Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, P.; Manheim, F. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Charleston Bump is a structural and topographic high on the northern Blake Plateau that overlies a seaward offset of the edge of continental crust. The feature causes the bottom to shoal and deflects the Gulf Stream offshore, causing an intensification of bottom currents. The area has been swept by strong currents since late Cretaceous time, but the strongest currents have occurred in the Neogene (last ???25 million years). Nondepositional conditions prevail at present, but erosion of the bottom is checked where the bottom is armored by a hard surficial layer of phosphorite pavement. The phosphorite pavements were formed by re-cementation of eroded residues of phosphorite-rich sediments of early-Neogene age. In some places there are multiple pavements separated by poorly lithified sediments. Submersible observations indicate that the south, or current-facing flank of the Charleston Bump has several deep (>100 m) scour depressions, the southern flanks of which form cliffs characterized by ledges and overhangs. In other areas discrete layers of older Paleogene rocks have been partly eroded away, leaving cliff-like steps of 5 m or more relief. Conglomeratic phosphorite pavement layers up to 1 m thick armor most of the bottom. Where breached by scour, these pavements form both low-relief ledges and rock piles. These features form a reef-like environment of caves and overhangs utilized by wreckfish Polyprion americanus and barrelfish Hyperoglyphe perciformis as shelter from the current and as staging areas to prey on passing schools of squid. Wreckfish and other large fish were often localized in rugged bottom habitat, including caves and other shelter areas. We observed wreckfish darting from shelters to feed on passing schools of squid. Present and past observations, are consistent with the concept that impingement of the Gulf Stream at the Charleston Bump compresses midwater fauna from much thicker water layers, providing food for a flourishing big-fish fauna

  6. Defining trade-offs among conservation, profitability, and food security in the California current bottom-trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Ray; Stewart, Ian J; Branch, Trevor A; Jensen, Olaf P

    2012-04-01

    Although it is recognized that marine wild-capture fisheries are an important source of food for much of the world, the cost of sustainable capture fisheries to species diversity is uncertain, and it is often questioned whether industrial fisheries can be managed sustainably. We evaluated the trade-off among sustainable food production, profitability, and conservation objectives in the groundfish bottom-trawl fishery off the U.S. West Coast, where depletion (i.e., reduction in abundance) of six rockfish species (Sebastes) is of particular concern. Trade-offs are inherent in this multispecies fishery because there is limited capacity to target species individually. From population models and catch of 34 stocks of bottom fish, we calculated the relation between harvest rate, long-term yield (i.e., total weight of fish caught), profit, and depletion of each species. In our models, annual ecosystem-wide yield from all 34 stocks was maximized with an overall 5.4% harvest rate, but profit was maximized at a 2.8% harvest rate. When we reduced harvest rates to the level (2.2% harvest rate) at which no stocks collapsed (30% of total sustainable yield, whereas yield lost from stock depletion was 3% of total sustainable yield. There are clear conservation benefits to lower harvest rates, but avoiding overfishing of all stocks in a multispecies fishery carries a substantial cost in terms of lost yield and profit. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes not only a sharp contact between two water masses but also the transition zone between those as an important high-energy regime, offering oceanic density fronts a travel medium. These fronts are strong enough to distribute fine sands across highly pronounced seabed topography. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote

  8. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Glud, Ronnie N.; Doris, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Eddy correlation (EC) measurements in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) allow estimating benthic O2 uptake from a point distant to the sediment surface. This noninvasive approach has clear advantages as it does not disturb natural hydrodynamic conditions, integrates the flux over a large foot...... in the bottom water are in steady state, which is seldom the case in highly dynamic environments like coastal waters. Therefore, it is of great importance to estimate the error introduced by nonsteady state conditions. We investigated two cases of transient conditions. First, the case of transient O2...... concentrations was examined using the theory of shear flow dispersion. A theoretical relationship between the change of O2 concentrations and the induced vertical O2 flux is introduced and applied to field measurements showing that changes of 5–10 μM O2 h−1 result in transient EC-fluxes of 6–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1...

  10. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body...

  11. Using a 1200 kHz workhorse ADCP with mode 12 to measure near bottom mean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Using high frequency Acoustic Doppler Current (ADCP) profiling technology, it is possible to make high-resolution measurements of mean current profiles within a few meters of the seabed. In coastal applications, mean current speeds may be 10 cm/s or less, and oscillatory wave currents may exceed 100 cm/s during storm events. To resolve mean flows of 10 cm/s or less under these conditions, accuracies of 1 cm/s or better are desirable.

  12. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...

  13. Smart Novel Semi-Active Tuned Mass Damper for Fixed-Bottom and Floating Offshore Wind (Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Tsouroukdissian, Arturo [Alstom Renewable US LLC (GE Subsidiary); Lackner, Mathew [University of Massachusetts; Cross-Whiter, John [Glosten Associates; Park, Se Myung [University of Massachusetts; Pourazarm, Pariya [University of Massachusetts; La Cava, William [University of Massachusetts; Lee, Sungho [Glosten Associates

    2016-05-02

    The intention of this paper is to present the results of a novel smart semi-active tuned mass damper (SA-TMD), which mitigates unwanted loads for both fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems. The paper will focus on the most challenging water depths for both fixed-bottom and floating systems. A close to 38m Monopile and 55m Tension Leg Platform (TLP) will be considered. A technical development and trade-off analysis will be presented comparing the new system with existing passive non-linear TMD (N-TMD) technology and semi-active. TheSATMD works passively and activates itself with low power source under unwanted dynamic loading in less than 60msec. It is composed of both variable stiffness and damping elements coupled to a central pendulum mass. The analysis has been done numerically in both FAST(NREL) and Orcaflex (Orcina), and integrated in the Wind Turbine system employing CAD/CAE. The results of this work will pave the way for experimental testing to complete the technology qualification process. The load reductions under extreme and fatigue cases reach up significant levels at tower base, consequently reducing LCOE for fixed-bottom to floating wind solutions. The nacelle acceleration is reduced substantially under severe random wind and sea states, reducing the risks of failure of electromechanical components and blades at the rotor nacelle assembly. The SA-TMD system isa new technology that has not been applied previously in wind solutions. Structural damping devices aim to increase offshore wind turbine system robustness and reliability, which eases multiple substructures installations and global stability.

  14. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  15. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... to the pacemaker can. METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from two healthy subjects. Platelet reactivity to the agonist ADP was tested in paired samples in an aggregometer in a case/control setup. RESULTS: Eighteen of 46 tested pairs of platelet-rich plasma showed increased reactivity in the paced sample......; 26 were unchanged while two showed decreased reactivity in the paced sample. Using a two-sided sign test, the null hypothesis was rejected (P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates increased reactivity to ADP in platelets exposed in vitro to stimulation by pacemaker current. The clinical...

  16. Rocker-bottom, profile-type shoes do not increase lower extremity muscle activity or energy cost of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Roper, Jenevieve L; Dufek, Janet S; Mercer, John A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing rocker-bottom shoes with compliant midsoles (RB) influences muscle activity and metabolic cost of walking. Furthermore, we sought to determine if weight differences between shod conditions accounted for any potential change. Twenty-eight subjects (17 women, 11 men, age 22.8 ± 6.6 years; weight 72 ± 20 kg; height 170 ± 6.7 cm; percent body fat 23.0 ± 11.7) walked on a treadmill (0% grade) for 10 minutes at a self-selected speed plus 10% (1.3 ± 0.2 m·s) in each of the following laboratory-provided shoes: flat-bottomed shoe (W), flat-bottomed shoe weight-matched to RB (WM), and RB. Muscle activity of the right side biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius (GA), and tibalis anterior (TA) was recorded for 30 seconds at the beginning, middle, and ending of the 10-minute walk using an electromyography (EMG) system. The average (AVG) and root mean square (RMS) were calculated from full-wave rectified EMG data at each interval. The rate of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured for 10 minutes during each condition. A 3 (shoe) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare each EMG-dependent variable (AVG and RMS EMG of each muscle), and repeated measures ANOVA was used to test V[Combining Dot Above]O2. Muscle activity (for any muscle) was not influenced by the interaction of shoe and time (p > 0.05). The AVG and RMS for RF, BF, and GA, including V[Combining Dot Above]O2, were not different among shod conditions (W: 9.7 ± 0.6 ml·kg·min; WM: 10.0 ± 0.5 ml·kg·min; RB: 10.1 ± 0.5 ml·kg·min), whereas TA AVG and RMS were lower during RB (p shoe despite there being the rocker-profile design and mass differences.

  17. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  18. Deep water bottom current evolution in the northern South China Sea during the last 150 kyr: Evidence from sedimentary sortable silt and magnetic fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Niu; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Jie; Zhou, Qixian; Su, Zhihua

    2017-04-01

    Deep water bottom current (DWBC) plays a central role in global climate. Relative to the Atlantic, the evolution of Pacific deepwater circulation is still unclear. Luzon Strait with a sill depth of about 2600 m serves as the only important deep connection between the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific, providing a unique opportunity to monitor the western Pacific deep water circulation. We present a magnetic and grain size analysis of two sediment cores (PC111 and PC83) located in Xisha Trough, northern SCS in order to reconstruct past changes of DWBC during the last 150 kyrs. Variations in the mean size of sortable silt and the magnetic grain size was interpreted to indicate past changes of DWBC, which suggest abrupt, millennial-scale increasing DWBC strength corresponding to Heinrich Stadials (HS1, HS2, HS3, HS4. HS5, HS6, HS7, HS8, HS9, HS10, HS11) for past 150 kyr, times of weak North Atlantic Deep Water formation. The direction of DWBC reconstructed from the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is mostly N-S direction in core PC111 from 30 to 0 ka and NW-SE direction in core PC83 from 50 to 0 ka, which are parallel to the local topography. The good relationship between DWBC strength and the relative positive value of the planktonic foraminifera δ18O suggests the evolution of DWBC in northern SCS, sourced probably from North Pacific Deep Water, closely linking to the global climate.

  19. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...... hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative...

  20. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  1. Sediment Waves Beneath the West Pacific Warm Pool on Eauripik Rise: A Direct Indicator of Long-Term Bottom Current Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K.; Mountain, G. S.; Rosenthal, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in ocean dynamics of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) have significant impacts on global climate, and understanding this relationship can improve predictions of future climate trends. We report on progress towards establishing a history of water column structure and air-sea interaction of this critical part of the global climate system. Sites proposed and now approved for future drilling by IODP Exp. 363 were surveyed with 2D high-resolution multi-channel seismic grids during cruise 1313 of the R/V Roger Revelle in September 2013. Here we describe observations at proposed site WP2 on the northern Eauripik Rise, near the northern limb of the WPWP. Approximately 400 m of buried sediment waves, with amplitudes of 10-20 m and wavelengths of 1-2 km, are prevalent throughout the ~ 10 x 15 km survey grid. Abyssal sediment waves provide direct evidence of circulation in the deep sea, and can be tied to indirect circulation indicators in sediment cores. Additionally, changes in circulation indicated by changes in bedform geometry can be associated with climatic oscillations. The sediment waves were mapped, characterized, and converted to depth using seismic stacking velocities. Biostratigraphy at DSDP Site 62, 450 km south of WP2 on Eauripik Rise provided age constraints on several horizons correlated between these locations. The oldest waves at WP2 (~ 15 Ma; 400 mbsf) migrate north and increase in amplitude upsection until a key horizon at roughly 280 mbsf is reached. At this level wave migration stops, though wave heights continue to decrease until at seafloor all seismic evidence of current-controlled deposition has disappeared. This morphologic shift, suggested from available data to occur ~10 Ma, indicates a change from strong, long-term current-controlled sedimentation to conditions with little to no bottom current flow. Drilling at WP2 will pinpoint the time of this change and will aid the understanding of the evolution of the WPWP since the middle

  2. Estimation of Emissions from Sugarcane Field Burning in Thailand Using Bottom-Up Country-Specific Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open burning in sugarcane fields is recognized as a major source of air pollution. However, the assessment of its emission intensity in many regions of the world still lacks information, especially regarding country-specific activity data including biomass fuel load and combustion factor. A site survey was conducted covering 13 sugarcane plantations subject to different farm management practices and climatic conditions. The results showed that pre-harvest and post-harvest burnings are the two main practices followed in Thailand. In 2012, the total production of sugarcane biomass fuel, i.e., dead, dry and fresh leaves, amounted to 10.15 million tonnes, which is equivalent to a fuel density of 0.79 kg∙m−2. The average combustion factor for the pre-harvest and post-harvest burning systems was determined to be 0.64 and 0.83, respectively. Emissions from sugarcane field burning were estimated using the bottom-up country-specific values from the site survey of this study and the results compared with those obtained using default values from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The comparison showed that the use of default values lead to underestimating the overall emissions by up to 30% as emissions from post-harvest burning are not accounted for, but it is the second most common practice followed in Thailand.

  3. Compositions of foraminifera-rich turbidite sediments from the Shenhu area on the northern slope of the South China Sea: Implication for the presence of deep water bottom currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Niu; Feng, Dong; Chen, Linying; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Duofu

    2017-05-01

    The sediments in gravity core DH-1, collected from Shenhu area on the northern slope of the South China Sea, are composed of two dark grey clay silt layers (A1 and A3) and two foraminifera-rich layers (A2 and A4) (A1 is the top layer and A4 is the bottom layer). Major and trace metal contents, along with grain size and mineralogic data suggest that these silt layers represent background hemipelagic sedimentation. Unlike silt layers, the intervening foraminifera-rich layerA4 exhibits a fining-upward trend, is distal turbidite. Grain size CM diagram and the sharp contacts between the foraminifera-rich layer A2 and the upper and lower layers suggest layer A2 is the result of depositional interaction between turbidite and bottom currents. AMS 14C dating of planktonic foraminifera indicate the age of the turbidite in A2 is between15.3 ka and 22.6 ka. We hypothesize that turbidite formation in this period was related to the increase supply of terrigenous matter since the Last Glacial Maximum. The rapid deposition of each turbidite led to reduced rates of oxygen diffusion into the sediment, allowing anoxic conditions develop in sediments and fostering U enrichment (>3.1 μg/g) in foraminifera-rich layer A4b. In contrast, decrease concentration of U and U/Mo ratios in foraminifera-rich layerA2, which is possibly due to U remobilization as a consequence of downward penetration of the oxidation front from the oxygen rich bottom currents. These new data suggest that authigenic U was quite sensitive to the inflow of bottom currents, and U/Mo ratios may indicate the depositional environmental change in relation to the bottom current action on the turbidite.

  4. Cardiac allograft immune activation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Chang, Jon Kobashigawa Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Heart transplant remains the most durable option for end-stage heart disease. Cardiac allograft immune activation and heart transplant rejection remain among the main complications limiting graft and recipient survival. Mediators of the immune system can cause different forms of rejection post-heart transplant. Types of heart transplant rejection include hyperacute rejection, cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. In this review, we will summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses which influence the post-heart transplant recipient. Different forms of rejection and their clinical presentation, detection, and immune monitoring will be discussed. Treatment of heart transplant rejection will be examined. We will discuss potential treatment strategies for preventing rejection post-transplant in immunologically high-risk patients with antibody sensitization. Keywords: heart transplant, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, rejection, immunosuppression

  5. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  6. A trawl-resistant ocean bottom seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, A. H.; Gassier, D.; Webb, S. C.; Koczynski, T.; Oletu, V.; Gaherty, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) deployments are difficult on continental shelves and other shallow regions because of the hazard from bottom trawling. Seafloor instruments can be damaged, destroyed, or prematurely released by a trawl net that is weighted with rollers and dragged across the seafloor. Bottom trawling is extensive in many areas and past instrument losses have led the U. S. OBS Instrument Pool (OBSIP) to avoid long-duration deployments in water depths shallower than 1000 m. This restriction is particularly limiting for passive-source seismic studies at active continental margins. We report on the development and testing of a new trawl-resistant OBS. The seismometer and datalogger are protected within a heavy (450 kg) eight-sided steel shield that has a low, smooth profile (2 m basal diameter and a central peak height of 50 cm) and is designed to resist and deflect bottom-trawling equipment. The sides of the shield are closed in order to protect the seismometer from seafloor currents that can cause tilt-related low-frequency seismic noise. Shield-generated noise (from mechanical resonance or from interaction with seafloor currents) is reduced by decoupling the sensor from the shield and by maximizing the distance between the seismometer and the shield’s bottom rim. The heavy weight and low profile of the instrument preclude the use of dropweights for deployment and recovery. The OBS is instead lowered to the seafloor and recovered by attaching a lifting line using a remotely-operated vehicle. Twenty trawl-resistant OBSs, equipped with Trillium Compact seismometers and absolute pressure gauges, are being constructed and will be deployed as a component of the NSF Cascadia Initiative in the summer of 2011.

  7. Variability of the intensity of the Tsushima Warm Current and bottom water ventilation in western North Pacific marginal seas during the Pleistocene: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 346 (Sites U1427 and U1428) based on ostracod assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A.; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Toucanne, Samuel; Sagawa, Takuya; Holbourn, Ann; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Tada, Ryuji; Murray, Richard W.

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 346 drilled Sites U1427 and U1428 in ideal locations to monitor changes in (i) the intensity of the influx of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC), and (ii) the intermediate bottom water ventilation from a few hundred thousand years to over a million years in the western North Pacific marginal seas. Site U1427 is located at 330 m water depth in the marginal sea bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean peninsula and the Japanese Islands. This semi-enclosed marginal sea has an average water depth of 1350 m and is connected with other marginal seas in the region by shallow, narrow straits. Site U1428 is located at 724 m in the East China Sea and this region is more influenced by continental freshwater runoff derived from the Yangtze River. Both sites are in the path of the TWC, a branch of the Kuroshio Current, the only warm current flowing into the marginal sea west of Japan. The TWC carries both water originating from the subtropical North Pacific and fresher runoff water derived from East China Sea continental shelf. The northerly flow of the TWC through the shallow Tsushima Strait is ultimately controlled by relative sea level variations over time. The Japan Sea Intermediate Water (JSIW), found below the TWC between 200 and 400-500 m water depth, corresponds to a vertical salinity minimum, and has relatively high oxygen concentration related to the deep-water convection in winter and linked to fresh water supply during winter monsoon intervals. Recent observations point to variations in the intensity of deep and intermediate water currents during glacials and interglacials, and millennial scale climate cycles, but the mechanisms of such variations are not fully known. Here we present preliminary results based on microfossil faunal (ostracods) and sedimentological (sortable silt) proxies that show variability in the intensity of bottom water circulation and environmental conditions during the Pleistocene. Ostracods (benthic microcrustaceans known

  8. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  9. NOS CO-OPS Active Currents Data, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has surface Active Currents data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These raw data have not...

  10. DSP based adaptive hysteresis-band current controlled active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of non-linear loads critically affects the quality of supply by drawing harmonic currents and reactive power from the electrical distribution system. Active power filters are the most viable solution for solving such power quality problems in compliance with the harmonic standards. This article presents a digital signal ...

  11. Identifying the computational requirements of an integrated top-down-bottom-up model for overt visual attention within an active vision system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian McBride

    Full Text Available Computational visual attention systems have been constructed in order for robots and other devices to detect and locate regions of interest in their visual world. Such systems often attempt to take account of what is known of the human visual system and employ concepts, such as 'active vision', to gain various perceived advantages. However, despite the potential for gaining insights from such experiments, the computational requirements for visual attention processing are often not clearly presented from a biological perspective. This was the primary objective of this study, attained through two specific phases of investigation: 1 conceptual modeling of a top-down-bottom-up framework through critical analysis of the psychophysical and neurophysiological literature, 2 implementation and validation of the model into robotic hardware (as a representative of an active vision system. Seven computational requirements were identified: 1 transformation of retinotopic to egocentric mappings, 2 spatial memory for the purposes of medium-term inhibition of return, 3 synchronization of 'where' and 'what' information from the two visual streams, 4 convergence of top-down and bottom-up information to a centralized point of information processing, 5 a threshold function to elicit saccade action, 6 a function to represent task relevance as a ratio of excitation and inhibition, and 7 derivation of excitation and inhibition values from object-associated feature classes. The model provides further insight into the nature of data representation and transfer between brain regions associated with the vertebrate 'active' visual attention system. In particular, the model lends strong support to the functional role of the lateral intraparietal region of the brain as a primary area of information consolidation that directs putative action through the use of a 'priority map'.

  12. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements......, wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe...

  13. Bottom-current and wind-pattern changes as indicated by Late Glacial and Holocene sediments from western Lake Geneva (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardclos, S.; Baster, I.; Wildi, W.; Pugin, A.; Rachoud-Schneider, A. -M.

    2003-01-01

    The Late-Glacial and Holocene sedimentary history of the Hauts-Monts area (western Lake Geneva, Switzerland) is reconstructed combining high resolution seismic stratigraphy and well-dated sedimentary cores. Six reflections and seismic units are defined and represented by individual isopach maps, which are further combined to obtain a three-dimensional age-depth model. Slumps, blank areas and various geometries are identified using these seismic data. The sediment depositional areas have substantially changed throughout the lake during the end of the Late-Glacial and the Holocene. These changes are interpreted as the result of variations in the intensity of deep lake currents and the frequency of strong winds determining the distribution of sediment input from the Versoix River and from reworking of previously deposited sediments within the lacustrine basin. The identified changes in sediment distribution allowed us to reconstruct the lake's deep-current history and the evolution of dominant strong wind regimes from the Preboreal to present times.

  14. All-solution-processed bottom-gate organic thin-film transistor with improved subthreshold behaviour using functionalized pentacene active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Jeong, Jaewook; Cho, Hyun Duk; Lee, Changhee; Hong, Yongtaek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seul Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki [School of Materials Science and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yongtaek@snu.ac.kr

    2009-06-07

    We report organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) made by simple solution processes in an ambient air environment. Inkjet-printed silver electrodes were used for bottom-gate and bottom-contacted source/drain electrodes. A spin-coated cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and a spin-coated 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) were used as a gate dielectric layer and an active layer, respectively. A high-boiling-point solvent was used for TIPS-pentacene and the resulting film showed stem-like morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement showed the spin-coated active layer was well crystallized, showing the (0 0 1) plane. The reasonable mobility, on/off ratio and threshold voltage of the fabricated device, which are comparable to those of the previously reported TIPS-pentacene OTFT with gold electrodes, show that the printed silver electrodes worked successfully as gate and source/drain electrodes. Furthermore, the device showed a subthreshold slope of 0.61 V/dec in the linear region (V{sub DS} = -5 V), which is the lowest value for spin-coated TIPS-pentacene TFT ever reported, and much lower than that of the thermally evaporated pentacene OTFTs. It is thought that the surface energy of the PVP dielectric layer is well matched with that of a well-ordered TIPS-pentacene (0 0 1) surface when a high-boiling-point solvent and a low-temperature drying process are used, thereby making good interface properties, and showing higher performances than those for pentacene TFT with the same structure.

  15. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  16. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  17. Wave refraction in the presence of currents and variations of the marine bottom; Refraccion del oleaje en presencia de corrientes y variaciones del fondo marino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Hernandez, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    A method for solving the wave refraction phenomena through a computational model, which solves the wave height and propagation angle from deep to shallow water including wave breaking, is shown. The program considers the shoaling and refraction effects, wave-currents interaction and the non-linearity assumption. The numerical model is based in two principles: the irrotationality of the wave number, which is reduced to the Snell's law for planar bathymetry, and the conservation of wave action, which is reduced to the energy conservation concept when no current interaction occurs. The two-step Lax-Wendroff differential method was used to calculate and solve the entire computational grid. Three different examples that help represent the whole method are shown; the first case is based on an idealized plane and horizontal bathymetry, the second case is the experimental model developed by Berkhoff (1982), and finally the Noda (1974) example is reproduced. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo numerico para estudiar el fenomeno de la refraccion del oleaje inducida por la presencia de corrientes, cambios batimetricos, rotura y disipacion. El modelo calcula sobre una malla computacional la altura y la direccion local del oleaje. El programa considera los efectos de asomeramiento, refraccion, interaccion oleaje-corriente y su no-linearidad. Los principios que utiliza el modelo son dos; la irrotacionalidad del numero de onda, que para batimetria plana se reduce a la ley de Snell y el principio de conservacion de la accion de ondas, que se simplifica al concepto de la conservacion de la energia cuando no existen corrientes. El metodo diferencial que se utiliza para el calculo e interpolacion de datos sobre la malla de discretizacion es Lax-Wendroff en dos pasos. Se muestran tres casos que ayudan a representar el metodo en su totalidad: el primero se modela con base en una batimetria idealizada, plana y horizontal, el segundo se simula a partir del medolo experimental de

  18. Targeting chronic recurrent low back pain from the top-down and the bottom-up: a combined transcranial direct current stimulation and peripheral electrical stimulation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabrun, Siobhan M; Jones, Emma; Elgueta Cancino, Edith L; Hodges, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms such as neural sensitization and maladaptive cortical organization provide novel targets for therapy in chronic recurrent low back pain (CLBP). We investigated the effect of a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) treatment on pain, cortical organization, sensitization and sensory function in CLBP. Using a placebo-controlled crossover design, 16 individuals received four treatments in separate sessions: (i) anodal tDCS/PES; (ii) anodal tDCS/sham PES; (iii) sham tDCS/PES; or (iv) sham tDCS/sham PES. Pain was assessed at baseline, immediately following, and at 1 and 3 days after treatment. Motor cortical organization, sensitization and sensory function were measured before and immediately after treatment. Combined tDCS/PES reduced pain and sensitization, normalized motor cortical organization and improved sensory function. The reduction in pain was greater in individuals with more pronounced sensitization. Applied alone, tDCS or PES also reduced pain. However, with the exception of improved sensory function and reduced map volume following PES, clinical and neurophysiological outcomes were unaltered by tDCS or PES applied separately. No changes were observed following sham treatment. Our data suggest a combined tDCS/PES intervention more effectively improves CLBP symptoms and mechanisms of cortical organization and sensitization, than either intervention applied alone or a sham control. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RUMBLE-2 Project : Rapid Environment Assessment of Sea Bottom Parameters Using an Operational Active Low-Frequency Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhel, B.; Cristol, X.; Chalindar, B.; Dybedal, J.; Eidem, E.J.; Ivansson, S.; Vossen,R. van; Ainslie, M.A.; Andersson, B.L.; Benders,F.P.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Olsen, G.K.; Pihl, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the European Defence Agency project called “RUMBLE 2” carried out with contribution of several European organizations: TUS in France, TNO in the Netherlands, KDS and FFI in Norway, FOI in Sweden. The objective was to assess the capability of an operational Low Frequency Active

  20. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  1. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  2. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of hard...

  3. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  4. Local Anesthetic Inhibits Hyperpolarization-Activated Cationic Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-tao; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Liu, Jin; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic administration of local anesthetics has beneficial perioperative properties and an anesthetic-sparing and antiarrhythmic effect, although the detailed mechanisms of these actions remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a local anesthetic, lidocaine, on hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that contribute to the pacemaker currents in rhythmically oscillating cells of the heart and brain. Voltage-clamp recordings were used to examine the properties of cloned HCN subunit currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells under control condition and lidocaine administration. Lidocaine inhibited HCN1, HCN2, HCN1-HCN2, and HCN4 channel currents at 100 μM in both oocytes and/or HEK 293 cells; it caused a decrease in both tonic and maximal current (∼30–50% inhibition) and slowed current activation kinetics for all subunits. In addition, lidocaine evoked a hyperpolarizing shift in half-activation voltage (ΔV1/2 of ∼−10 to −14 mV), but only for HCN1 and HCN1-HCN2 channels. By fitting concentration-response data to logistic functions, we estimated half-maximal (EC50) concentrations of lidocaine of ∼30 to 40 μM for the shift in V1/2 observed with HCN1 and HCN1-HCN2; for inhibition of current amplitude, calculated EC50 values were ∼50 to 70 μM for HCN1, HCN2, and HCN1-HCN2 channels. A lidocaine metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (100 μM), had similar inhibitory actions on HCN channels. These results indicate that lidocaine potently inhibits HCN channel subunits in dose-dependent manner over a concentration range relevant for systemic application. The ability of local anesthetics to modulate Ih in central neurons may contribute to central nervous system depression, whereas effects on If in cardiac pacemaker cells may contribute to the antiarrhythmic and/or cardiovascular toxic action. PMID:21303986

  5. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Tan

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles' trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control.

  6. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianyuan; Dong, Shuan; Huang, Yingwei; Liu, Jian; Le, Jian; Liu, Kaipei

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG) interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD) and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC) based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF) algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles’ trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control. PMID:27295213

  7. Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Marshall, Leigh W

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to quantify spine loading during different kettlebell swings and carries. No previously published studies of tissue loads during kettlebell exercises could be found. Given the popularity of kettlebells, this study was designed to provide an insight into the resulting joint loads. Seven male subjects participated in this investigation. In addition, a single case study of the kettlebell swing was performed on an accomplished kettlebell master. Electromyography, ground reaction forces (GRFs), and 3D kinematic data were recorded during exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell. These variables were input into an anatomically detailed biomechanical model that used normalized muscle activation; GRF; and spine, hip, and knee motion to calculate spine compression and shear loads. It was found that kettlebell swings create a hip-hinge squat pattern characterized by rapid muscle activation-relaxation cycles of substantial magnitudes (∼50% of a maximal voluntary contraction [MVC] for the low back extensors and 80% MVC for the gluteal muscles with a 16-kg kettlebell) resulting in about 3,200 N of low back compression. Abdominal muscular pulses together with the muscle bracing associated with carries create kettlebell-specific training opportunities. Some unique loading patterns discovered during the kettlebell swing included the posterior shear of the L4 vertebra on L5, which is opposite in polarity to a traditional lift. Thus, quantitative analysis provides an insight into why many individuals credit kettlebell swings with restoring and enhancing back health and function, although a few find that they irritate tissues.

  8. Voltage Dependence of a Neuromodulator-Activated Ionic Current123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neuromodulatory inward current (IMI) generated by crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric ganglion neurons is an inward current whose voltage dependence has been shown to be crucial in the activation of oscillatory activity of the pyloric network of this system. It has been previously shown that IMI loses its voltage dependence in conditions of low extracellular calcium, but that this effect appears to be regulated by intracellular calmodulin. Voltage dependence is only rarely regulated by intracellular signaling mechanisms. Here we address the hypothesis that the voltage dependence of IMI is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways activated by extracellular calcium. We demonstrate that calmodulin inhibitors and a ryanodine antagonist can reduce IMI voltage dependence in normal Ca2+, but that, in conditions of low Ca2+, calmodulin activators do not restore IMI voltage dependence. Further, we show evidence that CaMKII alters IMI voltage dependence. These results suggest that calmodulin is necessary but not sufficient for IMI voltage dependence. We therefore hypothesize that the Ca2+/calmodulin requirement for IMI voltage dependence is due to an active sensing of extracellular calcium by a GPCR family calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and that the reduction in IMI voltage dependence by a calmodulin inhibitor is due to CaSR endocytosis. Supporting this, preincubation with an endocytosis inhibitor prevented W7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride)-induced loss of IMI voltage dependence, and a CaSR antagonist reduced IMI voltage dependence. Additionally, myosin light chain kinase, which is known to act downstream of the CaSR, seems to play a role in regulating IMI voltage dependence. Finally, a Gβγ-subunit inhibitor also affects IMI voltage dependence, in support of the hypothesis that this process is regulated by a G-protein-coupled CaSR. PMID:27257619

  9. Current activated tip sintering of Ni-Ti intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitin

    This thesis investigated the current activated tip-sintering of reactive mixtures of nickel and titanium to form Ni-Ti intermetallics. The effect of elemental powder composition, heating profile and micro-jet inert gas pressures on the developed macro- and microstructure was investigated. The heating profile brought upon by selective electric current application was found to have a significant effect on whether the reaction is a volumetric combustion or a self-propagating high temperature one. The best results in terms of homogeneity and Ni-Ti intermetallics yield, were obtained for an inert gas pressure of 4 psi under for the nickel rich composition. In addition, surprising results at the higher inert gas pressures show the formation of hollow products, which can give rise future exploration of this technique for combustion synthesizing hollow products of different shapes.

  10. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: fjcastro@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  11. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  12. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  13. Bottom-up and top-down fabrication of nanowire-based electronic devices: In situ doping of vapor liquid solid grown silicon nanowires and etch-dependent leakage current in InGaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meng-Wei

    Semiconductor nanowires are important components in future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic device applications. These nanowires can be fabricated using either bottom-up or top-down methods. While bottom-up techniques can achieve higher aspect ratio at reduced dimension without having surface and sub-surface damage, uniform doping distributions with abrupt junction profiles are less challenging for top-down methods. In this dissertation, nanowires fabricated by both methods were systematically investigated to understand: (1) the in situ incorporation of boron (B) dopants in Si nanowires grown by the bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique, and (2) the impact of plasma-induced etch damage on InGaAs p +-i-n+ nanowire junctions for tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) applications. In Chapter 2 and 3, the in situ incorporation of B in Si nanowires grown using silane (SiH4) or silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) as the Si precursor and trimethylboron (TMB) as the p-type dopant source is investigated by I-V measurements of individual nanowires. The results from measurements using a global-back-gated test structure reveal nonuniform B doping profiles on nanowires grown from SiH4, which is due to simultaneous incorporation of B from nanowire surface and the catalyst during VLS growth. In contrast, a uniform B doping profile in both the axial and radial directions is achieved for TMBdoped Si nanowires grown using SiCl4 at high substrate temperatures. In Chapter 4, the I-V characteristics of wet- and dry-etched InGaAs p+-i-n+ junctions with different mesa geometries, orientations, and perimeter-to-area ratios are compared to evaluate the impact of the dry etch process on the junction leakage current properties. Different post-dry etch treatments, including wet etching and thermal annealing, are performed and the effectiveness of each is assessed by temperaturedependent I-V measurements. As compared to wet-etched control devices, dry-etched junctions have a significantly

  14. Trypanocidal activity of nitroaromatic prodrugs: current treatments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shane R; Bot, Christopher; Kelly, John M; Hall, Belinda S

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness are trypanosomal infections that represent important public health problems in Latin America and Africa, respectively. The restriction of these diseases to the poorer parts of the world has meant that they have been largely neglected and limited progress has been made in their treatment. The nitroheterocyclic prodrugs nifurtimox and benznidazole, in use against Chagas disease for >40 years, remain the only agents available for this infection. In the case of African sleeping sickness, nifurtimox has recently been added to the arsenal of medicines, with the nitroheterocycle fexinidazole currently under evaluation. For a long time, the cytotoxic mechanism of these drugs was poorly understood: nifurtimox was thought to act via production of superoxide anions and nitro radicals, while the mode of benznidazole action was more obscure. The trypanocidal activity of nitroheterocyclic drugs is now known to depend on a parasite type I nitroreductase (NTR). This enzyme is absent from mammalian cells, a difference that forms the basis for the drug selectivity. The role of this enzyme in drug activation has been genetically and biochemically validated. It catalyses the 2-electron reduction of nitroheterocyclic compounds within the parasite, producing toxic metabolites without significant generation of superoxide. Recognition that this enzyme is responsible for activation of nitroheterocyclic prodrugs has allowed screening for compounds that preferentially target the parasite. This approach has led to the identification of two new classes of anti-trypanosomal agents, nitrobenzylphosphoramide mustards and aziridinyl nitrobenzamides, and promises to yield new, safer, more effective drugs.

  15. Active current-noise cancellation for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabbi, Lavish; Shoop, Conner; Banerjee, Riju; Dusch, Bill; Hudson, E. W.

    The high sensitivity of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) poses a barrier to its use in a noisy environment. Vibrational noise, whether structural or acoustic in source, manifests as relative motion between the probe tip and the sample, then appearing in the Z feedback that tries to cancel it. Here we describe an active noise cancellation process that nullifies this motion by adding a drive signal into the existing Z feedback loop. The drive is digitally calculated by actively monitoring vibrations measured by an accelerometer placed in-situ close to the STM head. By transferring the vibration cancellation effort to this drive signal, vibration-created noise in the Z-feedback (during topography) or current (during spectroscopy) is significantly reduced. This inexpensive and easy solution, requiring no major instrumental modifications, is ideal for those looking to place their STM in a noisier environment, for example in the presence of active refrigeration systems (e.g. pulse tube cryocoolers) or coupled to high-vibration instrumentation. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1229138.

  16. Threshold height (h'F)c for the meridional wind to play a deterministic role in the bottom side equatorial spread F and its dependence on solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, N.; Devasia, C. V.; Sridharan, R.; Tiwari, Diwakar

    2004-06-01

    Detailed investigations have been carried out on the occurrence of bottom side Equatorial Spread F (ESF) and the thermospheric meridional wind characteristics just before the former's initiation using ground based ionospheric data corresponding to the equinoctial periods of 1993-1998, from Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.5°E, dip = 0.5°N) and Sriharikota (13.7°N, 80.2°E, dip ~ 10°N) in the Indian longitudes. Critical analysis of the base height of the F-region h'F at the time of triggering of ESF and the polarity of the meridional winds revealed that, if the h'F is above a certain level ESF occurred under both equatorward and poleward wind conditions. Below that level, ESF occurred only when equatorward winds were present implying that the equatorward winds must somehow be able to offset the reduced growth rate of the plasma instability responsible for ESF. A plausible explanation linking Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and the consequent Equatorial Temperature and Wind Anomaly (ETWA) and the consequent neutral dynamics effectively enabling the instability even at lower height has been offered. The threshold height (h'F)c gleaned out on the basis of the polarity of the meridional winds has been shown to bear a linear relation to the solar activity and sheds light on the enigmatic short and long term variability of ESF.

  17. Bottom pressure, vertical acoustic round-trip travel time, and near-bottom currents data collected by Current-and-Pressure-recording Inverted Echo Sounders (CPIES), as part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS), from 26 April 2004 to 25 June 2006 in the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan (NODC Accession 0073269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains Current and Pressure recording Inverted Echo Sounder (CPIES) measurements collected during the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) under...

  18. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  19. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  20. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  1. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  2. Frontotemporal oxyhemoglobin dynamics predict performance accuracy of dance simulation gameplay: temporal characteristics of top-down and bottom-up cortical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Sato, Keisuke; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Bronner, Shaw; Noah, J Adam

    2014-01-15

    We utilized the high temporal resolution of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to explore how sensory input (visual and rhythmic auditory cues) are processed in the cortical areas of multimodal integration to achieve coordinated motor output during unrestricted dance simulation gameplay. Using an open source clone of the dance simulation video game, Dance Dance Revolution, two cortical regions of interest were selected for study, the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the frontopolar cortex (FPC). We hypothesized that activity in the FPC would indicate top-down regulatory mechanisms of motor behavior; while that in the MTG would be sustained due to bottom-up integration of visual and auditory cues throughout the task. We also hypothesized that a correlation would exist between behavioral performance and the temporal patterns of the hemodynamic responses in these regions of interest. Results indicated that greater temporal accuracy of dance steps positively correlated with persistent activation of the MTG and with cumulative suppression of the FPC. When auditory cues were eliminated from the simulation, modifications in cortical responses were found depending on the gameplay performance. In the MTG, high-performance players showed an increase but low-performance players displayed a decrease in cumulative amount of the oxygenated hemoglobin response in the no music condition compared to that in the music condition. In the FPC, high-performance players showed relatively small variance in the activity regardless of the presence of auditory cues, while low-performance players showed larger differences in the activity between the no music and music conditions. These results suggest that the MTG plays an important role in the successful integration of visual and rhythmic cues and the FPC may work as top-down control to compensate for insufficient integrative ability of visual and rhythmic cues in the MTG. The relative relationships between these cortical areas indicated

  3. Neutralization of Electric Current, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong; Torok, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav; Leake, James E.

    2017-08-01

    There has been an ongoing debate on whether or not the electric currents in solar active regions (ARs) are neutralized. Current-neutralization means that the direct coronal currents that connect the AR polarity centers are surrounded by return currents of equal total strength and opposite direction, i.e. the net current is zero. Using data from SDO/HMI, we analyze the direct and return currents in four ARs; two eruptive ones and two non-eruptive ones. The eruptive ARs produced strong flares and CMEs (successful eruptions), while the non-eruptive ARs include one quiet AR that produced no strong eruptions and one that produced a series of failed eruptions. It is found that the eruptive ARs have strong net currents and large shear of the magnetic field near their polarity inversion lines (PILs). In contrast, the currents in the non-eruptive ARs are well neutralized, and the PIL-shear is rather small. This agrees with MHD simulations that demonstrate a relationship between the level of current neutralization and the amount of magnetic shear near the PIL. We discuss the implications of these results for the capability of ARs to produce strong eruptions.

  4. 137Cs and plutonium isotopes accumulation/retention in bottom sediments and soil in Lithuania: A case study of the activity concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides and their provenance before the start of operation of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčiulionienė, D; Lukšienė, B; Montvydienė, D; Jefanova, O; Mažeika, J; Taraškevičius, R; Stakėnienė, R; Petrošius, R; Maceika, E; Tarasiuk, N; Žukauskaitė, Z; Kazakevičiūtė, L; Volkova, M

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operations of the new nuclear facilities in Belarus is of great value worldwide. Inland water bodies in Lithuania (specifically the Neris River, the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon) are near the site of the Belarusian NPP under construction and, for this reason, sediments and flooded soils from these sensitive areas were analysed for radiocesium and plutonium isotopes (macrophytes were analysed only for 137Cs) in 2011-2012. The 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity concentrations in bottom sediments from the Nemunas River, sampled in 1995-1996 and re-calculated to the year 2016, were compared with those of 2011-2012. The obtained activity of 137Cs in bottom sediments of the Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon varied from 1 Bq/kg to 47.0 Bq/kg. The activity of 137Cs in the tested soils ranged from 5.3 B g/kg to 32.9 Bq/kg. The 239+240Pu activity in bottom sediments of the studied sampling sites varied between 0.016 and 0.34 Bq/kg and in flooded soils from 0.064 to 0.55 Bq/kg. The 238Pu activity values were very low or lower than the detection limit. The activity of 137Cs in macrophytes varied from values lower than the detection limit to 6 Bq/kg. A strong positive linear correlation for bottom sediments was calculated between: 239+240Pu and total organic carbon (TOC), r = 0.86, p-value 0.01; 239+240Pu and silt, r = 0.80, p-value 0.029; 137Cs and silt, r = 0.78, p-value 0.04; and 137Cs and TOC, r = 0.85, p-value 0.015. The similar peculiarities of 137Cs and 239+240Pu accumulation in bottom sediments and flooded soil allow us to assume that 137Cs can be used as a tracer for 239+240Pu in the initial stage of searching for radionuclide accumulation zones. A remaining impact of the Chernobyl fallout in average comprised: in the Lower Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon sediments - 51%, in the Middle Nemunas River -90% and in the floodplains of the Nemunas River - 59

  5. An overview of EU and USA intestinal transplant current activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, A; Panaro, F; Iyer, K R

    2017-04-01

    To report the current activity of intestinal transplantation in Europe (EU) and Unites States of America (USA), underlining outcomes in the last 5 years and discussing possible trends. Data review of results was performed through analysis of ITR and UNOS registries, Eurotransplant and newsletter transplant reports, congress abstracts, international published literature, personal communications and hospital web sites. The absence in Europe of a sole organization collecting donors and the presence of many low-volume centers (less than 5 cases/year) makes the difference with USA: in the last 5 years (2010-2014), 222 intestinal/multivisceral transplants have been performed in EU countries (most of them in the UK), while in USA, the number of transplants achieved 634 procedures in the same period of time. Waiting list mortality remains unacceptable in both continents. Improved short-term results, with over 80% survival at 1 year, have been achieved in the busiest transplant centers likely due to immune-induction agents, more recently to innovative cross match strategies and optimizing organ allocation, but long term outcomes are still inferior to other organ transplants. Most long-term survivors were reintegrated to society with self-sustained socioeconomic status. The economic burden for the society is high and related costs are different between USA and EU (and inside Europe between member state's health-care systems), but cost-effectiveness for intestinal transplantation still needs to be proved. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop in EU and USA together with surgical and medical rehabilitation of patients affected by short gut syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Fundamental Active Current Adaptive Linear Neural Networks for Photovoltaic Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ammirrul Atiqi Mohd Zainuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvement of a harmonics extraction algorithm, known as the fundamental active current (FAC adaptive linear element (ADALINE neural network with the integration of photovoltaic (PV to shunt active power filters (SAPFs as active current source. Active PV injection in SAPFs should reduce dependency on grid supply current to supply the system. In addition, with a better and faster harmonics extraction algorithm, the SAPF should perform well, especially under dynamic PV and load conditions. The role of the actual injection current from SAPF after connecting PVs will be evaluated, and the better effect of using FAC ADALINE will be confirmed. The proposed SAPF was simulated and evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink first. Then, an experimental laboratory prototype was also developed to be tested with a PV simulator (CHROMA 62100H-600S, and the algorithm was implemented using a TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Processor (DSP. From simulation and experimental results, significant improvements in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD, time response and reduction of source power from grid have successfully been verified and achieved.

  7. On the potential for a bottom active layer below coastal permafrost: the impact of seawater on permafrost degradation imaged by electrical resistivity tomography (Hornsund, SW Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Marek; Strzelecki, Mateusz C.; Traczyk, Andrzej; Kondracka, Marta; Lim, Michael; Migała, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) of permafrost developed in coastal zone of Hornsund, SW Spitsbergen. The measurements were made using the Wenner-Schlumberger electrode array with an electrode spacing 5 m for overview and 1.5 or 1 m spacing for detailed imaging. Using the ERT inversion results, we studied the 'sea influence' on deeper parts of the frozen ground. During the investigations we tested hypotheses that the operation of seawater on shoreface may cause changes in the shape of the coastal permafrost base, and that the impact of seawater on more inland permafrost depends on the shape of the shoreline (differently in the embayment, and differently in a headland exposed to the open sea). Our study was inspired by previous ground temperature measurements conducted in several boreholes located in study area which captured the propagation of ground heat waves from the base of permafrost. Our resistivity models indicate a major differentiation in terms of resistivity of permafrost in the coastal zone. The resistivity measures obtained in deeper layers of ground were so low (< 100 Ω·m) that in the 'warm permafrost' conditions they exclude a possibility of freezing the coastal sediments and bedrock from the side of the sea. Low values continue further inland, going down under the surface layer of permafrost with higher resistivity. We interpret this situation as an influence of seawater's temperature and salinity on deeper parts of permafrost. Based on the measurements conducted within two years, we stated a change in the distribution of resistivity, both in the active layer, and in coastal front of permafrost in deeper parts of the ground. As observed in the inverse models, the geometric arrangement between the fields of extreme resistivity indicates the existence of a bottom active layer by the permafrost base, depending on thermal and chemical characteristics of seawater. The measurements conducted in

  8. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  9. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  10. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillioz, M.; Grober, R.; Kapuvari, A.

    2014-01-01

    of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element V-tb are fulfilled...

  11. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between one and two billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination o...

  13. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  14. Power-Integrated Circuit Active Leakage Current Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Bulacio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the failures of induction motors become insulation faults, causing a permanent damage. Using differential current transformers, a system capable of insulation fault detection was developed, based on the differential relay protection scheme. Both signal injection and fault detection circuitry were integrated in a single chip. The proposed scheme is faster than other existing protection and not restricted to protect induction motors, but several other devices (such as IGBTs and systems. This paper explains the principle of operation of fault protection scheme and analyzes an integrated implementation through simulations and experimental results. A power-integrated circuit (PIC implementation is presented.

  15. Current activities at the Seoul National University AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.C. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jckim@phya.snu.ac.kr; Youn, M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, C.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Y.M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.R. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ashok, M. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, J.W. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.K. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Our {sup 14}C AMS activities have attained an annual throughput of ca. 1000 unknowns, however our {sup 10}Be AMS system development has not been completed yet. Meanwhile, we have diversified our research activities to other areas related to {sup 14}C AMS in order to broaden the application of our accelerator and to provide additional support to the local archeological community. An external beam PIXE system has been constructed on our MPS beam-line and obsidians from Paleolithic sites were investigated for provenance studies. The results showed that PIXE measurements of obsidians, when combined with neutron activation analysis, is a very powerful tool for provenance studies. Measurements of the natural radioactivity of the U-series have been carried out, not only for U/Th bone dating, but also as an investigation of a possibility of characterizing paleosols from various Paleolithic sites. The criteria for the validity of {sup 14}C ages derived from soil organics have been obtained. As an example of the successful application of our {sup 14}C AMS facility, the dating of burials at the Tavan Tolgoi site in Mongolia, containing the burials of artifacts from the era of Chinggis Khan, is described.

  16. Mechanotransduction and hyperpolarization-activated currents contribute to spontaneous activity in mouse vestibular ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Geoffrey C.; Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R.

    2014-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide–sensitive current, Ih, is present in vestibular hair cells and vestibular ganglion neurons, and is required for normal balance function. We sought to identify the molecular correlates and functional relevance of Ih in vestibular ganglion neurons. Ih is carried by channels consisting of homo- or heteromeric assemblies of four protein subunits from the Hcn gene family. The relative expression of Hcn1–4 mRNA was examined using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) screen. Hcn2 was the most highly expressed subunit in vestibular neuron cell bodies. Immunolocalization of HCN2 revealed robust expression in cell bodies of all vestibular ganglion neurons. To characterize Ih in vestibular neuron cell bodies and at hair cell–afferent synapses, we developed an intact, ex vivo preparation. We found robust physiological expression of Ih in 89% of cell bodies and 100% of calyx terminals. Ih was significantly larger in calyx terminals than in cell bodies; however, other biophysical characteristics were similar. Ih was absent in calyces lacking Hcn1 and Hcn2, but small Ih was still present in cell bodies, which suggests expression of an additional subunit, perhaps Hcn4. To determine the contributions of hair cell mechanotransduction and Ih to the firing patterns of calyx terminals, we recorded action potentials in current-clamp mode. Mechanotransduction currents were modulated by hair bundle defection and application of calcium chelators to disrupt tip links. Ih activity was modulated using ZD7288 and cAMP. We found that both hair cell transduction and Ih contribute to the rate and regularity of spontaneous action potentials in the vestibular afferent neurons. We propose that modulation of Ih in vestibular ganglion neurons may provide a mechanism for modulation of spontaneous activity in the vestibular periphery. PMID:24638995

  17. [Active teaching-learning methodologies in health education: current debates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Girardi-de-Mendonça, José Márcio; de Morais-Pinto, Neila Maria; Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Pinto-Porto, Cláudia; Moreira, Tânia; Hoffmann, Leandro Marcial Amaral

    2008-12-01

    The vertiginous transformations of the contemporary societies have been raising questions concerning aspects of professional education. Such questions have been raised in a more and more incisive way. This debate gains a new shape when applied to health work, where theory and practice cannot be dissociated, and where the development of an integral vision of the human being and the amplification of the concept care are essential for a proper performance. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the main methodological transformations in the education process of health professionals, with emphasis to active teaching-learning methodologies.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol: current progress and future prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostro, Antonia; Papalia, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    During the last few years the scientific community has shown a considerable interest in the study of plant materials as sources of new compounds to be processed into antimicrobial agents. In this context, carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, has emerged for its wide spectrum activity extended to food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria as well as human, animal and plant pathogenic microorganisms including drug-resistant and biofilm forming microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of carvacrol has been attributed to its considerable effects on the structural and functional properties of cytoplasmatic membrane. The data reported in this review provide an overview of the published literature regarding the antimicrobial properties of carvacrol and the recent patents claimed in order to highlight its future applications as a new antimicrobial agent. These could concern either the natural preservation in the cosmetic and food industries or an alternative which supports the conventional antimicrobial protocols. Interestingly, carvacrol alone or associated with one or more synergistic products could be incorporated in different formulations for biomedical and food packaging applications. However, more detailed safety investigations and in vivo studies should be carried out so that this molecule could be used in the future.

  19. Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review the evidence that the package of labour interventions collectively called "active management"--namely, strict diagnostic criteria for labour, early amniotomy, early use of oxytocin, and continuous professional support--reduce rates of caesarean sections and operative vaginal delivery in first labours. DESIGN--Review of observational data, supplemented by evidence from four separate overviews of relevant randomised trials previously published as part of the Cochrane Collaboration pregnancy and childbirth database. RESULTS--Observational data do not permit a clear conclusion. There have been no randomised trials of the total package of active management or of the use of strict diagnostic criteria alone, but trials of early amniotomy, early oxytocin, and these interventions combined do not suggest that these interventions are effective in reducing rates of caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries. In contrast, the provision of continuous professional support in labour seems to reduce both types of operative delivery, although the effect on caesarean sections is confined to those settings where non-professional companions are not normally present in labour. CONCLUSIONS--Delivery units should endeavour to provide continuous professional support in labour, but routine use of amniotomy and early oxytocin is not recommended. PMID:8081133

  20. Bottom hole blowout preventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, D.H.

    1991-04-24

    An automatically controlled ball-valve type bottom-hole blowout preventer is provided for use in drilling oil or gas wells. The blowout preventer of the invention operates under normal drilling conditions in a fully open position with an unrestricted bore. This condition is maintained by a combination of spring and mud flow pressure acting against the upper surfaces of the valve. In the event of a well kick or blowout, pressures from gas or fluid volumes acting against the lower surfaces of the valve force it into the fully closed position. A system of ports and check valves within the blowout preventer forces hydraulic fluid from one chamber to another. The metering effect of these ports determines the rate of closure of the valve, thereby allowing normal running and pulling of the drill string or tubing, without interference to pipe fill-up or drainage, from valve closure. The blowout preventer is placed in a subassembly that is an integral part of the drill string and can be incorporated in a string in any location. 3 figs.

  1. Micronuclei in lymphocytes from currently active uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelzer, Friedo; Freitinger Skalicka, Zuzana; Havrankova, Renata [Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Hon, Zdenek; Rosina, Jozef [Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Department of Humanities and Medicine, Kladno (Czech Republic); Navratil, Leos [Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Department of Humanities and Medicine, Kladno (Czech Republic); Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, Charles University in Prague, Department of Clinical Radiobiology, First Medical Faculty, Prague (Czech Republic); Skopek, Jiri [Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, Charles University in Prague, Department of Clinical Radiobiology, First Medical Faculty, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Micronuclei can be used as markers of past radiation exposure, but only few studies have dealt with uranium miners. In this paper, we report on micronuclei in lymphocytes from individuals currently working at Rozna, Czech Republic, the last functioning uranium mine in the European Union. A modified micronucleus-centromere test was applied to assess the occurrence of micronuclei in stimulated lymphocytes, as well as their content in terms of whole chromosomes or fragments. Compared with unexposed individuals, the miners had higher frequencies of micronucleus-containing lymphocytes and higher percentages of micronuclei without centromeres, and the differences were significant for both parameters (0.74 ± 0.60 vs. 0.50 ± 0.42, p = 0.017 and 49 ± 44 vs. 12 ± 21, p = 0.0002; means ± standard deviations). There were also significant correlations between one or other of these parameters on the one hand and various dose values on the other, in particular with a 'retrievable' dose, that is, a dose whose effect should still be recognisable in lymphocytes assuming a half-life of 3 years. The 'retrievable' dose at which a doubling of the micronucleus frequency was observed was around 35 mSv, corresponding to a total dose of 90 mSv received while working in the mines. Altogether, our data show that the micronucleus-centromere test is a valuable tool for the assessment of past radiation exposure in uranium miners. The scatter in the data is of course far too great to allow individual dosimetry, but for groups of a few dozen exposed individuals, the method can be used to monitor doses clearly below 100 mSv. (orig.)

  2. Transcranial alternating current stimulation enhances individual alpha activity in human EEG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaehle, Tino; Rach, Stefan; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2010-01-01

    .... Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been introduced to directly modulate the ongoing rhythmic brain activity by the application of oscillatory currents on the human scalp...

  3. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Kaag, A.M.; Munkhof, H.E. van den; Reneman, L.; Homberg, J.R.; Sabbe, B.; Brink, W. van den; Wingen, G. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the

  4. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Kaag, Anne Marije; van den Munkhof, Hanna E.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Homberg, Judith R.; Sabbe, Bernard; van den Brink, Wim; van Wingen, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the prefrontal

  5. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  6. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Alingh, Rolinde A.; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  7. Nanoelectronics from the bottom up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-11-01

    Electronics obtained through the bottom-up approach of molecular-level control of material composition and structure may lead to devices and fabrication strategies not possible with top-down methods. This review presents a brief summary of bottom-up and hybrid bottom-up/top-down strategies for nanoelectronics with an emphasis on memories based on the crossbar motif. First, we will discuss representative electromechanical and resistance-change memory devices based on carbon nanotube and core-shell nanowire structures, respectively. These device structures show robust switching, promising performance metrics and the potential for terabit-scale density. Second, we will review architectures being developed for circuit-level integration, hybrid crossbar/CMOS circuits and array-based systems, including experimental demonstrations of key concepts such lithography-independent, chemically coded stochastic demultipluxers. Finally, bottom-up fabrication approaches, including the opportunity for assembly of three-dimensional, vertically integrated multifunctional circuits, will be critically discussed.

  8. [The effect of niflumic acid on gamma aminobutyric acid activated current in DRG neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Jing; Ma, Ke-Tao; Cheng, Hong-Ju; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the modulatory effect of niflumic acid (NFA) on gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated currents of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rat. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the NFA- and GABA-activated currents in neurons freshly dissociated from rat DRG neurons. Application of NFA(0.1 - 100 micromol/L) could induce concentration-dependent outward currents in some cells (21/48,43.75%), and GABA (0.1 - 100 micromol/L) could induce concentration-dependent inward currents in some cells(150/159,94.32%). NFA-(100 micromol/L) and GABA-(100 micromol/L) activated currents were (0.27 +/- 0.06) nA (n = 12) and (1.29 +/- 0.72) nA (n = 53) respectively. However, pre-application of NFA (0.1 - 100 micromol/L) could inhibit the GABA-activated inward current which was identified to be GABAA receptor-mediated current. The inhibitory effects of NFA were concentration-dependent. NFA could not alter the EC50 (about 30 micromol/L) and inverse potential (about -10 mV) of GABA-activated current (P > 0.05). Pre-application of NFA exerts a more strong inhibitory effect on the peak value of GABA-activated current.

  9. Scrape-off-layer currents during MHD activity and disruptions in HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Desanto, S.; Battey, A.; Bialek, J.; Brooks, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report scrape-off layer (SOL) current measurements during MHD mode activity and disruptions in the HBT-EP tokamak. Currents are measured via Rogowski coils mounted on tiles in the low-field-side SOL, toroidal jumpers between otherwise-isolated vessel sections, and segmented plasma current Rogowski coils. These currents strongly depend on the plasma's major radius, mode amplitude, and mode phase. Plasma current asymmetries and SOL currents during disruptions reach 4% of the plasma current. Asymmetric toroidal currents between vessel sections rotate at tens of kHz through most of the current quench, then symmetrize once Ip reaches 30% of its pre-disruptive value. Toroidal jumper currents oscillate between co- and counter-Ip, with co-Ip being dominant on average during disruptions. Increases in local plasma current correlate with counter-Ip current in the nearest toroidal jumper. Measurements are interpreted in the context of two models that produce contrary predictions for the toroidal vessel current polarity during disruptions. Plasma current asymmetries are consistent with both models, and scale with plasma displacement toward the wall. Progress of ongoing SOL current diagnostic upgrades is also presented. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  10. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  11. A NEW METHOD TO CALCULATE COMPENSATION CURRENT IN PARALLEL ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALTINTAŞ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, active power filter plays an important role in reducing harmonic current and reactive power in power lines. The reliability and effectiveness of an active power filter depends basically on three characteristics. These are the modulation method, the design characteristics of the PWM modulator and the method implemented to generate compensation current. For the last one, there are many proposed methods. Most of them complicated and hence difficult to implement and adjust. In this study, a new method to calculate compensation current is improved and tested in single-phase parallel active power filter controlled by microcontroller. Experimental and simulation results are presented in the paper.

  12. Voltage-activated currents through calcium channels in normal bovine lactotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, P; Ingram, C D; Mason, W T

    1987-11-01

    The properties of whole cell Ba2+ currents were studied in immunocytochemically identified, normal bovine lactotrophs using the patch clamp technique. In the current clamp mode, current-induced and spontaneous Ba2+ action potentials were recorded. These were of longer duration and showed less inactivation with stimulation frequency when compared with Na+ action potentials. Under voltage clamp, isolated Ba2+ currents had an activation threshold of about -35 mV and peak value at -15 mV to +20 mV. Inactivation of the current to a potential-dependent, non-zero steady-state level indicated the presence of one rapidly and one slowly inactivating component to the current. These two components were also distinguished by: (1) the voltage dependence of the inactivation time constant of the current, (2) the differential frequency-dependent inactivation of the peak and steady-state currents, and (3) the presence of two half-inactivation potentials for the current. Analysis of the ensemble current variance of the non-inactivating component gave a single-channel amplitude of 0.19 pA at 0 mV and a slope conductance of 3 pS. Fluctuation analysis of the voltage-activated Ba2+ current noise revealed two time constants, one which was voltage dependent and the other was independent of potential. The contribution of these two currents to Ca2+-dependent hormone secretion remains to be clarified.

  13. Modelling and analysis of the transformer current resonance in dual active bridge converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Zhan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the parasitic capacitances of the transformer and inductor in Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converters, resonance happens in the transformer currents. This high frequency resonant current flowing into the full bridges will worsen their soft-switching performance and thereby reduce its efficiency....... In order to study the generation mechanism of this current resonance, the impedance of the transformer and inductor with parasitic components is modelled in this digest. Then, based on the impedance model, an approach is proposed to mitigate the current resonance. Finally, both the impedance model...... and the current resonance mitigation approach are verified by simulated results....

  14. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Merve Kaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception towards a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global contrast is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes.

  15. Passivity enhancement by series LC filtered active damper with zero current reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Grid connected converters with the LCL filters suffer from the instability problems when they are connected to grid with non-negligible impedance. The active damper is an effective tool for improving the stability of the grid connected converters against the various grid conditions. The operation...... principle of the active damper in previous study is mimicking a damping resistance at the resonance frequencies, which is an intuitive approach but requires a complicated current reference generation algorithm and a high-bandwidth current control loop. However, the stability of the grid connected converters...... can be improved by enhancing the passivity of the total admittance seen by the grid, which allows for a zero current reference and a much simpler current controller for the active damper. To show the performance of the active damper with zero reference, this paper first carries out the impedance based...

  16. 77 FR 71018 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... agencies. Other: None. Abstract: This collection will gather information related to youth and their... Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment Request: National Youth Gang Survey AGENCY: Office of...

  17. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. 76 FR 59160 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Semi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Rural Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, Stalking, and Child Abuse... Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Semi...

  19. Bottom side profiles for two close stations at the southern crest of the EIA: Differences and comparison with IRI-2012 and NeQuick2 for low and high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, L.; Venkatesh, K.; Pillat, V. G.; Pezzopane, M.; Fagundes, P. R.; Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Bottom side electron density profiles for two stations at the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), São José dos Campos (23.1°S, 314.5°E, dip latitude 19.8°S; Brazil) and Tucumán (26.9°S, 294.6°E, dip latitude 14.0°S; Argentina), located at similar latitude and separated by only 20° in longitude, have been compared during equinoctial, winter and summer months under low (year 2008, minimum of the solar cycle 23/24) and high solar activity (years 2013-2014, maximum of the solar cycle 24) conditions. An analysis of parameters describing the bottom side part of the electron density profile, namely the peak electron density NmF2, the height hmF2 at which it is reached, the thickness parameter B0 and the shape parameter B1, is carried out. Further, a comparison of bottom side profiles and F-layer parameters with the corresponding outputs of IRI-2012 and NeQuick2 models is also reported. The variations of NmF2 at both stations reveal the absence of semi-annual anomaly for low solar activity (LSA), evidencing the anomalous activity of the last solar minimum, while those related to hmF2 show an uplift of the ionosphere for high solar activity (HSA). As expected, the EIA is particularly visible at both stations during equinox for HSA, when its strength is at maximum in the South American sector. Despite the similar latitude of the two stations upon the southern crest of the EIA, the anomaly effect is more pronounced at Tucumán than at São José dos Campos. The differences encountered between these very close stations suggest that in this sector relevant longitudinal-dependent variations could occur, with the longitudinal gradient of the Equatorial Electrojet that plays a key role to explain such differences together with the 5.8° separation in dip latitude between the two ionosondes. Furthermore at Tucumán, the daily peak value of NmF2 around 21:00 LT during equinox for HSA is in temporal coincidence with an impulsive enhancement of hmF2

  20. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  1. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine...

  2. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-01-01

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine...

  3. Looped-chain-based active current sharing strategy in DC microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dexiong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable energy sources in modern electric grids have drawn increasing attention nowadays. In order to effectively manage large-scale renewable energy sources and achieve flexible and efficient operation, the concept of microgrids have been proposed. Considering the nature of DC outputs in many distributed energy resources (DERs, DC microgrids have been extensively studied in the past years. Among the operational issues in DC microgrids, current sharing issues have become an important topic since it is highly relevant to the operation of DC microgrids. By adopting a proper design of current sharing strategy in DC microgrids, the current rating violations in each interface converter can be successfully avoided. In this paper, a looped-chain-based active current sharing strategy is proposed to realize high accuracy current sharing in DC microgrids. In particular, the output current is shared between the neighboring interface converters. Hence, following a clockwise or counter-clockwise order, a looped-chain-based control diagram can be established to share the reference value of the output current. A final status in the whole DC microgrid is that the output current of every interface converter is equalized. Hence, the desired current sharing objective can be satisfied. A MATLAB simulation model is established to verify the proposed looped-chain-based active current sharing strategy in DC microgrids.

  4. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-01-01

    To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. The current implementation status of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme in 12 rehabilitation centres and 5 hospitals with a rehabilitation department was described by scoring fidelity and satisfaction. Seventy-one rehabilitation professionals filled out a questionnaire on how sports and physical activity, including stimulation activities, were implemented into rehabilitation care. Total fidelity scores (in %) were calculated for each organization. Professionals' satisfaction was rated on a scale from 1 to 10. In most organizations sports and physical activity were to some extent integrated during and after rehabilitation (fidelity scores: median = 54%, IQR = 23%). Physical activity stimulation was not always embedded as standard component of a rehabilitation treatment. Professionals' satisfaction rated a median value of 8.0 (IQR = 0.0) indicating high satisfaction rates. The fidelity outcome showed that activities to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation were integrated into rehabilitation care, but not always delivered as standardized component. These findings have emphasized the importance to focus on integrating these activities into routines of organizations. Implications for Rehabilitation Components of an evidence-based programme to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation can be used to measure the current status of the integration of sports and physical activity in rehabilitation care in a structural and effective way. The method described in the current study can be used to compare the content of the rehabilitation care regarding the integration of sports and physical activity among organizations both on a national and international level

  5. Non-neutralized Electric Currents in Solar Active Regions and Flare Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Park, Sung-Hong; Guerra, Jordan A.

    2017-11-01

    We explore the association of non-neutralized currents with solar flare occurrence in a sizable sample of observations, aiming to show the potential of such currents in solar flare prediction. We used the high-quality vector magnetograms that are regularly produced by the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, and more specifically, the Space weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP). Through a newly established method that incorporates detailed error analysis, we calculated the non-neutralized currents contained in active regions (AR). Two predictors were produced, namely the total and the maximum unsigned non-neutralized current. Both were tested in AR time-series and a representative sample of point-in-time observations during the interval 2012 - 2016. The average values of non-neutralized currents in flaring active regions are higher by more than an order of magnitude than in non-flaring regions and correlate very well with the corresponding flare index. The temporal evolution of these parameters appears to be connected to physical processes, such as flux emergence and/or magnetic polarity inversion line formation, that are associated with increased solar flare activity. Using Bayesian inference of flaring probabilities, we show that the total unsigned non-neutralized current significantly outperforms the total unsigned magnetic flux and other well-established current-related predictors. It therefore shows good prospects for inclusion in an operational flare-forecasting service. We plan to use the new predictor in the framework of the FLARECAST project along with other highly performing predictors.

  6. Modelling and analysis of the transformer current resonance in dual active bridge converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Zhan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the parasitic capacitances of the transformer and inductor in Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converters, resonance happens in the transformer currents. This high frequency resonant current flowing into the full bridges will worsen their soft-switching performance and thereby reduce its efficiency....... In order to study the generation mechanism of this current resonance, the impedance of the transformer and inductor with parasitic components is modelled in this digest. Then, based on the impedance model, an approach is proposed to mitigate the current resonance. Finally, both the impedance model...

  7. Hyperpolarization-Activated Currents and Subthreshold Resonance in Granule Cells of the Olfactory Bulb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ruilong; Ferguson, Katie A; Whiteus, Christina B; Meijer, Dimphna H; Araneda, Ricardo C

    2016-01-01

    An important contribution to neural circuit oscillatory dynamics is the ongoing activation and inactivation of hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih). Network synchrony dynamics play an important role in the initial processing of odor signals by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory

  8. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  9. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  10. Erosion of a California Undercurrent eddy by bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector S.; Gomez-Valdes, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Subsurface eddies are ubiquitous features in eastern boundary current systems. These phenomena tend to modulate the across-shore distribution of heat and biogeochemical tracers. A California Undercurrent eddy was detected by shipboard observations in October 2009 off the northern Baja California continental slope. The spatiotemporal variation in the California Undercurrent eddy is investigated by using a mesoscale-resolving hindcast ocean simulation. A poleward coastal current that is driven by an upwelling-wind relaxation event and the coastline geometry instigated the separation of the California Undercurrent from the slope, forming a meander-like structure, which evolved as a mesoscale eddy-like structure. The latter structure evolved as a subsurface eddy with a warm anomaly core, a distinctive feature of eddies that form from the California Undercurrent. During the initial stage, the subsurface eddy presented a cone-shape form, with the maximum amplitude of the relative vorticity in the upper section. The inviscid effect of the irregular bottom topography altered both the initial direction of propagation and the initial eddy shape: the propagation direction of the eddy changed from north-south to southwest, and the shape changed from a cone shape to a subsurface lens shape. The strong eddy-topography interactions triggered a sign change in the heat flux direction from the environment toward the eddy and vice versa through the horizontally divergent component of the velocity field, which accelerated the eddy's decay. This study shows the relevance of the synoptic wind stress events and the irregularity of the bottom topography on the mesoscale eddy activity in the southern portion of the California Current.

  11. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  12. Contribution of Field Strength Gradients to the Net Vertical Current of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the contribution of field strength gradients for the degree of net vertical current (NVC) neutralization in active regions (ARs). We used photospheric vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158 obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO and Hinode. The vertical component of the electric current is decomposed into twist and shear terms. The NVC exhibits systematic evolution owing to the presence of the sheared polarity inversion line between rotating and shearing magnetic regions. We found that the sign of shear current distribution is opposite in dominant pixels (60%–65%) to that of twist current distribution, and its time profile bears no systematic trend. This result indicates that the gradient of magnetic field strength contributes to an opposite signed, though smaller in magnitude, current to that contributed by the magnetic field direction in the vertical component of the current. Consequently, the net value of the shear current is negative in both polarity regions, which when added to the net twist current reduces the direct current value in the north (B z > 0) polarity, resulting in a higher degree of NVC neutralization. We conjecture that the observed opposite signs of shear and twist currents are an indication, according to Parker, that the direct volume currents of flux tubes are canceled by their return currents, which are contributed by field strength gradients. Furthermore, with the increase of spatial resolution, we found higher values of twist, shear current distributions. However, the resolution effect is more useful in resolving the field strength gradients, and therefore suggests more contribution from shear current for the degree of NVC neutralization.

  13. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Reneman, Liesbeth; Homberg, Judith R; Sabbe, Bernard; van den Brink, Wim; van Wingen, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in response to biologically salient stimuli in an emotional face matching task (EFMT). Amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity during the EFMT were assessed in 51 cocaine using males and 32 non-drug-using healthy males using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Within the cocaine use group, we explored whether amygdala activation was associated with age of first use of cocaine and duration of cocaine use to distinguish between amygdala activation alterations as a cause or a consequence of cocaine use. We observed hyperactivity of the amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus and reduced amygdala connectivity with the anterior cingulate gyrus in response to angry and fearful facial expressions in current cocaine users compared to controls. Increased amygdala activation was independently associated with earlier age of first cocaine use and with longer exposure to cocaine. Our findings suggest that amygdala hyperactivity to biologically salient stimuli may represent a risk factor for an early onset of cocaine use and that prolonged cocaine use may further sensitize amygdala activation. High amygdala activation to emotional face processing in current cocaine users may result from low prefrontal control of the amygdala response to such stimuli. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Paralleling power MOSFETs in their active region: Extended range of passively forced current sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1989-01-01

    A simple passive circuit that improves current balance in parallelled power MOSFETs that are not precisely matched and that are operated in their active region from a common gate drive are exhibited. A nonlinear circuit consisting of diodes and resistors generates the differential gate potential required to correct for unbalance while maintaining low losses over a range of current. Also application of a thin tape wound magnetic core to effect dynamic current balance is reviewed, and a simple theory is presented showing that for operation in the active region the branch currents tend to revert to their normal unbalanced values even if the core is not driven into saturation. Results of several comparative experiments are given.

  15. Spatial autocorrelation in the response of soft-bottom marine benthos to gas extraction activities: the case of amphipods in the Ionian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dario; Caruso, Tancredi; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The spatial distributions of marine fauna and of pollution are both highly structured, and thus the resulting high levels of autocorrelation may invalidate conclusions based on classical statistical approaches. Here we analyse the close correlation observed between proxies for the disturbance associated with gas extraction activities and amphipod distribution patterns around four hydrocarbon platforms. We quantified the amount of variation independently accounted for by natural environmental variables, proxies for the disturbance caused by platforms, and spatial autocorrelation. This allowed us to demonstrate how each of these three factors significantly affects the community structure of amphipods. Sophisticated statistical techniques are required when taking into account spatial autocorrelation; nevertheless our data demonstrate that this approach not only enables the formulation of robust statistical inferences but also provides a much deeper understanding of the subtle interactions between human disturbance and natural factors affecting the structure of marine invertebrates communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of reference current extraction methods for DSP implementation in active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardar, K.; Akpinar, E.; Suergevil, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kaynaklar Kampusu, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Generation of current references constitutes an important part in the control of active power filters (APFs) used in power system, since any inaccuracy in reference currents yields to incorrect compensation. In this paper, harmonic detection methods for generating reference currents have been evaluated on the basis of three-phase balanced and unbalanced load currents processed in the digital signal processor (DSP). The advantages and disadvantages of several methods found in the literature have been discussed on the basis of simulation results. Three of these methods have been programmed in the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) unit and their performances are evaluated from the viewpoint of practical considerations. Finally, instantaneous reactive power method to estimate the APF reference currents is implemented and its practical results obtained under balanced and unbalanced loads are given. (author)

  17. Active power filter for medium voltage networks with predictive current control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verne, Santiago A.; Valla, Maria I. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    A transformer less Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for medium voltage distribution networks based on Multilevel Diode Clamped Inverter is presented in this paper. Converter current control is based on a Model Predictive strategy, which gives very fast current response. Also, the algorithm includes voltage balancing capability which is essential for proper converter operation. The presented current control algorithm is naturally applicable to converters with an arbitrary number of levels with reduced computational effort by virtue of the incorporation of switching restrictions which are necessary for reliable converter operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by means of computer simulations. (author)

  18. Effects of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on distance relay protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Ren, L.; Song, M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-11-01

    On the basis of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) proposed in previous work, the effects of this type SFCL on distance relay protection are studied in this paper. Under the condition that the active SFCL is placed behind the relay element, its current-limiting impedance will be added into the measured impedance between the relay and the fault points. As a result, in order to prevent the refused operation of the relay, the measured impedance should be revised. According to the three different operation modes of the active SFCL, we present the corresponding three modified formulas. Furthermore, using MATLAB, the model of the dual-source power system with the active SFCL is built, and the impacts of the active SFCL on the distance relay protection are studied in detail under the different current-limiting modes and fault distances. The simulation results show that: without using the modified formulas, the introduction of the active SFCL will reduce the protection distance of the relay, and in the case that the modified formulas are adopted, the three modes of the active SFCL will not affect the measured impedance of the relay, and further the validities of the proposed modified formulas can be testified.

  19. Search for active-sterile neutrino mixing using neutral-current interactions in NOvA

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Anfimov, N.; Antoshkin, A.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Behera, B.; Bending, S.; Bernstein, R.

    2017-01-01

    We report results from the first search for sterile neutrinos mixing with active neutrinos through a reduction in the rate of neutral-current interactions over a baseline of 810 km between the NOvA detectors. Analyzing a 14-kton detector equivalent exposure of 6.05 × 1020 protons-on-target in the NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 95 neutral-current candidates at the Far Detector compared with 83.5 � 9.7ðstatÞ � 9.4ðsystÞ events predicted assuming mixing only occurs between active ...

  20. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  1. [A review of current studies on leisure activities performed by community-dwelling elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2010-02-01

    This article reviewed and summarized the findings of previously published studies on the leisure activities of community elders over 55 years of age. A total of 17 related articles, published before 2008, were identified in the search of electronic databases, which included the Chinese Periodical Table of Contents Index Image System, CEPS, Medline and Ageline. Leisure activities measurements used in this study consisted of recoding activities either categorically or by frequency. The majority of research indicated that elderly engage in primarily static activities and that participation in leisure activities had positive effects on cognitive and psychological health. However, inconsistencies in results were found due to differences in measurement tools and sample populations used among studies, making it difficult to conduct a valid comparison of specific features of elderly leisure activities. Most current leisure activity studies utilize cross-sectional research methodologies with restricted topics, which result in limited applicability of research results. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should develop instruments to assess leisure activities that correspond to local conditions identified through qualitative research. With such, researchers can study different age groups by applying relevant ageing theories to construct empirical data related to current elderly leisure activities.

  2. Bottom Production, Spectroscopy and Lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, I give a brief overview of the latest results related to the production, spectroscopy and lifetimes of bottom and charm hadrons. Several interesting experimental results were presented in this field in 2012. The focus will be on the findings of experiments performed at hadron colliders, since the LHC is taking up most of the stage this year, with a brief mention about electron-proton collider results.

  3. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  4. Calcium-activated potassium current clamps the dark potential of vertebrate rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, A; Pelucchi, B; Rispoli, G

    2001-07-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors respond to light with a graded hyperpolarization from a membrane potential in the dark of approximately -35 mV. The present work investigates the physiological role of the Ca2+-activated K+ current in the photovoltage generation in mechanically isolated rods from salamander retina. Membrane current or voltage in isolated rods was recorded from light- and dark-adapted rods under voltage- or current-clamp conditions, respectively. In light-adapted rods of the salamander, selective blockade of Ca2+-activated K+ channels by means of charybdotoxin depolarized the plasma membrane of current-clamped rods by approximately 30 mV, from a resting potential of approximately -35 mV. A similar depolarization was observed if external Ca2+ (1 mM) was substituted with Ba2+ or Sr2+. Under control conditions, the injection of currents of increasing amplitude (up to -100 pA, to mimic the current entering the rod outer segment) could not depolarize the membrane potential beyond a saturating value of approximately -20 mV. However, in the presence of charybdotoxin, rods depolarized up to +20 mV. In experiments with dark-adapted current-clamped rods, charybdotoxin perfusion lead to transient depolarizations up to 0 mV and steady-state depolarizations of approximately 5 mV above the dark resting potential. Finally, the recovery phase of the voltage response to a flash of light in the presence of charybdotoxin showed a transient overshoot of the membrane potential. It was concluded that Ca2+-activated K+ current is necessary for clamping the rod photovoltage to values close to the dark potential, thus allowing faithful single photon detection and correct synaptic transmission.

  5. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  6. Activation of neurokinin 3 receptor increases Na(v)1.9 current in enteric neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copel, Carine; Osorio, Nancy; Crest, Marcel; Gola, Maurice; Delmas, Patrick; Clerc, Nadine

    2009-04-01

    The intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) of the guinea pig enteric nervous system express Na(v)1.9 sodium channels that produce a persistent TTX-resistant current having a low activation threshold and slow gating kinetics. These neurons receive slow EPSPs induced mainly by the activation of neurokinin 3 receptors (NK3r). Here, we demonstrate that senktide, a specific NK3r agonist, potentiates the Na(v)1.9 current (I(Nav1.9)) in IPANs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from IPANs in duodenum longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparations, we show that short (1-5 s) and long (up to 1 min) applications of senktide, increase the I(Nav1.9) peak current up to 13-fold. The effect, blocked by a NK3r antagonist SB235375 is transient, lasting approximately 2 min and is due to a negative shift of the activation voltage by approximately 20 mV and of fast inactivation by approximately 10 mV. As a consequence, the window current resulting from the product of the activation and fast inactivation curves is shifted and enlarged. The transient effect of senktide is likely to be due to the fast desensitization of NK3r. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation with phorbol or oleoyl acetylglycerol also increases I(Nav1.9), although persistently, by inducing similar voltage-dependent changes. Current-clamp experiments showed that I(Nav1.9) modulation by senktide lowers action potential threshold and increases excitability. The increase in I(Nav1.9) by NK3r activation is also likely to amplify slow EPSPs generated in the IPANs. These changes in excitability potentially have a profound effect on the entire enteric synaptic circuit and ultimately on gut motility and secretion.

  7. Direct Anandamide Activation of TRPV1 Produces Divergent Calcium and Current Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel J. Fenwick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, primary vagal afferent neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1 at their central terminals where it contributes to quantal forms of glutamate release. The endogenous membrane lipid anandamide (AEA is a putative TRPV1 agonist in the brain, yet the extent to which AEA activation of TRPV1 has a neurophysiological consequence is not well established. We investigated the ability of AEA to activate TRPV1 in vagal afferent neurons in comparison to capsaicin (CAP. Using ratiometric calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp recordings we confirmed that AEA excitatory activity requires TRPV1, binds competitively at the CAP binding site, and has low relative affinity. While AEA-induced increases in peak cytosolic calcium were similar to CAP, AEA-induced membrane currents were significantly smaller. Removal of bath calcium increased the AEA current with no change in peak CAP currents revealing a calcium sensitive difference in specific ligand activation of TRPV1. Both CAP- and AEA-activated TRPV1 currents maintained identical reversal potentials, arguing against a major difference in ion selectivity to resolve the AEA differences in signaling. In contrast with CAP, AEA did not alter spontaneous glutamate release at NTS synapses. We conclude: (1 AEA activation of TRPV1 is markedly different from CAP and produces different magnitudes of calcium influx from whole-cell current; and (2 exogenous AEA does not alter spontaneous glutamate release onto NTS neurons. As such, AEA may convey modulatory changes to calcium-dependent processes, but does not directly facilitate glutamate release.

  8. Activation of neurokinin 3 receptor increases Nav1.9 current in enteric neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copel, Carine; Osorio, Nancy; Crest, Marcel; Gola, Maurice; Delmas, Patrick; Clerc, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) of the guinea pig enteric nervous system express Nav1.9 sodium channels that produce a persistent TTX-resistant current having a low activation threshold and slow gating kinetics. These neurons receive slow EPSPs induced mainly by the activation of neurokinin 3 receptors (NK3r). Here, we demonstrate that senktide, a specific NK3r agonist, potentiates the Nav1.9 current (INav1.9) in IPANs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from IPANs in duodenum longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparations, we show that short (1–5 s) and long (up to 1 min) applications of senktide, increase the INav1.9 peak current up to 13-fold. The effect, blocked by a NK3r antagonist SB235375 is transient, lasting ∼2 min and is due to a negative shift of the activation voltage by ∼20 mV and of fast inactivation by ∼10 mV. As a consequence, the window current resulting from the product of the activation and fast inactivation curves is shifted and enlarged. The transient effect of senktide is likely to be due to the fast desensitization of NK3r. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation with phorbol or oleoyl acetylglycerol also increases INav1.9, although persistently, by inducing similar voltage-dependent changes. Current-clamp experiments showed that INav1.9 modulation by senktide lowers action potential threshold and increases excitability. The increase in INav1.9 by NK3r activation is also likely to amplify slow EPSPs generated in the IPANs. These changes in excitability potentially have a profound effect on the entire enteric synaptic circuit and ultimately on gut motility and secretion. PMID:19204045

  9. Possibilities for Estimating Horizontal Electrical Currents in Active Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursyak, Yu. A.; Abramenko, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Part of the "free" magnetic energy associated with electrical current systems in the active region (AR) is released during solar flares. This proposition is widely accepted and it has stimulated interest in detecting electrical currents in active regions. The vertical component of an electric current in the photosphere can be found by observing the transverse magnetic field. At present, however, there are no direct methods for calculating transverse electric currents based on these observations. These calculations require information on the field vector measured simultaneously at several levels in the photosphere, which has not yet been done with solar instrumentation. In this paper we examine an approach to calculating the structure of the square of the density of a transverse electrical current based on a magnetogram of the vertical component of the magnetic field in the AR. Data obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) for the AR of NOAA AR 11283 are used. It is shown that (1) the observed variations in the magnetic field of a sunspot and the proposed estimate of the density of an annular horizontal current around the spot are consistent with Faraday's law and (2) the resulting estimates of the magnitude of the square of the density of the horizontal current {j}_{\\perp}^2 = (0.002- 0.004) A2/m4 are consistent with previously obtained values of the density of a vertical current in the photosphere. Thus, the proposed estimate is physically significant and this method can be used to estimate the density and structure of transverse electrical currents in the photosphere.

  10. Anemonia sulcata toxins modify activation and inactivation of Na+ currents in a crayfish neurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, K; Rathmayer, W

    1985-05-01

    The effects of three toxins (ATX I, II, III) isolated from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata were studied in the soma membrane of a crustacean neurone under voltage-clamp conditions. All three toxins affected the action potentials and the Na+ currents in a similar manner. The lowest concentrations tested (10 nM, 20 nM and 50 nM for ATX I, II and III, respectively) had pronounced selective effects on the Na+ current. No effect on K+ or Ca2+ currents was observed with concentrations up to 5 microM. In the presence of ATX the Na+ inactivation was incomplete even with pulses of 700 ms length or strong depolarizing prepulses. Besides the effects on the inactivation process ATX affected also the activation of the Na+ current. In cells treated with ATX the negative resistance branch of the peak Na+ current voltage relation was shifted by -5 mV to -20 mV. The time to peak was increased for small depolarizations (up to -30 mV) and the rate of rise (delta I/delta t) was enlarged by ATX. A slow activating current component was also observed after depolarizing prepulses or if the Na+ current was outward. The decay of the Na+ tail currents was considerably prolonged after the application of ATX if the membrane was repolarized to potentials more positive than about -60 mV. Repetitive stimulation led to a shortening of the action potential in ATX II treated neurones. A simultaneous and parallel decrement of the peak and plateau current was observed with depolarizing voltage steps.

  11. Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, G.; Marzocca, P.; Jha, R.; Alstorm, B.; Obied, S.; Kabir, P.; Shahrabi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop effective control strategies for separation control of an airfoil with a single hinge flap. The specific objectives are: Develop an active control architecture for flow control around an airfoil with flap. Design, fabricate, a wind tunnel test of a high lift wing (with flap) with integrated actuators and sensors. Design, development and fabrication of synthetic jet actuators. Develop appropriate control strategy for application to the airfoil. Wind tunnel testing of the high lift wing at various angles of attack and flap positions with closed loop control.

  12. Bottom friction. A practical approach to modelling coastal oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Jensen, Palle; Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Tornsfeldt Sørensen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Coastal processes imply the interaction of the atmosphere, the sea, the coastline and the bottom. The spatial gradients in this area are normally large, induced by orographic and bathymetric features. Although nowadays it is possible to obtain high-resolution bathymetry, the details of the seabed, e.g. sediment type, presence of biological material and living organisms are not available. Additionally, these properties as well as bathymetry can also be highly dynamic. These bottom characteristics are very important to describe the boundary layer of currents and waves and control to a large degree the dissipation of flows. The bottom friction is thus typically a calibration parameter in numerical modelling of coastal processes. In this work, we assess this process and put it into context of other physical processes uncertainties influencing wind-waves and currents in the coastal areas. A case study in the North Sea is used, particularly the west coast of Denmark, where water depth of less than 30 m cover a wide fringe along the coast, where several offshore wind farm developments are being carried out. We use the hydrodynamic model MIKE 21 HD and the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW to simulate atmosphere and tidal induced flows and the wind wave generation and propagation. Both models represent state of the art and have been developed for flexible meshes, ideal for coastal oceanography as they can better represent coastlines and allow a variable spatial resolution within the domain. Sensitivity tests to bottom friction formulations are carried out into context of other processes (e.g. model forcing uncertainties, wind and wave interactions, wind drag coefficient). Additionally, a map of varying bottom properties is generated based on a literature survey to explore the impact of the spatial variability. Assessment of different approaches is made in order to establish a best practice regarding bottom friction and coastal oceanographic modelling. Its contribution is also

  13. Cesium blockade of delayed outward currents and electrically induced pacemaker activity in mammalian ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, C F; Katzung, B G

    1981-05-01

    The effects of Cs+, 5-25 mM, were studied in cat and guinea pig papillary muscles using voltage clamp and current clamp techniques. In solutions containing normal K+, the major effects of Cs+ were depolarization of the resting potential and reduction of the delayed outward current (ixl) between -80 and -20 mV. Both inward and outward portions of the isochronal current voltage relation (l-s clamps) were reduced by extracellular Cs+. This resulted in a substantial reduction of inward rectification and, by subtraction from the normal I-V relationship, the definition of a Cs+-sensitive component of current. Under current clamp conditions, 5-10 mM Cs+ produced a dose-dependent slowing of repetitive firing induced by depolarization. At higher concentrations (25 mM) the resting potential was depolarized and repetitive activity could not be induced by further depolarization. However, release of hyperpolarizing pulses was followed by prolonged bursts of repetitive action potentials, suggesting partial reversal of blockade or participation of another pacemaker process. The experimental results and a numerical simulation show that under readily attainable conditions, reduction in an outward pacemaker current may slow pacemaker activity.

  14. 75 FR 26185 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Current Collection: Comment Request-Innovations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Agency Information Collection Activities; Current Collection...; Correction AGENCY: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion published a document in the Federal...

  15. 75 FR 22357 - Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion; Agency Information Collection Activities; Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., students, technology professionals and gamers). Estimated Number of Innovations for Healthy Kids Challenge...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion; Agency Information Collection Activities; Current Collection: Comment Request--Innovations for Healthy Kids Challenge To Promote the Open Government...

  16. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  17. Urinary plasmin activates collecting duct ENaC current in preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, KB; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Svenningsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    In nephrotic syndrome, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered from plasma to the urinary space and activated along the tubular system. In vitro, plasmin increases ENaC current by proteolytic cleavage of the γ-subunit. It was hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with plasmin-dependent ability...

  18. 77 FR 69658 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of a Currently Approved Collection: Annuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Information Collection Activities: Revision of a Currently Approved Collection: Annuity Broker Qualification..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... Broker Qualification Declaration Form. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  19. 77 FR 56860 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Annuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Annuity Broker Declaration... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses... approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Annuity Broker Qualification Declaration Form. (3...

  20. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  1. Environmental complexity of a port: Evidence from circulation of the water masses, and composition and contamination of bottom sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, L; Carbone, C; Consani, S; Vagge, G; Canepa, G; Capello, M

    2017-06-15

    Ports are complex environments due to their complicated geometry (quays, channels, and piers), the presence of human activities (vessel traffic, shipyards, industries, and discharges), and natural factors (stream and torrent inputs, sea action, and currents). Taking these factors into consideration, we have examined the marine environment of a port from the point of view of the circulation of the water masses, hydrological characteristics, distribution of the sediment grain-size, mineralogical characteristics, and metal concentrations of the bottom sediments. Our results show that, in the case of the Port of Genoa (north-western Italy), the impact of human activities (such as a coal power-plant, oil depots, shipyards, dredging of the bottom sediments, etc.), natural processes (such as currents, fresh water and sediment inputs from the torrents), and the morphology of the basin, are important factors in the sediment, water, and metal distributions that have given rise to a complex environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  3. Green Compact Temperature Evolution during Current-Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Morsi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-activated tip-based sintering (CATS is a novel process where spark plasma sintering conditions are applied through an electrically conducting tip on a locally controlled area on a green powder compact/bed. The localization of electric current in CATS allows for unique temporal and spatial current and temperature distributions within the tip and powder compact. In this paper, special experimental setups were used to monitor the temperature profiles in the tip and at multiple locations on the surface of nickel powder compacts. A variation in the initial green density was found to have a significant effect on the maximum temperature in the tip as well as the temperature distribution across the powder compact. In general, the lowest green density specimens displayed the best conditions for localized densification. The concept of effective current density is introduced and results are discussed in relation to the densification parameter.

  4. Mitigation of Wind Power Fluctuation by Active Current Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2013-01-01

    Wind shear and tower shadow are the sources of power fluctuation of grid connected wind turbines during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based variable speed wind turbine with a partial-scale back-to-back power...... converter in Simulink. A simple and effective method of wind power fluctuations mitigation by active current control of DFIG is proposed. It smoothes the generator output active power oscillations by adjusting the active current of the DFIG, such that the power oscillation is stored as the kinetic energy...... of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL 1.5MW upwind reference wind turbine model. The simulation results are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed control method....

  5. Hysteresis current control of single-phase shunt active power filter using frequency limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, M.H.; Petkova, M.P. [Technical Univ. of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kostov, A. [Fadata Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)]|[Technical Univ. of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Power Electronics

    2007-07-01

    The hysterisis-current control of a single phase shunt active power filter (APF) was examined with particular reference to the frequency limitation that occurs when power devices are switched over. This limitation increases the stability to electromagnetic influences and facilitates the filtration of radio interference to the source network. Computer simulation results were presented along with results from an experimental oscilogramme displaying the source voltage and current under APF operation. The filter operation was performed under two types of loads. The first was a linear load representing active and inductive type load, while the second was a non-linear load representing a single-phase bridge uncontrolled rectifier with active-capacitive type load. APFs minimized harmonics in electrical networks and were shown to be an effective means for improving electromagnetic compatibility in electrical devices with low power factor. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Development of Crashworthy Bottom and Side Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naar, H.; Kujala, P.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2002-01-01

    structures. The first structure is a conventional double bottom. In the second structure (presently protected through a patent) the bottom plating is stiffened with hat-profiles instead of bulb profiles. In the third structure the outer shell is an all-steel sandwich panel. In the fourth structure the bottom...

  7. Predicting the activity phase of a follower neuron with A-current in an inhibitory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Bose, Amitabha; Nadim, Farzan

    2008-09-01

    The transient potassium A-current is present in most neurons and plays an important role in determining the timing of action potentials. We examine the role of the A-current in the activity phase of a follower neuron in a rhythmic feed-forward inhibitory network with a reduced three-variable model and conduct experiments to verify the usefulness of our model. Using geometric analysis of dynamical systems, we explore the factors that determine the onset of activity in a follower neuron following release from inhibition. We first analyze the behavior of the follower neuron in a single cycle and find that the phase plane structure of the model can be used to predict the potential behaviors of the follower neuron following release from inhibition. We show that, depending on the relative scales of the inactivation time constant of the A-current and the time constant of the recovery variable, the follower neuron may or may not reach its active state following inhibition. Our simple model is used to derive a recursive set of equations to predict the contribution of the A-current parameters in determining the activity phase of a follower neuron as a function of the duration and frequency of the inhibitory input it receives. These equations can be used to demonstrate the dependence of activity phase on the period and duty cycle of the periodic inhibition, as seen by comparing the predictions of the model with the activity of the pyloric constrictor (PY) neurons in the crustacean pyloric network.

  8. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J.P.; Chung, W.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Ciobanu, C.I.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; De Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H.C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M.J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J.E.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jha, M.K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, H.W.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R.L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, S.W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D.O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martinez, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M.S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Griso, S.Pagan; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A.A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D.E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Rao, K.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R.St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G.L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G.A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzman, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R.L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W.C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.S.; Yun, J.C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A_CP(BsKpi) = +0.39 +- 0.15 stat +- 0.08 syst, and bottom baryons, A_CP(Lb->ppi) = +0.03 +- 0.17 stat +- 0.05 syst and A_CP(Lb->pK) = +0.37 +- 0.17 +- 0.03 syst. In addition, we measure CP violation in Bd-->Kpi decays with 3.5sigma significance, A_CP(B->Kpi) = -0.086 +- 0.023 stat +- 0.009 syst, in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of Bs-->K+K- and B0-->pi+pi- decays are also updated.

  9. A Comprehensive Review on the Properties of Coal Bottom Ash in Concrete as Sound Absorption Material

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Hannan Nurul Izzati Raihan; Shahidan Shahiron; Ali Noorwirdawati; Maarof Mohamad Zulkhairi

    2017-01-01

    The government is currently implementing policies to increase the usage of coal as fuel for electricity generation. At the same time, the dependency on gas will be reduced. In addition, coal power plants in Malaysia produce large amounts of industrial waste such as bottom ash which is collected in impoundment ponds (ash pond). However, millions of tons of coal ash (bottom ash) waste are collected in ponds near power plant stations. Since bottom ash has been classified as hazardous material th...

  10. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  11. A metabolic biofuel cell: conversion of human leukocyte metabolic activity to electrical currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl A; Zhang, Yingze; Cui, X Tracy; Bradberry, Charles W; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J

    2011-05-10

    An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  12. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  13. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle......-dependent changes in the capacity for conductive Cl- transport. It is suggested that in ELA cells, entrance into the S phase requires an increase in VRAC activity and/or an increased potential for regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and at the same time a decrease in CaCC magnitude....

  14. Resuspension events in a micro-tidal shallow bay using coupled wave-current model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Cerralbo, Pablo; Solà, Laura; Espino, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we investigate the observed resuspension events in Alfacs Bay (semi-enclosed bay in The Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea) using a wave-current coupled model. This bay is characterized by a micro-tidal environment and a relevant seiche activity which may lead velocities more than 50 cm·s-1. A set of ADCP and OBS moored at sea bottom were used to acquire hydrodynamic and optical information. The time-series observations showed an evident relation between seiche activity and the sediment resuspension events. The implementation of a wave-current coupled model shows a strong spatial variability in terms of combined bottom stress. Significant wave hight of 0.4 m are modeled during energetic wind events. A significant correlation between the resuspension events and the combined bottom stress are observed. The numerical results reveal two different mechanism to explain the resuspension events observed: during the Seiche episodes the combined bottom stresses are controlled by the current-induced bottom stress. Otherwise during strong winds the combined bottom stress are controlled by the wave-induced bottom stress.

  15. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    existing test methods are resource intensive in regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to, and guidance for existing test methods, and reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high throughput screening could be used......In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...

  16. Transcranial alternating current stimulation enhances individual alpha activity in human EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Zaehle

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electrical stimulation of the human cortex by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been instrumental in a number of important discoveries in the field of human cortical function and has become a well-established method for evaluating brain function in healthy human participants. Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has been introduced to directly modulate the ongoing rhythmic brain activity by the application of oscillatory currents on the human scalp. Until now the efficiency of tACS in modulating rhythmic brain activity has been indicated only by inference from perceptual and behavioural consequences of electrical stimulation. No direct electrophysiological evidence of tACS has been reported. We delivered tACS over the occipital cortex of 10 healthy participants to entrain the neuronal oscillatory activity in their individual alpha frequency range and compared results with those from a separate group of participants receiving sham stimulation. The tACS but not the sham stimulation elevated the endogenous alpha power in parieto-central electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Additionally, in a network of spiking neurons, we simulated how tACS can be affected even after the end of stimulation. The results show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP selectively modulates synapses depending on the resonance frequencies of the neural circuits that they belong to. Thus, tACS influences STDP which in turn results in aftereffects upon neural activity.The present findings are the first direct electrophysiological evidence of an interaction of tACS and ongoing oscillatory activity in the human cortex. The data demonstrate the ability of tACS to specifically modulate oscillatory brain activity and show its potential both at fostering knowledge on the functional significance of brain oscillations and for therapeutic application.

  17. Methods for Management of Innovation Activity Risks in the Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmak Viktoriia O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical foundations of management of innovation activity risks. Relevance of the selected topic of research in connection with both volatile external environment and crisis developments in the country's economy has been substantiated. A semantic analysis of the concept of «risk» has been done, showing the presence of both positive and negative sides of risk situations. A scheme for enterprise management in the light of implementing innovation activity has been elaborated. An improved classification of innovation activity has been provided, creating the opportunity to focus on identifying risks in the process of allocating a specific direction of innovation activity. The main stages of identification and analysis of risks of innovation activity has been allocated. Methods for management of innovation activity risks in the current conditions have been developed. A concept of «system for management of innovation activity risks» has been formulated, its major features for enterprise has been outlined. The main requirements for a system for management of innovation activity risks have been allocated.

  18. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    M) in the pipette solution. The current was found to be a calcium-activated chloride current with an absolute requirement for cyclic GMP (EC50 6.4 microM). The current could be activated by the constitutively active subunit of PKG. Current activation was blocked by the protein kinase G antagonist Rp-8-Br-PET...... no voltage or time dependence. It was inhibited by nickel and zinc ions in the micromolar range, but was unaffected by cobalt and had a low sensitivity to inhibition by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, DIDS, and IAA-94. The properties of this current in mesenteric artery smooth-muscle cells...

  19. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical decoupling...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...

  20. CNTF inhibits high voltage activated Ca2+ currents in fetal mouse cortical neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ninna R; Christophersen, Palle; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors yield neuroprotection by mechanisms that may be related to their effects as inhibitors of apoptosis as well as their effects on ion channels. The effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on high-threshold voltage-activated Ca channels in cultured fetal mouse brain cortical...... neurones was investigated. Addition of CNTF into serum-free growth medium resulted in delayed reduction of the Ca2+ currents. The currents decreased to 50% after 4 h and stabilized at this level during incubation with CNTF for 48 h. Following removal of CNTF the inhibition was completely reversed after 18...... h. CNTF reduced the current of all pharmacological subtypes of Ca channels as shown by use of selective blockers of L, N, and P/Q type Ca channels (nifedipine, omega-conotoxin MVIIA, omega-agatoxin IVA). The Ca channel depression was mediated via the CNTF receptor, because enzymatic cleavage...

  1. Active to sterile neutrino mixing limits from neutral-current interactions in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; /Fermilab; Auty, D.J.; /Sussex U.; Ayres, D.S.; /Argonne; Backhouse, C.; /Oxford U.; Barr, G.; /Oxford U.; Bishai, M.; /Brookhaven; Blake, A.; /Cambridge U.; Bock, G.J.; /Fermilab; Boehnlein, D.J.; /Fermilab; Bogert, D.; /Fermilab; Cavanaugh, S.; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Tufts U.

    2011-04-01

    Results are reported from a search for active to sterile neutrino oscillations in the MINOS long-baseline experiment, based on the observation of neutral-current neutrino interactions, from an exposure to the NuMI neutrino beam of 7.07 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. A total of 802 neutral-current event candidates is observed in the Far Detector, compared to an expected number of 754 {+-} 28(stat.) {+-} 37(syst.) for oscillations among three active flavors. The fraction f{sub s} of disappearing {nu}{sub {mu}} that may transition to {nu}{sub s} is found to be less than 22% at the 90% C.L.

  2. Past-year sports participation, current physical activity, and fitness in urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennie A; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations between sports participation, physical activity, fitness level, and body mass index in ninth-grade girls. Data were analyzed for 221 participants who completed sports participation and physical activity recall questionnaires, an aerobic step test, and height and weight measurement. On average, participants had low physical activity levels, and many were overweight or obese (47%). About half participated in at least one organized sport in the previous year. Sports participants had higher current estimated energy expenditure compared with non-sports participants (P=.0007). Those who participated on at least two teams were more likely to complete the three-stage step test without reaching their target heart rate than those who did not participate on any teams (Psports participation was positively associated with current physical activity and fitness levels. Urban adolescent girls who participate in sports have increased energy expenditure and higher fitness levels, indicating sports as a potential strategy to improve physical activity and health in this population.

  3. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  4. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  5. An Improved Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on Parallel Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhiwu; Xie, Yunxiang; Wang, Yingpin; Guan, Yuanpeng; Li, Lanfang; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2017-05-01

    Harmonic detection technology plays an important role in the applications of active power filter. The accuracy and real-time performance of harmonic detection are the precondition to ensure the compensation performance of Active Power Filter (APF). This paper proposed an improved instantaneous reactive power harmonic current detection algorithm. The algorithm uses an improved ip -iq algorithm which is combined with the moving average value filter. The proposed ip -iq algorithm can remove the αβ and dq coordinate transformation, decreasing the cost of calculation, simplifying the extraction process of fundamental components of load currents, and improving the detection speed. The traditional low-pass filter is replaced by the moving average filter, detecting the harmonic currents more precisely and quickly. Compared with the traditional algorithm, the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of the grid currents is reduced from 4.41% to 3.89% for the simulations and from 8.50% to 4.37% for the experiments after the improvement. The results show the proposed algorithm is more accurate and efficient.

  6. Apelin-13 enhances arcuate POMC neuron activity via inhibiting M-current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kun Lee

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a key element of the neural circuits that control energy homeostasis. Specific neuronal populations within the hypothalamus are sensitive to a variety of homeostatic indicators such as circulating nutrient levels and hormones that signal circulating glucose and body fat content. Central injection of apelin secreted by adipose tissues regulates feeding and glucose homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved in these physiological processes remain unclear. Here we examine the electrophysiological impact of apelin-13 on proopiomelanocortin (POMC neuron activity. Approximately half of POMC neurons examined respond to apelin-13. Apelin-13 causes a dose-dependent depolarization. This effect is abolished by the apelin (APJ receptor antagonist. POMC neurons from animals pre-treated with pertussis toxin still respond to apelin, whereas the Gβγ signaling inhibitor gallein blocks apelin-mediated depolarization. In addition, the effect of apelin is inhibited by the phospholipase C and protein kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, single-cell qPCR analysis shows that POMC neurons express the APJ receptor, PLC-β isoforms, and KCNQ subunits (2, 3 and 5 which contribute to M-type current. Apelin-13 inhibits M-current that is blocked by the KCNQ channel inhibitor. Therefore, our present data indicate that apelin activates APJ receptors, and the resultant dissociation of the Gαq heterotrimer triggers a Gβγ-dependent activation of PLC-β signaling that inhibits M-current.

  7. Nicotine inhibits activation of microglial proton currents via interactions with α7 acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mami; Kobayashi, A I

    2017-01-01

    Alpha 7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in microglia and are involved in the suppression of neuroinflammation. Over the past decade, many reports show beneficial effects of nicotine, though little is known about the mechanism. Here we show that nicotine inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proton (H+) currents and morphological change by using primary cultured microglia. The H+ channel currents were measured by whole-cell patch clamp method under voltage-clamp condition. Increased H+ current in activated microglia was attenuated by blocking NADPH oxidase. The inhibitory effect of nicotine was due to the activation of α7 nAChR, not a direct action on the H+ channels, because the effects of nicotine was cancelled by α7 nAChR antagonists. Neurotoxic effect of LPS-activated microglia due to inflammatory cytokines was also attenuated by pre-treatment of microglia with nicotine. These results suggest that α7 nAChRs in microglia may be a therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  8. Predictive current control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on linear active disturbance rejection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunpeng

    2017-01-01

    The compatibility problem between rapidity and overshooting in the traditional predictive current control structure is inevitable and difficult to solve by reason of using PI controller. A novel predictive current control (PCC) algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is presented in this paper. In order to displace PI controller, the LADRC strategy which consisted of linear state error feedback (LSEF) control algorithm and linear extended state observer (LESO), is designed based on the mathematic model of PMSM. The purpose of LSEF is to make sure fast response to load mutation and system uncertainties, and LESO is designed to estimate the uncertain disturbances. The principal structures of the proposed system are speed outer loop based on LADRC and current inner loop based on predictive current control. Especially, the instruction value of qaxis current in inner loop is derived from the control quantity which is designed in speed outer loop. The simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink software, and the results illustrate that the dynamic and static performances of proposed system are satisfied. Moreover the robust against model parameters mismatch is enhanced obviously.

  9. Dilution in a Dense Bottom Jet in Cross Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    A 3-dimensional numerical model describing the dilution in the near field around dense vertical jets in a cross flow is formulated and validated against laboratory experiments. The validation shows that the model reproduces the flow pattern well, though the dilution is underestimated by 20%. The ...

  10. Leptin regulation of inward membrane currents, electrical activity and LH release in isolated bovine gonadotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Mancera, Belisario; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo; Felix, Ricardo

    2017-09-09

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, is recognized as one of the signals involved in the onset of reproductive activity. The leptin receptor has been found in hypothalamic neurons and pituitary gonadotropes, suggesting that the hormone may act at both sites to stimulate the secretion of GnRH and consequently, FSH and LH. In response to a stimulus such as a hypothalamic secretagogue, gonadotropes respond with changes in electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) and hormone release. The main aim of this report was to investigate whether leptin promotes a change in the electrical and secretory activities of bovine gonadotropes. After 48 h of treatment with leptin (10 nM) significant changes in the action potential properties were observed in gonadotropes, which included an increase in amplitude, time-to-pike and post-hyperpolarization, as well as a decrease in firing threshold. Likewise, leptin induced a significant (∼1.3-fold) up-regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel current density, and a selective increase (∼2.1-fold) in Ca(2+) current density through high voltage-activated channels. Consistent with this, leptin enhanced GnRH-induced secretion of LH measured by ELISA. We suggest that leptin enhances membrane expression of voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, which results in a modulation of the action potential properties and an increase in hormone release from gonadotropes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lasting modulation of in vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is emerging as a versatile tool to affect brain function. While the acute neurophysiological effects of stimulation are well understood, little is know about the long-term effects. One hypothesis is that stimulation modulates ongoing neural activity, which then translates into lasting effects via physiological plasticity. Here we used carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in hippocampal rat slices to establish whether prolonged constant current stimulation has a lasting effect on endogenous neural activity. During 10 min of stimulation, the power and frequency of gamma oscillations, as well as multiunit activity, were modulated in a polarity specific manner. Remarkably, the effects on power and multiunit activity persisted for more than 10 min after stimulation terminated. Using a computational model we propose that altered synaptic efficacy in excitatory and inhibitory pathways could be the source of these lasting effects. Future experimental studies using this novel in vitro preparation may be able to confirm or refute the proposed hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Single Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel currents recorded from toad olfactory cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ricardo; Mura, Casilda V; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2016-04-25

    Odor transduction, occurring in the chemosensory cilia of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons, is triggered by guanosine triphosphate-coupled odor receptors and mediated by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade, where cAMP opens cationic non-selective cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Calcium enters through CNG gates Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, allowing a Cl(-) inward current that enhances the depolarization initiated by the CNG-dependent inward current. The anoctamin channel 2, ANO2, is considered the main Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel of olfactory transduction. Although Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel-dependent currents in olfactory sensory neurons were reported to be suppressed in ANO2-knockout mice, field potentials from their olfactory epithelium were only modestly diminished and their smell-dependent behavior was unaffected, suggesting the participation of additional Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel types. The Bestrophin channel 2, Best2, was also detected in mouse olfactory cilia and ClCa4l, belonging to the ClCa family of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, were found in rat cilia. Best2 knock-out mice present no electrophysiological or behavioral impairment, while the ClCa channels have not been functionally studied; therefore, the overall participation of all these channels in olfactory transduction remains unresolved. We explored the presence of detectable Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in toad olfactory cilia by recording from inside-out membrane patches excised from individual cilia and detected unitary Cl(-) current events with a pronounced Ca(2+) dependence, corresponding to 12 and 24 pS conductances, over tenfold higher than the aforementioned channels, and a approx. fivefold higher Ca(2+) affinity (K0.5 = 0.38 µM). Remarkably, we observed immunoreactivity to anti-ClCa and anti-ANO2 antibodies in the olfactory cilia, suggesting a possible cooperative function of both channel type in chemotransduction. These results

  13. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  14. Bottom-pressure observations of deep-sea internal hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the ocean, sloping bottom topography is important for the generation and dissipation of internal waves. Here, the transition of such waves to turbulence is demonstrated using an accurate bottom-pressure sensor that was moored with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and high-resolution

  15. An overview of currently available methods and future trends for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kiško

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methodological limitations make comparison of various instruments difficult, although the number of publications on physical activity assessment has extensively increased. Therefore, systematization of techniques and definitions is essential for the improvement of knowledge in the area. Objective: This paper systematically describes and compares up-to-date methods that assess habitual physical activity and discusses main issues regarding the use and interpretation of data collected with these techniques. Methods: A general outline of the measures and techniques described above is presented in review form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, positive aspects and shortcomings. Results and conclusions: The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity assessment methods include goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free-living conditions, requiring the use of complementary methods. In not too distant future, devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, GPS devices. It is important to perform other activities, such as detecting and responding to physical activity in a real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery and intervention.

  16. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  17. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M; Martínez, Luis

    2017-02-13

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl(-) currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent "crossover" dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes.

  18. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill......The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate......, as well as the migration of landfill gas, preventing contact between gas and groundwater. The bottom lining system is composed of a relatively impermeable liner or lining system. This very low hydraulic conductivity system controls the movement of the leachate out of the landfill. The bottom lining system...

  19. The Bottom Line: Industry and the Environment in South Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All economic activity depends on the environment. This simple fact has spurred the international community into giving more and more attention to the environment in general and the environmental performance of industry in particular. The Bottom Line is a major new contribution to the debates on industry and the ...

  20. Selecting category specific visual information: Top-down and bottom-up control of object based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The ability to select, within the complexity of sensory input, the information most relevant for our purposes is influenced by both internal settings (i.e., top-down control) and salient features of external stimuli (i.e., bottom-up control). We here investigated using fMRI the neural underpinning of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, as well as their effects on extrastriate areas processing visual stimuli in a category-selective fashion. We presented photos of bodies or buildings embedded into frequency-matched visual noise to the subjects. Stimulus saliency changed gradually due to an altered degree to which photos stood-out in relation to the surrounding noise (hence generating stronger bottom-up control signals). Top-down settings were manipulated via instruction: participants were asked to attend one stimulus category (i.e., "is there a body?" or "is there a building?"). Highly salient stimuli that were inconsistent with participants' attentional top-down template activated the inferior frontal junction and dorsal parietal regions bilaterally. Stimuli consistent with participants' current attentional set additionally activated insular cortex and the parietal operculum. Furthermore, the extrastriate body area (EBA) exhibited increased neural activity when attention was directed to bodies. However, the latter effect was found only when stimuli were presented at intermediate saliency levels, thus suggesting a top-down modulation of this region only in the presence of weak bottom-up signals. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal regions in integrating bottom-up and top-down attentional control signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...... was also detected as concentration-dependent shorter QT intervals. There was no sign of action potential triangulation or reverse use dependence. NS3623 decreased QT variability and distinctly decreased the occurrence of extrasystoles in the acutely bradypaced hearts. Taken together, the present data...

  2. RGS4 regulates partial agonism of the M2 muscarinic receptor-activated K+ currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shan; Furutani, Kazuharu; Inanobe, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2014-03-15

    Partial agonists are used clinically to avoid overstimulation of receptor-mediated signalling, as they produce a submaximal response even at 100% receptor occupancy. The submaximal efficacy of partial agonists is due to conformational change of the agonist-receptor complex, which reduces effector activation. In addition to signalling activators, several regulators help control intracellular signal transductions. However, it remains unclear whether these signalling regulators contribute to partial agonism. Here we show that regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) 4 is a determinant for partial agonism of the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). In rat atrial myocytes, pilocarpine evoked smaller G-protein-gated K(+) inwardly rectifying (KG) currents than those evoked by ACh. In a Xenopus oocyte expression system, pilocarpine acted as a partial agonist in the presence of RGS4 as it did in atrial myocytes, while it acted like a full agonist in the absence of RGS4. Functional couplings within the agonist-receptor complex/G-protein/RGS4 system controlled the efficacy of pilocarpine relative to ACh. The pilocarpine-M2R complex suppressed G-protein-mediated activation of KG currents via RGS4. Our results demonstrate that partial agonism of M2R is regulated by the RGS4-mediated inhibition of G-protein signalling. This finding helps us to understand the molecular components and mechanism underlying the partial agonism of M2R-mediated physiological responses.

  3. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  5. Electrophysiological characterization of volume-activated chloride currents in mouse cholangiocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biyi; Nicol, Grant; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2004-12-01

    Recent electrophysiological and radioisotope efflux studies have demonstrated various Cl(-) channels in cholangiocytes including volume-activated Cl(-) channels (VACC). Because VACCs play prominent roles in many vital cellular functions and physiology in cholangiocytes, we have examined their electrophysiological characteristics in mouse cholangiocytes to provide an important framework for studying in the future. The present study is to characterize VACCs expressed in the mouse bile duct cell (MBDC) line, conditionally immortalized by SV40 virus. Conventional whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the electrophysiological characteristics of VACC in MBDC. When the MBDCs were exposed to hypotonic solution, they exhibited an outwardly rectified current, which was significantly inhibited by replacing chloride in the bath solution with gluconate or glutamate and by administration of classic chloride channel inhibitors 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate, glybenclamide, DIDS, and tamoxifen. These inhibitory effects were reversible with washing them out from the bath solution. Moreover, the ion selectivity of the volume-activated channel to different anions indicates that it is more permeable to SCN(-) > I(-) >/= Cl(-) > F(-) >/= acetate >/= glutamate >/= gluconate. These electrophysiological characteristics demonstrate that the volume-activated current observed is a VACC. In addition, the VACC in MBDC has electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of the VACC in human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. The present study is the first to characterize the VACC in mouse cholangiocyte and will provide an important framework for further studies to examine and understand the role of the VACC in biliary secretion and ion-transport physiology.

  6. Minocycline inhibits hyperpolarization-activated currents in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Zhang, Daying; Zhu, Mengye; Luo, Shiwen; Liu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Minocycline is a widely used glial activation inhibitor that could suppress pain-related behaviors in a number of different pain animal models, yet, its analgesic mechanisms are not fully understood. Hyperpolarization-activated cation channel-induced Ih current plays an important role in neuronal excitability and pathological pain. In this study, we investigated the possible effect of minocycline on Ih of substantia gelatinosa neuron in superficial spinal dorsal horn by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that extracellular minocycline rapidly decreases Ih amplitude in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 41 μM). By contrast, intracellular minocycline had no effect. Minocycline-induced inhibition of Ih was not affected by Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin, glutamate-receptor antagonists (CNQX and D-APV), GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculine methiodide), or glycine receptor antagonist (strychnine). Minocycline also caused a negative shift in the activation curve of Ih, but did not alter the reversal potential. Moreover, minocycline slowed down the inter-spike depolarizing slope and produced a robust decrease in the rate of action potential firing. Together, these results illustrate a novel cellular mechanism underlying minocycline's analgesic effect by inhibiting Ih currents of spinal dorsal horn neurons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix pencil method-based reference current generation for shunt active power filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terriche, Yacine; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the shunt active power filters (SAPFs) have received much ttention for compensating the harmonic pollution and also providing the reactive content. A crucial issue in controlling the SAPF is generating the reference compensating current (RCC). Typical approaches for this purpose...... are using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in the frequency domain or the instantaneous p–q theory and the synchronous reference frame in the time domain. The DFT, however, suffers from the picket-fence effect and spectral leakage. On the other hand, the DFT takes at least one cycle of the nominal...... response and works well under distorted and unbalanced voltage. Moreover, the proposed method can estimate the voltage phase accurately; this property enables the algorithm to compensate for both power factor and current unbalance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using simulation...

  8. Density-matrix renormalization-group study of current and activity fluctuations near nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents.

  9. A plea for Global Health Action bottom-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece focuses on global health action by hands-on bottom-up practice: Initiation of an organizational framework and securing financial efficiency are – however - essential, both clearly a domain of well trained public health professionals. Examples of action are cited in the four main areas of global threats: planetary climate change, global divides and inequity, global insecurity and violent conflicts, global instability and financial crises. In conclusion a stable health systems policy framework would greatly enhance success. However, such organisational framework dries out if not linked to public debates channelling fresh thoughts and controversial proposals: the structural stabilisation is essential but has to serve not to dominate bottom-up activities. In other words a horizontal management is required, a balanced equilibrium between bottom-up initiative and top-down support. Last not least rewarding voluntary and charity work by public acknowledgement is essential.

  10. Bottom-linked innovation: Collaboration between middle managers and employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...... hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative...

  11. Synergetic activation of outwardly rectifying Cl− currents by hypotonic stress and external Ca2+ in murine osteoclasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromu; Nakamura, Fusao; Kuno, Miyuki

    1999-01-01

    An outwardly rectifying Cl− (ORCl) current of murine osteoclasts was activated by hypotonic stimulation. The current was characterized by rapid activation, little inactivation, strong outward rectification, blockage by DIDS and permeability to organic acids (pyruvate and glutamate). The hypotonically activated ORCl current was inhibited by intracellular dialysis with an ATP-free pipette solution, but not by replacement of ATP with a poorly hydrolysable ATP analogue adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The current amplitude was reduced when intracellular alkalinity increased over the pH range 6.6–8.0. Intracellular application of cytochalasin D occasionally activated the ORCl current without hypotonic stress, but inhibited activation of the ORCl current by hypotonic stimulation. The hypotonically activated ORCl current was unaffected by a non-actin-depolymerizing cytochalasin, chaetoglobosin C, but partially inhibited by deoxyribonuclease I. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited activation of the ORCl current by hypotonic shock, but did not reduce the current once activated. The hypotonically activated ORCl current was partially decreased by intracellular dialysis with 20 mm EGTA. With 10 mm Ca2+ in the extracellular medium, the ORCl current was activated in response to more minor decreases in osmolarity than with 1 mm Ca2+. The increased sensitivity to hypotonicity was mimicked by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level (pCa 6.5). These results suggest that hypotonic stimulation and a rise in the extracellular Ca2+ level synergistically activate the ORCl channel of murine osteoclasts, and that the activating process is modified by multiple intracellular factors (pH, ATP and actin cytoskeletal organization). PMID:9925886

  12. Tonotopic Organization of the Hyperpolarization-activated Current (Ih in the Mammalian Medial Superior Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika eBaumann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal membrane properties can largely vary even within distinct morphological cell classes. The mechanisms and functional consequences of this diversity, however, are little explored. In the medial superior olive (MSO, a brainstem nucleus that performs binaural coincidence detection, membrane properties at rest are largely governed by the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih which enables the temporally precise integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Here, we report that Ih density varies along the putative tonotopic axis of the MSO with Ih being largest in ventral, high-frequency processing neurons. Also Ih half-maximal activation voltage and time constant are differentially distributed such that Ih of the putative high-frequency processing neurons activate faster and at more depolarized levels. Intracellular application of saturating concentrations of cyclic AMP removed the regional difference in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN channel activation, but not Ih density. Experimental data in conjunction with a computational model suggest that increased Ih levels are helpful in counteracting temporal summation of phase-locked inhibitory inputs which is particularly prominent in high-frequency neurons.

  13. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBoudes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano-and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a accounts for inflammation-induced CaCC expression in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (regrowth.

  14. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  15. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  16. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Łakomski, Mateusz; Pietsch, Julia; Chłystek, Joanna; Abramczyk, Agata; Golus, Anna; Zukow, Walery

    2017-01-01

    Łakomski Mateusz, Pietsch Julia, Chłystek Joanna, Abramczyk Agata, Golus Anna, Zukow Walery. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):807-815. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.822432 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4581 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.201...

  17. Myocardial perfusion imaging in Denmark: activity from 1997 to 2001 and current practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to all departments of nuclear medicine in Denmark (n=20) asking for details of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), including the number of patients examined each year from 1997 to 2001 and the current clinical and technical practice. All (100%) departments replied...... studies was dipyridamole/adenosine in 76%, exercise in 18% and dobutamine in 6%. Despite these encouraging figures, MPI activity for 2001 remained well below what is recommended by other national and international societies. The anticipated further increase in nuclear cardiology is encouraging...

  18. Hysteresis Current Control Based Shunt Active Power Filter for Six Pulse Ac/Dc Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar Pandey; Vaibhav Purwar; Nikhlesh Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the simulation of Shunt Active power Filter using P-Q theory and PI controller has been presented. This SAPF compensates the harmonic currents drawn by three phase six pulse AC/DC converter. The process of compensation is done by calculating the instantaneous reactive power losses using p-q theory and the PI controller to reduce the ripple voltage of the dc capacitor of the PWM-VSI. This approach is different from conventional approach and provides very effective sol...

  19. Enhanced Stability of Capacitor-Current Feedback Active Damping for LCL-Filtered Grid Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    The proportional capacitor-current feedback active damping method has been widely used to suppress the LCL-filter resonance. However, the time delay in the damping control loop may lead to non-minimum phase or even unstable responses when the resonance frequency varies in a wide range. To improve...... method against grid inductance variation is proved by z-domain and s-domain analyses. Finally, experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method on a three-phase grid-connected converter....

  20. Pulsed Current Activated Consolidation of Nanostructured Fe3Al and Its Mechanical Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Wan Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanopowder of Fe3Al was synthesized from 3Fe and Al by high-energy ball milling. A dense nanostructured Fe3Al was consolidated by pulsed current activated sintering method within 2 minutes from mechanically synthesized powders of Fe3Al and horizontally milled powders of 3Fe+Al. The grain size, sintering behavior, and hardness of Fe3Al sintered from horizontally milled 3Fe+Al powders and high-energy ball milled Fe3Al powder were compared.

  1. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Dakun; Liu Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D; He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Iaizzo, Paul A, E-mail: binhe@umn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MN (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 {+-} 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  2. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  3. Stretch-activated potassium currents in the heart: Focus on TREK-1 and arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, Niels; Kiper, Aytug K; Rinné, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    This review focuses on the role and the molecular candidates of the cardiac stretch-activated potassium current (SAK). The functional properties of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1, a major candidate for the cardiac SAK, are analyzed and the molecular mechanism of stretch-activation in K2P potassium channels is discussed. Furthermore, the functional modulation of TREK-1 by different cardiac interaction partners, as well as evidence for the functional role of the stretch-dependent TREK-1 and its putative subunits in the heart is reviewed. In addition, we summarize the recent evidence that TREK-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of human cardiac arrhythmias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Active waveshaping of AC mains current in direct torque-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bim; Singh, B.P.; Dwivedi, Sanjeet [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New Delhi (India)

    2006-07-01

    This paper deals with the power quality improvement of AC mains in Direct Torque-Controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive using active wave shaping techniques. For this purpose, different topologies for active wave shaping of AC mains current in DTC-based PMSM drive such as single- and two-switch boost power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC converter, asymmetrical two-switch boost PFC AC-DC converter and single-phase voltage source AC-DC converter (VSC) are considered. The models are developed and simulated in MATLAB environment along with the Power System Blockset (PSB) and Simulink toolboxes to compute the relevant power quality performance indices. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of different topologies in improving the power quality of the input AC mains in DTC-based PMSM drive. (Author)

  5. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  6. First report on an inotropic peptide activating tetrodotoxin-sensitive, "neuronal" sodium currents in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Tal, Tzachy; Fabritz, Larissa; Klimas, Jan; Nesher, Nir; Schulte, Jan S; Ehling, Petra; Kanyshkova, Tatayana; Budde, Thomas; Nikol, Sigrid; Fortmueller, Lisa; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Müller, Frank U; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Kirchhefer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic approaches to improve cardiac contractility without severe risk would improve the management of acute heart failure. Increasing systolic sodium influx can increase cardiac contractility, but most sodium channel activators have proarrhythmic effects that limit their clinical use. Here, we report the cardiac effects of a novel positive inotropic peptide isolated from the toxin of the Black Judean scorpion that activates neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. All venoms and peptides were isolated from Black Judean Scorpions (Buthotus Hottentotta) caught in the Judean Desert. The full scorpion venom increased left ventricular function in sedated mice in vivo, prolonged ventricular repolarization, and provoked ventricular arrhythmias. An inotropic peptide (BjIP) isolated from the full venom by chromatography increased cardiac contractility but did neither provoke ventricular arrhythmias nor prolong cardiac repolarization. BjIP increased intracellular calcium in ventricular cardiomyocytes and prolonged inactivation of the cardiac sodium current. Low concentrations of tetrodotoxin (200 nmol/L) abolished the effect of BjIP on calcium transients and sodium current. BjIP did not alter the function of Nav1.5, but selectively activated the brain-type sodium channels Nav1.6 or Nav1.3 in cellular electrophysiological recordings obtained from rodent thalamic slices. Nav1.3 (SCN3A) mRNA was detected in human and mouse heart tissue. Our pilot experiments suggest that selective activation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive neuronal sodium channels can safely increase cardiac contractility. As such, the peptide described here may become a lead compound for a new class of positive inotropic agents. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Moon phase effects and timing of emerging macrobenthic assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Aldo S.; Gómez, Gonzalo E.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Malebran, Maritza; Cortés, Cynthia; Riascos, José M.

    2014-02-01

    Several species of benthic macro and meio-invertebrates actively emerge from the seabed to the water column during the night. Such diel vertical migrations have important consequences for benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal, connectivity and recovery after disturbance of benthic assemblages. However, this process has never been studied in the coast of the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Herein we examined the relationship between the emerging assemblage and moon phases (and co-variables) and the timing of emergence during the day/night cycle, in a sublittoral soft-bottom habitat. Sampling using emergence traps was conducted at 7 m depth in the zone of Bolsico, a sheltered cove with low bottom hydrodynamics in northern Chile. Multivariable analysis showed that changes in the dissimilarity of the emerging assemblage were related to each moon phase. The percentage of moon illumination, bottom illumination and tide amplitude explained most of the variation of the emerging assemblage. Species showed differential responses to each moon phase; some were abundant at intermediate phases (e.g., harpacticoids), or peaked at full moon (e.g. ostracods) and others such as mysids emerged in equal abundances at all moon phases. The timing of assemblage emergence followed a consecutive sequence through the night/day period. Most of the studies dealing with the emergence processes have described species-specific responses. Our research shows that the examination at assemblage level may reveal new and distinct patterns of emergence in sublittoral soft-bottom habitats.

  8. Channel Bottom Morphology in the Deltaic Reach of the Song Hau (mekong) River Channel in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D., III; Meselhe, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Boat-based, channel bathymetry and bankline elevation studies were conducted in the tidal and estuarine Mekong River channel using multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR corrected for elevation by RTK satellite positioning. Two mapping campaigns, one at high discharge in October 2014 and one at low discharge in March 2015, were conducted in the lower 100 km reach of the Song Hau distributary channel to (1) examine bottom morphology and its relationship to sediment transport, and (2) to provide information to setup the grid for a multi-dimensional and reduced complexity models of channel hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics. Sand fields were identified in multibeam data by the presence of dunes that were as large as 2-4 m high and 40-80 m wavelength and by clean sands in bottom grabs. Extensive areas of sand at the head and toe of mid-channel islands displayed 10-25 m diameter circular pits that could be correlated with bucket dredge, sand mining activities observed at some of the sites. Large areas of the channel floor were relict (containing little or no modern sediment) in the high discharge campaign, identifiable by the presence of along channel erosional furrows and terraced outcrops along the channel floor and margins. Laterally extensive flat areas were also observed in the channel thalweg. Both these and the relict areas were sampled by bottom grab as stiff silty clays. Complex cross-channel combinations of these morphologies were observed in some transects, suggesting strong bottom steering of tidal and riverine currents. Relative to high discharge, transects above and below the salt penetration limit showed evidence of shallowing in the thalweg and adjacent sloping areas at low discharge in March 2015. This shallowing, combined with the reduced extent of sand fields and furrowed areas, and soft muds in grabs, suggests seasonal trapping of fine grained sediment is occurring by estuarine and tidal circulation.

  9. Re-activation of degraded nickel cermet anodes - Nano-particle formation via reverse current pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauch, A.; Marchese, M.; Lanzini, A.; Graves, C.

    2018-02-01

    The Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) cermet is the most commonly applied fuel electrode for solid oxide cells (SOCs). Loss of Ni/YSZ electrode activity is a key life-time limiting factor of the SOC. Developing means to mitigate this loss of performance or re-activate a fuel electrode is therefore important. In this work, we report a series of five tests on state-of-the-art Ni/YSZ-YSZ-CGObarrier-LSC/CGO cells. All cells were deliberately degraded via gas stream impurities in CO2/CO or harsh steam electrolysis operation. The cells were re-activated via a variety of reverse current treatments (RCTs). Via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we found that the Ni/YSZ electrode performance could be recovered via RCT, but not via constant fuel cell operation. For optimized RCT, we obtained a lower Ni/YSZ electrode resistance than the initial resistance. E.g. at 700 °C we measured fuel electrode resistance of 180 mΩ cm2, 390 mΩ cm2, and 159 mΩ cm2 before degradation, after degradation and after re-activation via RCT, respectively. Post-test SEM revealed that the RCT led to formation of nano-particles in the fuel electrode. Besides the remarkable improvement, the results also showed that RCTs can weaken Ni/YSZ interfaces and the electrode/electrolyte interface. This indicates that finding an optimum RCT profile is crucial for achieving maximum benefit.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jin; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Ryu, Hee Jung; Baek, Han Joo

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF, version 2006) questionnaire to the Korean language and to evaluate its reliability and validity in a population of Korean patients with Behcet's disease (BD). A cross-cultural study was conducted among patients with BD who attended our rheumatology clinic between November 2012 and March 2013. There were 11 males and 35 females in the group. The mean age of the participants was 48.5 years and the mean disease duration was 6.4 years. The first BDCAF questionnaire was completed on arrival and the second assessment was performed 20 minutes later by a different physician. The test-retest reliability was analyzed by computing κ statistics. Kappa scores of > 0.6 indicated a good agreement. To assess the validity, we compared the total BDCAF score with the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity and the Korean version of the Behcet's Disease Quality of Life (BDQOL). For the test-retest reliability, good agreements were achieved on items such as headache, oral/genital ulceration, erythema, skin pustules, arthralgia, nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain, and diarrhea with altered/frank blood per rectum. Moderate agreement was observed for eye and nervous system involvement. We achieved a fair agreement for arthritis and major vessel involvement. Significant correlations were obtained between the total BDCAF score with the BDQOL and the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity p disease activity in Korean BD patients.

  11. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Prediction of midterm performance of active-fixation leads using current of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghjoo, Majid; Mollazadeh, Reza; Aslani, Amir; Dastmalchi, Jalal; Mashreghi-Moghadam, Hamidreza; Heidari-Mokarar, Hadi; Vakili-Zarch, Anoushiravan; Alizadeh, Abolfath

    2014-02-01

    There are only limited prospective data on the clinical relevance of current of injury (COI) as a predictor of the midterm performance of active-fixation leads. This study sought to investigate whether it is possible to predict the midterm performance of active-fixation leads using COI recorded at the time of implantation. One hundred fifty patients (78 men; mean age, 63 ± 19 years) who received active-fixation pacing (n = 201) and defibrillator (n = 51) leads were studied. COI was measured from the intracardiac bipolar electrogram recorded at the time of lead implantation. The study outcome was good lead performance at 6 months, defined as P wave ≥ 1.5 mV, threshold lead, R-wave ≥ 5 mV, and threshold lead. A total of 102 active-fixation atrial and 150 ventricular leads were implanted. During a 6-month follow-up, invasive intervention was required for seven atrial and seven ventricular leads. In multivariate analysis, COI was the only independent predictor of good outcome for the active-fixation atrial (odds ratio [OR]: 5.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18-14.76, P = 0.001) and ventricular leads (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.08-21.26, P = 0.002). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified ST-segment elevation ≥2.0 mV for the atrial leads (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 89%) and ≥10.0 mV for the ventricular leads (sensitivity, 70%; specificity, 87%) as optimal cutoffs for good midterm performance. Midterm performance of active-fixation leads is predictable using COI recorded at the time of lead implantation. A ST-segment elevation ≥2.0 mV in the atrial leads and ≥10.0 mV in the ventricular leads are recommended to improve the lead performance at 6 months. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Search for active-sterile neutrino mixing using neutral-current interactions in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Anfimov, N.; Antoshkin, A.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Behera, B.; Bending, S.; Bernstein, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Blackburn, T.; Bolshakova, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brown, J.; Brunetti, G.; Buchanan, N.; Butkevich, A.; Bychkov, V.; Campbell, M.; Catano-Mur, E.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cremonesi, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Derwent, P. F.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Edayath, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Frank, M. J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Ghosh, T.; Giri, A.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Groh, M.; Group, R.; Grover, D.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Howard, B.; Hylen, J.; Jediny, F.; Judah, M.; Kafka, G. K.; Kalra, D.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Keloth, R.; Kolupaeva, L.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Kurbanov, S.; Lackey, T.; Lang, K.; Lee, W. M.; Lin, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Luchuk, S.; Maan, K.; Magill, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Matera, K.; Matveev, V.; Méndez, D. P.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, R.; Musser, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Nichol, R.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nosek, T.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pershey, D.; Petrova, O.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Principato, C.; Psihas, F.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Reed, B.; Rocco, D.; Rojas, P.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sail, P.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, P.; Singh, V.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Song, E.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tas, P.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomas, J.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Tripathi, J.; Tsaris, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vasel, J.; Vinton, L.; Vold, A.; Vrba, T.; Wang, B.; Wetstein, M.; Whittington, D.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wolcott, J.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report results from the first search for sterile neutrinos mixing with active neutrinos through a reduction in the rate of neutral-current interactions over a baseline of 810 km between the NOvA detectors. Analyzing a 14-kton detector equivalent exposure of 6.05 ×1020 protons-on-target in the NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 95 neutral-current candidates at the Far Detector compared with 83.5 ±9.7 (stat ) ±9.4 (syst ) events predicted assuming mixing only occurs between active neutrino species. No evidence for νμ→νs transitions is found. Interpreting these results within a 3 +1 model, we place constraints on the mixing angles θ24<20.8 ° and θ34<31.2 ° at the 90% C.L. for 0.05 eV2≤Δ m412≤0.5 eV2 , the range of mass splittings that produce no significant oscillations over the Near Detector baseline.

  14. Calcium-activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application

  15. The activity intensities reached when playing active tennis gaming relative to sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Arkinstall, Hayley; Dalbo, Vincent J; Humphries, Brendan J; Jennings, Cameron T; Kingsley, Michael I C

    2013-09-01

    Although active gaming is popular and can increase energy expenditure in young adults, its efficacy as a prescriptive exercise tool is not well understood. This study aimed to: (a) compare the activity intensities experienced by young adults while playing active tennis gaming with conventional sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations for health; and (b) identify changes in activity intensities across playing time. After habitualization, 10 active young adults (age: 20.2 ± 0.4 years; stature: 1.74 ± 0.03 m; body mass: 67.7 ± 3.3 kg) completed 3 experimental trials (sedentary gaming, active tennis gaming, and tennis game-play) on separate days in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were averaged across 5 minutes and 10 minutes intervals, and the entire 20 minutes bout within each condition. Active gaming produced greater intensities across 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 minutes time intervals compared with sedentary gaming (p play elicited greater HR (67 ± 5% HR(max)) and METs (5.0 ± 0.2) responses than both sedentary (40 ± 2% HR(max), 1.1 ± 0.1 METs) and active gaming (45 ± 2% HR(max), 1.4 ± 0.1 METs) (p play produced activity intensities meeting current recommendations for health benefit. Lower HR intensities were reached across 0-5 minutes than during later time intervals during active gaming (6%) and tennis game-play (9%) (p play and insufficient to contribute toward promoting and maintaining good health in young adults. These data suggest that active tennis gaming should not be recommended by exercise professionals as a substitute for actual sports participation in young adults.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of a Transient Outward Potassium Channel Activator on Currents Recorded from Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callø, Kirstine; Nof, Eyal; Jespersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    NS5806 activates the transient outward potassium current (I(to) ) in canine ventricular cells. We compared the effects of NS5806 on canine atrial versus ventricular tissues and myocytes.......NS5806 activates the transient outward potassium current (I(to) ) in canine ventricular cells. We compared the effects of NS5806 on canine atrial versus ventricular tissues and myocytes....

  17. Shallow Lunar Seismic Activity and the Current Stress State of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Weber, Renee C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    A vast, global network of more than 3200 lobate thrust fault scarps has been revealed in high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The fault scarps are very young, less than 50 Ma, based on their small scale and crisp appearance, crosscutting relations with small-diameter impact craters, and rates of infilling of associated small, shallow graben and may be actively forming today. The population of young thrust fault scarps provides a window into the recent stress state of the Moon and offers insight into the origin of global lunar stresses. The distribution of orientations of the fault scarps is non-random, inconsistent with isotropic stresses from late-stage global contraction as the sole source of stress. Modeling shows that tidal stresses contribute significantly to the current stress state of the lunar crust. Tidal stresses (orbital recession and diurnal tides) superimposed on stresses from global contraction result in non-isotropic compressional stress and may produce thrust faults consistent with lobate scarp orientations. At any particular point on the lunar surface, peak compressive stress will be reached at a certain time in the diurnal cycle. Coseismic slip events on currently active thrust faults are expected to be triggered when peak stresses are reached. Analysis of the timing of the 28 the shallow moonquakes recorded by the Apollo seismic network shows that 19 indeed occur when the Moon is closer to apogee, while only 9 shallow events occur when the Moon is closer to perigee. Here we report efforts to refine the model for the current stress state of the Moon by investigating the contribution of polar wander. Progress on relocating the epicentral locations of the shallow moonquakes using an algorithm designed for sparse networks is also reported.

  18. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  19. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breugel, K.; Muchova, L.

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  20. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  1. Top-Down Beta Enhances Bottom-Up Gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Craig G; Thompson, William H; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal

    2017-07-12

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the bottom-up signaling of a visual stimulus is subserved by interareal gamma-band synchronization, whereas top-down influences are mediated by alpha-beta band synchronization. These processes may implement top-down control of stimulus processing if top-down and bottom-up mediating rhythms are coupled via cross-frequency interaction. To test this possibility, we investigated Granger-causal influences among awake macaque primary visual area V1, higher visual area V4, and parietal control area 7a during attentional task performance. Top-down 7a-to-V1 beta-band influences enhanced visually driven V1-to-V4 gamma-band influences. This enhancement was spatially specific and largest when beta-band activity preceded gamma-band activity by ∼0.1 s, suggesting a causal effect of top-down processes on bottom-up processes. We propose that this cross-frequency interaction mechanistically subserves the attentional control of stimulus selection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contemporary research indicates that the alpha-beta frequency band underlies top-down control, whereas the gamma-band mediates bottom-up stimulus processing. This arrangement inspires an attractive hypothesis, which posits that top-down beta-band influences directly modulate bottom-up gamma band influences via cross-frequency interaction. We evaluate this hypothesis determining that beta-band top-down influences from parietal area 7a to visual area V1 are correlated with bottom-up gamma frequency influences from V1 to area V4, in a spatially specific manner, and that this correlation is maximal when top-down activity precedes bottom-up activity. These results show that for top-down processes such as spatial attention, elevated top-down beta-band influences directly enhance feedforward stimulus-induced gamma-band processing, leading to enhancement of the selected stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Richter, Thompson et al.

  2. Active harmonic filtering using current-controlled, grid-connected DG units with closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The increasing application of nonlinear loads may cause distribution system power quality issues. In order to utilize distributed generation (DG) unit interfacing converters to actively compensate harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach, which seamlessly integrates...... system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current controller has two well-decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, local nonlinear load harmonic current detection and distribution system harmonic...

  3. Hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, in inspiratory brainstem neurons and its inhibition by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S L; Langohr, K; Richter, D W

    2000-02-01

    A hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, is often implied in pacemaker-like depolarizations during rhythmic oscillatory activity. We describe Ih in the isolated respiratory centre of immature mice (P6-P11). Ih was recorded in 15% (22/146) of all inspiratory neurons examined. The mean half-maximal Ih activation occurred at -78 mV and the reversal potential was -40 mV. Ih was inhibited by Cs+ (1-5 mM) and by organic blockers N-ethyl-1,6-dihydro-1, 2-dimethyl-6-(methylimino)-N-phenyl-4-pyrimidinamine (ZD 7288; 0.3-3 microM) and N,N'-bis-(3,4-dimethylphenylethyl)-N-methylamine (YS 035, 3-30 microM), but not by Ba2+ (0.5 mM). The organic Ih blockers did not change the inspiratory bursts recorded from the XIIth nerve and synaptic drives in inspiratory neurons. Hypoxia reversibly inhibited Ih but, in the presence of organic blockers, the hypoxic reaction remained unchanged. We conclude that although Ih channels are functional in a minority of inspiratory neurons, Ih does not contribute to respiratory rhythm generation or its modulation by hypoxia.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  5. Effect of Monophasic Pulsed Current on Heel Pain and Functional Activities caused by Plantar Fasciitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah K.; Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Daher, Noha S.; Lohman, Everett; Laymon, Michael; Syed, Hasan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a soft tissue disorder considered to be one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of monophasic pulsed current (MPC) and MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises (SE) on the treatment of PF. Material/Methods Forty-four participants (22 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 49 years) diagnosed with PF were randomly assigned to receive MPC (n=22) or MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific SE (n=22). Prior to and after 4 weeks of treatment, participants underwent baseline evaluation; heel pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), heel tenderness threshold was quantified using a handheld pressure algometer (PA), and functional activities level was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living subscale of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (ADL/FAAM). Results Heel pain scores showed a significant reduction in both groups compared to baseline VAS scores (P<0.001). Heel tenderness improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline PA scores (P<0.001). Functional activity level improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline (ADL/FAAM) scores (P<0.001). However, no significant differences existed between the 2 treatment groups in all post-intervention outcome measures. Conclusions This trial showed that MPC is useful in treating inferior heel symptoms caused by PF. PMID:25791231

  6. A sodium leak current regulates pacemaker activity of adult central pattern generator neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Z Lu

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential of the pacemaker neurons is one of the essential mechanisms underlying rhythm generation. In this study, we described the biophysical properties of an uncharacterized channel (U-type channel and investigated the role of the channel in the rhythmic activity of a respiratory pacemaker neuron and the respiratory behaviour in adult freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Our results show that the channel conducts an inward leak current carried by Na(+ (I(Leak-Na. The I(Leak-Na contributed to the resting membrane potential and was required for maintaining rhythmic action potential bursting activity of the identified pacemaker RPeD1 neurons. Partial knockdown of the U-type channel suppressed the aerial respiratory behaviour of the adult snail in vivo. These findings identified the Na(+ leak conductance via the U-type channel, likely a NALCN-like channel, as one of the fundamental mechanisms regulating rhythm activity of pacemaker neurons and respiratory behaviour in adult animals.

  7. Electrodermal activity at acupuncture points differentiates patients with current pain from pain-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Linda; Linden, Wolfgang; Marshall, Candace

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated whether electrodermal resistance at acupuncture points (AP) systematically varies as a function of pain. The study was conceived as a proof-of-principle study in support of research on acupuncture and other complementary medicine approaches. Specifically, this study investigates whether or not electrodermal activity systematically differentiates arthritis patients with current pain from pain-free controls. Participants with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 32) and a typical pain level of at least 3 (on a 0-10 scale) were compared with case controls (n = 28) who had no medical diagnosis and were pain free. Electrodermal resistance at AP was measured with a commercial ohmmeter and compared to heart rate, blood pressure, and ratings on the Pain Catastrophization Scale and the McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire. There were consistent differences between the experimental group and the control group on all markers of pain. Similarly, there were significant group differences and some trends for electrodermal activity at the AP labeled 'bladder,' 'gall bladder,' and 'small intestine.' It is concluded that the concept of electrodermal resistance at AP possesses criterion validity for distinguishing pain from a no pain state. This research provides support for the usefulness of measuring electrodermal activity when testing energy-based models of disease, and can be seen as a bridge between Western and Chinese medicine.

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  9. A ocean bottom vector magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei

    2017-04-01

    The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.

  10. Diethylcarbamazine increases activation of voltage-activated potassium (SLO-1) currents in Ascaris suum and potentiates effects of emodepside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine is a drug that is used for the treatment of filariasis in humans and animals; it also has effects on intestinal nematodes, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Emodepside is a resistance-busting anthelmintic approved for treating intestinal parasitic nematodes in animals. The novel mode of action and resistance-breaking properties of emodepside has led to its use against intestinal nematodes of animals, and as a candidate drug for treating filarial parasites. We have previously demonstrated effects of emodepside on SLO-1 K+-like currents in Ascaris suum. Here, we demonstrate that diethylcarbamazine, which has been proposed to work through host mediated effects, has direct effects on a nematode parasite, Ascaris suum. It increases activation of SLO-1 K+ currents and potentiates effects of emodepside. Our results suggest consideration of the combination of emodepside and diethylcarbamazine for therapy, which is predicted to be synergistic. The mode of action of diethylcarbamazine may involve effects on parasite signaling pathways (including nitric oxide) as well as effects mediated by host inflammatory mediators.

  11. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  12. 75 FR 73101 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations for Medicated Feeds AGENCY: Food... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations for... current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) regulations for drugs, including medicated feeds. Medicated...

  13. 75 FR 40840 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or... information collection provisions of FDA's regulations regarding current good manufacturing practice (CGMP... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing...

  14. 78 FR 17215 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs... regulations on current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for positron emission tomography (PET) drugs. DATES... of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

  15. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.

    2017-03-01

    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  17. Implementation of an active instructional design for teaching the concepts of current, voltage and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlaineta-Agüero, S.; Del Sol-Fernández, S.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; García-Salcedo, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we show the implementation of a learning sequence based on an active learning methodology for teaching Physics, this proposal tends to promote a better learning in high school students with the use of a comic book and it combines the use of different low-cost experimental activities for teaching the electrical concepts of Current, Resistance and Voltage. We consider that this kind of strategy can be easily extrapolated to higher-education levels like Engineering-college/university level and other disciplines of Science. To evaluate this proposal, we used some conceptual questions from the Electric Circuits Concept Evaluation survey developed by Sokoloff and the results from this survey was analysed with the Normalized Conceptual Gain proposed by Hake and the Concentration Factor that was proposed by Bao and Redish, to identify the effectiveness of the methodology and the models that the students presented after and before the instruction, respectively. We found that this methodology was more effective than only the implementation of traditional lectures, we consider that these results cannot be generalized but gave us the opportunity to view many important approaches in Physics Education; finally, we will continue to apply the same experiment with more students, in the same and upper levels of education, to confirm and validate the effectiveness of this methodology proposal.

  18. Comparison of antimalarial activity of Artemisia turanica extract with current drugs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mahboubeh; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Naeimi, Sabah; Taherkhani, Tofigh

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare antimalarial activity of Artemisia turanica Krasch as Iranian flora with current antimalarial drugs against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in mice. Air-dried aerial parts of Iranian flora A. turanica were collected from Khorasan, northeastern Iran, extracted with Et2O/MeOH/Petrol and defatted. Toxicity of herbal extracts was assessed on male NMRI mice, and their antimalarial efficacy was compared with antimalarial drugs [artemether, chloroquine and sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (Fansidar)] on infected P. berghei animals. All the groups were investigated for parasitaemia, body weight, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and anemia. The significance of differences was determined by Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) and Student's t-test using Graph Pad Prism software. The inhibitory effects of A. turanica extract on early decline of P. berghei parasitaemia highlights its antimalarial activity, however, this effect no longer can be observed in the late infection. This may be due to the metabolic process of A. turanica crude extract by mice and reduction of its concentration in the body. Crude extract of A. turanica represented its antisymptomatic effects by stabilization of body, liver and spleen weights. This study confirmed antimalarial effects of A. turanica extracts against murine malaria in vivo during early infection, however, there are more benefits on pathophysiological symptoms by this medication.

  19. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-09-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  20. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  1. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex increases cortical voluntary activation and neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Ashlyn; Williams, Jacqueline; Spittles, Michael; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson

    2016-11-01

    We examined the cumulative effect of 4 consecutive bouts of noninvasive brain stimulation on corticospinal plasticity and motor performance, and whether these responses were influenced by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, changes in strength and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 14 adults who were exposed to 4 consecutive sessions of anodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants also undertook a blood sample for BDNF genotyping (N = 13). We observed a significant increase in isometric wrist flexor strength with transcranial magnetic stimulation revealing increased corticospinal excitability, decreased silent period duration, and increased cortical voluntary activation compared with sham tDCS. The results show that 4 consecutive sessions of anodal tDCS increased cortical voluntary activation manifested as an improvement in strength. Induction of corticospinal plasticity appears to be influenced by the BDNF polymorphism. Muscle Nerve 54: 903-913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anticancer activities of Withania somnifera: Current research, formulations, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Jogee, Priti S; Agarkar, Gauravi; dos Santos, Carolina Alves

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, being a cause of death for major fraction of population worldwide, is one of the most studied diseases and is being investigated for the development of new technologies and more accurate therapies. Still the currently available therapies for cancer have many lacunae which affect the patient's health severely in the form of side effects. The natural drugs obtained from the medicinal plants provide a better alternative to fight against this devastating disease. Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been traditionally used to cure various ailments for centuries. Considering the immense potential of W. somnifera, this review provides a detail account of its vital phytoconstituents and summarizes the present status of the research carried out on its anticancerous activities, giving future directions. The sources of scientific literature were accessed from various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and library search. Various parts of W. somnifera especially the roots with its unique contents have been proved effective against different kinds of cancers. The most active components withanolides and withaferins along with a few other metabolites including withanone (WN) and withanosides have been reported effective against different types of cancer cell lines. This herb holds an important place among various anticancer medicinal plants. It is very essential to further screen and to investigate different formulations for anticancer therapy in vitro as well as in vivo in combination with established chemotherapy.

  3. Current and future activities of the Observatoire de Haute Provence in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boër, M.; Ducerf, D.

    The Haute Provence Observatory OHP is an observation station located 100km North of Marseille France It performs both astronomical observations and routine atmospheric measurements in the NDSC Network for Data on Stratospheric Changes and several other geophysics national and international networks The site offers also a program directed to the general public the teachers the pupils and the students at all levels In the past two years we reinforced these activities following few guidelines enhance the scientific diffusion activities towards the general public by presenting an exhibition a stronger program for the teachers and the implementation of a project oriented program for the high school and university students We participate also to a curriculum for planetarium attendants We are currently defining the general long term plan for the observatory including a strong EPO program taking advantages of the site visitors facilities guesthouse research group EPO personnel This program will be oriented to the general space and planetary sciences and is prepared in cooperation with both the academic and regional authorities

  4. [Current state of the scientific activity of the Aachen group concerning number processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs-Domínguez, P

    The research group from Willmes and colleagues is one of the most advanced research groups in cognitive neuroscience. The use and nature of the numeric magnitude representation constitutes one of the study objects of the mentioned research group. This mental representation provokes a great controversy among the members of the scientific community studying number processing and arithmetic. As a consequence, there are several different theoretical models concerning number processing. In this work, we have reviewed some of the scientific studies realized by the Aachen group concerning number processing, with the aim to expound the current state of its activity. In the works from Willmes and colleagues, we can notice a logic sequence, regarding the formulation of work hypothesis. The course of evolution of their activity starts studying number processing and arithmetic on German listener population and continues with a progressive integration of the German deaf population into their work. There is, as well, an emergent trend in this group to research number processing at the classroom. This means to examine the underlying mental representations in the education field. The information included in the studies analyzed here, leads to several scientific questions which need to be researched in future studies, and questions and complements what has been supported by other research groups.

  5. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  6. Spinal cord direct current stimulation differentially modulates neuronal activity in the dorsal and ventral spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Martin, John H

    2017-03-01

    Spinal cord direct current stimulation (sDCS) has the potential for promoting motor function after injury through its modulatory actions on sensory processing, reflex functions, the motor cortex (M1) motor map, and motor output. Here we addressed systems-level mechanisms underlying sDCS neuromodulation of spinal circuits activated by M1 and peripheral forelimb electrical stimulation in anesthetized healthy rats. We determined the effects of cathodal and anodal sDCS (c- and a-sDCS) on local field potentials (LFP) and single-unit activity recorded at 32 sites simultaneously within the sixth cervical segment using a silicon multielectrode array. M1 stimulation produced distinctive dorsomedial and ventral LFP responses that showed polarity-dependent sDCS modulation. c-sDCS enhanced and a-sDCS depressed significantly ventral M1 responses; neither modulated dorsal responses significantly. Using evoked changes in β- and γ-oscillations to assay network function, c-sDCS enhanced and a-sDCS reduced oscillation power ventrally. c-sDCS increased and a-sDCS decreased background firing and firing synchrony of recorded pairs of single units. Peripheral stimulation produced a region-dependent response that showed polarity-dependent sDCS modulation. The dorsomedial LFP was unaffected by c-sDCS and weakly suppressed with a-sDCS. Peripheral-evoked unit responses showed limited polarity dependence. Our findings stress that ventral motor network behavior is enhanced by the neuromodulatory actions of c-sDCS. The combined actions of c-sDCS on M1-evoked neural responses and network behavior in the cervical spinal cord help explain the reported enhanced motor effects of this neuromodulation approach and inform the mechanisms of sDCS for promoting motor rehabilitation after spinal cord or brain injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Spinal cord direct current stimulation (sDCS) modulates spinal functions and shows potential for neural rehabilitation after motor systems injury. Using a multichannel

  7. Evaluation of New Zealand's high-seas bottom trawl closures using predictive habitat models and quantitative risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Penney

    Full Text Available United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries (UNGA 2007 establishes three difficult questions for participants in high-seas bottom fisheries to answer: 1 Where are vulnerable marine systems (VMEs likely to occur?; 2 What is the likelihood of fisheries interaction with these VMEs?; and 3 What might qualify as adequate conservation and management measures to prevent significant adverse impacts? This paper develops an approach to answering these questions for bottom trawling activities in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO within a quantitative risk assessment and cost : benefit analysis framework. The predicted distribution of deep-sea corals from habitat suitability models is used to answer the first question. Distribution of historical bottom trawl effort is used to answer the second, with estimates of seabed areas swept by bottom trawlers being used to develop discounting factors for reduced biodiversity in previously fished areas. These are used in a quantitative ecological risk assessment approach to guide spatial protection planning to address the third question. The coral VME likelihood (average, discounted, predicted coral habitat suitability of existing spatial closures implemented by New Zealand within the SPRFMO area is evaluated. Historical catch is used as a measure of cost to industry in a cost : benefit analysis of alternative spatial closure scenarios. Results indicate that current closures within the New Zealand SPRFMO area bottom trawl footprint are suboptimal for protection of VMEs. Examples of alternative trawl closure scenarios are provided to illustrate how the approach could be used to optimise protection of VMEs under chosen management objectives, balancing protection of VMEs against economic loss to commercial fishers from closure of historically fished areas.

  8. Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; Green, D. L.; Merkin, V. G.; Barnes, R. J.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment uses magnetic field data from the Iridium constellation to derive the global Birkeland current distribution every 10 min. We examine cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from northward to southward resulting in onsets of the Birkeland currents. Dayside Region 1/2 currents, totaling ~25% of the final current, appear within 20 min of the IMF southward turning and remain steady. Onset of nightside currents occurs 40 to 70 min after the dayside currents appear. Thereafter, the currents intensify at dawn, dusk, and on the dayside, yielding a fully formed Region 1/2 system ~30 min after the nightside onset. The results imply that the dayside Birkeland currents are driven by magnetopause reconnection, and the remainder of the system forms as magnetospheric return flows start and progress sunward, ultimately closing the Dungey convection cycle.

  9. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  10. Influence of bottom ash of palm oil on compressive strength of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Andika Ade Indra; Basyaruddin, Laksono, Muhamad Hasby; Muntaha, Mohamad

    2017-11-01

    The technological development of concrete demands innovation regarding the alternative material as a part of the effort in improving quality and minimizing reliance on currently used raw materials such as bottom ash of palm oil. Bottom ash known as domestic waste stemming from palm oil cultivation in East Kalimantan contains silica. Like cement in texture and size, bottom ash can be mixed with concrete in which the silica in concrete could help increase the compressive strength of concrete. This research was conducted by comparing between normal concrete and concrete containing bottom ash as which the materials were apart of cement replacement. The bottom ash used in this research had to pass sieve size (#200). The composition tested in this research involved ratio between cement and bottom ash with the following percentages: 100%: 0%, 90%: 10%, 85%: 15% and 80%: 20%. Planned to be within the same amount of compressive strength (fc 25 MPa), the compressive strength of concrete was tested at the age of 7, 14, and 28 days. Research result shows that the addition of bottom ash to concrete influenced workability in concrete, but it did not significantly influence the compressive strength of concrete. Based on the result of compressive strength test, the optimal compressive strength was obtained from the mixture of 100% cement and 0% bottom ash.

  11. Eruptive history, current activity and risk estimation using geospatial information in the Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Flores-Peña, S.

    2013-12-01

    avocado orchards and fruits like blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries within the radius of 15 km from the crater. The population dynamics in the Colima volcano area had a population of 552,954 inhabitants in 2010, and a growth at an annual rate of 1.6 percent of the total population. 60 percent of the populations live in 105 towns with a population less than 250 inhabitants. Also, the region showed an increase in vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the highway, railway, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. With the use of geospatial information quantify the vulnerability, together with the hazard maps and exposure, enabled us to build the following volcanic risk maps: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events (ballistic) and pyroclastic flows, b) Hazard map of lahars and debris flow, and c) Hazard map of ash-fall. The geospatial database, a GIS mapping and current volcano monitoring, are the basis of the Operational Plan Colima Volcano. Civil Protection by the state of Jalisco and the updating of urban development plans of municipalities converge on the volcano. These instruments of land planning will help reduce volcanic risk in the region.

  12. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  13. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  14. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates neuronal activity and learning in pilot training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon eChoe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skill acquisition requires distributed learning both within (online and across (offline days to consolidate experiences into newly learned abilities. In particular, piloting an aircraft requires skills developed from extensive training and practice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can modulate neuronal function to improve skill learning and performance during flight simulator training of aircraft landing procedures. Thirty-two right-handed participants consented to participate in four consecutive daily sessions of flight simulation training and received sham or anodal high-definition-tDCS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or left motor cortex (M1 in a randomized, double-blind experiment. Continuous electroencephalography (EEG and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS were collected during flight simulation, n-back working memory, and resting-state assessments. tDCS of the right DLPFC increased midline-frontal theta-band activity in flight and n-back working memory training, confirming tDCS-related modulation of brain processes involved in executive function. This modulation corresponded to a significantly different online and offline learning rates for working memory accuracy and decreased inter-subject behavioral variability in flight and n-back tasks in the DLPFC stimulation group. Additionally, tDCS of left M1 increased parietal alpha power during flight tasks and tDCS to the right DLPFC increased midline frontal theta-band power during n-back and flight tasks. These results demonstrate a modulation of group variance in skill acquisition through an increasing in learned skill consistency in cognitive and real-world tasks with tDCS. Further, tDCS performance improvements corresponded to changes in electrophysiological and blood-oxygenation activity of the DLPFC and motor cortices, providing a stronger link between modulated neuronal function and behavior.

  16. The GITEWS ocean bottom sensor packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boebel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS aims at reducing the risks posed by events such as the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. To minimize the lead time for tsunami alerts, to avoid false alarms, and to accurately predict tsunami wave heights, real-time observations of ocean bottom pressure from the deep ocean are required. As part of the GITEWS infrastructure, the parallel development of two ocean bottom sensor packages, PACT (Pressure based Acoustically Coupled Tsunameter and OBU (Ocean Bottom Unit, was initiated. The sensor package requirements included bidirectional acoustic links between the bottom sensor packages and the hosting surface buoys, which are moored nearby. Furthermore, compatibility between these sensor systems and the overall GITEWS data-flow structure and command hierarchy was mandatory. While PACT aims at providing highly reliable, long term bottom pressure data only, OBU is based on ocean bottom seismometers to concurrently record sea-floor motion, necessitating highest data rates. This paper presents the technical design of PACT, OBU and the HydroAcoustic Modem (HAM.node which is used by both systems, along with first results from instrument deployments off Indonesia.

  17. Current research on chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Imadome, Ken-ichi; Arai, Ayako; Kodama, Eiichi; Morio, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Norio; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is usually asymptomatic and persists lifelong. Although EBV-infected B cells have the potential for unlimited proliferation, they are effectively removed by the virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease develops only in immunocompromised hosts. Rarely, however, individuals without apparent immunodeficiency develop chronic EBV infection with persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms. These patients have high EBV-DNA load in the peripheral blood and systemic clonal expansion of EBV-infected T cells or natural killer (NK) cells. Their prognosis is poor with life-threatening complications including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, organ failure, and malignant lymphomas. The term "chronic active EBV infection" (CAEBV) is now generally used for this disease. The geographical distribution of CAEBV is markedly uneven and most cases have been reported from Japan and other East Asian countries. Here we summarize the current understanding of CAEBV and describe the recent progress of CAEBV research in Japan. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  19. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS: a review of patents 1906–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Grasso, Yoshio Sakka and Giovanni Maizza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020 who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents, the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents. A subset of 119 (out of 642 ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS. The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  20. Control of plasma properties in a short direct-current glow discharge with active boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Demidov, V. I., E-mail: vladimir.demidov@mail.wvu.edu [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    To demonstrate controlling electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (lacking the positive-column region) direct-current glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify the trapping of the low-energy part of the energetic electrons that are emitted from the cathode sheath and that arise from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. These electrons are responsible for heating the slow, thermal electrons, while production of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms is mostly due to the energetic electrons with higher energies. Increasing electron temperature results in increasing decay rate of slow, thermal electrons (ions), while decay rate of metastable atoms and production rates of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms practically are unchanged. The result is in the variation of electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature with the variation of the wall negative voltage.

  1. Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, and available chlorine concentration (ACC were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples.

  2. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering ( ECAS ) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECAS ed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals . The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time ( fast and ultrafast ECAS ). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  3. Differences in Size Selectivity and Catch Composition Between Two Bottom Trawls Used in High-Arctic Surveys of Bottom Fishes, Crabs and Other Demersal Macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauth, R.; Norcross, B.; Kotwicki, S.; Britt, L.

    2016-02-01

    Long-term monitoring of the high-Arctic marine biota is needed to understand how the ecosystem is changing in response to climate change, diminishing sea-ice, and increasing anthropogenic activity. Since 1959, bottom trawls (BT) have been a primary research tool for investigating fishes, crabs and other demersal macrofauna in the high-Arctic. However, sampling gears, methodologies, and the overall survey designs used have generally lacked consistency and/or have had limited spatial coverage. This has restricted the ability of scientists and managers to effectively use existing BT survey data for investigating historical trends and zoogeographic changes in high-Arctic marine populations. Two different BTs currently being used for surveying the high-Arctic are: 1) a small-mesh 3-m plumb-staff beam trawl (PSBT), and 2) a large-mesh 83-112 Eastern bottom trawl (EBT). A paired comparison study was conducted in 2012 to compare catch composition and the sampling characteristics of the two different trawl gears, and a size selectivity ratio statistic was used to investigate how the probability of fish and crab retention differs between the EBT and PBST. Obvious contrasting characteristics of the PSBT and EBT were mesh size, area-swept, tow speed, and vertical opening. The finer mesh and harder bottom-tending characteristics of the PSBT retained juvenile fishes and other smaller macroinvertebrates and it was also more efficient catching benthic infauna that were just below the surface. The EBT had a larger net opening with greater tow duration at a higher speed that covered a potentially wider range of benthic habitats during a single tow, and it was more efficient at capturing larger and more mobile organisms, as well as organisms that were further off bottom. The ratio statistic indicated large differences in size selectivity between the two gears for both fish and crab. Results from this investigation will provide a framework for scientists and mangers to better

  4. 75 FR 72827 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations for Type A Medicated Articles... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations for... authority to issue current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) regulations for drugs, including type A...

  5. 76 FR 45262 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood and Blood... current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) and related regulations for blood and blood components; and... of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations for Blood and...

  6. Measurement from the Bottom of the World to the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coester, Lee Anne

    2004-01-01

    A classroom activity analyzes the mathematics found in Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World, the true story of Ernest Shackleton and the 27-man crew who all survived a shipwreck at the South Pole. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. A mechanism underlying compound-induced voltage shift in the current activation of hERG by antiarrhythmic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Kazuharu; Yamakawa, Yuko; Inanobe, Atsushi; Iwata, Miki; Ohno, Yuko; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2011-11-11

    Nifekalant and azimilide, Class III antiarrhythmic agents, block the human ether-à-go-go-related gene K(+) (hERG) channel. However, when a depolarizing membrane potential is applied, they also increase the current at low potentials by shifting its activation curve towards hyperpolarizing voltages. This phenomenon is called 'facilitation'. In this study, we tried to address the mechanism underlying the facilitation by analyzing the effects of various compounds on hERG expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Like nifekalant, amiodarone, quinidine and carvedilol, but not by dofetilide, caused the current facilitation of hERG, suggesting that the facilitation is a common effect to a subset of hERG blockers. As the concentration of each compound was increased, the total hERG current was suppressed progressively, while the current at low potentials was augmented. Activation curves of the remaining hERG current in the facilitation condition could be described as the sum of two Boltzmann functions reflecting two populations of hERG currents having different activation curves. The voltage shift in the activation curve from control was constant for each compound even at different concentrations; -31 mV in amiodarone, -27 mV in nifekalant, -17 mV in quinidine and -12 mV in carvedilol. Therefore, the facilitation is based on the appearance of hERG whose voltage-dependence for the activation is shifted towards hyperpolarizing voltages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie

    2017-01-01

    . The commonly-used large-capacity reactive component may bring about overvoltage because of possible resonance with the distributed phase-to-ground capacitance. To solve these problems, an active ground-fault arc suppression device is presented. It employs a topology based on single-phase inverter to inject......Traditional ground-fault arc suppression devices mainly deal with capacitive component of ground current and have weak effect on the active and harmonic ones, which limits the arc suppression performance. The capacitive current detection needed in them suffers from low accuracy and robustness...... current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...

  9. An active current-sensing constant-frequency HCC buck converter using phase-frequency-locked techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Jong

    2008-04-01

    A hysteresis-current-controlled (HCC) buck converter with active current-sensing and phase-frequencylocked techniques is presented in this paper. The proposed active current-sensing technique can not only consume less power than previous techniques, but also fully sense the inductor current. Although the buck converter is HCC, the switching frequency can be constant due to the devised phase-frequency-locked technique. The proposed converter has been designed and implemented with TSMC 0.35 microm DPQM CMOS processes. It is shown in the experimental results that the HCC buck converter features the following characteristics: 1) up to 800 mA of load current, 2) wide input and output voltage range, 3) high power efficiency, and 4) constant-frequency operation.

  10. On the mode of action of emodepside: slow effects on membrane potential and voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, SK; Neveu, C; Charvet, CL; Robertson, AP; Martin, RJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Anthelmintics are required for treatment and prophylaxis of nematode parasites of humans and domestic animals. Emodepside, a cyclooctadepsipeptide, is a modern anthelmintic that has a novel mode of action involving a Ca-activated K channel (SLO-1) in Caenorhabditis elegans, sometimes mediated by a latrophilin (LAT) receptor. We examined mechanisms of action of emodepside in a parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to investigate expression of slo-1 and lat-1 in A. suum muscle flaps, and two-micropipette current-clamp and voltage-clamp techniques were used to record electrophysiological effects of emodepside. KEY RESULTS Expression of slo-1 and lat-1 were detected. Emodepside produced a slow time-dependent (20 min), 4-aminopyridine sensitive, concentration-dependent hyperpolarization and increase in voltage-activated K currents. Sodium nitroprusside increased the hyperpolarizations and K currents. N-nitro-L-arginine inhibited the hyperpolarizations and K currents. Phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate increased the K currents, while staurosporine inhibited the hyperpolarizations and K currents. Iberiotoxin reduced these emodepside K currents. The effect of emodepside was reduced in Ca-free solutions. Emodepside had no effect on voltage-activated Ca currents. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Asu-slo-1 and Asu-lat-1 are expressed in adult A. suum muscle flaps and emodepside produces slow activation of voltage-activated Ca-dependent SLO-1-like K channels. The effect of emodepside was enhanced by stimulation of protein kinase C and NO pathways. The data are consistent with a model in which NO, PKC and emodepside signalling pathways are separate and converge on the K channels, or in which emodepside activates NO and PKC signalling pathways to increase opening of the K channels. PMID:21486286

  11. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  12. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same.

  13. Cyclonic activity over the territory of Belarus under current climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Inna; Sumak, Katsiaryna

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are the main synoptic processes, which determine the complicated weather conditions and precipitation regime in the middle latitudes. Intensity of cyclonic activity in the center of Europe depends on dynamics of main baric centers in atmosphere of the North Atlantic (described by NAO) and location of main tropospheric flows. Therefore, the current climat changes might influence to trajectories and intensity of cyclones. The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of East Europe, therefore most of cyclones in this part of the continent are passing over its territory. The main objective of the study is analysis of trajectories and frequency of cyclones, which were moving by the territory of Belarus during the period of 1995-2015. At present, there is not enough climatic information about these processes. During the studied period 329 cyclones are moved over the territory of Belarus. So, is about 15-16 cyclones per year affected the weather conditions. From them 22% belongs to western and northwestern types of cyclones separately, 56% consists to southern cyclones. The maximum number of all types of cyclones (21-23 cases per year) observed in 1998, 2004, 2008 and 2009. Minimum of cyclone activity (is about 10 cases) falls on 2015. The western cyclones frequently moves over the territory of Belarus in March and in December. The northwestern cyclones most observed in January and in February. The amount of southern cyclones more evenly distributed within a year. The most cases is observed in warm season, in July, April and May. Minimum of southern cyclones occures in January and December. The most of western cyclones, which moved over the territory of Belarus is formed between 50N and 60N over regions of the Northwest Atlantic, the British Isles, the North Sea and south of the Baltic Sea. The main feature of these cyclones is a change of trajectories after the crossing of Belarus, further the most of cyclones turns toward northeast, but few number moves

  14. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  15. The status of telestroke in the United States: a survey of currently active stroke telemedicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gisele S; Farrell, Shawn; Shandra, Emma; Viswanathan, Anand; Schwamm, Lee H

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about adoption or success of telestroke networks outside of published or federally funded programs. Under contract to the Health Resource Services Administration, we conducted an environmental scan of telestroke programs in the United States. An analyst contacted all potential programs identified in comprehensive online searches, interviewed respondents, and collected response data about structural and functional components of currently operating telestroke programs. Among 97 potential programs contacted, 56 programs had confirmed telestroke activity, and 38 programs (68%) from 27 states participated. Hospital and community characteristics of nonparticipating programs were similar to those of participating ones. The top 3 clinical needs met by the telestroke were emergency department consultation (100%), patient triage (83.8%), and inpatient teleconsultation (46.0%). Telestroke programs were in operation a median of 2.44 years (interquartile range, 1.36-3.44 years); 94.6% used 2-way, real-time interactive video plus imaging, but only 44% used dedicated telemedicine consultation software. The mean number of spokes per hub increased significantly from 2007 to 2008 to 2009 (3.78 versus 7.60; P80% of spoke sites were rural or small hospitals. Reimbursement was absent for >40% of sites. Sites rated inability to obtain physician licensure (27.77%), lack of program funds (27.77%), and lack of reimbursement (19.44%) as the most important barriers to program growth. Telestroke is a widespread and growing practice model. Important barriers to expansion amenable to change relate to organizational, technical, and educational domains and external economic and regulatory forces.

  16. Current mHealth technologies for physical activity assessment and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-10-01

    Novel mobile assessment and intervention capabilities are changing the face of physical activity (PA) research. A comprehensive systematic review of how mobile technology has been used for measuring PA and promoting PA behavior change is needed. Article collection was conducted using six databases from February to June 2012 with search terms related to mobile technology and PA. Articles that described the use of mobile technologies for PA assessment, sedentary behavior assessment, and/or interventions for PA behavior change were included. Articles were screened for inclusion and study information was extracted. Analyses were conducted from June to September 2012. Mobile phone-based journals and questionnaires, short message service (SMS) prompts, and on-body PA sensing systems were the mobile technologies most utilized. Results indicate that mobile journals and questionnaires are effective PA self-report measurement tools. Intervention studies that reported successful promotion of PA behavior change employed SMS communication, mobile journaling, or both SMS and mobile journaling. mHealth technologies are increasingly being employed to assess and intervene on PA in clinical, epidemiologic, and intervention research. The wide variations in technologies used and outcomes measured limit comparability across studies, and hamper identification of the most promising technologies. Further, the pace of technologic advancement currently outstrips that of scientific inquiry. New adaptive, sequential research designs that take advantage of ongoing technology development are needed. At the same time, scientific norms must shift to accept "smart," adaptive, iterative, evidence-based assessment and intervention technologies that will, by nature, improve during implementation. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  17. What is Bottom-Up and What is Top-Down in Predictive Coding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauss, Karsten; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Everyone knows what bottom-up is, and how it is different from top-down. At least one is tempted to think so, given that both terms are ubiquitously used, but only rarely defined in the psychology and neuroscience literature. In this review, we highlight the problems and limitations of our current understanding of bottom-up and top-down processes, and we propose a reformulation of this distinction in terms of predictive coding. PMID:23730295

  18. Radiative transfer theory applied to ocean bottom modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M

    2009-10-01

    Research on the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean bottom sediment is of interest for active sonar applications such as target detection and remote sensing. The interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor sublayers is usually modeled with techniques based on the full solution of the wave equation, which sometimes leads to mathematically intractable problems. An alternative way to model wave propagation in layered media containing random scatterers is the radiative transfer (RT) formulation, which is a well established technique in the electromagnetics community and is based on the principle of conservation of energy. In this paper, the RT equation is used to model the backscattering of acoustic energy from a layered elastic bottom sediment containing distributions of independent scatterers due to a constant single frequency excitation in the water column. It is shown that the RT formulation provides insight into the physical phenomena of scattering and conversion of energy between waves of different polarizations.

  19. Combining bottom-up and top-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We motivate the formulation of market equilibrium as a mixed complementarity problem which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementarity between decision variables and equilibrium conditions. The complementarity format permits an energy-economy model to combine technological detail of a bottom-up energy system with a second-best characterization of the over-all economy. Our primary objective is pedagogic. We first lay out the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and demonstrate how we can integrate bottom-up activity analysis into a top-down representation of the broader economy. We then provide a stylized numerical example of an integrated model - within both static and dynamic settings. Finally, we present illustrative applications to three themes figuring prominently on the energy policy agenda of many industrialized countries: nuclear phase-out, green quotas, and environmental tax reforms. (author)

  20. Coal Bottom Ash for Portland Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Argiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA have become an interesting alternative to disposal. For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more sustainable cement production by lowering energy consumption and raw material extracted from quarries. Coal fly and bottom ashes are formed together in the same boiler; however, the size and shape of these ashes are very different, and hence their effect on the chemical composition as well as on the mineralogical phases must be studied. Coal bottom ash was ground. Later, both ashes were compared from a physical, mechanical, and chemical point of view to evaluate the potential use of coal bottom ash as a new Portland cement constituent. Both ashes, produced by the same electrical power plant, generally present similar chemical composition and compressive strength and contribute to the refill of mortar capillary pores with the reaction products leading to a redistribution of the pore size.

  1. Voltage-clamp study of the activation currents and fast block to polyspermy in the egg of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glahn, David; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2003-04-01

    Voltage-clamped mature, jelly-intact Xenopus eggs were used to carefully examine the ionic currents crossing the plasma membrane before, during, and after fertilization. The bulk of the fertilization current was transient, of large amplitude, and reversed at the predicted Cl- reversal potential. However, the large amplitude fertilization current was preceded by a small, step-like increase in holding current. This small increase in holding current is referred to in this paper as Ion to acknowledge its qualitative similarity to the Ion current previously described in the sea urchin. It was observed in both fertilized and artificially activated eggs, and was found to be unaffected by 10 mm tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA), a concentration found to block K+ currents in Rana pipiens. Current-voltage relationships are presented for the large fertilization potential, and show that the fertilization currents have a marked outward rectification and are voltage sensitive. These properties are in contrast to the total lack of rectification and slight voltage sensitivity seen before or after the fertilization currents. The time required for sperm to fertilize the egg was found to be voltage dependent with a relatively more depolarized voltage requiring a longer time for fertilization to occur. The percentage of eggs blocked with varying potential levels was determined and this information was fitted to a modified Boltzmann equation having a midpoint of -9 mV.

  2. Cutaneous retinal activation and neural entrainment in transcranial alternating current stimulation: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applies exogenous oscillatory electric field potentials to entrain neural rhythms and is used to investigate brain-function relationships and its potential to enhance perceptual and cognitive performance. However, due to current spread tACS can

  3. 78 FR 76836 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Current Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing..., prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Section 402(g) of the FD&C Act also...

  4. Simulation of Ca2+-activated Cl- current of cardiomyocytes in rabbit pulmonary vein: implications of subsarcolemmal Ca2+ dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Chae Hun; Kim, Won Tae; Ha, Jeong Mi; Lee, Yoon Jin; Seong, Hyeon Chan; Choe, Han; Jang, Yeon Jin; Youm, Jae Boum; Earm, Yung E

    2006-05-15

    In recent studies, we recorded transiently activated outward currents by the application of three-step voltage pulses to induce a reverse mode of Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX). We found that these currents were mediated by a Ca2+-activated Cl- current. Based on the recent reports describing the atrial Ca2+ transients, the Ca2+ transient at the subsarcolemmal space was initiated and then diffused into the cytosolic space. Because the myocardium in the pulmonary vein is an extension of the atrium, the Ca2+-activated Cl- current may reflect the subsarcolemmal Ca2+ dynamics. We tried to predict the subsarcolemmal Ca2+ dynamics by simulating these current traces. According to recent reports on the geometry of atrial myocytes, we assumed that there were three compartments of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR): a network SR, a junctional SR and a central SR. Based on these structures, we also divided the cytosolic space into three compartments: the junctional, subsarcolemmal and cytosolic spaces. Geometry information and cellular capacitance suggested that there were essentially no T-tubules in these cells. The basic physical data, such as the compartmental volumes, the diffusion coefficients and the stability coefficients of the Ca2+ buffers, were obtained from the literature. In the simulation, we incorporated the NCX, the L-type Ca2+ channel, the rapid activating outward rectifier K+ channel, the Na+-K+ pump, the SR Ca2+-pump, the ryanodine receptor, the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel and the dynamics of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-. In these conditions, we could successfully reconstruct the Ca2+-activated Cl- currents. The simulation allowed estimation of the Ca2+ dynamics of each compartment and the distribution of the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel and the NCX in the sarcolemma on the junctional or subsarcolemmal space.

  5. Review: Application of coal bottom ash as aggregate replacement in highway embankment, acoustic absorbing wall and asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiza Mohammed, Syakirah; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide annual production of coal bottom ash waste was increased in the last decade and is being dumped on landfill over the years. Its improper disposal has become an environmental concern and resulted in a waste of recoverable resources. There is a pressing and on-going need to develop new recycling methods for coal bottom ash. The utilization of coal bottom ash in highway engineering is one of the options to reduce the environmental problems related to the disposal of bottom ash. The present review describe the physical and chemical properties of coal bottom ash waste and its current application as highway embankment material, as acoustic absorbing material and as aggregate replacement in asphalt mixtures. The purpose of this review is to stimulate and promote the effective recycling of coal bottom ash in highway engineering industry.

  6. An Example of Easy Synthesis of Active Filter and Oscillator using Signal Flowgraph Modification and Controllable Current Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šotner, Roman; Hruboš, Zdeněk; Ševčík, Břetislav; Slezák, Josef; Petržela, Jiří; Dostál, Tomáš

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with synthesis of active frequency filters and oscillators for applications in the video band. The synthesis is based on the modified signal flow graph design approach in the current mode. The commercially available high frequency current conveyors and second order structures are used. Basic structure is employing loss-less and lossy current mode integrators in two distributed feedback loops. Some of the used active elements allow to control current gain which is very useful in applications. High frequency multi-functional filter and electronically adjustable quadrature oscillator configurations are discussed. Most of the used passive elements (mainly capacitors) are grounded which is suitable for IC implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate function and features very well.

  7. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew W. M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano

    2017-02-01

    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (˜20-40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  8. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano

    2017-01-01

    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (∼20–40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  9. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  10. A Comprehensive Review on the Properties of Coal Bottom Ash in Concrete as Sound Absorption Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Hannan Nurul Izzati Raihan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government is currently implementing policies to increase the usage of coal as fuel for electricity generation. At the same time, the dependency on gas will be reduced. In addition, coal power plants in Malaysia produce large amounts of industrial waste such as bottom ash which is collected in impoundment ponds (ash pond. However, millions of tons of coal ash (bottom ash waste are collected in ponds near power plant stations. Since bottom ash has been classified as hazardous material that threatens the health and safety of human life, an innovative and sustainable solution has been introduced to reuse or recycle industrial waste such as coal bottom ash in concrete mixtures to create a greener and more sustainable world. Bottom ash has the potential to be used as concrete material to replace fine aggregates, coarse aggregates or both. Hence, this paper provides an overview of previous research which used bottom ash as fine aggregate replacement in conventional concrete. The workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, and sound absorption of bottom ash in concrete are reviewed.

  11. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  12. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top-down and bottom-up mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun eZheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up or intentional (top-down fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information–induced attentional blink (AB using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationships between accuracy of target identification and individual traits (i.e., empathy and catastrophizing thinking about pain were also examined. The results demonstrated that task-relevant painful faces had a significant pain information–induced AB effect, whereas task-irrelevant faces a near-significant trend of this effect, supporting the notion that pain-related stimuli can influence the temporal dynamics of attention. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between response accuracy and pain catastrophizing score in task-relevant trials. These findings suggest that active scanning of environmental information related to pain produces greater deficits in cognition than does unintentional attention toward pain, which may represent the different ways in which healthy individuals and patients with chronic pain process pain-relevant information. These results may provide insight into the understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in patients with chronic pain.

  13. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top-down and bottom-up mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up) or intentional (top-down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information-induced attentional blink (AB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationships between accuracy of target identification and individual traits (i.e., empathy and catastrophizing thinking about pain) were also examined. The results demonstrated that task-relevant painful faces had a significant pain information-induced AB effect, whereas task-irrelevant faces showed a near-significant trend of this effect, supporting the notion that pain-related stimuli can influence the temporal dynamics of attention. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between response accuracy and pain catastrophizing score in task-relevant trials. These findings suggest that active scanning of environmental information related to pain produces greater deficits in cognition than does unintentional attention toward pain, which may represent the different ways in which healthy individuals and patients with chronic pain process pain-relevant information. These results may provide insight into the understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in patients with chronic pain.

  14. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm), silver (10 ppm), stainless steel (0.1%) and minerals that can be converted into building products such as aggregates utilized for concrete, asphalt, etc. Since the composition of BA varies from cou...

  15. Review and analysis of the influence of the emotional environment and reasons for current physical activity in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gómez Escribano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current health issues related to a sedentary lifestyle, which are present in teenage populations due to a lack of physical activity, are becoming increasingly serious. The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons to practice of physical activity and the social influence in teenagers. In order to do so, a bibliographical review has been carried out using several data bases. The results and conclusions that have been reached indicate that the main reason to practice physical activity is fun and also that the influence of peers and family members determines the amount and continuity of physical activity in teenagers.

  16. 77 FR 55473 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Renewal of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Request; Basel II Recordkeeping and Disclosures AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC... Basel II--Recordkeeping and Disclosures information collection, which is being renewed without change... the following currently approved collections of information: Title: Basel II: Disclosures and...

  17. 77 FR 75490 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Reinstatement With Change of a Currently-Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ..., State, and industry customers with the FMCSA Information Technology Services Survey Portal. The... Change of a Currently-Approved Information Collection Request: Information Technology Services Survey... decision to integrate its Information Technology (IT) with its business processes using portal technology...

  18. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section 178.811... Testing of IBCs § 178.811 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being...

  19. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum...

  20. Protective coordination of main and backup overcurrent relays with different operating modes of active super-conducting current controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active superconducting current controllers (ASCCs are new generation of series compensators, which can also be categorised as fault current limiters because of their ability to decrease the fault current continuously. Although the performance of the ASCCs in different operating modes introduces a limiting impedance in series with the network, it can degrade the operation of the overcurrent relays (OCRs. In this paper the ASCC modelling and its control strategy for fault detection and converter operation is investigated. The simulation of a typical three-phase ASCC shows the effect of the ASCC on fault current limiting and confirms the operation of the control system. The impact of different modes of ASCC on the operation of the main and backup OCRs is studied through the simulation of a typical distribution system . Simulation results confirm that the protective coordination of different modes of the ASCC is achieved by modifying both the time dial and pickup current parameters of the OCRs.

  1. CORRECTION ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING THE GIVEN CURRENT ACTIVE POWER FILTER BASED ON THE THEORY POWER FRYZE IN TERMS OF ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Vlasenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance of electrical energy requires an integrated approach to the design and selection of filtering and balancing device. An analysis revealed that the formation of the current filter is performed by the algorithm, based on the power theory laid. In the course of a computer simulation found that the use of the theory of power by Fryze‘s in threephase systems, it is advisable, but in need of correction. By using the methods of electrical engineering theory and modern standards to determine the components of the power correction algorithm is proposed to determine the specified current active power filter. This additional component, are determined by the voltage and current equivalent to a direct sequence and phase angle between them. Modeling power active filter with the proposed changes in the management system proved the efficiency of the proposed solutions. As a result, it proposed to carry out the formation of the active power filter using current theory Fryze and introduction instead of the average values of active power per phase, active power direct sequence, as determined in accordance with the provisions of the standard IEEE 1459-2010

  2. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  3. 75 FR 9593 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Renewal of Several Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... manufacturing pesticide chemicals, wholesale merchandising of pesticide products, or pest management activities... pesticidal devices to protect children and adults from serious illness or injury resulting from accidental...

  4. 78 FR 59014 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Renewal of Several Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... products and pesticidal devices to protect children and adults from serious illness or injury resulting... pesticide chemicals, wholesale merchandizing of pesticide products, or pest management activities. The North...

  5. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yue eLiao; Eleanor Tate Shonkoff; Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  6. Modulation of membrane potential by an acetylcholine-activated potassium current in trout atrial myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, C.E.; Gesser, Hans; Llach, A.

    2007-01-01

    Application of the current-clamp technique in rainbow trout atrial myocytes has yielded resting membrane potentials that are incompatible with normal atrial function. To investigate this paradox, we recorded the whole membrane current (Im) and compared membrane potentials recorded in isolated...... cardiac myocytes and multicellular preparations. Atrial tissue and ventricular myocytes had stable resting potentials of -87 ± 2 mV and -83.9 ± 0.4 mV, respectively. In contrast, 50 out of 59 atrial myocytes had unstable depolarized membrane potentials that were sensitive to the holding current. We...... hypothesized that this is at least partly due to a small slope conductance of Im around the resting membrane potential in atrial myocytes. In accordance with this hypothesis, the slope conductance of Im was about sevenfold smaller in atrial than in ventricular myocytes. Interestingly, ACh increased Im at -120...

  7. Mixed Stimulus-Induced Mode Selection in Neural Activity Driven by High and Low Frequency Current under Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activities of neurons are dependent on the complex electrophysiological condition in neuronal system, the three-variable Hindmarsh-Rose (HR neuron model is improved to describe the dynamical behaviors of neuronal activities with electromagnetic induction being considered, and the mode transition of electrical activities in neuron is detected when external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the neuron. In this paper, different types of electrical stimulus impended with a high-low frequency current are imposed on new HR neuron model, and mixed stimulus-induced mode selection in neural activity is discussed in detail. It is found that mode selection of electrical activities stimulated by high-low frequency current, which also changes the excitability of neuron, can be triggered owing to adding the Gaussian white noise. Meanwhile, the mode selection of the neuron electrical activity is much dependent on the amplitude B of the high frequency current under the same noise intensity, and the high frequency response is selected preferentially by applying appropriate parameters and noise intensity. Our results provide insights into the transmission of complex signals in nerve system, which is valuable in engineering prospective applications such as information encoding.

  8. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  9. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of this volume, Police reform from the bottom up, is bound to create expectations amongst those concerned with the challenges confronting institutional change in public police agencies. It is an interest shared by police scholars and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police agencies today can ...

  10. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  11. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  12. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  13. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Richard P Feynman. Classics Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 890-905. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/09/0890-0905 ...

  14. Re-activation of degraded nickel cermet anodes - Nano-particle formation via reverse current pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Marchese, M.; Lanzini, A.

    2018-01-01

    The Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) cermet is the most commonly applied fuel electrode for solid oxide cells (SOCs). Loss of Ni/YSZ electrode activity is a key life-time limiting factor of the SOC. Developing means to mitigate this loss of performance or re-activate a fuel electrode is theref...

  15. Pacemaker current inhibition in experimental human cardiac sympathetic activation: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, C.; Heusser, K.; Zoerner, A.A.; Grosshennig, A.; Wenzel, D.; May, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Mehling, H.; Luft, F.C.; Tank, J.; Jordan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated 4 (HCN4) channels comprise the final pathway for autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation. We hypothesized that HCN4 inhibition could reverse autonomic imbalance in a human model of cardiac sympathetic activation. Nineteen healthy men ingested oral

  16. Interactions of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Stephanie; Kastner, Sabine

    2011-01-12

    Multiple stimuli present in the visual field at the same time compete for neural representation by mutually suppressing their evoked activity throughout visual cortex, providing a neural correlate for the limited processing capacity of the visual system. Competitive interactions among stimuli can be counteracted by top-down, goal-directed mechanisms such as attention, and by bottom-up, stimulus-driven mechanisms. Because these two processes cooperate in everyday life to bias processing toward behaviorally relevant or particularly salient stimuli, it has proven difficult to study interactions between top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. Here, we used an experimental paradigm in which we first isolated the effects of a bottom-up influence on neural competition by parametrically varying the degree of perceptual grouping in displays that were not attended. Second, we probed the effects of directed attention on the competitive interactions induced with the parametric design. We found that the amount of attentional modulation varied linearly with the degree of competition left unresolved by bottom-up processes, such that attentional modulation was greatest when neural competition was little influenced by bottom-up mechanisms and smallest when competition was strongly influenced by bottom-up mechanisms. These findings suggest that the strength of attentional modulation in the visual system is constrained by the degree to which competitive interactions have been resolved by bottom-up processes related to the segmentation of scenes into candidate objects.

  17. Using active power filter to compensate the current component of asymmetrical non-linear load in the four wire network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Володимирович Власенко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity quality improving is extremely relevant nowadays. With such industrial loads as induction motors, induction furnaces, welding machines, controlled or uncontrolled rectifiers, frequency converters and others reactive power, harmonics and unbalance are generated in power grid. Reactive power, higher harmonic currents and asymmetry loads influence the functioning of electric devices and electrical mains. An effective technical solution is the use of new compensating devices, that is active power filters. The emergence of consumers with a unit capacity of four wire networks requires a new approach to building system control active power filter. When designing the active power filter control system the current flowing in the neutral wire must be taken into account. To assess the power balance in the four wire active power filter, scientists have proposed to apply pqr theory of power based on the Clarke transformation. There are different topologies of three-phase four wire active power filters. A visual simulation of Matlab / Simulink model with an active power filter based on pqr theory of power has been created. A method of pulse width modulation with four control channels was used as pulses forming systems with transistor keys. Operating conditions of three-phase four wire active power filter with asymmetry, non-sinosoidal voltage source and asymmetric load have been studied. The correction taking into account the means improving the active power filter has been offered as pqr theory of power does not take into account non-sinosoidal voltage

  18. Extraction of crustal deformations and oceanic fluctuations from ocean bottom pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Nagano, Akira; Hasegawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kido, Motoyuki; Igarashi, Toshihiro; Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    It has been well known that megathrust earthquakes such as the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (Mw 9.1) and the 2011 the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) had devastated the coastal areas in the western of Indonesia and in the north-eastern of Japan, respectively. To mitigate the disaster of those forthcoming megathrust earthquakes along Nankai Trough, the Japanese government has established seafloor networks of cable-linked observatories around Japan: DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Nankai Trough) and S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench). The advantage of the cable-linked network is to monitor the propagation process of tsunami and seismic waves as well as seismic activity in real time. DONET contains pressure gauges as well as seismometers, which are expected to detect crustal deformations driven by peeling off subduction plate coupling process. From our simulation results, leveling changes are different sense among the DONET points even in the same science node. On the other hand, oceanic fluctuations such as melting ice masses through the global warming have so large scale as to cause ocean bottom pressure change coherently for all of DONET points especially in the same node. This difference suggests the possibility of extracting crustal deformations component from ocean bottom pressure data by differential of stacking data. However, this operation cannot be applied to local-scale fluctuations related to ocean mesoscale eddies and current fluctuations, which affect ocean bottom pressure through water density changes in the water column (from the sea surface to the bottom). Therefore, we need integral analysis by combining seismology, ocean physics and tsunami engineering so as to decompose into crustal deformation, oceanic fluctuations and instrumental drift, which will bring about high precision data enough to find geophysical phenomena. In this study

  19. ORTHOGONAL COMPONENTS OF THE THREE-PHASE CURRENT AT ASYMMETRICAL ACTIVE-REACTIVE LOAD IN 4-WIRE CIRCUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu.A. Sirotin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For the unbalanced sinusoidal mode with asymmetric voltage in 3-phase 4-wire to receive the orthogonal 4-component decomposition of 3-phase current, are classified symmetry/asymmetry of active and reactive load elements separately. Methodology. The methodology is based on the vector approach, which with one voice allows to analyze the energy characteristics of a 4-wire and 3-wire circuits as balanced and unbalanced modes. At asymmetrical voltage the matrix representation methodology of the equivalent conductivities is used. Results. For 3-phase 4-wire network with a sinusoidal unbalanced mode with asymmetric voltage obtained 4-component orthogonal decomposition of the 3-phase current. The components have a clear electro-energetic sense and are classified irrespective by the load condition. Originality. The resulting decomposition current develops the theory Currents' Physical Components (CPC for 4-wire circuit with asymmetric voltage. For the first time the unbalanced current is classified by activity and reactivity of asymmetry load elements. Practical value. Practical value of the obtained orthogonal decomposition current and the power equation is a possibility of their utilization for the increase both quality of delivery and quality of consumption of electrical energy.

  20. The Rhodes Scholarship in the Current Era of Student Activism: What Do We Consider "Prestigious" and Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary student activism has revealed deep feelings of alienation on college campuses, prompting strong reactions to current and historical racial injustice, including the history of Cecil Rhodes. Can advisors promote restorative justice by encouraging reflection upon privileges afforded to Rhodes scholars and their responsibility to address…

  1. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  2. 75 FR 44841 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Revision of a Currently-Approved Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Currently-Approved Information Collection Request: Transportation of Household Goods; Consumer Protection..., 2010, concerning an information collection request (ICR), ``Transportation of Household Goods; Consumer... household goods movers'' to read: Respondents: 8,500 [6,000 household goods movers + 2,500 consumers...

  3. Single-current-sensor-based active front-end-converter-fed four ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph Kiran Banda

    fast acting digital signal processors, which has created a revolution in the area of electrical drives. Even though ... currents, which results in AC quantities transforming into. DC quantities by decoupling into torque and flux .... angle of transformation obtained, a reference voltage at desired phase is generated using a voltage ...

  4. 77 FR 22333 - Agency Information Collection Activities: USCIS Case Status Online, Extension of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Status Online, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: USCIS case status online. The Department of Homeland... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  5. High Performance Current Controller for Selective Harmonic Compensation in Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Boldea, I.

    2007-01-01

    computational effort. The proposed controller design is based on the pole-zero cancellation technique, taking into account the load transfer function at each harmonic frequency. Two design methods are provided, which give controller transfer functions with superior frequency response. The complete current...

  6. Experimentals, bottoms, risk-reducers and clubbers: exploring diverse sexual practice in an Internet-active high-risk behaviour group of men who have sex with men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Kristina Ingemarsdotter; Tikkanen, Ronny; Bergström, Jakob; Berglund, Torsten; Thorson, Anna; Forsberg, Birger C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV infection. Data from the Swedish MSM2013 survey were analysed with a focus on respondents (n = 714) who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse with male casual partner(s) in the past 12 months. Weighted Latent Class Analysis with covariates and distal outcomes was conducted to identify sub-groups of men sharing the same sexual practice characteristics. Four latent classes emerged: experimentals, bottoms, risk-reducers and clubbers. Experimentals appeared to differ most from the other classes. They had extensive experience of barebacking, the use of poppers and fisting. Higher number of casual male sex partners and reporting having HIV were predictors for belonging to experimentals. No evidence for an association between self-rated HIV prevention knowledge and taking less part in risky practices was found. Hence, knowledge-intensive interventions may not be the best fit for reducing HIV transmission. This diversity of men based on similar sexual practice patterns should be taken into account when designing future HIV prevention interventions.

  7. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  8. Response of equatorial ionosphere to episodes of asymmetric ring current activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Sastri

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the characteristics of the response of equatorial ionospheric zonal electric field and F-region plasma density to the asymmetric ring current intensifications that occurred in succession on 16 December 1991, corresponding to the STEP/EITS-2 campaign period. The study is based on high-time- resolution (1-min data of asymmetic ring current indices, ASY(H/D and F-region vertical plasma drift, Vz measurements at Kodaikanal (10.25°N; 77.5°E; dip 4°, India and quarter-hourly ionosonde data of Fortaleza (4°S; 322°E; dip –9°, Brazil. It is shown that short-lived disturbances in F-layer vertical plasma drift, Vz and height (h'F/hpF2 indicative of westward and eastward electric fields prevail simultaneously in the dusk (18–21 LT and predawn (02–05 LT sectors, respectively, in association with the decay phase of asymmetic ring current events. Electric fields of opposite polarity do also seem to manifest at these local times, particularly in the early-morning sector in conjunction with the intensification of the asymmetric ring current. At a given location, electric field disturbances associated with individual asymmetric ring current events are thus bipolar in nature, with fields of opposite polarity during the growth and decay phases. The nature and polarity structure of the observed electric field disturbances are in agreement with the theoretical/model predictions of prompt penetration of high-latitude electric fields to the equatorial region.

  9. The Current Problem of School Children – Lack of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BarboraNovotná

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors present the survey results of younger school-age pupils’ knowledge of the relation between physical activity and health. The survey was conducted within VEGA Grant Project No. 1/0606/15. The questionnaire investigation on a sample of 540 pupils found that respondents are familiar with and aware of the importance of physical activity for health, however, they are losing interest in sports and recreational activity. The main content of their free-time is playing with friends, playing computer games, and watching television.

  10. Cannabinoids modulate the P-type high-voltage-activated calcium currents in Purkinje neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisyunov, A.; Tsintsadze, V.; Min, R.; Burnashev, N.; Lozovaya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Endocannabinoids released by postsynaptic cells inhibit neurotransmitter release in many central synapses by activating presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In particular, in the cerebellum, endocannabinoids inhibit synaptic transmission at granule cell to Purkinje cell synapses by modulating

  11. Physical activity patterns in children and adolescents: a brief summary of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Garganta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review was to accost conceptual and operational issues associated with physical activity patterns (PAF in children and adolescents. A systematic research was done in national and international data bases in order to select recent studies with information concerning PAF. There are different ways to describe and quantify PAF using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Most of studies identified that physical activity is characterized by extremely short periods of high intensity, with a predominance of moderate to low intensity activity.On weekends these periods are longer and boys have higher frequencies of episodes in different levels of intensity. “Physical activity pattern” is a usual expression, but there is no unanimous concept and interpretation. Using a multimode approach would certainly improve our understanding of PAF, considering its type, frequency, duration, and intensity.

  12. 75 FR 41213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities..., U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), has submitted the following information collection... Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to oira...

  13. 77 FR 11147 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), is submitting the following information... Officer, for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, and sent...

  14. Physical activity patterns in children and adolescents: a brief summary of current knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Garganta; José António Ribeiro Maia; André Seabra; Ramon de Brito Costa Pinheiro Lima; Rogério César Fermino

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this review was to accost conceptual and operational issues associated with physical activity patterns (PAF) in children and adolescents. A systematic research was done in national and international data bases in order to select recent studies with information concerning PAF. There are different ways to describe and quantify PAF using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Most of studies identified that physical activity is characterized by extremely short pe...

  15. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna; Nizyayeva Viktoria Romanivna

    2017-01-01

    The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work ...

  16. Adaptive Hybrid Fuzzy-Proportional Plus Crisp-Integral Current Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Farahaida Abdul Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive hybrid fuzzy-proportional plus crisp-integral current control algorithm (CCA for regulating supply current and enhancing the operation of a shunt active power filter (SAPF is presented. It introduces a unique integration of fuzzy-proportional (Fuzzy-P and crisp-integral (Crisp-I current controllers. The Fuzzy-P current controller is developed to perform gain tuning procedure and proportional control action. This controller inherits the simplest configuration; it is constructed using a single-input single-output fuzzy rule configuration. Thus, an execution of few fuzzy rules is sufficient for the controller’s operation. Furthermore, the fuzzy rule is developed using the relationship of currents only. Hence, it simplifies the controller development. Meanwhile, the Crisp-I current controller is developed to perform integral control action using a controllable gain value; to improve the steady-state control mechanism. The gain value is modified and controlled using the Fuzzy-P current controller’s output variable. Therefore, the gain value will continuously be adjusted at every sample period (or throughout the SAPF operation. The effectiveness of the proposed CCA in regulating supply current is validated in both simulation and experimental work. All results have proven that the SAPF using the proposed CCA is capable to regulate supply current during steady-state and dynamic-state operations. At the same time, the SAPF is able to enhance its operation in compensating harmonic currents and reactive power. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed CCA has resulted more stable dc-link voltage waveform.

  17. Analysis and design of grid-current-feedback active damping for LCL resonance in grid-connected voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    in a digital control system. The instability induced by the negative virtual resistance, which is commonly experienced in the feedback-type active damping, can thus be avoided. A systematic design method of the highpass filter is also proposed by the help of root locus analysis in the discrete z-domain. Lastly......This paper investigates the active damping of LCL-filter resonance within single-loop grid current control of grid-connected voltage source converters. First, the basic analysis in the continuous s-domain reveals that the grid-current-feedback active damping forms a virtual impedance across...... the grid-side inductor, and the use of a high-pass filter with a negative sign shapes the virtual impedance by an RL damper paralleled by a negative inductance. It is further found that such a negative virtual inductance plays a critical role in mitigating the phase lag caused by the time delay...

  18. Grid-Current-Feedback Active Damping for LCL Resonance in Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates active damping of LCL-filter resonance in a grid-connected voltage-source converter with only grid-current feedback control. Basic analysis in the s-domain shows that the proposed damping technique with a negative high-pass filter along its damping path is equivalent...... to adding a virtual impedance across the grid-side inductance. This added impedance is more precisely represented by a series RL branch in parallel with a negative inductance. The negative inductance helps to mitigate phase lag caused by time delays found in a digitally controlled system. The mitigation...... of phase-lag, in turn, helps to shrink the region of nonminimum-phase behavior caused by negative virtual resistance inserted unintentionally by most digitally implemented active damping techniques. The presented high-pass-filtered active damping technique with a single grid-current feedback loop is thus...

  19. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dyrda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents activated by a local and controlled membrane deformation in single red blood cells under on-cell patch clamp to define the nature of the stretch-activated currents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to allow recordings of single channel activity in intact red blood cells. Gigaohm seal formation was obtained with and without membrane deformation. Deformation was induced by the application of a negative pressure pulse of 10 mmHg for less than 5 s. Currents were only detected when the membrane was seen domed under negative pressure within the patch-pipette. K(+ and Cl(- currents were strictly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+. The Ca(2+-dependent currents were transient, with typical decay half-times of about 5-10 min, suggesting the spontaneous inactivation of a stretch-activated Ca(2+ permeability (PCa. These results indicate that local membrane deformations can transiently activate a Ca(2+ permeability pathway leading to increased [Ca(2+](i, secondary activation of Ca(2+-sensitive K(+ channels (Gardos channel, IK1, KCa3.1, and hyperpolarization-induced anion currents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stretch-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and

  20. Pacemaker current inhibition in experimental human cardiac sympathetic activation: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, C; Heusser, K; Zoerner, A A; Großhennig, A; Wenzel, D; May, M; Sweep, F C G J; Mehling, H; Luft, F C; Tank, J; Jordan, J

    2014-06-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated 4 (HCN4) channels comprise the final pathway for autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation. We hypothesized that HCN4 inhibition could reverse autonomic imbalance in a human model of cardiac sympathetic activation. Nineteen healthy men ingested oral metoprolol+reboxetine, ivabradine+reboxetine, or placebo+reboxetine in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. We assessed HR, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, and cardiac output during rest and profound orthostatic stress. HR variability, BP variability, and baroreflex sensitivity were analyzed. Metoprolol, but not ivabradine, decreased resting HR and BP. Ivabradine attenuated the HR increase to orthostatic stress, albeit to a lesser extent than metoprolol. Stroke volume and cardiac output at a given HR were significantly lower with metoprolol. Unlike metoprolol, ivabradine did not affect HR variability, BP variability, or baroreflex sensitivity. Ivabradine attenuates sympathetic influences on HR at the sinus node level, leaving myocardial sympathetic activation unopposed. Reversal of parasympathetic dysfunction by ivabradine appears limited.

  1. Nutrition and physical activity on hypertension: implication of current evidence and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iran; Waclawovsky, Gustavo; Marcadenti, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of worldwide mortality and is responsible for approximately 40% of deaths from cardiovascular disease, chronicle kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is known that about 80% of all mortality from cardiovascular disorders could be prevented if a healthy diet and higher levels of physical activity were included among general population's lifestyle. Besides, guidelines for the treatment and control of HTN were recently modified for adequate nutritional and physical activity recommendations highlighted in meta-analysis and strong evidences such as randomized clinical trials. Therefore, to discuss nutrition and physical activity in the context of HTN seems to be crucial.

  2. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop a moment QCD sum rule method augmented by fundamental inequalities to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark–antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm ccc¯c¯ tetraquark currents with JPC=0++, 0−+, 0−−, 1++, 1+−, 1−+, 1−−, and 2++. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom bbb¯b¯ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the ϒ(1Sϒ(1S and ηb(1Sηb(1S, except one current of JPC=0++. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the J/ψJ/ψ and ηc(1Sηc(1S channels.

  3. Active penetration of Trypanosoma cruzi into host cells: historical considerations and current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecia Maria Ulisses Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of scientific groups working on several countries have made efforts to better understand the process of invasion of several types of host cells by Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. In this mini-review we analyze the two mechanisms of invasion considered to be relevant: active penetration and endocytosis. The term active penetration is considered in view of its original description by Dvorak and co-workers. Taking into consideration all results obtained we conclude that endocytosis, with its many variations, is the only mechanism used by T. cruzi to invade host cells.

  4. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  5. Activation of Ih and TTX-sensitive sodium current at subthreshold voltages during CA1 pyramidal neuron firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Hanff, Jason; Bean, Bruce P

    2015-10-01

    We used dynamic clamp and action potential clamp techniques to explore how currents carried by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and HCN channels (Ih) regulate the behavior of CA1 pyramidal neurons at resting and subthreshold voltages. Recording from rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we found that the apparent input resistance and membrane time constant were strongly affected by both conductances, with Ih acting to decrease apparent input resistance and time constant and sodium current acting to increase both. We found that both Ih and sodium current were active during subthreshold summation of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) generated by dynamic clamp, with Ih dominating at less depolarized voltages and sodium current at more depolarized voltages. Subthreshold sodium current-which amplifies EPSPs-was most effectively recruited by rapid voltage changes, while Ih-which blunts EPSPs-was maximal for slow voltage changes. The combined effect is to selectively amplify rapid EPSPs. We did similar experiments in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons, doing voltage-clamp experiments using experimental records of action potential firing of CA1 neurons previously recorded in awake, behaving animals as command voltages to quantify flow of Ih and sodium current at subthreshold voltages. Subthreshold sodium current was larger and subthreshold Ih was smaller in mouse neurons than in rat neurons. Overall, the results show opposing effects of subthreshold sodium current and Ih in regulating subthreshold behavior of CA1 neurons, with subthreshold sodium current prominent in both rat and mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons and additional regulation by Ih in rat neurons. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. 76 FR 9805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Supplement; Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 845 and Supplement; Document Verification Request, and Document.... The information collections allow for the verification of immigration status of certain persons... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and...

  7. 75 FR 70277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings Under Section 336; OMB Control No. 1615-0050. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S...

  8. 76 FR 69276 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings (Under Section 336 of the INA); OMB Control No. 1615-0050. The Department of Homeland Security, U...

  9. 76 FR 53144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336; Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings (Under Section 336 of the INA); OMB Control No. 1615-0050. The Department of Homeland Security, U...

  10. 78 FR 981 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Renewal of a Currently Approved Collection; and Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... financial institutions operating in the United States to report known or suspected criminal activities to.... Transaction with no apparent economic, business, or lawful purpose; p. Two or more individuals working... provided) 37. Securities/Futures/Options--a. Insider trading; b. Market manipulation/wash trading; c...

  11. Oak wine barrel as an active vessel: A critical review of past and current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Alamo-Sanza, Maria; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-05-30

    We review the role of the oak barrel as an active vessel for wine maturation. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of processes occurring with wine inside the oak barrel are still without confirmation. We argue that recently published new findings on the topic are determining factors in defining the manner in which the oak barrel works with wine. Several studies have been published reviewing how the wine barrel functions as an active vessel that releases chemical compounds into the wine, improving its physical, chemical, and sensory properties. Nevertheless, there are hardly any studies that describe how a wine barrel functions as an active vessel. The present review details the main factors affecting the gas exchange capacity of the barrel, such as the pressure drop generated within the barrel, the formation of a headspace, the effect of wood anatomy, the different oxygen entry routes, the role of wood moisture content and soluble ellagitannins, and the effect of barrel toasting on cooperage. Finally, a hypothesis is proposed regarding the function of the barrel as an active vessel, which determines the manner in which it interacts with the wine that it contains during aging.

  12. In vitro - in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of currently used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hadrup, Niels; Boberg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Two pesticide mixtures were investigated for potential endocrine activity. Mix 3 consisted of bitertanol, propiconazole, and cypermethrin, and Mix 5 included malathion and terbuthylazine in addition to the three pesticides in Mix 3.All five single pesticides and the two mixtures were investigated...

  13. Lost Thoughts: Implicit Semantic Interference Impairs Reflective Access to Currently Active Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julie A.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2013-01-01

    Why do we lose, or have trouble accessing, an idea that was in the focus of attention only a moment ago, especially in the absence of any apparent distraction? We tested the hypothesis that accessing a single item that is already active is affected by implicit interference (interference of which we have little or no awareness). We presented masked…

  14. Current Research on Parallel Measures of Interests and Confidence for Basic Dimensions of Vocational Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for and review of parallel measures of self-efficacy (confidence) and interests for basic dimensions of vocational activity. Recent development of and research on the Expanded Skills Confidence Inventory, Campbell Interest and Skills Survey, Kuder Skills Assessment, and Inventory of Work-Relevant Abilities are…

  15. Optimized Laser Thermal Annealing on Germanium for High Dopant Activation and Low Leakage Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayesteh, Maryam; O' Connell, Dan; Gity, Farzan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, state-of-the-art laser thermal annealing is used to fabricate Ge diodes. We compared the effect of laser thermal annealing (LTA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on dopant activation and electrical properties of phosphorus and Arsenic-doped n +/p junctions. Using LTA, high carrier...

  16. 77 FR 11148 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...-0026. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit... Homeland Security (DHS), John Ramsay, Program (Forms) Manager, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement...

  17. 75 FR 41214 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will be submitting the... Security sponsoring the collection: Form G-146, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (4) Affected...

  18. 76 FR 36562 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Control No. 1653-0034. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE... Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to oira...

  19. 77 FR 35704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit the following... Ramsay, Program (Forms) Manager, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 500 12th Street SW., Stop 5705...

  20. 76 FR 36561 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will be submitting the... addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland...

  1. 75 FR 62560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...-0021. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), is.... Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to oira...

  2. Research of Current Control Strategy of Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on Fuzzy Recursive Integral PI Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Liao, Daifa

    According to the current control characters of hybrid active power filter (HAPF), the current control model of HAPF is designed. The fuzzy recursive integral PI control algorithm is presented when it is compared to conventional PI control method. The control algorithm is applied to auto-regulate the proportional and integral parameters of PI. Thus, the robustness and response speed is enhanced; the dynamic performance of the HAPF device is improved. Under Matlab/Simulink background, a fuzzy recursive integral PI controller is designed and it is applied in a HAPF model in PSCAD/EMTDC. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this fuzzy recursive integral PI control algorithm.

  3. Active Damping of LLCL-Filter Resonance Based on LC-Trap Voltage or Current Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    , a high-pass damper must be used, which as commonly known, may cause undesired noise complications depending on operating conditions. In this paper, the same capacitor current damper has been investigated for LLCL-filter with its limitations clarified. Both cases of with and without delays have been...... considered. The investigation has also been extended to consider LC-trap voltage feedback, which based on the formulated transfer functions and experimental results, permits a simple proportional damper to be used. Lesser noise complications and faster dynamic can then be achieved. Circuit equivalences...

  4. Encapsulation of Active Compounds in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing: Current State and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Gallo, Mariangela; Campaniello, Daniela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The production of value-added and/or functional juices has increased significantly in recent years, following an increased consumer demand to promote health and/or prevent disease through diet and nutrition. Micro and nano-encapsulation are promising technologies to protect and deliver sensitive compounds, allowing a controlled release in the target sites. This paper offers an overview of current applications, limits and challenges of encapsulation technologies in the production of fruit and vegetable juices, with a particular emphasis on products derived from different botanical sources. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  6. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit

  7. Inverse current source density method in two dimensions: inferring neural activation from multielectrode recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łęski, Szymon; Pettersen, Klas H; Tunstall, Beth; Einevoll, Gaute T; Gigg, John; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2011-12-01

    The recent development of large multielectrode recording arrays has made it affordable for an increasing number of laboratories to record from multiple brain regions simultaneously. The development of analytical tools for array data, however, lags behind these technological advances in hardware. In this paper, we present a method based on forward modeling for estimating current source density from electrophysiological signals recorded on a two-dimensional grid using multi-electrode rectangular arrays. This new method, which we call two-dimensional inverse Current Source Density (iCSD 2D), is based upon and extends our previous one- and three-dimensional techniques. We test several variants of our method, both on surrogate data generated from a collection of Gaussian sources, and on model data from a population of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons. We also apply the method to experimental data from the rat subiculum. The main advantages of the proposed method are the explicit specification of its assumptions, the possibility to include system-specific information as it becomes available, the ability to estimate CSD at the grid boundaries, and lower reconstruction errors when compared to the traditional approach. These features make iCSD 2D a substantial improvement over the approaches used so far and a powerful new tool for the analysis of multielectrode array data. We also provide a free GUI-based MATLAB toolbox to analyze and visualize our test data as well as user datasets.

  8. Bottom friction and wave-induced roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesqueur, J.; Ardhuin, F.; Bennis, A.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The parameterization of the interaction of waves with a sandy bottom including ripple generation and relict ripple roughness (Ardhuin et al. 2003) using the sub-grid roughness algorithm by Tolman (1995) has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and generalized to take into account the variability of the bottom nature, including rock and cohesive sediments. The model is applied with a triangle-based mesh to both the U.S. East-Coast and the French Atlantic to North Sea coasts. The hindcast wave heights over the North Carolina continental shelf during the SHOaling Waves EXperiment reproduce the results of Ardhuin et al. (2003). The new application in the English Channel and Southern North see shows a general better result that with the JONSWAP parameterization. In particular the use of realistic roughness is important with gravel in the central Channel and sand or sand/silt mixtures in the southern North Sea.

  9. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  10. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  11. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    important to have a backup unit with the same capabilities. • The heading sensor is essential for effective ROV operation. • The tending vessel can...debris/bottom type/weather effects 5. Logistics a. Equipment requirements b. Equipment availability c. Backup equipment/spares availability d...Southeast Florida Mystery Spill SE Florida HFO X 2001 T/V Baltic Carrier Baltic Sea, Denmark Intermediate fuel oil (IFO) 380 X 2002 T/V Prestige

  12. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and (c) suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones. PMID:23945675

  13. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Failla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and (c suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.

  14. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mark L. Failla; Fabiola Gutierrez-Orozco

    2013-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen?s classification as a ?superfruit?. This has led...

  15. The current situation of adapted physical activity for persons with disabilities in the region of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinilla Arbex

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the state of the art of adapted physical activity for persons with disabilities in the region of Madrid. To meet this goal, official demographic data and indicators of participation in physical activity programs from 2014 were analyzed. Results indicated a population of 307.880 persons with disability (4.7 % of the entire population. The largest population group among the persons with disabilities is composed by persons with a physical disability. Less than 2.53 % of the population with disability practiced a competitive sport and 21.49 % of persons with disabilities living in Madrid were holders of the “Special Card” that provided them with free access to all public sport facilities. However, no indicator was found related with the participation of the population with disabilities on leisure or health physical activities in the region of Madrid. These results suggest that there is a need for improving monitoring through official indicators and to establish further actions that responds to the analyzed demographic profile.

  16. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity in Europe: Current state of surveillance, policy development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Rathmes, Giulia; Mendes, Romeu; Fontaine, Olivier; Hollmann, Susanne; Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Galea, Gauden

    2018-02-03

    This study aims to present information on the surveillance, policy developments, and implementation of physical activity policies in the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Data was collected on the implementation of the EU Recommendation on health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) across sectors. In line with the monitoring framework proposed in the Recommendation, a questionnaire was designed to capture information on 23 physical activity indicators. Of the 27 EU countries that responded to the survey, 22 have implemented actions on more than 10 indicators, four countries have implemented more than 20 indicators, and one country has fully addressed and implemented all of the 23 indicators of the monitoring framework. The data collected under this HEPA monitoring framework provided, for the first time, an overview of the implementation of HEPA-related policies and actions at the national level throughout the EU. Areas that need more investment are the "Senior Citizens" sector followed by the "Work Environment", and the "Environment, Urban Planning, and Public Safety" sectors. This information also enabled comparison of the state of play of HEPA policy implementation between EU Member States and facilitated the exchange of good practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Physical activity and health-related quality of life among older men: an examination of current physical activity recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jeff K; Eurich, Dean T; Lavallee, Celeste M; Johnson, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    To determine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between older men achieving versus not achieving American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the United States Department of Health and Human Services recommendations (USDHHS) physical activity (PA) recommendations. Older-aged men (≥ 55 years) completed a mailed survey that assessed self-reported PA and HRQoL. Data were collected between September and October of 2010. 387 older men (Mean age=65) completed the survey. Under half (48%) reported achieving the ACSM recommendation while 64% reported achieving the USDHHS recommendation. Older men achieving the ACSM recommendation reported significantly higher scores in physical health (Δ=3.5, phealth (Δ=4.4, phealth (Δ=4.3, pactivity) reported significantly higher scores on the PHC (Δ=2.1, p=0.029) and GHC (Δ=2.3, p=0.027) scales compared to those achieving the USDHHS base recommendation (150-299.9 min per week of moderate-intensity activity). Self-reported PA was significantly and positively associated with higher HRQoL scores among older men. Associations were stronger for those achieving a higher volume of PA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC, premotor cortex (PMC, supplementary motor area (SMA, and secondary somatosensory area (S2, as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI, and with reference to voluntary (VOL wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2. However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  20. Frequency Response Analysis of Current Controllers for Selective Harmonic Compensation in Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, C.; Asiminoaei, L.; Boldea, I.

    2009-01-01

    different. It emerges that the fourth one has superior behavior and robustness and can stably work at higher frequencies than the others. Theoretical findings and analysis are supported by comparative experimental results on a 7-kVA laboratory setup. The highest harmonic frequency that can be stably...... to achieve zero phase shift and unity gain in the closed-loop transfer function for selected harmonics. The complete current controller is the superposition of all individual harmonic controllers and may be implemented in various reference frames. The analysis is focused on the comparison of harmonic...... and total closed-loop transfer functions for each controller. Analytical similarities and differences between schemes in terms of frequency response characteristics are emphasized. It is concluded that three of them have identical harmonic behavior despite the fact that their implementation is significantly...

  1. Current activity of Russia in measurement assurance of Earth optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapritsky, V. I.; Krutikov, V. N.; Ivanov, V. S.; Panfilov, A. S.; Pavlovich, M. N.; Burdakin, A. A.; Rakov, V. V.; Morozova, S. P.; Lisyansky, B. E.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Gavrilov, V. R.; Ogarev, S. A.; Pusanov, A. V.; Samoylov, M. L.; Solodilov, M. V.; Katysheva, A. A.; Parfentyev, N. A.; Stakharny, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    The All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements is currently carrying out a project on developing an integrated system for measurement assurance of Earth observations. The system should provide ground calibration of instruments and their control during space-borne observations. Such tasks require appropriate measurement facilities as well as regulatory documentation. In this paper we discuss the newly created radiometric facility, traceable to SI standard, for precise calibration of instruments for Earth observations, the project on precise monitoring of the stability of the instrument's in-flight performance and the development of national regulatory documentation in harmony with the international document 'Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation—QA4EO'.

  2. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  3. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J; Pyne, John H; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-27

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant's history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  4. Inhibitors of arachidonate-regulated calcium channel signaling suppress triggered activity induced by the late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Paul; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; White, C Roger; Huang, Jian; Mahtani, Harry; Urthaler, Ferdinand

    2014-02-05

    Disturbances in myocyte calcium homeostasis are hypothesized to be one cause for cardiac arrhythmia. The full development of this hypothesis requires (i) the identification of all sources of arrhythmogenic calcium and (ii) an understanding of the mechanism(s) through which calcium initiates arrhythmia. To these ends we superfused rat left atria with the late sodium current activator type II Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATXII). This toxin prolonged atrial action potentials, induced early afterdepolarization, and provoked triggered activity. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 (N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphon-amide) suppressed ATXII triggered activity but its inactive congener KN-92 (2-[N-(4-methoxy benzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine) did not. Neither drug affected normal atrial contractility. Calcium entry via L-type channels or calcium leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores are not critical for this type of ectopy as neither verapamil ((RS)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-(methyl)amino}-2-prop-2-ylpentanenitrile) nor ryanodine affected ATXII triggered activity. By contrast, inhibitors of the voltage independent arachidonate-regulated calcium (ARC) channel and the store-operated calcium channel specifically suppressed ATXII triggered activity without normalizing action potentials or affecting atrial contractility. Inhibitors of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 also suppressed triggered activity suggesting that this lipase, which generates free arachidonate, plays a key role in ATXII ectopy. Thus, increased left atrial late sodium current appears to activate atrial Orai-linked ARC and store operated calcium channels, and these voltage-independent channels may be unexpected sources for the arrhythmogenic calcium that underlies triggered activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...... with ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...... ventricular ectopy, and TdP. Infusion of NS1643 completely suppressed arrhythmic activity and shortened the QT interval; vehicle had no effect. NS1643 also suppressed ventricular tachyarrhythmias caused by infusion of dofetilide to methoxamine-sensitized rabbits, and reversed dofetilide-induced QT...

  6. Contribution of near-threshold currents to intrinsic oscillatory activity in rat medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Anne; Henneberger, Christian; Heinemann, Uwe; Erchova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The temporal lobe is well known for its oscillatory activity associated with exploration, navigation, and learning. Intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) and resonance of stellate cells (SCs) in layer II of the entorhinal cortex are thought to contribute to network oscillations and thereby to the encoding of spatial information. Generation of both MPOs and resonance relies on the expression of specific voltage-dependent ion currents such as the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I(H)), the persistent sodium current (I(NaP)), and the noninactivating muscarine-modulated potassium current (I(M)). However, the differential contributions of these currents remain a matter of debate. We therefore examined how they modify neuronal excitability near threshold and generation of near-threshold MPOs and resonance in vitro. We found that resonance mainly relied on I(H) and was reduced by I(H) blockers and modulated by cAMP and an I(M) enhancer but that neither of the currents exhibited full control over MPOs in these cells. As previously reported, I(H) controlled a theta-frequency component of MPOs such that blockade of I(H) resulted in fewer regular oscillations that retained low-frequency components and high peak amplitude. However, pharmacological inhibition and augmentation of I(M) also affected MPO frequencies and amplitudes. In contrast to other cell types, inhibition of I(NaP) did not result in suppression of MPOs but only in a moderation of their properties. We reproduced the experimentally observed effects in a single-compartment stochastic model of SCs, providing further insight into the interactions between different ionic conductances.

  7. Contribution of presynaptic calcium-activated potassium currents to transmitter release regulation in cultured Xenopus nerve-muscle synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, J M; Yazejian, B; DiGregorio, D A; Vergara, J L; Grinnell, A D; Meriney, S D

    2001-01-01

    Using Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures, we have examined the contribution of calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels to the regulation of transmitter release evoked by single action potentials. The presynaptic varicosities that form on muscle cells in these cultures were studied directly using patch-clamp recording techniques. In these developing synapses, blockade of K(Ca) channels with iberiotoxin or charybdotoxin decreased transmitter release by an average of 35%. This effect would be expected to be caused by changes in the late phases of action potential repolarization. We hypothesize that these changes are due to a reduction in the driving force for calcium that is normally enhanced by the local hyperpolarization at the active zone caused by potassium current through the K(Ca) channels that co-localize with calcium channels. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that when action potential waveforms were used as voltage-clamp commands to elicit calcium current in varicosities, peak calcium current was reduced only when these waveforms were broadened beginning when action potential repolarization was 20% complete. In contrast to peak calcium current, total calcium influx was consistently increased following action potential broadening. A model, based on previously reported properties of ion channels, faithfully reproduced predicted effects on action potential repolarization and calcium currents. From these data, we suggest that the large-conductance K(Ca) channels expressed at presynaptic varicosities regulate transmitter release magnitude during single action potentials by altering the rate of action potential repolarization, and thus the magnitude of peak calcium current.

  8. Current Advances in L-DOPA and DOPA-Peptidomimetics: Chemistry, Applications and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Tortolini, Silvia; Rotelli, Luca; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine [2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (L-DOPA) is a natural constituent of animal and plant tissue derived from post-translational modification of the amino acid tyrosine. L-DOPA is modified during metabolism to catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are characterized by different biological activities. L-DOPA has been the first drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease that is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. The social and economic impact of these diseases is very high due to the progressive aging of the population. This review focuses on the biological effect of LDOPA, as well as on the synthesis of L-DOPA derivatives and their application in central nervous system diseases. Among them, L-DOPA-containing peptides (L-DOPA-Pep) show important biological and pharmacological activities. For example, L-DOPA analogues of the alpha-factor interact with models of the G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and are used for improving L-DOPA absorption in long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease and as skin moisturizer in cosmetic compositions. Moreover, L-DOPA residues in proteins provide reactive tools for the preparation of adhesives and coatings materials. Usually, L-DOPA-Pep is prepared by traditional liquid or solid state procedures starting from simple amino acids. Recently, selective side-chain modifications of pre-formed peptides have also been reported both for linear and branched peptides. Here, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of L-DOPA and dopa-peptidomimetics and their biological and pharmacological activities, focusing the attention on new synthetic procedures and biological mechanism of actions.

  9. A biophysically detailed model of neocortical local field potentials predicts the critical role of active membrane currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Michael W; Anastassiou, Costas A; Perin, Rodrigo; Hill, Sean L; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof

    2013-07-24

    Brain activity generates extracellular voltage fluctuations recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). It is known that the relevant microvariables, the ionic currents across membranes, jointly generate the macrovariables, the extracellular voltage, but neither the detailed biophysical knowledge nor the required computational power have been available to model these processes. We simulated the LFP in a model of the rodent neocortical column composed of >12,000 reconstructed, multicompartmental, and spiking cortical layer 4 and 5 pyramidal neurons and basket cells, including five million dendritic and somatic compartments with voltage- and ion-dependent currents, realistic connectivity, and probabilistic AMPA, NMDA, and GABA synapses. We found that, depending on a number of factors, the LFP reflects local and cross-layer processing. Active currents dominate the generation of LFPs, not synaptic ones. Spike-related currents impact the LFP not only at higher frequencies but below 50 Hz. This work calls for re-evaluating the genesis of LFPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Vinggaard, Anne; Rasmussen, Thomas Høj

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four pesticides were tested for interactions with the estrogen receptor (ER) and the androgen receptor (AR) in transactivation assays. Estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cell proliferation and effects on CYP19 aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were also investigated. Pesticides...... to their frequent use in Danish greenhouses. In addition, the metabolite mercaptodimethur sulfoxide, the herbicide tribenuron-methyl, and the organochlorine dieldrin, were included. Several of the pesticides, dieldrin, endosulfan, methiocarb, and fenarimol, acted both as estrogen agonists and androgen antagonists...

  11. Modern sedentary activities promote overconsumption of food in our current obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J-P; Klingenberg, L; Astrup, A; Sjödin, A M

    2011-05-01

    Achieving body-weight stability is certainly challenging in today's obesogenic environment. Every day we are surrounded and affected by stimuli that act on our behaviour. A common feature of these stimuli is that they increase our comfort and well-being, but unfortunately they promote a positive caloric balance. Intriguingly, the preponderance of sedentary lifestyles is not only a matter of the amount of calories expended. A careful examination of modern sedentary activities reveals that they also promote overconsumption of food. This is particularly the case with television viewing, video game playing, cognitive working, music listening and short sleeping. Moreover, the increased food intake in the absence of hunger observed with the practice of these modern-life activities emphasizes that the hedonic value of food intake plays an important role. These observations suggest that our quest for reward and pleasure is not fine tuned to our biology, and the development of coping strategies is needed. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work with consumer, forming his national awareness of the domestic production from wine industry, and on the other hand, on the country import restructuring. Development of the wine industry state support in Ukraine, considering the world experience, is an important step to form the market of grape and its products, which is characterized with losing tendency. The revealed tendency concerning import price prevail over export, requires special measures for contraction. The main tools to fight with European wine producers for Ukrainian consumer to increase quality, creative, budgets increase for direct access to consumer via winery tasty rooms, tourists’ involvement to vineyards and productive capacities, including to the tourist routes. Therefore the main purpose is necessity for native consumer’s upbringing, wine culture growing, to teach to make considerable choice, but not a choice in favor of foreign container.

  13. Headache Associated With Sexual Activity: A Current Overview Accompanied By Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akyol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the last classification of the International Headache Society (IHS, primary headache associated with sexual activity (PHASA begins as dull bilateral pain with sexual stimulation and suddenly condenses with orgasm in the absence of any intracranial disorder. The differential diagnosis includes various pathologies such as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, arterial dissection, glaucoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture, and pheochromocytoma. PHASA is not subdivided into preorgasmic or orgasmic subforms, but it was accepted as a single entity with variable presentation in this last classification [International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version (ICHD-III ]. It is mandatory to exclude possible secondary pathology, even in cases with typical clinical presentation (middle age, male, normal neurological examination. We found an underlying secondary pathology in only one of the three cases (internal carotid artery aneurysm. We considered it appropriate to present three cases to increase the awareness of clinicians in terms of secondary pathology. All three patients received indomethacin for preemptive therapy (50mg, intake 30-60 minute prior to sexual activity with good results.

  14. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  15. Working Group 1: Current plans of various organisations for lunar activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsiger, H.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of presentations by representatives of several space agencies and the International Academy of Astronautics concerning lunar activities are presented. Participating space agencies reported two different types of lunar planning, long term planning and scenarios and lunar missions competing within regular programs. The long term plans of the various agencies look remarkably similar. They all involve a phased approach (coincidentally all incorporating four phases) and all address three prime scientific elements: science of, on, and from the Moon. The missions under consideration by the second group of agencies could readily fit as elements in the longer term program. There is great interest in lunar astronomy. There is a great deal of potential infrastructure and lunar transport capability already available. There is also a wide range of interesting technological developments that could form part of a lunar program. A well concerted and coordinated international effort could lead to an affordable program. Recommendations are: an international conference on lunar exploration should be held every other year; an electronic network should be established for the daily exchange of information; and a mechanism should be established for regular working level coordination of activities.

  16. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of this...

  17. Bottom Trawl Survey Protocol Development (HB0706, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise objectives include: 1) Investigate performance characteristics of new research bottom trawl; 2) Develop standard operating procedures for the NEFSC Bottom...

  18. Strategic implications of the current surge of merger and alliance activity in the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucet, G.W. [Canadian Gas Association, Don Mills, ON (Canada). Economics/Statistics Dept.

    1997-05-01

    The transformation that has taken place in Canada`s natural gas industry since the 1985 deregulation was reviewed. The 1985 `Halloween Agreement` was pivotal in deregulating the wholesale gas commodity business and paved the way for a truly competitive market for natural gas in Canada. Results of deregulation have been significantly lower prices for natural gas and a tripling of the natural gas market in Canada. Currently, natural gas represents 31 per cent of total energy consumption in Canada and approximately 22 per cent in the United States. New suppliers and industry players have entered the market to widen the choice and competition of energy products and services. Apart from the competition that resulted from deregulation, the convergence of the gas and electricity industries was considered to have been the most significant development. Ramifications of the gas-electricity convergence were reviewed. While the final outcome of the convergence in terms of the number and size of the companies operating in the market will not be known for some time, the de facto globalization of the natural gas business by reason of its interplay and offplay in regional markets with other forms of energy, is a well known fact. Further convergence, such as oil/natural gas/electricity was predicted.

  19. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...... supported by a dynamical decoupling. The results indicate that input constraints will become active when the controller responds to transients in the steam flow disturbance. For this reason an MPC (model predictive control) strategy capable of handling constraints on states and control signals should...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  20. hKCNE4 inhibits the hKCNQ1 potassium current without affecting the activation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Klaerke, Dan A

    2005-01-01

    All five members of the KCNE beta-subunit family are capable of modulating the KCNQ1 potassium current. We have previously published that the murine variant of KCNE4 inhibits the human KCNQ1 current [J. Physiol. 542 (2002) 119]. Recently, this finding has been challenged by Teng et al., stating...... that the human variant of KCNE4 does not attenuate the KCNQ1 current but does slightly modulate the activation kinetics of the channel after expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303 (2003) 808]. In the present study, a detailed investigation on the ability of human and murine KCNE......4 to affect either human or murine KCNQ1 currents has been performed. We find that the hKCNE4 subunit drastically inhibits the hKCNQ1 current after expression in X. laevis oocytes. This inhibitory effect is also observed for both hKCNE4 and mKCNE4 when either of these subunits is co-expressed with mKCNQ...

  1. Lost thoughts: implicit semantic interference impairs reflective access to currently active information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julie A; Johnson, Marcia K

    2013-02-01

    Why do we lose, or have trouble accessing, an idea that was in the focus of attention only a moment ago, especially in the absence of any apparent distraction? We tested the hypothesis that accessing a single item that is already active is affected by implicit interference (interference of which we have little or no awareness). We presented masked words that were semantically related or unrelated to a single visible target word that participants were cued to think of (refresh) a half second after its offset. Masked related but not unrelated words increased time to refresh the target but did not influence time required to read a target that was physically present. These findings provide novel evidence that an item in the focus of attention is subject to semantic interference. We suggest that such implicit semantic interference may contribute to the common "lost thought" experience and to cognitive deficits in populations in which refreshing is impaired. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. A transient outward potassium current activator recapitulates the electrocardiographic manifestations of Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Di Diego, José M

    2008-01-01

    of inactivation from 12.6 +/- 3.2 to 20.3 +/- 2.9 ms (n = 7). The total charge carried by I(to) increased by 186% (from 363.9 +/- 40.0 to 1042.0 +/- 103.5 pA x ms/pF, n = 7). In ventricular wedge preparations, NS5806 increased phase 1 and notch amplitude of the action potential in the epicardium......, but not in the endocardium, and accentuated the ECG J-wave, leading to the development of phase 2 re-entry and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 9). Although sodium and calcium channel blockers are capable of inducing BrS only in right ventricular (RV) wedge preparations, the I(to) activator was able to induce...

  3. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  4. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  5. In vitro - in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of currently used pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxvig, Camilla, E-mail: camta@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, Niels; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Bossi, Rossana [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Public Health, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Vinggaard, Anne Marie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-11-01

    Two pesticide mixtures were investigated for potential endocrine activity. Mix 3 consisted of bitertanol, propiconazole, and cypermethrin, and Mix 5 included malathion and terbuthylazine in addition to the three pesticides in Mix 3. All five single pesticides and the two mixtures were investigated for their ability to affect steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells. The pesticides alone and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis with both mixtures causing increase in progesterone and decrease in testosterone. For Mix 5 an increase in estradiol was seen as well, indicating increased aromatase activity. The two mixtures were also investigated in pregnant rats dosed from gestational day 7 to 21, followed by examination of dams and fetuses. Decreased estradiol and reduced placental testosterone were seen in dams exposed to Mix 5. Also a significant increase in aromatase mRNA-levels in female adrenal glands was found for Mix5. However, either of the two mixtures showed any effects on fetal hormone levels in plasma or testis, or on anogenital distance. Overall, potential aromatase induction was found for Mix 5 both in vitro and in vivo, but not for Mix 3, an effect likely owed to terbuthylazine in Mix 5. However, the hormonal responses in vitro were only partly reflected in vivo, probably due to some toxicokinetic issues, as the pesticide levels in the amniotic fluid also were found to be negatively affected by the number of compounds present in the mixtures. Nonetheless, the H295R assay gives hints on conceivable interference with steroidogenesis, thus generating hypotheses on in vivo effects. - Highlights: • The study examines the endocrine disrupting potential of mixtures of pesticides. • All single pesticides and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis in vitro. • Potential aromatase induction was found for Mix 5 both in vitro and in vivo. • The hormonal responses in vitro were only partly reflected in vivo.

  6. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  7. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  8. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  9. Precision bottom physics program at sPHENIX with inner vertex detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Sphenix Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The planned sPHENIX experiment at RHIC aims to study the microscopic nature of strongly interacting matter ranging from nucleons to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with high precision measurements of jets and heavy flavor observables for a wide selection of nuclear collision systems. In particular, the bottom quark is expected to be produced in a hard scattering before the QGP creation in heavy ion collisions and experience the medium throughout its evolution. The observables of bottom quark tagged jets (b-jets), bottom hadrons and their correlations at sPHENIX cover a wide kinematic range of the bottom probes. The sPHENIX measurements are complementary to the studies at the LHC, experiencing less fraction of bottom production via gluon splitting and probing QGP of different properties. Such measurements are essential for our understanding of the bottom quark energy loss mechanisms and transport properties of the QGP medium. To achieve these goals, the sPHENIX collaboration proposed to utilize a state of the art silicon vertex detector based on the Monolithic-Active-Pixel-Sensor (MAPS) technology. The detector design, physics reach and the status of detector R&D will be presented.

  10. Anti-HIV activity of southern African plants: Current developments, phytochemistry and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gerhard; Marokane, Cynthia K; Street, Renée A

    2018-01-10

    The African continent is home to a large number of higher plant species used over centuries for many applications, which include treating and managing diseases such as HIV. Due to the overwhelming prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, it is necessary to develop new and affordable treatments. The article provides an extensive overview of the status on investigation of plants from the southern African region with ethnobotanical use for treating HIV or HIV-related symptoms, or the management of HIV. The review also provide an account of the in vitro assays, anti-viral activity and phytochemistry of these plants. Peer-reviewed articles investigating plants with ethnobotanical information for the treatment or management of HIV or HIV-related symptoms from the southern African region were acquired from Science Direct, PubMed central and Google Scholar. The selection criteria was that (1) plants should have a record of traditional/popular use for infectious or viral diseases, HIV treatment or symptoms similar to HIV infection, (2) if not traditionally/popularly used, plants should be closely related to plants with popular use and HIV activity identified by means of in vitro assays, (3) plants should have been identified scientifically, (4) should be native to southern African region and (5) anti-HIV activity should be within acceptable ranges. Many plants in Africa and specifically the southern African region have been used for the treatment of HIV or HIV related symptoms and have been investigated suing various in vitro techniques. In vitro assays using HIV enzymes such as reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN) and protease (PR), proteins or cell-based assays have been employed to validate the use of these plants with occasional indication of the selectivity index (SI) or therapeutic index (TI), with only one study, that progressed to in vivo testing. The compounds identified from plants from southern Africa is similar to compounds

  11. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely

  12. Scaled blast loading simulations on different vehicle bottom geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Weerheijm, J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new bottom concepts for military vehicles against mine blast threats involves the consideration of two main aspects: the bottom geometry and the material used. In order to reduce costs, experimental testing of new vehicle bottom concepts often requires small-scale setups together

  13. The Problematics of Implementing Innovation Activities by National Economic Actors in Conditions of the Currently Effective Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosovets Oleksandra I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the problematics of current effective legislation on the issues of regulating the innovation activities as to assessing the extent of obstacles and the ways of eliminating them, along with encouraging enterprises to move from an innovative focus to the actual commercialization of innovations. Systems of facilitating as well as impediment factors for the corresponding economic activities in Ukraine are presented in the format of grouping and structuring the elements of influence according to the principle of subordination of relations between them together with description of «bottlenecks» in the legal support and institutional provision, in the financing and preparedness of business entities to implement innovations. The chain of appearance of the low quality innovation supply in the marketplace starting from actors in innovative processes and weak formation of innovation demand for the transition to an innovative type of entrepreneurial activity has been substantiated.

  14. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30% in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics.

  15. Dioxygen activation responsible for oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds: current state and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Masaaki

    2010-08-01

    The most significant aspect in microbial metabolisms, especially those of bacteria and archaea, is their marvelously wide acceptability of substrate electron donors and acceptors. This feature makes them to be attractive catalysts for environmental biotechnology in terms of degradation of harmful recalcitrant compounds, including hydrocarbons. Transformation of highly reduced and inert hydrocarbon compounds is with no doubt a challenging biochemical reaction for a single enzyme. However, several multi-component enzyme systems enable microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as carbon and energy (electron) sources. Initial biological attack to hydrocarbons is, in most cases, the hydroxylation that requires molecular dioxygen as a co-substrate. Dioxygen also contributes to the ring cleavage reaction of homo- and hetero-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Although the molecular dioxygen is omnipresent and highly soluble in water, activation and splitting this triplet ground-state molecule to wed with difficult hydrocarbons need special devices. Non-heme iron, heme iron, or flavin nucleotide was designated as a major hidden dagger for this purpose.

  16. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  17. Foreign Trade Activities of Ukraine at the Current Level: Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karminska-Bielobrova Marina V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine's foreign trade is one of the most important ways to increase the State budget. Strategic goal in the development of economy of Ukraine is to achieve a presentable place in the international division of labor, namely in the field of foreign trade. The European Union is the strongest global economic organization, the largest and the best regional market of the world. The article is aimed to determine status of the foreign trade activities in Ukraine, its positive and negative traits, and areas for their improvement. It is concluded that developing relations with the EU in the long term, given the geopolitical, geoeconomic and historic European status of Ukraine, should remain one of the priorities of our foreign economic policy. A basic milestone in the way of gaining the full membership in the EU should be creation of economic and legal preconditions for the commencement of negotiations on a free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU. Prospect for further research in this direction is accomplishing an analysis of development of the foreign economic relations of Ukraine with the EU and of ensuring the economic integration of Ukraine into the European economic space.

  18. Current evidence on physiological activity and expected health effects of kombucha fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vīna, Ilmāra; Semjonovs, Pāvels; Linde, Raimonds; Deniņa, Ilze

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of kombucha fermented tea (KT) has always been associated with different health benefits. Many personal experiences and testimonials of KT drinkers are available throughout the world on the ability of KT to protect against a vast number of metabolic and infectious diseases, but very little scientific evidence is available that validates the beneficial effects of KT. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent studies in search of experimental confirmation of the numerous KT health-promoting aspects cited previously. Analysis of the literature data is carried out in correspondence to the recent concepts of health protection's requirements. Attention is given to the active compounds in KT, responsible for the particular effect, and to the mechanisms of their actions. It is shown that KT can efficiently act in health prophylaxis and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, antioxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of depressed immunity. The recent experimental studies on the consumption of KT suggest that it is suitable for prevention against broad-spectrum metabolic and infective disorders. This makes KT attractive as a fermented functional beverage for health prophylaxis.

  19. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  20. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  1. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  2. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lander

    Full Text Available A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1 uncertainty about outcomes, 2 diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3 the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs. The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research.PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction.After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%. The paper presents qualitative details.The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  3. Family physicians’ continuing professional development activities: current practices and potential for new options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: As part of needs assessment processes, our Faculty of Medicine (FOM continuing professional development office investigated the differences between physicians who do and those who do not frequently participate in planned group learning to gain insight into their interest in new forms of continuing professional development (CPD. Method: We sent a 19 item questionnaire to 485 randomly selected physicians of the 1050 family physicians in Eastern Ontario. The questionnaire examined present participation and satisfaction with CPD activities and perceptions regarding the potential impact of those; and appetite for new opportunities to meet their learning needs. Results: Of the 151 (31% physicians responding, 61% reported attending at least one FOM group learning program in the past 18 months (attenders and 39% had not (non-attenders. Non-attenders indicated less satisfaction (p = 0.04 with present opportunities and requested development in newer approaches such as support for self-learning, on-line opportunities, and simulation. Conclusions: Although there are high levels of satisfaction with the present CPD system that predominantly offers large group learning options, a substantial number of physicians expressed interest in accessing new options such as personal study and on-line resources.

  4. Short-lived climate forcers from current shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ødemark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of short-lived climate forcers (SLCF in the Arctic region are expected to increase, notably from shipping and petroleum extraction. We here discuss changes in atmospheric SLCF concentrations and resulting radiative forcing (RF from present day shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic. The three-dimensional chemistry transport OsloCTM2 and a state of the art radiative forcing model are used, based on a coherent dataset of present day Arctic emissions. We find that the net RF of SLCF of shipping in the Arctic region is negative, mainly due to the direct and indirect RF effects of sulphate emissions, while the net RF of SLCF of petroleum extraction is positive, mainly due to the effects of black carbon aerosols in the air and deposited on snow. Strong seasonal variations of the sensitivities to emissions are found. In terms of annual mean values we find that the Arctic sensitivities to SLCF is similar to global average sensitivities. One exception to this is the stronger snow/ice albedo effect from BC emissions.

  5. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  6. Remodeling of hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, in Ah-type visceral ganglion neurons following ovariectomy in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Fen Qiao

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels modulate excitability of myelinated A- and Ah-type visceral ganglion neurons (VGN. Whether alterations in Ih underlie the previously reported reduction of excitability of myelinated Ah-type VGNs following ovariectomy (OVX has remained unclear. Here we used the intact nodose ganglion preparation in conjunction with electrophysiological approaches to examine the role of Ih remodeling in altering Ah-type neuron excitability following ovariectomy in adult rats. Ah-type neurons were identified based on their afferent conduction velocity. Ah-type neurons in nodose ganglia from non-OVX rats exhibited a voltage 'sag' as well as 'rebound' action potentials immediately following hyperpolarizing current injections, which both were suppressed by the Ih blocker ZD7288. Repetitive spike activity induced afterhyperpolarizations lasting several hundreds of milliseconds (termed post-excitatory membrane hyperpolarizations, PEMHs, which were significantly reduced by ZD7288, suggesting that they resulted from transient deactivation of Ih during the preceding spike trains. Ovariectomy reduced whole-cell Ih density, caused a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of Ih activation, and slowed Ih activation. OVX-induced Ih remodeling was accompanied by a flattening of the stimulus frequency/response curve and loss of PEMHs. Also, HCN1 mRNA levels were reduced by ∼30% in nodose ganglia from OVX rats compared with their non-OVX counterparts. Acute exposure of nodose ganglia to 17beta-estradiol partly restored Ih density and accelerated Ih activation in Ah-type cells. In conclusion, Ih plays a significant role in modulating the excitability of myelinated Ah-type VGNs in adult female rats.

  7. p38 Activation Is Required Upstream of Potassium Current Enhancement and Caspase Cleavage in Thiol Oxidant-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, BethAnn; Pal, Sumon; Tran, Minhnga P.; Parsons, Andrew A.; Barone, Frank C.; Erhardt, Joseph A.; Aizenman, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Oxidant-induced neuronal apoptosis has been shown to involve potassium and zinc dysregulation, energetic dysfunction, activation of stress-related kinases, and caspase cleavage. The temporal ordering and interdependence of these events was investigated in primary neuronal cultures exposed to the sulfhydryl oxidizing agent 2,2′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP), a compound that induces the intracellular release of zinc. We previously observed that tetraethylammonium (TEA), high extracellular potassium, or cysteine protease inhibitors block apoptosis induced by DTDP. We now report that both p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation are evident in neuronal cultures within 2 hr of a brief exposure to 100 μm DTDP. However, only p38 inhibition is capable of blocking oxidant-induced toxicity. Cyclohexamide or actinomycin D does not attenuate DTDP-induced cell death, suggesting that posttranslational modification of existing targets, rather than transcriptional activation, is responsible for the deleterious effects of p38. Indeed, an early robust increase in TEA-sensitive potassium channel currents induced by DTDP is attenuated by p38 inhibition but not by caspase inhibition. Moreover, we found that activation of p38 is required for caspase 3 and 9 cleavage, suggesting that potassium currents enhancement is required for caspase activation. Finally, we observed that DTDP toxicity could be blocked with niacinamide or benzamide, inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase. Based on these findings, we conclude that oxidation of sulfhydryl groups on intracellular targets results in intracellular zinc release, p38 phosphorylation, enhancement of potassium currents, caspase cleavage, energetic dysfunction, and translationally independent apoptotic cell death. PMID:11331359

  8. [Analysis of current situation of physical activity and influencing factors in Chinese primary and middle school students in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Yi; Yang, Tu-bao; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Bin; Ma, Jun

    2012-09-01

    To find out the current situation of physical activity and its influencing factors among Chinese primary and middle school students. A total of 166 812 students aged 9 - 18 finished the questionnaires of physical activities and lifestyle behaviors who were selected from "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance". The subjects were sampled by stratified cluster sampling method in 30 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) except Tibet. The physical activity for a total of at least 60 minutes per day, attitudes on physical activity, parents' supports toward physical activity of children, development of school physical education, the schoolwork burden and sedentary lifestyle were all analyzed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the physical activity for a total of at least 60 minutes per day and individual, family, school and sedentary behavior. A total of 22.7% (37 867/166 757) of primary and middle school students aged 9 - 18 had been physically active doing any kind of physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day, the prevalence was higher among male (25.4%, 21 086/83 159) than female (20.1%, 16 781/83 598) students (P students (P day among students who liked physical education (23.7%, 11 866/50 073), were willing to participate in the extracurricular sports activities (23.2%, 13 460/57 907), and were willing to participate long running exercise (26.9%, 9 185/34 153) was higher than those who dislike physical education (15.9%, 589/3705), were not willing to participate in the extracurricular sports activities (15.9%, 567/3565), and were not willing to participate long running exercise (12.1%, 2 246/18 493), respectively. The prevalence was higher among students whose parents supported their physical activity (20.4%, 15 148/74 312) than those students without parents' support (17.5%, 1626/9270) (P students whose parents often took part in the physical activity (22.7%, 12 864/56 769) than those students

  9. Revisiting the round bottom flask rainbow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    A popular demonstration experiment in optics uses a round-bottom flask filled with water to project a circular rainbow on a screen with a hole through which the flask is illuminated. We show how the vessel's wall shifts the first- and second-order bows towards each other and consequently reduces the width of Alexander's dark band. We address the challenge this introduces in observing Alexander's dark band, and explain the importance of a sufficient distance between the flask and the screen. The wall-effect also introduces a splitting of the bows that can easily be misinterpreted.

  10. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 1. Current Location, Military Assignments, and Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  11. Diel effects on bottom-trawl survey catch rates of shallow- and deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing in depths shallower than 400 m outside daylight hours should therefore be avoided in order to reduce bias and ensure consistency in abundance estimates from surveys. Keywords: Benguela Current system, consistency of survey indices, efficiency of bottom-trawl surveys, negative binomial GAM, transect survey ...

  12. Bottom-up and Top-down: An alternate classification of LD authoring approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sodhi, Tim; Miao, Yongwu; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sodhi, T., Miao, Y., Brouns, F., & Koper, E. J. R. (2007). Bottom-up and Top-down: An alternate classification of LD authoring approaches. Paper presented at the TENCompetence Open Workshop on Current research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures. June, 21-22,

  13. Biomixing generated by benthic filterfeeders: A diffusion model for near-bottom phytoplankton depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul; Riisgård, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    -feeders, the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, respectively. The model is based on sinks located at inhalant openings and Fick's law with an effective diffusivity that decreases with distance above the bottom due to the biomixing generated by exhalant and inhalant feeding currents. For N...

  14. Teacher-Led Professional Development: A Proposal for a Bottom-up Structure Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This article uses current research recommendations for teacher-led professional development as well as qualitative data from a set of grassroots conferences to propose a new model for bottom-up teacher-led professional development. This article argues that by providing a neutral space and recruiting expertise of local experts, a public sphere can…

  15. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, E.G.; Tarakanov, R.Y.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using

  16. Bottom-up GGM algorithm for constructing multiple layered hierarchical gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilayered hierarchical gene regulatory networks (ML-hGRNs) are very important for understanding genetics regulation of biological pathways. However, there are currently no computational algorithms available for directly building ML-hGRNs that regulate biological pathways. A bottom-up graphic Gaus...

  17. Influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right angular gyrus on brain activity during rest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clemens

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG. We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site.

  18. Hyperpolarization-activated current Ihin mouse trigeminal sensory neurons in a transgenic mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroli, Francesca; Vilotti, Sandra; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Transgenic knock-in (KI) mice that express Ca V 2.1 channels containing an R192Q gain-of-function mutation in the α 1A subunit known to cause familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 in patients, exhibit key disease characteristics and provide a useful tool to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of pain transduction. Previously, KI trigeminal sensory neurons were shown to exhibit constitutive hyperexcitability due to up-regulation of ATP-gated P2X3 receptors that trigger spike activity at a more negative threshold. This implies that intrinsic neuronal conductances may shape action potential generation in response to ATP, which could act as a mediator of migraine headache. Here we investigated whether the hyperpolarization-activated conductance I h , mediated by hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN), contributes to sub-threshold behavior and firing in wild-type (WT) and KI trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons. Whereas most WT and KI trigeminal neurons expressed I h current, blocked by the specific inhibitor ZD7288, it was smaller in KI neurons despite similar activation and deactivation kinetics. HCN1 and HCN2 were the most abundantly expressed subunits in TG, both in situ and in culture. In KI TG neurons, HCN2 subunits were predominantly present in the cytoplasm, not at the plasma membrane, likely accounting for the smaller I h of such cells. ZD7288 hyperpolarized the membrane potential, thereby raising the firing threshold, and prolonging the spike trajectory to generate fewer spikes due to P2X3 receptor activation. The low amplitude of I h in KI TG neurons suggests that down-regulation of I h current in sub-threshold behavior acts as a compensatory mechanism to limit sensory hyperexcitability, manifested under certain stressful stimuli. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; T.E. Evans; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2004-03-26

    This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance.

  20. Sleepwalking episodes are preceded by arousal-related activation in the cingulate motor area: EEG current density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszko, Piotr; Niemcewicz, Szymon; Gajda, Tomasz; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Piotrowska, Anna Justyna; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    To investigate local arousal fluctuations in adults who received ICSD-2 diagnosis of somnambulism. EEG neuroimaging (eLORETA) was utilized to compare current density distribution for 4s epochs immediately preceding sleepwalking episode (from -4.0 s to 0 s) to the distribution during earlier 4s epochs (from -8.0 s to -4.0 s) in 20 EEG segments from 15 patients. Comparisons between eLORETA images revealed significant (t>4.52; psleepwalking, with greater current density within beta 3 frequency range (24-30 Hz) in Brodmann areas 33 and 24. Sleepwalking motor events are associated with arousal-related activation of cingulate motor area. These results support the notion of blurred boundaries between wakefulness and NREM sleep in sleepwalking. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of surface-active bonds of carbon structures on discharge-charging processes of a current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, A. P.; Grechushnikov, E. A.; Kharseev, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    A study has been carried out of the effect on the discharge-charging processes of a current source of surface-active bonds of carbon structures used as additives in the composition of a negative electrode material. A mechanism has been proposed based on the conclusions derived from the Kossel-Stranski molecularkinetic theory, which explains the growth of 3PbOPbSO4H2O crystals upon the introduction of carbon materials. It has been established that the presence of carbon additives in the composition of the negative electrode material of starter lead-acid batteries increases the capacitance of 20-h discharge mode by up to 5% and the discharge duration by cold scrolling current to a final voltage of 6 V at negative temperatures of-18°C and-30°C by 3-4.5% and 9-13%, respectively.

  2. Three-phase active power filter with a predictive-instantaneous-current PWM controller; Yosokugatra shunjichi seigyo wo mochiita denryokuyo sanso active filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuki, T.; Miyashita, O. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    One of the most emphasized problems to be solved in power systems in recent years is the line-current harmonics problem. This is due to the use of diode rectifiers, PWM converters, nonlinear loads and so on. To reduce or eliminate such current harmonics an active power filter (APF), which is a sophisticated power electronic converter, has been studied and used in some practical applications. In this paper, we propose and discuss two new control methods for three-phase shunt APFs: the sinusoidal line-current control method and the instantaneous-reactive-power compensation control method. They are based on pulsewidth prediction control, or a predictive-instantaneous-current PWM control. Neither any instantaneous power information nor coordinate transformation is necessary for control. In the sinusoidal line-current control scheme,, the controller governs the switching devices of the APF by using the pulsewidth that is optimally predetermined at the beginning of every switching period with the sinusoidal current reference. The line-currents flow sinusoidally and are in phase with the voltage accordingly. In the instantaneous-reactive-power compensation control, the control is performed so that the resultant circuit of the load and the APF is regarded as a time-variant conductance circuit model. The APF with this control scheme can cancel effectively the instantaneous reactive component produced by the load though the controller is simple. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of the APFs when a three-phase diode rectifier and an unbalanced load are connected to the line. The practicability of the proposed methods is verified by experiment. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Study on Current Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Middle School Students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jiali; Hu, Huanhuan; Wang, Guan; Arao, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine current levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in middle school students on the basis of grade, sex, student attitudes toward physical education, and residence location. In 2013, a cross-sectional study of 1793 students aged 12 to 15 years was conducted across eight middle schools in Beijing, China. Four schools were selected from an urban district and another four schools were from a suburban district. Physical activity and sedentary behavior data were collected using the commonly used school-based Chinese version of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The mean age of sampled students was 13.3 ± 1.0 years; 51.5% were boys. Approximately 76.6% of students reported having three 45-minute physical education classes every week. A total of 35.6% students spent ≥ 1 h/day performing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school, and 34.9% spent ≥ 1 h/day in MVPA outside school time. Approximately half (49.7%) of the students engaged in reading, writing, or drawing for ≥ 2 h/day, and 42.9% reported screen time for ≥ 2 h/day. Although boys spent more time engaged in physical activity than girls did, they also spent more time exhibiting sedentary behavior. Each 10-unit increase in attitudes toward physical education was associated with an increased odds of 1.15 (95%CI: 1.09-1.20) for spending more than 1 h/day on MVPA. Students in suburban schools reported engaging in physical activity less when compared with those in urban schools. The majority of our students did not meet the current physical activity recommendations, and about half of the students spent excessive time engaging in sedentary behaviors. Findings from this study highlight a positive association between student attitudes toward physical education and physical activity. Studies are needed to further explore the role of student attitudes toward physical education in promoting physical activity among Chinese students.

  4. Study on Current Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Middle School Students in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Duan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine current levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in middle school students on the basis of grade, sex, student attitudes toward physical education, and residence location.In 2013, a cross-sectional study of 1793 students aged 12 to 15 years was conducted across eight middle schools in Beijing, China. Four schools were selected from an urban district and another four schools were from a suburban district. Physical activity and sedentary behavior data were collected using the commonly used school-based Chinese version of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.The mean age of sampled students was 13.3 ± 1.0 years; 51.5% were boys. Approximately 76.6% of students reported having three 45-minute physical education classes every week. A total of 35.6% students spent ≥ 1 h/day performing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA during school, and 34.9% spent ≥ 1 h/day in MVPA outside school time. Approximately half (49.7% of the students engaged in reading, writing, or drawing for ≥ 2 h/day, and 42.9% reported screen time for ≥ 2 h/day. Although boys spent more time engaged in physical activity than girls did, they also spent more time exhibiting sedentary behavior. Each 10-unit increase in attitudes toward physical education was associated with an increased odds of 1.15 (95%CI: 1.09-1.20 for spending more than 1 h/day on MVPA. Students in suburban schools reported engaging in physical activity less when compared with those in urban schools.The majority of our students did not meet the current physical activity recommendations, and about half of the students spent excessive time engaging in sedentary behaviors. Findings from this study highlight a positive association between student attitudes toward physical education and physical activity. Studies are needed to further explore the role of student attitudes toward physical education in promoting physical activity among Chinese students.

  5. Heavy exotic molecules with charm and bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the (0+ ,1+) multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the (0- ,1-) multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets (0± ,1±) cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for J ≤ 1. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC =1++ bind, which we identify as the reported neutral X (3872). Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC =1+- binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics Zb+ (10610) and Zb+ (10650). The bound isosinglet with JPC =1++ is suggested as a possible neutral Xb (10532) not yet reported.

  6. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits γ-aminobutyric acid-activated current in hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Hong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4-PDD or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation.

  7. Direct current (DC) resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, J.; Fiandaca, G.; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (...... non-intrusively and reliably image freezing patterns and their lateral variation on a 10-100 m scale that is difficult to sample by point measurements.......) measurements at high temporal resolution at a heath tundra site on Disko Island on the west coast of Greenland (69°N). Borehole sediment characteristics and subsurface temperatures supplemented the DC-IP measurements. Data acquired during the freezing period of October 2013 – February 2014 clearly image...... the soil freezing as a strong increase in resistivity. While the freezing horizon generally moves deeper with time, some variations in the freezing depth are observed along the profile. Comparison with depth-specific soil temperature indicates an exponential relationship between resistivity and below-freezing...

  8. Experimental low back pain decreased trunk muscle activity in currently asymptomatic recurrent low back pain patients during step tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients demonstrate reorganized trunk muscle activity but if similar changes are manifest in recurrent LBP patients (R-LBP) during asymptomatic periods remains unknown. In 26 healthy and 27 currently asymptomatic R-LBP participants electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded...... experimental NRS scores were higher (Ppain conditions (Ppain decreased Delta-RMS-EMG in m. iliocostalis and bilateral pain decreased Delta-RMS-EMG in all back and gluteal muscles during step tasks...... from trunk and gluteal muscles during series of stepping up and down on a step bench before and during experimentally intramuscular induced unilateral and bilateral LBP. Pain intensity was assessed by numeric rating scale (NRS) scores. Root-mean-square EMG (RMS-EMG) normalized to maximal voluntary...

  9. First Observation of the Earth's Permanent Free Oscillations on Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, M.; Wielandt, E.; Stutzmann, E.; Crawford, W.; Barruol, G.; Sigloch, K.

    2017-11-01

    The Earth's hum is the permanent free oscillations of the Earth recorded in the absence of earthquakes, at periods above 30 s. We present the first observations of its fundamental spheroidal eigenmodes on broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the Indian Ocean. At the ocean bottom, the effects of ocean infragravity waves (compliance) and seafloor currents (tilt) overshadow the hum. In our experiment, data are also affected by electronic glitches. We remove these signals from the seismic trace by subtracting average glitch signals; performing a linear regression; and using frequency-dependent response functions between pressure, horizontal, and vertical seismic components. This reduces the long period noise on the OBS to the level of a good land station. Finally, by windowing the autocorrelation to include only the direct arrival, the first and second orbits around the Earth, and by calculating its Fourier transform, we clearly observe the eigenmodes at the ocean bottom.

  10. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  11. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    pacificus respond to the crustacean molting hormone ecdysterone. (Griffiths [Frost]) K. Distribution of Zooplankton in Tidal Channels Zooplankton is...systems canj be determined. (Macaulay [English]) 89 II N. Ecological Baseline and Monitoring Study! in Port Gardner This study grew out of mutual

  12. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [(3)H](2)O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. © 2013

  13. Direct effects of riluzole on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptor-activated ion currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Cho, Hyeong Seok; Choi, Se Joon; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Kim, Seong Yun; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2008-05-01

    The pharmacological action of riluzole, a drug that has been approved as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, has not yet been established. We examined the effects of riluzole on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3) receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells using the whole-cell voltage clamp technique combined with a fast drug application method. Co-application of riluzole (1 - 300 microM, 5 s) produced a dose-dependent reduction in peak amplitudes and in the rise slope of the currents induced by 2 microM 5-HT. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by dopamine, a partial 5-HT3-receptor agonist, were inhibited by riluzole co-application. These inhibitory effects were clearly shown at low concentrations of 5-HT. The decay time constants of the receptor desensitization and deactivation were also significantly attenuated by riluzole. G-protein inhibitors (pertussis toxin and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio] diphosphate) did not completely block these inhibitory actions of riluzole. These results indicate that riluzole inhibits 5-HT3-induced ion currents directly by slowing channel activation in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.

  14. Channelrhodopsin-2-expressed dorsal root ganglion neurons activates calcium channel currents and increases action potential in spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jing; Ai, Midan; Ji, Zhigang; Liu, Zhiguo; Cao, Xuehong; Li, Li

    2014-07-01

    We used optogenetic techniques in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron studies. This study investigated changes in channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expression in the spinal cord and DRG neurons using optogenetic techniques. The results show the possibility of using optogenetics to treat neuropathic pain. Previous studies have shown that activated ChR2 induces an increase in DRG neuron action potential. Western blot analysis was used to measure ChR2 protein levels in the spinal cord and DRG neurons or rats intrathecally injected with ChR2 lentivirus. Electrophysiology recording was used to detect differences in action potential levels in the spinal cord and calcium channel currents in the DRG neurons. Our studies showed that ChR2 expression increased the action potential in the spinal cord and increased calcium channel currents in DRG neurons. We successfully expressed the ChR2 protein in the spinal cord and DRG neurons. We also found that ChR2 increased the action potential in the spinal cord and activated the calcium channel in DRG neurons. These findings support the research possibilities of using optogenetic studies to improve treatment for neuropathic pain. N/A.

  15. In-situ observation of ULF wave activities associated with substorm expansion phase onset and current disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two substorm events with coordinated ground-based and in-situ THEMIS observations, and focus our interest on the wave activities in Pi1 and Pi2 bands from minutes before the substorm expansion phase (EP onset to minutes after the local current disruption (CD. We find that Pi2 band (40–100 s wave appears 1–2 min before the substorm onset and last over the entire EP interval, while higher-frequency wave within Pi1 band (10–30 s emerges within few tens of seconds after the EP onset, intensifies during the local CD, and fades afterwards. The pre-onset Pi2 waves are attributed to a ballooning mode which acts as the seed perturbation to the substorm EP onset process. The azimuthal wavenumber estimated from the Doppler shift nature of the ballooning mode is consistent with the longitudinal "wavelength" inferred from the onset auroral structures. The Pi1 waves appearing within few tens of seconds after the EP onset are interpreted as supportive of a two-fluid instability mode of thin current sheet investigated in an accompanying paper (Liu and Liang, 2009. During the local CD, broadband wave activities from Pi2 band to well above the ion gyrofrequency are observed, suggesting the coexistence of various plasma instabilities featuring different frequency ranges.

  16. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  17. Promoting Physical Activity Among Native American Youth: a Systematic Review of the Methodology and Current Evidence of Physical Activity Interventions and Community-wide Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Roberts, Erica; Camplain, Ricky; Evenson, Kelly R; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-12-01

    Promoting physical activity using environmental, policy, and systems approaches could potentially address persistent health disparities faced by American Indian and Alaska Native children and adolescents. To address research gaps and help inform tribally led community changes that promote physical activity, this review examined the methodology and current evidence of physical activity interventions and community-wide initiatives among Native youth. A keyword-guided search was conducted in multiple databases to identify peer-reviewed research articles that reported on physical activity among Native youth. Ultimately, 20 unique interventions (described in 76 articles) and 13 unique community-wide initiatives (described in 16 articles) met the study criteria. Four interventions noted positive changes in knowledge and attitude relating to physical activity but none of the interventions examined reported statistically significant improvements on weight-related outcomes. Only six interventions reported implementing environmental, policy, and system approaches relating to promoting physical activity and generally only shared anecdotal information about the approaches tried. Using community-based participatory research or tribally driven research models strengthened the tribal-research partnerships and improved the cultural and contextual sensitivity of the intervention or community-wide initiative. Few interventions or community-wide initiatives examined multi-level, multi-sector interventions to promote physical activity among Native youth, families, and communities. More research is needed to measure and monitor physical activity within this understudied, high risk group. Future research could also focus on the unique authority and opportunity of tribal leaders and other key stakeholders to use environmental, policy, and systems approaches to raise a healthier generation of Native youth.

  18. The Effects of the Activities of Current Textbook and 5 E Model on the Attitude of the Students: Sample of "The Global Effects of Natural Resources Unit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoz, Abdulkadir

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of the activities of current textbook and 5 E Model on the attitude of the students. This study is a research as an experimental model. For testing the effects of geography education supported by 5 E model and geography education based on activities of current textbook attitude of students, controlled…

  19. A 'bottom-up' approach to aetiological research in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marie Unwin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs – are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this ‘proof of principle’ paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.

  20. The benefits of bottom-up design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    An inconsistency is examined in generic top-down design methods and standards employed in the implementation of reliable software. Many design approaches adopt top-down ordering when defining the structure, interfaces, and processing of a system. However, strict adherence to a top-down sequencing does not permit accurate description of a system's error handling functions. The design of the system response to errors is becoming critical as the reliability requirements of systems increase. How top-down methods such as object oriented design and structured design do not adequately address the issues of error handling is described, and it is suggested using a bottom-up substep within these methods to eliminate the problem.

  1. Implementing collaborative improvement - top-down, bottom-up or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus; Boer, Harry; Caniato, Federico

    2007-01-01

    , the study identifies three different implementation approaches. The bottom-up learning-by-doing approach starts at a practical level, with simple improvement activities, and aims at gradually developing a wide range of CoI knowledge, skills and initiatives. The top-down directive approach starts...

  2. The Importance of Being with Sir Ernest Shackleton at the Bottom of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Boran, Karen; Braun, Timothy J.; Massie, Mary J.; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2003-01-01

    Describes an integrated thematic unit designed for readers in grades 8 to 10. Contains a four- to six-week plan that encompasses reading strategies, inquiry projects, and assessment tools and includes an activity map (based on Jennifer Armstrong's "Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World: The Extraordinary True Story of Shackleton and the…

  3. Iodine versus Bromine Functionalization for Bottom-Up Graphene Nanoribbon Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronner, Christopher; Marangoni, Tomas; Rizzo, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Deterministic bottom-up approaches for synthesizing atomically well-defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) largely rely on the surface-catalyzed activation of selected labile bonds in a molecular precursor followed by step-growth polymerization and cyclodehydrogenation. While the majority of success...

  4. Deep and bottom water characteristics in the Owen Fracture Zone, Western Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    Hydro chemical studies at a station (10 degrees 34.l'N,56 degrees 31,7'E) in the Owen Fracture zone reveal an active movement of bottom water as approx 75 m thick, cold, low-salinity layer. Silicate profile exhibits a broad maximum coinciding with a...

  5. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

  6. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kateri; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K; Pereira, Sean C; Gross, James J

    2012-03-01

    Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the 'bottom-up' (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or 'top-down' (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Combined contributions of feedforward and feedback inputs to bottom-up attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Peyman; Moore, Tirin; Soltani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with a large amount of information carried by visual inputs entering the brain at any given point in time, the brain swiftly uses the same inputs to enhance processing in one part of visual field at the expense of the others. These processes, collectively called bottom-up attentional selection, are assumed to solely rely on feedforward processing of the external inputs, as it is implied by the nomenclature. Nevertheless, evidence from recent experimental and modeling studies points to the role of feedback in bottom-up attention. Here, we review behavioral and neural evidence that feedback inputs are important for the formation of signals that could guide attentional selection based on exogenous inputs. Moreover, we review results from a modeling study elucidating mechanisms underlying the emergence of these signals in successive layers of neural populations and how they depend on feedback from higher visual areas. We use these results to interpret and discuss more recent findings that can further unravel feedforward and feedback neural mechanisms underlying bottom-up attention. We argue that while it is descriptively useful to separate feedforward and feedback processes underlying bottom-up attention, these processes cannot be mechanistically separated into two successive stages as they occur at almost the same time and affect neural activity within the same brain areas using similar neural mechanisms. Therefore, understanding the interaction and integration of feedforward and feedback inputs is crucial for better understanding of bottom-up attention.

  8. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New, national bottom-up estimate for tree-based biological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in many ecosystems, but is also a chief pollutant from human activity. Quantifying human impacts on the nitrogen cycle and investigating natural ecosystem nitrogen cycling both require an understanding of the magnitude of nitrogen inputs from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). A bottom-up approach to estimating BNF—scaling rates up from measurements to broader scales—is attractive because it is rooted in actual BNF measurements. However, bottom-up approaches have been hindered by scaling difficulties, and a recent top-down approach suggested that the previous bottom-up estimate was much too large. Here, we used a bottom-up approach for tree-based BNF, overcoming scaling difficulties with the systematic, immense (>70,000 N-fixing trees) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database. We employed two approaches to estimate species-specific BNF rates: published ecosystem-scale rates (kg N ha-1 yr-1) and published estimates of the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) combined with FIA-derived growth rates. Species-specific rates can vary for a variety of reasons, so for each approach we examined how different assumptions influenced our results. Specifically, we allowed BNF rates to vary with stand age, N-fixer density, and canopy position (since N-fixation is known to require substantial light).Our estimates from this bottom-up technique are several orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates indicating

  10. Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current Is Activated During Hypokalemia and Masks Short-Term Cardiac Memory Induced by Ventricular Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Ko, Jum-Suk; Yin, Dechun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Rubart, Michael; Weiss, James N; Everett, Thomas H; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-10-13

    Hypokalemia increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesize that the apamin-sensitive small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS) is activated during hypokalemia and that IKAS blockade is proarrhythmic. Optical mapping was performed in 23 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles with atrioventricular block and either right or left ventricular pacing during normokalemia or hypokalemia. Apamin prolonged the action potential duration (APD) measured to 80% repolarization (APD80) by 26 milliseconds (95% confidence interval [CI], 14-37) during normokalemia and by 54 milliseconds (95% CI, 40-68) during hypokalemia (P=0.01) at a 1000-millisecond pacing cycle length. In hypokalemic ventricles, apamin increased the maximal slope of APD restitution, the pacing cycle length threshold of APD alternans, the pacing cycle length for wave-break induction, and the area of spatially discordant APD alternans. Apamin significantly facilitated the induction of sustained ventricular fibrillation (from 3 of 9 hearts to 9 of 9 hearts; P=0.009). Short-term cardiac memory was assessed by the slope of APD80 versus activation time. The slope increased from 0.01 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.12) at baseline to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.23-0.44) after apamin (Prabbit ventricular myocytes during hypokalemia (P=0.038). Hypokalemia activates IKAS to shorten APD and maintain repolarization reserve at late activation sites during ventricular pacing. IKAS blockade prominently lengthens the APD at late activation sites and facilitates ventricular fibrillation induction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely calculational, using theorems from lattice therory, the Bird-Meertens calculus, and laws for list-comprehensions. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence of a solution emerge as a byproduct o...

  12. Modelling air―water flows in bottom outlets of dams

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    If air is entrained in a bottom outlet of a dam in an uncontrolled way, the resulting air pockets may cause problems such as blowback, blowout and loss of discharge capacity. In order to provide guidance for bottom outlet design and operation, this study examines how governing parameters affect air entrainment, air-pocket transport and de-aeration and the surrounding flow structure in pipe flows. Both experimental and numerical approaches are used. Air can be entrained into the bottom outlet ...

  13. Stability of leadership in bottom-up hierarchical organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Galam, Serge

    2007-01-01

    The stability of a leadership against a growing internal opposition is studied in bottom-up hierarchical organizations. Using a very simple model with bottom-up majority rule voting, the dynamics of power distribution at the various hierarchical levels is calculated within a probabilistic framework. Given a leadership at the top, the opposition weight from the hierarchy bottom is shown to fall off quickly while climbing up the hierarchy. It reaches zero after only a few hierarchical levels. I...

  14. Long surface wave dynamics along a convex bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim; Soomere, Tarmo

    2009-07-01

    Long linear wave transformation in a basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile h(x) ˜ x4/3. This bottom geometry provides the "nonreflecting" wave propagation at least in the framework of the one-dimensional shallow water equation. In this case, shoaling effects are very strong and wave reflection occurs in the immediate vicinity of the shoreline. The existence of traveling wave solutions (which propagate without reflection) in this geometry is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1-D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two traveling waves propagating in opposite directions and allows a detailed description of the wavefield (vertical displacement and depth-averaged flow). It is found that generally a zone of weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long-wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for the sine pulse, Korteweg-de Vries soliton, and N wave. It is shown that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the border of a shallow coastal area of constant depth and a section with the convex profile shows that a transmitted wave always has a sign-variable shape. Results of the wave transformation above the convex beach and beaches following a general power law are compared. This simplified model demonstrates the potential importance of the tsunami wave transformation along convex beaches.

  15. Impacts of offshore wind energy turbines on marine bottom fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar- and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The foundations of offshore wind energy farms will cause alterations to the natural marine habitat of the North and Baltic Seas. The seabed in the proposed areas for offshore windfarms is mainly characterised by soft sediments ranging from medium sands to silt. The underwater structures themselves not only provide empty space for the settlement of hardbottom epifauna, which do not naturally occur in these areas, but they also alter the surrounding natural habitat. In the absence of actual wind farms in German waters, the research platform FINO 1 was used in the project BeoFINO to study biologic processes around the underwater structure leading to alterations of the natural bottom fauna. Shortly after installation, the surface was colonised by an epifauna consisting of few species, but reaching a high biomass. Mytilus edulis dominated in the upper depth zone, while lower reaches were dominated by the Amphipod Jassa spp. and Anthozoans (mainly Metridium senile). Changed current conditions around the structure lead to erosion and altered sediment composition with thick layers of empty shells on the surface. Natural soft bottom fauna is strongly reduced in the vicinity of the platform, while predators and scavengers profit from the additional food source provided by material falling from the platform. The export of lighter material like faeces is predicted to spread over larger areas. Dense aggregations of pelagic fish were observed around the platform, while some demersal species also live in niches of the structure. All results are combined in mathematical models in order to compare different locations and to calculate scenarios for wind farm effects in various habitats. (orig.)

  16. An essential role for modulation of hyperpolarization-activated current in the development of binaural temporal precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Sukant; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lewis, Alan S; Rosa, Kristen; Chetkovich, Dane; Golding, Nace L

    2012-02-22

    In sensory circuits of the brain, developmental changes in the expression and modulation of voltage-gated ion channels are a common occurrence, but such changes are often difficult to assign to clear functional roles. We have explored this issue in the binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO), whose temporal precision in detecting the coincidence of binaural inputs dictates the resolution of azimuthal sound localization. We show that in MSO principal neurons of gerbils during the first week of hearing, a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) progressively undergoes a 13-fold increase in maximal conductance, a >10-fold acceleration of kinetics, and, most surprisingly, a 30 mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation. This period is associated with an upregulation of the hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel subunits HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 in the MSO, but only HCN1 and HCN4 were expressed strongly in principal neurons. I(h) recorded in nucleated patches from electrophysiologically mature MSO neurons (>P18) exhibited kinetics and an activation range nearly identical to the I(h) found in whole-cell recordings before hearing onset. These results indicate that the developmental changes in I(h) in MSO neurons can be explained predominantly by modulation from diffusible intracellular factors, and not changes in channel subunit composition. The exceptionally large modulatory changes in I(h), together with refinements in synaptic properties transform the coding strategy from one of summation and integration to the submillisecond coincidence detection known to be required for transmission of sound localization cues.

  17. Characterization of the past and current duplication activities in the human 22q11.2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs on 22q11.2 (LCR22, serve as substrates for meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR events resulting in several clinically significant genomic disorders. Results To understand the duplication activity leading to the complicated SD structure of this region, we have applied the A-Bruijn graph algorithm to decompose the 22q11.2 SDs to 523 fundamental duplication sequences, termed subunits. Cross-species syntenic analysis of primate genomes demonstrates that many of these LCR22 subunits emerged very recently, especially those implicated in human genomic disorders. Some subunits have expanded more actively than others, and young Alu SINEs, are associated much more frequently with duplicated sequences that have undergone active expansion, confirming their role in mediating recombination events. Many copy number variations (CNVs exist on 22q11.2, some flanked by SDs. Interestingly, two chromosome breakpoints for 13 CNVs (mean length 65 kb are located in paralogous subunits, providing direct evidence that SD subunits could contribute to CNV formation. Sequence analysis of PACs or BACs identified extra CNVs, specifically, 10 insertions and 18 deletions within 22q11.2; four were more than 10 kb in size and most contained young AluYs at their breakpoints. Conclusions Our study indicates that AluYs are implicated in the past and current duplication events, and moreover suggests that DNA rearrangements in 22q11.2 genomic disorders perhaps do not occur randomly but involve both actively expanded duplication subunits and Alu elements.

  18. Protease-activated receptor-1 antagonists in long-term antiplatelet therapy. Current state of evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonas, I C; Goudevenos, J A; Tselepis, A D

    2015-04-15

    Atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations are among the leading causes of death in the developed world. The current standard-of-care antiplatelet therapy for the treatment of such events comprises aspirin and a thienopyridine or ticagrelor. However, recurrent ischemic events due to residual cardiovascular risk are a common phenomenon in these patients. It is believed that this residual risk is caused, at least in part, by thrombin, which signals through protease-activated receptors (PARs) and especially PAR-1. Thus, PAR-1 antagonism could represent an effective approach in the treatment of atherothrombotic disease. In this context, two potent and selective agents have been developed, vorapaxar and atopaxar. However, only vorapaxar has completed phase 3 clinical trials. In the present review, the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the PAR-1 antagonists are briefly described and the latest clinical data on vorapaxar are presented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents......-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.......BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced...

  20. In vitro–in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of 5 currently used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hadrup, Niels; Boberg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Two pesticide mixtures consisting of three and five currently used pesticides, respectively, were investigated for potential endocrine disrupting effects. Mix 3 consisted of bitertanol, propiconazole, and cypermethrin and Mix 5 contained the same 3 pesticides plus malathion and terbuthylazine. All...... five single pesticides and the two mixtures were tested in vitro in H295R cells for effects on steroidogenesis. All five pesticides individually and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis. The mixtures caused an increase in progesterone and a decrease in testosterone, and Mix 5 also increased estradiol......, indicating increased aromatase activity. The pesticide-mixtures were also investigated in vivo in pregnant rats dosed from gestational day 7 to 21, followed by examination of dams and fetuses. All 5 pesticides could be detected in the amniotic fluid, demonstrating exposure of the fetuses. Decreased estradiol...